Click to listen to episode (3:54).Sections below are the following:Transcript of AudioAudio Notes and AcknowledgmentsImagesExtra InformationSourcesRelated Water Radio EpisodesFor Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.)Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 9-15-23. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the weeks of September 18 and September 25, 2023. This is a revised version of an episode from September 2014. SOUNDS - ~6 sec – Pied-billed Grebe call. This week, we feature some raucous mystery sounds from a family of diving birds. Have a listen for about 20 seconds, and see if you can guess what's making these calls. And here's a hint: you'll get grief if you miss this name by only one letter's sound. SOUNDS - ~ 22 sec. If you guessed grebe, you're right! Those were some of the sounds made by the Pied-billed Grebe, Horned Grebe, and Red-necked Grebe. Out of 22 grebe species worldwide and seven in North America, these three species are found commonly in many aquatic habitats in Virginia, with two others—the Eared Grebe and the Western Grebe—seen occasionally within the Commonwealth. Horned Grebes and Red-necked Grebes are regular winter residents on Virginia's coasts, while the Pied-billed Grebe is typically a year-round resident on the coast and a winter resident in other regions. Grebes are known for their swimming and diving abilities; for example, the Cornell Lab of Ornithology's “Birds of the World” Web site says quote, “[g]rebes rocket through the water by compressing water behind them with coordinated thrusts of their muscular legs,” unquote; and Cornell's “All About Birds” site calls the Pied-billed Grebe “part bird, part submarine.” Lobed toes set far back on their bodies adapt grebes for swimming, and their ability to add or remove water and air from their feathers and internal air sacs helps them to float or, as needed, to submerge to escape danger or to feed. Grebes feed on a variety of aquatic animals like fish, crustaceans, and insects; on aquatic plants sometimes; and—notably—on their own feathers. In turn, they may be eaten by such predators as raccoons, snakes, and birds of prey. Grebes call and act aggressively during breeding season, but they may be quieter and much less noticeable during non-breeding season. In fact, a calm pond surface might conceal a hiding grebe with only its nostrils exposed to the air, or that surface might be broken—almost silently—by a grebe emerging with a fish in its bill. Thanks to Lang Elliott for permission to use the grebe sounds, from the Stokes' Field Guide to Bird Songs, and we let the Pied-billed Grebe have the last call. SOUNDS - ~6 sec. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment. For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624. Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of “Cripple Creek” to open and close this episode. In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 233, 9-29-14. The sounds of the Horned Grebe, Pied-billed Grebe, and Red-necked Grebe were from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs-Eastern Region CD set, by Lang Elliott with Donald and Lillian Stokes (Time Warner Audio Books, copyright 1997), used with permission of Lang Elliott. Lang Elliot's work is available online at “The Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode. More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGES Two Pied-billed Grebes on a pond in Blacksburg, Virginia, September 28, 2014. Photo by Virginia Water Radio.Pied-billed Grebe at Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge in Wyoming, April 2016. Photo by Tom Koerner, made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov; specific URL for the photo was https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/23453/rec/4, as of 9-18-23.Horned Grebe with chick, at Anchorage Coastal Wildlife Refuge in Alaska, June 2005. Photo by Donna Dewhurst, made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov; specific URL for the photo was https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/411/rec/41, as of 9-18-23.Red-necked Grebe pair, at Anchorage Coastal Wildlife Refuge in Alaska, May 2005. Photo by Donna Dewhurst, made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov; specific URL for the photo was https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/20/rec/37, as of 9-18-23. EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT THE PIED-BILLED GREBE The following information is quoted from the Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/, primarily the “Life History” section of the the Pied-billed Grebe entry, online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040008&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19612. The scientific name of the Pied-billed Grebe is Podilymbus podiceps. Physical Description “This species is 12-15 inches (31-38 cm) long with a 23 inch wingspread. It is a small, stocky bird distinguished by its short, blunt bill encircled by a broad black band with the upper portion of the bill curved downward; it is often described as chicken-like. ...Grebes have lobed toes, feet that are placed far back on the body, and a short rudder-like tail to aid in pursuing prey underwater.” Reproduction “The nest is built by both members of the pair and is made up of flags, rushes, sedge, algae and mud and is attached to grasses, reeds or bushes in the water. ...The eggs are laid from March to September, are blue-white initially, and then turn brown. The brown color results from the adults covering the eggs with wet organic matter when they are foraging or defending the territory. ...There may be up to 2 broods per year. Incubation takes about 23 days and begins with the first egg laid.” Behavior “Nest attendance is shared equally by the male and female during egg-laying and post-laying periods. Incubation however, is carried out mostly by the female. The streaked or spotted chicks can swim almost immediately after hatching. The young will usually travel on the parents back or will cling to their tail. The parents may feed the chicks and even dive while chicks are on their back. The parents will return to the nest frequently with the young. Young grebes fledge at about 35 days. ...[This species] rarely flies, and it escapes by diving with a short leap or by slowly submerging. It is the most solitary of the grebes. It is the first grebe to arrive north in the spring and the last to leave in the fall. It migrates in closely-massed flocks. ...” Feeding “Diet consists primarily of fish including eels, carp, and catfish as well as sticklebacks, sculpins, silversides, and minnows. [It will also] forage on crayfishes, aquatic insects, snails, spiders, frogs, tadpoles, some seeds and soft parts of aquatic plants, ...[and] on shrimp in saltwater bays and estuaries. [It ingests] large numbers of their own feathers. This may serve to protect the stomach from puncture by indigestible parts and prevent hard items from entering the intestines. Feathers also provide the base material of regurgitated pellets that contain undigested material such as fish bones.” Aquatic/Terrestrial Associations: “In Virginia, pied-billed grebes have been observed foraging with snowy egrets. Mutualistic foraging enhances opportunities for obtaining prey. Limiting factors: The greatest losses of nests and eggs resulted from wind, rain, waves, and storm tides. Predators of eggs and young include raccoons, laughing gulls, water snakes, snapping turtles, and peregrine falcons.” SOURCES Used for Audio Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “All About Birds,” online at http://www.allaboutbirds.org.The Horned Grebe entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Horned_Grebe/;the Pied-billed Grebe entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Pied-billed_Grebe/;the Red-necked Grebe entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Red-necked_Grebe/. National Audubon Society, “Taxonomic Family: Grebes,” online at https://www.audubon.org/bird-guide?title=Grebe&family=6460. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Birds of the World,” online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/home. (subscription required).The entry for the taxonomic family of grebes, Podicipedidae, is online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/species/podici1/cur/introduction; this is the source of the quote in the audio.The Horned Grebe entry is online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/species/horgre/cur/introduction;the Pied-billed Grebe entry is online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/species/pibgre/cur/introduction;the Red-necked Grebe entry is online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/species/rengre/cur/introduction. Indiana Audubon, “Pied-billed Grebe,” by Annie Aguirre, July 1, 2018, online at https://indianaaudubon.org/2018/07/01/pied-billed-grebe-2/. Angela Minor, “Birds of the Blue Ridge: Pied-billed Grebe,” Blue Ridge Country, December 27, 2022. Chandler S. Robbins et al., A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, St. Martin's Press, New York, N.Y., 2001. Stan Tekiela, Birds of Virginia Field Guide, Adventure Publications, Cambridge, Minn., 2002. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/.The Horned Grebe entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040005&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19612;the Pied-billed Grebe entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040008&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19612;the Red-necked Grebe entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040004&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19612. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “List of Native and Naturalized Fauna in Virginia, August 2022,” online (as a PDF) at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/virginia-native-naturalized-species.pdf. Joel C. Welty, The Life of Birds, 2nd Edition, W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Penn., 1975. For More Information about Birds in Virginia or Elsewhere Chesapeake Bay Program, “Birds,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/critters?s=&fieldGuideType=Birds&fieldGuideHabitat. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin Photo ID.” The application for mobile devices allows users to submit a bird photograph to get identification of the bird. Information is available online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and the Audubon Society, “eBird,” online at https://ebird.org/home. Here you can find locations of species observations made by contributors, and you can sign up to contribute your own observations. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, “Animal Diversity Web,” online at https://animaldiversity.org.Virginia Society of Ornithology, online at http://www.virginiabirds.org/. The Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth. Xeno-canto Foundation, online at https://xeno-canto.org/. This site provides sounds of birds and other wildlife from around the world. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html). See particularly the “Birds” subject category. Following are links to some other episodes on diving birds. American Coot – Episode 391, 10-23-17.Cormorants – Episode 467, 4-8-19.Loons – Episode 445, 11-5-18
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Click to listen to episode (5:03).Sections below are the following:Transcript of AudioAudio Notes and AcknowledgmentsImagesExtra InformationSourcesRelated Water Radio EpisodesFor Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.)Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 9-1-23. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the weeks of September 4 and September 11, 2023. MUSIC – ~22 sec – Lyrics: “Wake up in the morning and get to work; wake up in the morning and get to work. Got a lot of work to do, gonna go do it, gotta get to it.” That's part of “Get to Work,” by the Harrisionburg- and Rockingham County, Va.-based band, The Steel Wheels, from their 2019 album, “Over the Trees.” It sets the stage for a water-and-work quiz game, honoring Labor Day by exploring some water-related jobs. In this game, I'll read 10 short samples of people describing their work connected to water; you'll have a couple of seconds of river sounds to guess the job, then I'll tell you the answer. Let's get to it! No. 1. I manage places where marine or freshwater creatures are grown for food, restoration, or other purposes. [RIVER SOUNDS - ~2 SEC] That's an aquaculturist. No. 2. I ply big rivers on large, flat vessels full of coal, grains, and other goods. [RIVER SOUNDS - ~2 SEC] That's a crew member on a river barge. No. 3. I'm a scientist who studies fish. [RIVER SOUNDS - ~2 SEC] That's an ichthyologist. No. 4. I'm a scientist who studies inland waters, both fresh and salty. [RIVER SOUNDS - ~2 SEC] That's a limnologist. No. 5. I respond to often dangerous emergencies with the aid of trucks, hoses, pumps, and other equipment. [RIVER SOUNDS - ~2 SEC] That's a firefighter. No. 6. I use filters, chemicals, and tests to treat water going from sources to customers. [RIVER SOUNDS - ~2 SEC] That a water-supply plant worker. No. 7. I use filters, chemicals, and tests to treat used water and send it back to water sources. [RIVER SOUNDS - ~2 SEC] That's a wastewater-treatment plant worker. No. 8. I board huge ships in open waters, then guide the ships safely into port. [RIVER SOUNDS - ~2 SEC] That's a harbor pilot. No. 9. I work to ensure safe, accessible, and effective use of a water-recreation facility. [RIVER SOUNDS - ~2 SEC] That's a swimming pool manager, lifeguard, or water exercise instructor. And No. 10. I use powerful drills to provide access to groundwater. [RIVER SOUNDS - ~2 SEC] That's a water-well contractor. Other water-related jobs include boat building, farming, public health, managing lakes and dams, managing watersheds, identifying wetlands, and lots more. As Labor Day comes and goes, here's a big thank you to people who work to provide, manage, navigate, protect, and teach and learn about our common wealth of water. Thanks also to The Steel Wheels for permission to use part of “Get to Work.” We close with some more music, this time by renowned musician and former Charlottesville, Virginia, resident John McCutcheon. From his 1998 album “Four Seasons: Autumnsongs,” here's about 35 seconds of “Labor Day.” MUSIC – ~36 sec – Lyrics: “Labor Day, Labor Day, September or the first of May. To all who work this world we say, ‘Happy Labor Day.'” SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment. For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624. Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close this episode. In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The river sounds heard in this episode were recorded by Virginia Water Radio beside the New River at Radford, Va., on October 6, 2013. “Get to Work,” from the 2019 album, “Over the Trees,” is copyright by The Steel Wheels, used with permission. More information about The Steel Wheels is available online at http://www.thesteelwheels.com/. This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio in Episode 558, 1-4-21. “Labor Day,” from the 1998 album “Four Seasons: Autumnsongs,” on Rounder Records, is copyright by John McCutcheon/Appalsongs and Si Kahn/Joe Hill Music, used with permission of John McCutcheon. More information about John McCutcheon is available online at http://www.folkmusic.com/. Thanks to John Plunkett of Appalseed Productions for his help in acquiring permission to use this music. More information about Appalseed Productions is available online at https://appalseed-productions-2.square.site/. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode. More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES (Except as otherwise noted, photographs are by Virginia Water Radio.) A Virginia Tech worker testing fire-hyrdrant pressure on the university campus in Blacksburg, March 10, 2017.A well-drilling rig at a Montgomery County, Virginia, residential project, June 20, 2014.A barge transporting stone on the Ohio River at Huntington, West Virginia, November 6, 2011.A commercial ship on the Chesapeake Bay as viewed from Kent Island, Maryland, September 22, 2010.EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT LABOR DAY The following information is from U.S. Department of Labor, “History of Labor Day,” online at https://www.dol.gov/general/laborday/history. “Before it was a federal holiday, Labor Day was recognized by labor activists and individual states. After municipal ordinances were passed in 1885 and 1886, a movement developed to secure state legislation. New York was the first state to introduce a bill, but Oregon was the first to pass a law recognizing Labor Day, on February 21, 1887. During 1887, four more states – Colorado, Massachusetts, New Jersey and New York – passed laws creating a Labor Day holiday. By the end of the decade Connecticut, Nebraska and Pennsylvania had followed suit. By 1894, 23 more states had adopted the holiday, and on June 28, 1894, Congress passed an act making the first Monday in September of each year a legal holiday.” SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, “What is Limnology?” Online at https://www.aslo.org/what-is-aquatic-science/what-is-limnology/. Encyclopedia Britannica, “May Day,” by Meg Matthais, online at https://www.britannica.com/topic/May-Day-international-observance. Fire Safety USA, “All [Product] Categories,” online at https://firesafetyusa.com/collections/all-products. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Ocean Service, “What is aquaculture?” Online at this link. NPR, “Harbor Pilots Reap High Rewards for Dangerous Job,” by Gloria Hillard, March 21, 2012. NPR, “What is May Day?” For the most part, the opposite of capitalism,” by Emma Bowman, May 1, 2023. Tennessee Valley Authority, “Commodities Shipped on the River,” online at https://www.tva.com/environment/managing-the-river/commodities-shipped-on-the-river. University of New Mexico, “Position Classification Description: Aquatics Manager,” online at https://jobdescriptions.unm.edu/detail.php?v&id=I6001. U.S. Department of Labor, “History of Labor Day,” online at https://www.dol.gov/general/laborday/history. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Learn About Private Water Wells,” online at https://www.epa.gov/privatewells/learn-about-private-water-wells. Virginia Cooperative Extension/Virginia Household Water Quality Program, “Wellcheck Contractor List,” online at https://www.wellwater.bse.vt.edu/wellcheck-contractor-list.php. Karen Zraik, “What is Labor Day? A History of the Workers' Holiday,” New York Times, September 4, 2023 (first published in 2018).RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html). See particularly the “Overall Importance of Water” subject category. Following are links to some other episodes on Labor Day or water-related labor.Episode 279, 8-24-15 – Oysters, Nitrogen, and the Chesapeake Bay. Episode 378, 7-24-17 – The Complicated Challenge of Cleaner Water. Episode 436, 9-3-18 – Labor Day, “Sandy Boys,” and the Big Sandy River. Episode 578, 5-24-21 – Water Well Construction is an Ancient and Modern Human Practice. Episode 635, 8-29-22 – A Fishing Focus for Labor Day, Featuring the Northern Neck Chantey Singers FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-5: Earth and Space Systems3.7 – There is a water cycle and water is important to life on Earth. Grades K-5: Earth Resources3.8 – Natural events and humans influence ecosystems.4.8 – Virginia has important natural resources. Grade 66.6 – Water has unique physical properties and has a role in the natural and human-made environment.6.8 – Land and water have roles in watershed systems.6.9 – Humans impact the environment and individuals can influence public policy decisions related to energy and the environment. Earth ScienceES.6 – Resource use is complex.ES.8 – Freshwater resources influence and are influenced by geologic processes and human activity.ES.10 – Oceans are complex, dynamic systems subject to long- and short-term variations.
Listen to the Show Right Click to Save Guests ZACH Theatre Head over HeelsHyde Park Theatre Caught What We Talked About Arabic Chicago RIP Ron Cephas Jones Once upon a one more time closes Musicals in the regions Theatre Camp Streams The Outsiders Musical The Public San Antonio pauses More issues around LGBTQ students More issues with theatres closing (CHI) ART ceases season Thank you to Dean Johanesen, lead singer of "The Human Condition" who gave us permission to use "Step Right Up" as our theme song, so please visit their website.. they're good! (that's an order)