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Our show presents news and information that relate to Virginia’s waters, from the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean. Virginia Water Radio is produced weekly by the Virginia Water Center.

Virginia Water Resources Research Center


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    Episode 633 (8-1-22): Two Great Waterbirds

    Play Episode Listen Later Aug 2, 2022

    CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:58).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 8-1-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the weeks of August 1 and August 8, 2022.  This is a revised repeat of an episode from August 2015. SOUNDS – ~4 sec – call from Great Egret then from Great Blue Heron. In this episode, we feature two mystery sounds, and a guest voice, to explore two striking birds—striking in looks, and striking in how they hunt.  Have a listen for about 30 seconds, and see if you can guess these two long-necked, long-legged wading birds. SOUNDS AND GUEST VOICE – ~30 sec – Voice: “At once he stirs and steps into the water, wading with imperial self-possession on his three-pronged, dragonish feet.  The water could not tremble less at the passage of his stilt legs as he stalks his dinner.  His neck arches like the bending of a lithe bow, one of a piece with the snapping arrow of his beak.” If you guessed, egret or heron, you're right!  The first call was from a Great Egret and the second from a Great Blue Heron.  The guest voice was Alyson Quinn, reading part of her “Lesson from an Egret,” inspired by a September 2007 visit to the Potomac River.  The word “egret” derives from an old German word for “heron,” a fitting origin for the many similarities between these two big birds.  The Great Egret and the Great Blue Heron are the two largest of 12 North American species of herons, egrets, and bitterns.  The Great Egret is strikingly white, while the Great Blue has only a partially white head over a bluish-gray body.  But a white subspecies of the Great Blue, called the Great White Heron, occurs in Florida.  Great Egrets and Great Blues both typically feed in shallow water, taking fish, amphibians, and other prey by waiting and watching quietly, then quickly striking with their long, sharp beaks.  The two species also share a history of having been widely hunted for their long plumes in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the impact on their populations helped lead to nationwide bird-conservation efforts and organizations. Distinctive looks, behavior, and history make these two “Greats” a memorable and meaningful sight along Virginia's rivers, ponds, marshes, and other areas.  Thanks to Lang Elliott for permission to use this week's sounds, from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs, and thanks to Alyson Quinn for permission to share her “Lesson from an Egret,” which gets this episode closing words. GUEST VOICE – ~18 sec – “I want to be more like the egret, with the patience to be still without exhaustion, to never mind the idle currents or be dazzled by the glamour of light on water; but, knowing the good thing I wait for, to coil my hope in constant readiness, and to act in brave certitude when it comes.” SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 277, 8-10-15. The sounds of the Great Egret and the Great Blue Heron were taken from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs-Eastern Region CD set, by Lang Elliott with Donald and Lillian Stokes (Time Warner Audio Books, copyright 1997), used with permission of Lang Elliott, whose work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/. Excerpts of “Lesson from an Egret” are courtesy of Alyson Quinn, from her blog “Winterpast” (September 21, 2007, post), available online at http://www.winterispast.blogspot.com/, used with permission.  Ms. Quinn made the recording after a visit to Algonkian Regional Park, located in Sterling, Va. (Loudoun County), part of the Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority.  More information about the park is available online at https://www.novaparks.com/parks/algonkian-regional-park. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES (Except as otherwise noted, photographs are by Virginia Water Radio.) Upper two images: Great Egret along the New River near Parrott, Va. (Pulaski County); photos by Robert Abraham, used with permission.  Third image: Great Blue Heron in a marsh at Wachapreague, Va. (Accomack County), October 5, 2007.  Bottom image: Great Blue Heron in a stormwater pond on the Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg, July 28, 2015. EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT GREAT EGRETS AND GREAT BLUE HERONS The following information is excerpted from the Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “Fish and Wildlife Information Service”: Great Egret “Life History” entry, online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040032&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19202; and Great Blue Heron “Life History” entry, online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040027&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19202. Great Egret Physical Description“Large, heavy, white heron with yellow-orange bill, black legs, long, slender neck, and long plumes extending beyond tail….” Behavior“Male selects territory that is used for hostile and sexual displays, copulation and nesting.  Adjacent feeding areas vigorously defended, both sexes defend.  …Migration occurs in fall and early spring along coast; winters further south than Virginia. …Foraging: alone in open situations; prefers fresh or brackish waters, openings in swamps, along streams or ponds; wader: stalks prey; known to participate in the 'leap-frog' feeding when initiated by cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis).  Prey are taken in shallow waters; prey usually includes insects, fish, frogs (adults and tadpoles), small birds, snakes, crayfish, and many others.  Nesting: in trees or thickets, 3-90 ft. above water in willows, holly, red cedar, cypress, and bayberry on dry ground in marshes.” Population Comments“Dangerously near extermination in early part of [20th] century due to plume hunting; population comeback hampered by loss of habitat, exposure to DDT and other toxic chemicals and metals. …[Predators include] crows and vultures….” Great Blue Heron Physical Description“Large grayish heron with yellowish bill, white on head, cinnamon on neck, and black legs,” Behavior“Territoriality: known to have feeding territory in non-breeding seasons, defended against members of same species.  Range: breeds from central Canada to northern Central America and winters from middle United States throughout Central America; in Virginia, is a permanent resident of the Coastal Plain. …Foraging: stands motionless in shallow water waiting on prey; occasionally fishes on the wing along watercourses, meadows and fields far from water.  They also take frogs, snakes, insects, and other aquatic animals.  Nesting: predominately in tall cedar and pine swamps, but may also be found on the ground, rock ledges, and sea cliffs; nests on platform of sticks, generally in colonies….” Aquatic/Terrestrial Associations“Salt or fresh shallow waters of lakes, ponds, marshes, streams, bays, oceans, tidal flats, and sandbars; feeds in surf, wet meadows, pastures, and dry fields.” SOURCES Used for Audio Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “All About Birds,” online at http://www.allaboutbirds.org. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Birds of the World,” online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/home  (subscription required). Alice Jane Lippson and Robert L. Lippson, Life in the Chesapeake Bay, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2006. Merriam-Webster  Dictionary:“Egret,” online at https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/egret;“Heron,” online at https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/heron. National Audubon Society, “History of Audubon and Science-based Bird Conservation,” online at http://www.audubon.org/content/history-audubon-and-waterbird-conservation. Oxford Dictionaries/Oxford University Press:“Egret,” online at http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/egret;“Heron,” online at http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/heron. Chandler S. Robbins et al., A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, St. Martin's Press, New York, 2001. Stan Tekiela, Birds of Virginia Field Guide, Adventure Publications, Inc., Cambridge, Minn., 2002. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/:Great Blue Heron entry, online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040027&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19202;Great Egret entry, online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040032&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19202;“List of Native and Naturalized Fauna in Virginia, August 2020,” online (as a PDF) at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/virginia-native-naturalized-species.pdf.The Waterbird Society, online at https://waterbirds.org/. Joel C. Welty, The Life of Birds, W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Penn., 1975. For More Information about Birds in Virginia and Elsewhere Chesapeake Bay Program, “Birds,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/all/birds/all. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin Photo ID.”  The application for mobile devices allows users to submit a bird photograph to get identification of the bird. Information is available online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and the Audubon Society, “eBird,” online at https://ebird.org/home.  Here you can find locations of species observations made by contributors, and you can sign up to contribute your own observations. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, “Animal Diversity Web,” online at https://animaldiversity.org. Virginia Society of Ornithology, online at http://www.virginiabirds.org/.  The Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth. Xeno-canto Foundation, online at http://www.xeno-canto.org/.  This site provides bird songs from around the world.  RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Birds” subject category. Following are links to some other episodes on birds in the family of herons, egrets, night-herons, and bitterns.Episode 118, 7-9-12 – Summertime sampler of birds, including Great Blue Heron. Episode 127, 9-10-12 – Green Heron. Episode 235, 10-13-14 – Black-crowned Night Heron.Episode 381, 8-14-17 – Midnight sounds near water, including Great Blue Heron.Episode 430, 7-23-18 – Marsh birds in Virginia, including Great Blue Heron and Least Bittern.Episode 478, 6-24-19 – Little Blue Heron.Episode 603, 11-15-21 – Fall bird migration, including Green Heron and Snowy Egret. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post.2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-4: Living Systems and Processes1.5 – Animals, including humans, have basic life needs that allow them to survive. 2.5 – Living things are part of a system. 3.4 – Adaptations allow organisms to satisfy life needs and respond to the environment. 3.5 – Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems support a diversity of organisms. 4.2 – Plants and animals have structures that distinguish them from one another and play vital roles in their ability to survive. 4.3 – Organisms, including humans, interact with one another and with the nonliving components in the ecosystem. Grades K-5: Earth ResourcesK.11 – Humans use resources.1.8 – Natural resources can be used responsibly.3.8 – Natural events and humans influence ecosystems.4.8 – Virginia has important natural resources.

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    Episode 632 (7-18-22): Checking on the Chesapeake's Condition

    Play Episode Listen Later Jul 18, 2022

    CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (5:30).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments Images Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 7-15-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the weeks of July 18 and July 25, 2022. SOUNDS – ~6 sec Those sounds of shorebirds and Chesapeake Bay waves open an episode on the condition of that bay, which we last explored in an August 2020 episode.  We set the stage with the instrumental opening of a song whose title calls to mind some colors of the Chesapeake region's waters, lands, sky, and creatures.  Here's about 30 seconds of “The Deep Blue Green,” by Andrew VanNorstrand. MUSIC – ~31 sec – instrumental In June 2022, the University of Maryland's Center for Environmental Science issued its latest annual Chesapeake Bay and Watershed Report Card, for conditions in 2021.  For the report's first part, to assess Bay waters, the report compares the status of several physical, chemical, and biological indicators to established goals, in order to generate condition scores ranging from zero to 100%.  Combining the indicator scores, the overall score for 2021 was 50, an increase from the 45 score for 2020 data; the report characterized the 50 score as “moderate health” and gave it a letter grade of C.  The score when the Report Card started in 1986 was 48; the highest score since then was 55 in 2002, and the lowest was 36 in 2003. For the report's second part, the overall watershed assessment, the report for 2021 looked at three categories of indicators: ecological, societal, and economic.  These resulted in a score of 56, characterized as “moderate health” and given a letter grade of C+.  This was the first year that three categories of indicators were used for the watershed assessment, so the results aren't directly comparable to previous years. Besides the Maryland center's annual report, several other Bay condition reports are regularly available.  These include the Chesapeake Bay Program's annual “Bay Barometer” report; the Bay Program's “Chesapeake Progress” Web site, with updates on progress toward the goals of the 2014 Chesapeake Bay Agreement; the Chesapeake Bay Foundation's biennial “State of the Bay” report; and reports by various groups on specific Bay areas, such as the James River Association's “State of the James” reports.  All depend on data gathered by various sources, including universities; governmental agencies at the federal, state, and local levels; and non-governmental organizations. The Chesapeake Bay is the United States' largest estuary.  Monitoring its condition is a large part of decades-old efforts to improve and sustain this irreplaceable water body. Thanks to Andrew VanNorstrand for permission to use “The Deep Blue Green.”  We close with about 50 seconds of another musical selection, created for our previous episode on Chesapeake Bay conditions.  Here's “Chesapeake Bay Ballad,” by Torrin Hallett, a graduate student at the Yale School of Music. MUSIC – ~51 sec – instrumental SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The waves sound was recorded by Virginia Water Radio at the Chesapeake Bay on Kent Island, Maryland, June 22, 2010. The shorebirds sound was taken from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife National Digital Library, http://digitalmedia.fws.gov/cdm/; the specific audio file was “Shore birds close,” online at https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/audio/id/66/rec/8. “The Deep Blue Green,” from the 2019 album “That We Could Find a Way to Be,” is copyright by Andrew VanNorstrand, used with permission.  More information about Andrew VanNorstrand is available online at https://greatbearrecords.bandcamp.com/.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 504, 12-23-19. “Chesapeake Bay Ballad” is copyright 2020 by Torrin Hallett, used with permission.  Torrin is a 2018 graduate of Oberlin College and Conservatory in Oberlin, Ohio; a 2020 graduate in Horn Performance from Manhattan School of Music in New York; and a 2021 graduate of the Lamont School of Music at the University of Denver.  He is currently a graduate student at the Yale School of Music.  More information about Torrin is available online at https://www.facebook.com/torrin.hallett.  Thanks very much to Torrin for composing the piece especially for Virginia Water Radio.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 604, 11-22-21. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGES (Unless otherwise noted, photographs are by Virginia Water Radio.) View of the Chesapeake Bay looking downstream from the Bay Bridge-Tunnel (between Virginia Beach and Northampton County), October 7, 2007.View of the Chesapeake Bay looking upstream from Sandy Point State Park in Anne Arundel County, Maryland, March 21, 2010.Summary charts for Chesapeake Bay waters (upper) and watershed (lower) from the “Chesapeake Bay & Watershed 2021 Report Card” (covering data through 2021; published in June 2022), University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science.  Images accessed from the report PDF, online at https://ecoreportcard.org/site/assets/files/2560/2021-chesapeake-bay-watershed-report-card.pdf, as of 7-18-22. SOURCES Used for Audio Chesapeake Bay Foundation, “State of the Bay,” online at https://www.cbf.org/about-the-bay/state-of-the-bay-report/. Chesapeake Bay Program, online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/.  Specific pages used were the following:“Slight improvements in Bay health and new economic data added in 2021 Chesapeake Bay Report Card,” June 7, 2022, news release by Caroline Grass;“Bay Barometer,” April 2021 (for 2019-20 data), online (as a PDF) at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/documents/Bay_Barometer_2019-2020_Web.pdf;“Chesapeake Bay Watershed Agreement” (signed June 16, 2014), online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/what/what_guides_us/watershed_agreement;“Chesapeake Progress,” online at https://www.chesapeakeprogress.com/;“The Estuary,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/the_estuary_system.Jeremy Cox and Timothy Wheeler, “Maryland, Virginia clamp down on crab harvests; cuts imposed as crab population hits record-low,” Bay Journal, June 30, 2022. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, “2022 Blue Crab Winter Dredge Survey,” online at https://dnr.maryland.gov/fisheries/Pages/blue-crab/dredge.aspx.Maryland Department of Natural Resources, “Eyes on the Bay,” online at http://eyesonthebay.dnr.maryland.gov/.See http://eyesonthebay.dnr.maryland.gov/eyesonthebay/whatsitmean.cfmfor “Data Available for Viewing” (dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, turbidity, algal blooms, and temperature).See http://eyesonthebay.dnr.maryland.gov/eyesonthebay/links.cfmfor links to other Bay water-quality data and information sources.University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, online at https://www.umces.edu/.The “Chesapeake Bay & Watershed Report Card” is online at https://ecoreportcard.org/report-cards/chesapeake-bay/; note links for “Bay Health,” “Watershed Health,” and “Indicators.”A June 6, 2022, news release on the report of 2021 data is online https://www.umces.edu/news/chesapeake-bay-health-score-held-steady-in-2021.A PDF of the report of 2021 data is online at https://ecoreportcard.org/site/assets/files/2560/2021-chesapeake-bay-watershed-report-card.pdf. Virginia Institute of Marine Science, “How big is the [Chesapeake] bay?”  Online at https://www.vims.edu/bayinfo/faqs/estuary_size.php. For More Information about the Chesapeake Bay and its ConditionChesapeake Bay Program, “Discover the Chesapeake,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover. Alice Jane Lippson and Robert L. Lippson, Life in the Chesapeake Bay, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md., 2006. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, “Chesapeake Bay Map,” online at https://coastalscience.noaa.gov/products/vmrc-chesapeake-bay-map/.Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, “Chesapeake Bay,” online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/water/chesapeake-bay. Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS):“Bay Info,” online at https://www.vims.edu/bayinfo/index.php;“SAV Program: Monitoring and Restoration,” online at https://www.vims.edu/research/units/programs/sav/index.php;“Virginia Coastal and Estuarine Observing System,” online at http://vecos.vims.edu/. Virginia Marine Resources Commission, online at https://mrc.virginia.gov/links.shtm. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Rivers, Streams, and Other Surface Water” subject category.  The previous episode on Chesapeake Bay conditions was Episode 537, 8-10-20, Following are links to some other episodes on the Chesapeake Bay. Bay Barometer and other reports – Episode 305, 2-29-16.Bay Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), Phase II Watershed Implementation Plan – Episode 115, 6-18-12.Bay TMDL, Phase III Watershed Implementation Plan – Episode 475, 6-3-19.Chesapeake Bay Commission – Episode 496, 10-28-19.Estuaries introduction – Episode 326, 7-25-16.Oysters and nitrogen (Part 1) – Episode 279, 8-24-15.Oysters and nitrogen (Part 2) – Episode 280, 9-7-15.“Smart” buoys – Episode 538, 8-17-20.Submerged aquatic vegetation (“Bay grasses”) – Episode 325, 7-18-16.Winter birds of the Chesapeake Bay area – EP565 – 2/22/21. Following are other music pieces composed by Torrin Hallett for Virginia Water Radio, with episodes featuring the music.“A Little Fright Music” – used in Episode 548, 10-26-20, on water-related passages in fiction and non-fiction, for Halloween; and Episode 601, 10-31-21, connections among Halloween, water, and the human body.“Beetle Ballet” – used in Episode 525, 5-18-20, on aquatic beetles.“Corona Cue” – used in Episode 517, 3-23-20, on the coronavirus pandemic. “Flow Stopper” – used in Episode 599, 10-18-21, on “Imagine a Day Without Water.”“Geese Piece” – used most recently in 615, 2-7-22, on Brant.“Ice Dance” – “Ice Dance” – used most recently in Episode 606, 12-6-21, on freezing of water.“Lizard Lied” – used in Episode 514, 3-2-20, on lizards. “New Year's Water” – used most recently in Episode 610, 1-3-22, on water thermodynamics and a New Year's Day New River wade-in.“Rain Refrain” – used most recently in Episode 559, 1-11-21, on record rainfall in 2020.“Runoff” – in Episode 585, 7-12-21 – on middle schoolers calling out stormwater-related water words.“Spider Strike” – used in Episode 523, 5-4-20, on fishing spiders.“Tropical Tantrum” – used most recently in Episode 580, 6-7-21, on the 2021 Atlantic tropical storm season preview.“Tundra Swan Song – used in Episode 554, 12-7-20, on Tundra Swans.“Turkey Tune” – used in Episode 343, 11-21-16, on the Wild Turkey.“Wade in the Water” (arrangement) – used most recently in Episode 616, 2-14-22.  FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-4: Living Systems and Processes2.5 – Living things are part of a system.3.5 – Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems support a diversity of organisms.4.3 – Organisms, including humans, interact with one another and with the nonliving components in the ecosystem. Grades K-5: Earth and Space Systems3.7 – There is a water cycle and water is important to life on Earth.4.7 – The ocean environment.Grades K-5: Earth Resources 1.8 – Natural resources can be used responsibly, including that most natural resources are limited; human actions can affect the availability of natural resources; and reducing, reusing, and recycling are ways to conserve natural resources.3.8 – Natural events and humans influence ecosystems.4.8 – Virginia has important natural resources. Grade 66.6 – Water has unique physical properties and has a role in the natural and human-made environment.6.8 – Land and water have roles in watershed systems.6.9 – Humans impact the environment and individuals can influence public policy decisions related to energy and the environment. Life ScienceLS.6 – Populations in a biological community interact and are interdependent.LS.8 – Change occurs in ecosystems, communities, populations, and organisms over time.LS.9 – Relationships exist between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.LS.11 – Populations of organisms can change over time. Earth ScienceES.6 – Resource use is complex.ES.8 – Freshwater resources influence and are influenced by geologic processes and human activity.ES.10 – Oceans are complex, dynamic systems subject to long- and short-term variations. BiologyBIO.2 – Chemical and biochemical processes are essential for life.BIO.7 – Populations change through time.BIO.8 – Dynamic equilibria exist within populations, communities, and ecosystems. 2015 Social Studies SOLs Grades K-3 Geography Theme1.6 – Virginia climate, seasons, and landforms.2.6 – Major rivers, mountains, and other geographic features of North America and other continents.3.6 – Major rivers, mountains, and other geographic features of North America and other continents. Grades K-3 Economics Theme2.8 – Natural, human, and capital resources.3.8 – Understanding of cultures and of how natural, human, and capital resources are used for goods and services. Grades K-3 Civics Theme3.12 – Importance of government in community, Virginia, and the United States. Virginia Studies CourseVS.1 – Impact of geographic features on people, places, and events in Virginia history.VS.10 – Knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia. United States History to 1865 CourseUSI.2 – Major land and water features of North America, including their importance in history. United States History: 1865-to-Present CourseUSII.9 – Domestic and international issues during the second half of the 20th Century and the early 21st Century. Civics and Economics CourseCE.6 – Government at the national level.CE.7 – Government at the state level.CE.8 – Government at the local level.CE.10 – Public policy at local, state, and national levels. World Geography CourseWG.2 – How selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth's surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.WG.3 – How regional landscapes reflect the physical environment and the cultural characteristics of their inhabitants.WG.4 – Types and significance of natural, human, and capital resources. Government CourseGOVT.7 – National government organization and powers.GOVT.8 – State and local government organization and powers.GOVT.9 – Public policy process at local, state, and national levels.GOVT.15 – Role of government in Va. and U.S. economies, including examining environmental issues and property rights.Virginia's SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/. Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade. Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade. Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten. Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade. Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade. Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade. Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school. Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school. Episode 524, 5-11-20 – on sounds by water-related animals, for elementary school through high school. Episode 531, 6-29-20 – on various ways that animals get water, for 3rd and 4th grade. Episode 539, 8-24-20 – on basic numbers and facts about Virginia's water resources, for 4th and 6th grade. Episode 606, 12-6-21 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.

    Episode 631 (7-4-22): Frogs and Fireworks

    Play Episode Listen Later Jul 1, 2022

    CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:22).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImageExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 6-30-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the weeks of July 4 and July 11, 2022.  This is a repeat of a 2016 episode celebrating the July 4th holiday.  The episode features Virginia Tech master's degree graduate Kriddie Whitmore as a guest voice. SOUNDS - ~ 4 sec – Gray Treefrogs and fireworks. This week, for Independence Day episode, we drop in on a most unusual July 4th conversation: two Gray Treefrogs, surrounded by fireworks, are debating U.S. water history.  Sound unimaginable?  Well, just have a listen. SOUNDS - ~2 sec – Frogs and fireworks. Frog 1 – There those humans go again, shootin' off their fireworks and makin' it hard for us frogs to hear each other's calls!  What's all the ruckus about, anyway? Frog 2 - Why, it's July 4th!  They're celebrating this country's Declaration of Independence in 1776 from Great Britain.  I think it's cool—at least it's a break from hearing YOU guys calling every evening. Frog 1 – And just why are YOU so excited about the birthday of this big, bustling, human country?  Seems to me that it's been nothing but trouble for aquatic habitats and creatures like us since those first ships came over here from that Europe place.  Everywhere we try to hop, there's polluted rivers and lakes, lost wetlands and other habitats, and hot, dry pavement. Frog 2 – Well, yeah, you're right, partly.  This country's waters have had a pretty hard history.  And we amphibians have had the worst of it in some cases and places, with this permeable skin we have.  But you're forgetting about some positive things.  The humans' Congress passed the Clean Water Act in 1972, and a bunch other important acts, too.  And right here in this state, Virginia, the constitution says it's the Commonwealth's policy to protect its atmosphere, lands, and waters from pollution, impairment, or destruction. Frog 1 - Have all those things done any good? Frog 2 – Well, not always or everywhere.  Just in Virginia, hundreds of water bodies are impaired and need expensive clean-up programs.  For instance, I've got cousins living near that Chesapeake Bay, and they tell me every year it's some things good, other things fair, and still others needing a ton of work.  But many rivers and lakes certainly are in better shape than they were 40 or 50 years ago; the Potomac River's one example.  Those humans have many competing interests, so sometimes what they do isn't so good for water, or lands, or creatures like us. But other times, it is.  People have learned a lot over the years about using and managing natural resources more sustainably, and all kinds of people work hard trying to do that. Frog 1 - Yeah, I guess you're right.  You know, it's not easy being a frog, but I guess it's pretty tough being a person, too. Frog 2 – Now that's a pretty realistic call! SOUNDS - ~3 sec – fireworks.Frog 2  – Hey, there's the fireworks finale.  And that sounds like the Air Force Concert Band playing one of my favorites, “The Washington Post,” by John Philip Sousa.  Let's have a quick listen, then we better get back under cover.  All the humans will be coming back from the fireworks soon. Both frogs – Happy July 4th!MUSIC - ~ 14 sec – instrumental. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode replaces Episode 323, 7-4-16, and Episode 427, 7-2-18. Virginia Water Radio thanks Kriddie Whitmore, a 2016 master's degree graduate in Forestry from Virginia Tech, for participating as the guest voice in this episode. Thanks also to Jennifer Gagnon, Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Conservation, for reviewing a draft of the episode. This episode's frog and fireworks sounds were recorded Blacksburg, Va., around 9:30 p.m. on July 4, 2015. This episode's music was an excerpt of “The Washington Post,” written by John Philip Sousa in 1889, and performed here by the United States Air Force Concert Band on their 2001 album “I Am An American,” accessed online at http://www.allmusic.com/album/i-am-an-american-mw0002256231, as of 6-29-22.  Information about “The Washington Post” is available from the United States Marine Band, “Sousa-The Washington Post” (3:30 video), online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mxrh1CrMmTY; and “The President's Own/John Philip Sousa,” online at http://www.marineband.marines.mil/About/Our-History/John-Philip-Sousa/. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGE (Unless otherwise noted, photographs are by Virginia Water Radio.) Gray Treefrog (Hyla versicolor) on the deck of a residence in Blacksburg, Va., Sep. 23, 2009. EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT CONSERVATION IN THE VIRGINIA CONSTITUTION Following are the four sections of Article XI, “Conservation,” of the Virginia Constitution, as accessed at the Virginia Legislative Information System, online at https://law.lis.virginia.gov/constitution/article11/, on June 30, 2022.Section 1. Natural resources and historical sites of the Commonwealth.To the end that the people have clean air, pure water, and the use and enjoyment for recreation of adequate public lands, waters, and other natural resources, it shall be the policy of the Commonwealth to conserve, develop, and utilize its natural resources, its public lands, and its historical sites and buildings.  Further, it shall be the Commonwealth's policy to protect its atmosphere, lands, and waters from pollution, impairment, or destruction, for the benefit, enjoyment, and general welfare of the people of the Commonwealth. Section 2. Conservation and development of natural resources and historical sites. In the furtherance of such policy, the General Assembly may undertake the conservation, development, or utilization of lands or natural resources of the Commonwealth, the acquisition and protection of historical sites and buildings, and the protection of its atmosphere, lands, and waters from pollution, impairment, or destruction, by agencies of the Commonwealth or by the creation of public authorities, or by leases or other contracts with agencies of the United States, with other states, with units of government in the Commonwealth, or with private persons or corporations.  Notwithstanding the time limitations of the provisions of Article X, Section 7, of this Constitution, the Commonwealth may participate for any period of years in the cost of projects which shall be the subject of a joint undertaking between the Commonwealth and any agency of the United States or of other states. Section 3. Natural oyster beds. The natural oyster beds, rocks, and shoals in the waters of the Commonwealth shall not be leased, rented, or sold but shall be held in trust for the benefit of the people of the Commonwealth, subject to such regulations and restriction as the General Assembly may prescribe, but the General Assembly may, from time to time, define and determine such natural beds, rocks, or shoals by surveys or otherwise. Section 4. Right of the people to hunt, fish, and harvest game. The people have a right to hunt, fish, and harvest game, subject to such regulations and restrictions as the General Assembly may prescribe by general law.SOURCES Used for Audio Chesapeake Bay Program, online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/; and “Slight improvements in Bay health and new economic data added in 2021 Chesapeake Bay Report Card,” June 7, 2022, news release, online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/news/blog/slight_improvements_in_bay_health_and_new_economic_data_added_in_2021_chesa.Commonwealth of Virginia, Constitution of Virginia, “Article XI Conservation,” accessed online at https://law.lis.virginia.gov/constitution/article11/. John D. Kleopfer and Chris S. Hobson, A Guide to the Frogs and Toad of Virginia, Special Publication Number 3, Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (now Department of Wildlife Resources), Richmond, Va., 2011. Bernard S. Martof, et al., Amphibians and Reptiles of the Carolinas and Virginia, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1980. Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, “Water Quality Monitoring in the Potomac Estuary,” online at http://www.mwcog.org/environment/water/potomacestuary.asp.Thomas V. Cech, Principles of Water Resources: History, Development, Management, and Policy, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y., 2003.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency:“National Aquatic Resources Surveys,” online at https://www.epa.gov/national-aquatic-resource-surveys;“Summary of the Clean Water Act,” online at https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-clean-water-act.Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, “Water Quality Assessments/Integrated Report,” online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/water/water-quality/assessments/integrated-report.Zygmunt J. B. Plater et al., Environmental Law and Policy: Nature, Law, and Society, West Publishing Co., St. Paul, Minn., 1998. For More Information about Amphibians in Virginia and Elsewhere AmphibiaWeb, https://amphibiaweb.org/index.html. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, “Animal Diversity Web,” online at https://animaldiversity.org. J.C. Mitchell and K.K. Reay, Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Virginia, Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries/Richmond (1999); available online (as a PDF) at https://www.virginiaherpetologicalsociety.com/atlases/mitchell-atlas.pdf, courtesy of the Virginia Herpetological Society.  (Herpetology is the study of amphibians and reptiles.) Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries):“A Guide to Virginia's Frogs and Toads,” online at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wildlife/frogs-and-toads/;“A Guide to the Salamanders of Virginia,” online at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wildlife/salamanders/;“Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/(the Gray Treefrog entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=020007&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19173);“List of Native and Naturalized Fauna in Virginia, August 2020,” online (as a PDF) at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/virginia-native-naturalized-species.pdf;“Virginia is for Frogs,” online at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wildlife/virginia-is-for-frogs/;“Wildlife Information,” online at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wildlife/information/. Virginia Herpetological Society, “Frogs and Toads of Virginia,” online at https://www.virginiaherpetologicalsociety.com/amphibians/frogsandtoads/frogs_and_toads_of_virginia.htm. For More Information about Federal Environmental and Natural Resources LawsCornell University Law School/Legal Information Institute:“Environmental Law,” online at https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/environmental_law; “Natural Resources,” online at https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/natural_resources. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “Laws and Regulations,” online at https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations.  The section for the Clean Water Act is online at https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-clean-water-act; the section for the Endangered Species Act is online at https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-endangered-species-act; the section for the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is online at https://www.epa.gov/nepa. For More Information about Virginia Natural Resources Laws Virginia Secretary of Natural Resources Web site, online at http://naturalresources.virginia.gov/.  See the “Agencies” link to access the various Virginia state agencies involved with resources regulation and management. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Amphibians” and “History” subject categories. Following is the link to another episode on Gray Treefrogs.Episode 528, 6-8-20. Following are links to other episodes done for July 4th. Episode 168, 7-1-13 – Water and the Revolutionary War.Episode 220, 6-30-14 – Water origins of Virginia Declaration signers.Episode 273, 7-6-15 – The Great Road on the Virginia Peninsula.FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-4: Living Systems and ProcessesK.7 – Plants and animals have basic needs and life processes.1.5 – Animals, including humans, have basic life needs that allow them to survive.2.5 – Living things are part of a system.3.5 – Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems support a diversity of organisms.4.3 – Organisms, including humans, interact with one another and with the nonliving components in the ecosystem. Grades K-5: Earth and Space Systems3.7 – There is a water cycle and water is important to life on Earth. Grades K-5: Earth ResourcesK.11 – Humans use resources.1.8 – Natural resources can be used responsibly, including that most natural resources are limited; human actions can affect the availability of natural resources; and reducing, reusing, and recycling are ways to conserve natural resources.3.8 – Natural events and humans influence ecosystems.4.8 – Virginia has important natural resources. Grade 66.6 – Water has unique physical properties and has a role in the natural and human-made environment.6.8 – Land and water have roles in watershed systems.6.9 – Humans impact the environment and individuals can influence public policy decisions related to energy and the environment. Life ScienceLS.9 – Relationships exist between ecosystem dynamics and human activity. Earth ScienceES.6 – Resource use is complex.ES.8 – Freshwater resources influence and are influenced by geologic processes and human activity.ES.10 – Oceans are complex, dynamic systems subject to long- and short-term variations. Biology&

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    Episode 630 (6-20-22): A Sampler of Shrubs from Soggy Spaces

    Play Episode Listen Later Jun 17, 2022

    CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:49).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 6-16-22.

    music university texas earth education college water state zoom land living research tech government benefits foundation search north america environment normal dark natural web tree va rain disease climate change ocean voices snow plant citizens trees agency stream priority richmond plants biology environmental bay images ash found dynamic grade soil bio published conservation spaces copyright index charlottesville sh processes rub pond signature fort worth arial ludwig virginia tech asheville scales accent atlantic ocean life sciences townsend maple natural resources forests adaptations environmental science compatibility msonormal colorful forestry populations photographs ls times new roman sections sampler aquatic poison ivy possum watershed organisms montgomery county calibri chesapeake soggy forest service policymakers alder photosynthesis new standard shrubs blacksburg university press acknowledgment cambria math elderberry style definitions worddocument saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent stormwater punctuationkerning breakwrappedtables harrisonburg dontgrowautofit trackmoves trackformatting lidthemeother snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules lidthemeasian x none mathpr virginia department latentstyles deflockedstate msonormaltable centergroup donotpromoteqf subsup undovr latentstylecount ar sa mathfont brkbin brkbinsub lmargin smallfrac dispdef rmargin defjc wrapindent sols intlim narylim allowpng defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority qformat lsdexception locked semihidden unhidewhenused latentstyles table normal bmp forest management name title name normal name strong name emphasis name medium grid name subtle emphasis name dark list name intense emphasis name colorful shading name subtle reference name colorful list name intense reference name default paragraph font name colorful grid name book title name subtitle name light shading accent name bibliography name light list accent name toc heading name light grid accent name table grid name revision name placeholder text name list paragraph name no spacing name quote name light shading name intense quote name light list name dark list accent name light grid name colorful shading accent name medium shading name colorful list accent name medium list name colorful grid accent john peterson cripple creek rhododendron living systems grades k biotic name e steel wheels space systems colorful accent great dismal swamp cumberland gap light accent dark accent waterside name list rhododendrons ilex name date name plain text name list continue name table colorful name message header name table columns name list table name salutation name table list name table 3d name body text first indent name table contemporary name note heading name table elegant name block text name table professional name document map name table subtle name normal indent name table web name balloon text name list bullet name normal web name table theme name list number name normal table name plain table name closing name no list name grid table light name signature name outline list name grid table name body text name table simple name body text indent name table classic understory rockingham county relyonvml aronia penn state extension forest resources cornus augusta county vaccinium audio notes itea water center tmdl 20image stormwater runoff donotshowrevisions virginia standards
    Episode 629 (6-6-22): The 2022 Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Season Begins with a Re-formed Pacific Storm

    Play Episode Listen Later Jun 7, 2022

    CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (5:52).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 6-3-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the weeks June 6 and June 13, 2022. MUSIC – ~11 sec – instrumental. That's part of “Driving Rain,” by the Charlottesville- and Nelson County-based band, Chamomile and Whiskey.  The storm-themed music sets the stage for our annual preview of a potential bunch of rainy, windy, and storm-surge-causing summer and fall visitors.  Have a listen for about 35 seconds to some more of the music accompanying 21 names that we hope will NOT become infamous this year. MUSIC and VOICES ~36 sec – Music lyrics: “In the driving rain”; then instrumental.  Voices: “Alex.  Bonnie.  Colin.  Danielle.  Earl.  Fiona.  Gaston.  Hermine.  Ian.  Julia.  Karl.  Lisa.  Martin.  Nicole.  Owen.  Paula.  Richard.  Shary.  Tobias.  Virginie.  Walter.” Those were the names planned for storms that may occur during this year's Atlantic basin tropical cyclone season.  The Atlantic basin includes the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic tropical cyclone season runs officially from June 1 through November 30.  Most Atlantic tropical cyclones occur within this period, but not all of them do.  In fact, 2022 is the first year since 2014 in which there was NOT a named Atlantic basin storm before June 1, although it was close: as of June 3, the remnants of Pacific basin Hurricane Agatha, which formed in late May and made landfall in southern Mexico, were predicted to re-form in the Gulf of Mexico as the Atlantic basin's first named storm. [Editor's note, not in the audio: Pre-June named Atlantic storms in the previous seven years were Ana in 2015, Alex in January 2016 and Bonnie in May 2016, Arlene in April 2017, Alberto in May 2018, Andrea in May 2019, Arthur and Bertha in May 2020, and Ana in May 2021.  The first named storm in 2014 was in July.  The National Hurricane Center upgraded Potential Tropical Cyclone One to Tropical Storm Alex around 2 a.m. EDT on June 5, 2022.]Tropical storms and hurricanes are two categories of tropical cyclones, which are rotating storm systems that start in tropical or sub-tropical latitudes.  A tropical cyclone is called a tropical storm—and gets a name—when sustained wind speeds reach 39 miles per hour; at 74 miles per hour, a tropical cyclone is considered a hurricane.  Tropical depressions—with wind speeds below 39 miles per hour—don't get named if they never reach tropical storm wind speed,* but they can still bring damaging rainfall and flooding.  Hurricane-force storms are called typhoonsin northwestern areas of the Pacific Ocean. [Editor's note, not in the audio: A tropical system that never gets above the tropical depression wind-speed level won't be given a name, but a lingering tropical depression that previously was at the wind speed of a tropical storm or hurricane will have a name associated with it.]Before a tropical system of any speed or name barges into the Old Dominion, here are five important preparedness steps recommended by the National Weather Service.1.  Know your zone – that is, find out if you live in a hurricane evacuation area by checking the Virginia Department of Emergency Management's “Hurricane Zone Evacuation Tool,” available online at  vaemergency.gov/prepare, or by contacting your local emergency management office. 2.  Assemble an emergency kit of food, water, flashlights, first aid materials, a battery-powered radio, and other items that would be useful in a power outage.3.  Have a family emergency plan, including plans for evacuating and for getting in touch with one another in an emergency. 4.  Review your insurance policies to ensure that you have adequate coverage for your home and personal property. And 5.  Establish ways to stay informed, especially if the power goes out. Detailed safety tips for hurricanes and other severe weather are available from the “Safety” link at the National Weather Service Web site, www.weather.gov; from the Virginia Department of Emergency Management, online as noted earlier at vaemergency.gov/prepare; and from various other sources. Thanks to eight Blacksburg, Va., friends for lending their voices to this episode.  Thanks also to Chamomile and Whiskey for permission to use this week's music, and we close with about 20 more seconds of “Driving Rain.” MUSIC – ~21 sec – instrumental. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS “Driving Rain,” from the 2012 album “The Barn Sessions,” is copyright by Chamomile and Whiskey and by County Wide Records, used with permission.  More information about Chamomile and Whiskey is available online at http://www.chamomileandwhiskey.com/.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 579, 5-31-21. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES Satellite photo of Tropical Storm Alex off the southeastern Atlantic Coast of the United States at 2:51 p.m. EDT (18:51 Z), on June 5, 2022.  Photo from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), “GOES Image Viewer: GOES-East/U.S. Atlantic Coast/Band 1 (Blue Visible)”, online at https://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/goes/sector.php?sat=G16§or=eus; specific URL for the photo was https://cdn.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/GOES16/ABI/SECTOR/eus/01/20221561851_GOES16-ABI-eus-01-500x500.jpg, as of June 6, 2022.Predictions for the 2022 Atlantic tropical storm season.  Graphic from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), “NOAA predicts above-normal 2022 Atlantic Hurricane Season; Ongoing La Niña, above-average Atlantic temperatures set the stage for busy season ahead,” May 24, 2022, online at https://www.noaa.gov/news-release/noaa-predicts-above-normal-2022-atlantic-hurricane-season.Map showing the names, dates, and tracks of named Atlantic basin tropical cyclones (tropical storms and hurricanes) in 2021. Map from the National Hurricane Center, “2021 Atlantic Hurricane Season,” online at https://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/index.php?season=2021&basin=atl.“5 Things to Know About Having and Evacuation Plan” poster from the National Weather Service, “What to Do Before the Tropical Storm or Hurricane,” online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/hurricane-plan.  The site also has posters with “5 Things to Know About…” hurricane hazard risks, strengthening one's home, getting information, and insurance. EXTRA INFORMATION ON TROPICAL CYCLONE PREPAREDNESS The following information is quoted from the National Weather Service, ‘Hurricane Safety,” online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/hurricane, as of June 6, 2022. Plan for a Hurricane: What to Do Before the Tropical Storm or Hurricane(online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/hurricane-plan) “The best time to prepare for a hurricane is before hurricane season begins on June 1.  It is vital to understand your home's vulnerability to storm surge, flooding, and wind.  Here is your checklist of things to do BEFORE hurricane seasons begins.Know your zone: Do you live near the Gulf or Atlantic Coasts?  Find out if you live in a hurricane evacuation area by contacting your local government/emergency management office or, in Virginia, by visiting https://www.vaemergency.gov/hurricane-evacuation-zone-lookup/. Put Together an Emergency Kit: Put together a basic emergency kit; information to do so is online at https://www.ready.gov/kit.  Check emergency equipment, such as flashlights, generators, and storm shutters.Write or review your Family Emergency Plan: Before an emergency happens, sit down with your family or close friends and decide how you will get in contact with each other, where you will go, and what you will do in an emergency.  Keep a copy of this plan in your emergency supplies kit or another safe place where you can access it in the event of a disaster.  Information to help with emergency plan preparation is online at https://www.ready.gov/plan. Review Your Insurance Policies: Review your insurance policies to ensure that you have adequate coverage for your home and personal property.Understand NWS forecast products, especially the meaning of NWS watches and warnings.Preparation tips for your home are available from the Federal Alliance for Safe Homes, online at https://www.flash.org/. Preparation tips for those with chronic illnesses are available from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, online at https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/infographic/emergency.htm. Actions to Take When a Tropical Storm or Hurricane Threatens(online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/hurricane-action) “When a hurricane threatens your community, be prepared to evacuate if you live in a storm surge risk area.  Allow enough time to pack and inform friends and family if you need to leave your home. Secure your home: Cover all of your home's windows.  Permanent storm shutters offer the best protection for windows.  A second option is to board up windows with 5/8 inch exterior grade or marine plywood, built to fit, and ready to install.  Buy supplies before the hurricane season rather than waiting for the pre-storm rush. Stayed tuned in: Check the websites of your local National Weather Service office (online at https://www.weather.gov/) and local government/emergency management office.  Find out what type of emergencies could occur and how you should respond. Listen to NOAA Weather Radio or other radio or TV stations for the latest storm news. Follow instructions issued by local officials. Leave immediately if ordered! If NOT ordered to evacuate: *Take refuge in a small interior room, closet, or hallway on the lowest level during the storm.  Put as many walls between you and the outside as you can. *Stay away from windows, skylights, and glass doors. *If the eye of the storm passes over your area, there will be a short period of calm, but at the other side of the eye, the wind speed rapidly increases to hurricane force winds coming from the opposite direction.” After a Hurricane(online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/hurricane-after) Continue listening to a NOAA Weather Radio or the local news for the latest updates. If you evacuated, return home only when officials say it is safe. Once home, drive only if necessary and avoid flooded roads and washed-out bridges.  If you must go out, watch for fallen objects in the road, downed electrical wires, and weakened walls, bridges, roads, and sidewalks that might collapse. Walk carefully around the outside of your home to check for loose power lines, gas leaks, and structural damage. Stay out of any building if you smell gas, if floodwaters remain around the building, if the building or home was damaged by fire, or if the authorities have not declared it safe. Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the leading causes of death after storms in areas dealing with power outages.  Never use a portable generator inside your home or garage. Use battery-powered flashlights.  Do NOT use candles.  Turn on your flashlight before entering a vacated building.  The battery could produce a spark that could ignite leaking gas, if present.”