Podcasts about reformed tradition

Protestant branch of Christianity

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Best podcasts about reformed tradition

Latest podcast episodes about reformed tradition

Reformed Forum
Samuel Miller's Presbyterianism

Reformed Forum

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 16, 2022 67:43


Harrison Perkins speaks about Samuel Miller's views on Presbyterianism. Dr. Perkins has edited a new edition of Miller's Presbyterianism: Its History, Doctrine, Government, and Worship, which has been published by Log College Press. Samuel Miller, the first professor of Ecclesiastical History and Church Government at Princeton Theological Seminary and a prolific author, published this introduction and defense of Presbyterianism in 1835. Originally titled Presbyterianism: The Truly Primitive and Apostolical Constitution of the Church of Christ, Miller covers the basics of Presbyterian belief and practice, grounding his material in the Scriptures primarily and church history secondarily. Dr. Harrison Perkins is Stated Supply at Oakland Hills Community Church in Farmington Hills, Michigan Visiting lecturer in systematic theology at Edinburgh Theological Seminary and online instructor at Westminster Theological Seminary. He is the author of Catholicity and the Covenant of Works: James Ussher and the Reformed Tradition, of which he spoke on Christ the Center episode 677.

What Christians Should Know
Political Revolution in the Reformed Tradition, Part I (Romans 13:1-7)

What Christians Should Know

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 7, 2022 40:05


In this episode, Dr. Sadaphal equips Christians to think and act biblically when is comes to living amidst the tension of two kingdoms: of God and of the world. Specifically, he uses Dr. Sam Waldron's book, Political Revolution in the Reformed Tradition, as a foundation and guide to develop answers to five critical questions:(1) Where does the government come from?(2) What is a civil authority called to do?(3) Does the Bible support or prohibit political revolution?(4) What is the relationship between subordination to civil magistrates and obedience to the same authorities?(5) Does Romans 13 call us to obey the government blindly in all situations?Gain crucial perspectives for both the Church and the individual Christian as they navigate through the perplexing ethical and societal questions that have recently emerged that have put Christ and compliance in opposition. Get Political Revolution: https://amzn.to/3T94J1Z

Theology Applied
THEOLOGY APPLIED - Theonomy: Why Many Fiercely Oppose It with Dr. Joe Boot

Theology Applied

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 23, 2022 48:22


In this episode of Theology Applied, Pastor Joel is joined by Dr. Joe Boot to discuss Theonomy, its adherents and why so many oppose it, even within the Reformed Tradition.

Alliance of Confessing Evangelicals on Oneplace.com
Arminius and the Reformed Tradition

Alliance of Confessing Evangelicals on Oneplace.com

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 13, 2022 25:31


On this Podcast Wednesday, Jonathan Master and James Dolezal are asking: Was Jacob Arminius a Reformed theologian who held to the basic tenets of Reformed soteriology? Today's guest skillfully dissects his writings on predestination, union with Christ, justification, and more to effectively prove that Arminius' views on salvation differed significantly from confessional norms. J.V. Fesko serves as professor of Systematic and Historical Theology at Reformed Theological Seminary and is an ordained OPC minister. Fesko is the author or editor of more than 20 helpful books on Reformed theology, justification, and other biblical topics. In conversation with Jonathan and James, the professor carefully describes Arminian positions that arguably break from Reformed traditions. To support this ministry financially, visit: https://www.oneplace.com/donate/581/29

Growing and Witnessing
The Reformed Tradition

Growing and Witnessing

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 13, 2022 39:32


In the seventh video of our 2022 Summer Study, we discuss six characteristics of the Reformed tradition. These characteristics help us answer the question, "What does it mean to be Reformed?"

Theology on the Go
Arminius and the Reformed Tradition Podcast

Theology on the Go

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 13, 2022


Arminius and the Reformed Tradition Was Jacob Arminius a Reformed theologian who held to the basic tenets of Reformed soteriology? Today's guest skillfully dissects his writings on predestination, union with Christ, justification, and more to effectively prove that Arminius' views on salvation differed significantly from confessional norms. J.V. Fesko serves as professor of Systematic and Historical Theology at Reformed Theological Seminary and is an ordained OPC minister. Fesko is the author or editor of more than 20 helpful books on Reformed theology, justification, and other biblical topics. In conversation with Jonathan and James, the professor carefully describes Arminian positions that arguably break from Reformed traditions. To possibly win a copy of Arminius and the Reformed Tradition: Grace and the Doctrine of Salvation, sign up here. Our copies are a gift from Reformation Heritage Books.    

Orthopraxy Podcast
#3- Zack Ruder: The Emergent Church, Church Confessions, and Orthopraxy

Orthopraxy Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 29, 2022 95:04


On this episode of Orthopraxy, I sit down with Zack Ruder. Zack is the Lead Pastor at the Village Church Columbus in Columbus, Ohio. We talk through Zack's experience with the Emergent church, why he came back to the Reformed Tradition and what it looks like to shepherd a church toward holiness. Visit the church's website to listen to sermons from Zack and learn more about the church. http://www.villagechurchcolumbus.com/ Listen to Zack's Podcast "The Wicket Gate" https://open.spotify.com/show/0q731F3Gle0f51lnSjvkBF?si=3d27d6bf94bc4ce8 The Orthopraxy Podcast exists to talk about the Christian life and living out what we believe. Every week we sit down with a guest to talk about the practical things in our faith. Join us every Wednesday for new episodes. Orthopraxy is a ministry of Finish Line Ministries International. Finish Line Ministries International is committed to the work of Training Pastors, Equipping The Church, Providing For Orphans, and Reaching The Lost in Malawi, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe. Working alongside the remarkable men and women of southeast Africa, Finish Line Ministries International creates and develops ministry initiatives specifically designed to impact lives, proclaim the Gospel of Jesus Christ, and establish His church. Learn more about our Initiatives: www.finishlineminitries.org Follow Finish Line: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/FinishLineIntl Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/FinishLineIntl

First Baptist Church-Edna
Political Revolution in the Reformed Tradition with Sam Waldron

First Baptist Church-Edna

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 15, 2022 34:00


An interview with Dr. Sam Waldron on -Political Revolution in the Reformed Tradition.- This interview was featured on the Covenant Podcast.

Politics on SermonAudio
Political Revolution in the Reformed Tradition with Sam Waldron

Politics on SermonAudio

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 15, 2022 34:00


A new MP3 sermon from Man of God Podcast Network is now available on SermonAudio with the following details: Title: Political Revolution in the Reformed Tradition with Sam Waldron Subtitle: Covenant Podcast Speaker: Various Speakers Broadcaster: Man of God Podcast Network Event: Podcast Date: 6/14/2022 Length: 34 min.

Politics on SermonAudio
Political Revolution in the Reformed Tradition with Sam Waldron

Politics on SermonAudio

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 15, 2022 34:00


A new MP3 sermon from First Baptist Church-Inez is now available on SermonAudio with the following details: Title: Political Revolution in the Reformed Tradition with Sam Waldron Subtitle: Covenant Confessions Podcast Speaker: Dewey Dovel Broadcaster: First Baptist Church-Inez Event: Podcast Date: 6/14/2022 Length: 34 min.

Covenant Podcast
Political Revolution in the Reformed Tradition with Sam Waldron

Covenant Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 14, 2022 34:43


Though written thirty-five years ago as Sam Waldron's ThM thesis, Political Revolution in the Reformed Tradition brings crucial perspective to guide the church and the Christian through perplexing ethical and societal questions that have emerged in the present day. Does the Bible support or prohibit political revolution? What did John Calvin, the founder of the Reformed tradition, believe on the topic of political insurrection, and did his thoughts line up with the Word of God? Does Romans 13 call us to obey the government blindly in all situations? What is the relationship between subordination to civil magistrates and obedience to the same authorities? You'll find answers to these questions and more in this scholarly examination of the tension between living in the kingdom of God and, simultaneously, in the kingdom of man.

Covenant Podcast
Political Revolution in the Reformed Tradition with Sam Waldron

Covenant Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 14, 2022 34:43


Though written thirty-five years ago as Sam Waldron's ThM thesis, Political Revolution in the Reformed Tradition brings crucial perspective to guide the church and the Christian through perplexing ethical and societal questions that have emerged in the present day. Does the Bible support or prohibit political revolution? What did John Calvin, the founder of the Reformed tradition, believe on the topic of political insurrection, and did his thoughts line up with the Word of God? Does Romans 13 call us to obey the government blindly in all situations? What is the relationship between subordination to civil magistrates and obedience to the same authorities? You'll find answers to these questions and more in this scholarly examination of the tension between living in the kingdom of God and, simultaneously, in the kingdom of man.

White Horse Inn
The Reformed Tradition

White Horse Inn

Play Episode Listen Later Mar 20, 2022 28:56


Michael Horton walked the path into Reformed theology through the book of Romans. As he studied Paul's words, he was gripped by the doctrine of justification by faith alone, and by other distinctives he would come to understand as Reformed—high views of creation, the Fall, the dignity of humanity, God's sovereign will, and God's mercy. In this episode of White Horse Inn, Justin Holcomb interviews Michael Horton about the Reformed tradition. They consider how the creeds and confessions testify to Scripture's clarity and provide the basis for a truly catholic faith, and they challenge listeners to resist prioritizing theological precision at the expense of love and unity. __________ To get our new Reformation Essentials collection head over to whitehorseinn.org/collection. __________ If you would like to download our free Doctrine Quiz just go to whitehorseinn.org/offers.

Doth Protest Too Much: A Protestant Historical-Theology Podcast
Piety and Theology: A Schleiermacher Discussion with Daniel Pedersen

Doth Protest Too Much: A Protestant Historical-Theology Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 19, 2022 67:49


Dr. Daniel Pedersen joins us for a discussion on the 19th century German Reformed theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher. Schleiermacher is often called the 'Father of Modern Theology' or the 'Father of Liberal Theology'. Daniel explains what that term means and how he believes that term can mislead. Daniel takes a position that Schleiermacher is often misread and misinterpreted, and he sees Schleiermacher as more in line with the Great Tradition (and an important interlocutor in the Reformed Tradition). Daniel and Andrew also discuss some of the basic ideas of Schleiermacher as laid forth in his chief theological works On Religion: Speeches to Its Cultured Despisers and The Christian Faith. Daniel is a Research Fellow at the the University of Aberdeen. His interests run the gamut of modern theology and Protestant theology, from the Reformers to the 19th century and beyond. He earned his Ph.D. at Princeton where he studied under Bruce McCormack. He is the author of several books and articles on Friedrich Schleiermacher. Daniel's latest book Schleiermacher's Theology of Sin and Nature: Agency, Value, and Modern Theology is available at: https://www.amazon.com/Schleiermachers-Theology-Sin-Nature-Routledge/dp/0367188988 Daniel's article that we discussed on the Divine Attributes that argues for a strong continuity from the Reformed scholastics to Schleiermacher is "Schleiermacher and the Reformed Scholastics" from The International Journal of Systematic Theology 17: 413-431 Daniel's post "How to Understand Schleiermacher's Theology- A guest post by Daniel Pedersen" can be read at http://derevth.blogspot.com/2017/05/how-to-understand-schleiermachers.html *He advances his thesis further in an upcoming article for International Journal of Systematic Theology titled "‘A tragic destiny overtook him': Misunderstanding the Introduction to Schleiermacher's The Christian Faith and his Letters to Lücke'" Andrew discussed Gerhard Ebeling's comparison of Luther and Schleiermacher from Internationaler Schleiermacher Kongreß Berlin 1984. Link to electronic copy of the book: https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/9783110873603/html The Terrence Tice book discussed in the episode is Schleiermacher: Abingdon Pillars of Theology Series: https://www.christianbook.com/schleiermacher-abingdon-pillars-of-theology-series/terrence-tice/9780687343348/pd/43348 *For further reading from Daniel's colleague and Schleiermacher authority Paul Nimmo, we recommend his article "Schleiermacher on Scripture and the Work of Jesus Christ" in Modern Theology --- This episode is sponsored by · Anchor: The easiest way to make a podcast. https://anchor.fm/app

Society of Reformed Podcasters
GGG| Covenant Theology in the Dutch Reformed Tradition (Daniel R. Hyde)

Society of Reformed Podcasters

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 20, 2021 45:07


Join Nick & Peter as they discuss the eighteenth chapter of Covenant Theology (written by…

Guilt Grace Gratitude
Daniel R. Hyde | Covenant Theology in the Dutch Reformed Tradition

Guilt Grace Gratitude

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 18, 2021 45:07


Looking for a Reformed Church in Orange County? Check out Santa Ana Reformed; informational meetings starting end of October 2021! Please help support the show on our Patreon Page! Member of the Society of Reformed Podcasters SEASON 3 EPISODE 18 Join Nick & Peter as they discuss the eighteenth chapter of Covenant Theology (written by Dr. Bruce P. Baugus), published by Crossway and edited by the faculty of Reformed Theological Seminary! Rev. Daniel R. Hyde (PhD Candidate, Vrije Universiteit) is pastor of Oceanside United Reformed Church in Carlsbad, California. He also serves as Adjunct Instructor of Systematic Theology and Missions at Puritan Reformed Theological Seminary, Adjunct Instructor of Ministerial Studies at Mid-America Reformed Seminary, and as a member of the Advisory Council for Word & Deed. He's also written numerous books to help people of all backgrounds grow in the knowledge of Christ, including his most popular book, Welcome to a Reformed Church: A Guide for Pilgrims. For a complete list of his titles, see his Books page. You can listen to Pastor Danny's sermons here. Purchase the book here: Covenant Theology: Biblical, Theological, and Historical Perspectives Have Feedback or Questions? Email us at: guiltgracepod@gmail.com Find us on Instagram: @guiltgracepod Follow us on Twitter: @guiltgracepod Please rate and subscribe to the podcast on whatever platform you use! Looking for a Reformed Church? North American Presbyterian & Reformed Churches --- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/gggpodcast/support

Resistance_TV
Apologia Center 01:14 What is Theosis/Deification? - Dr. Carl Mosser

Resistance_TV

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 25, 2021 84:51


Dr. Carl Mosser has done a fair amount of work on the subject of Theosis/Deification. In the video we discuss the history and some of the implications of this important theological view. Works by Dr. Mosser https://www.academia.edu/13567372/Deification_A_Truly_Ecumenical_Concept https://www.academia.edu/45654945/Deification_and_Union_with_God https://www.academia.edu/185246/_The_Greatest_Possible_Blessing_Calvin_and_Deification_ https://www.academia.edu/4785954/An_Exotic_Flower_Calvin_and_the_Patristic_Doctrine_of_Deification https://www.academia.edu/44951664/The_Gospels_End_and_Our_Highest_Good_Deification_in_the_Reformed_Tradition https://www.academia.edu/43251663/Recovering_the_Reformation_s_Ecumenical_Vision_of_Redemption_as_Deification_and_Beatific_Vision https://www.academia.edu/37456539/Two_Visions_of_Being_Saved_as_Deiform_Perfectability https://www.academia.edu/185244/_The_Earliest_Patristic_Interpretations_of_Psalm_82_Jewish_Antecedents_and_the_Origin_of_Christian_Deification_ https://www.academia.edu/13567372/Deification_A_Truly_Ecumenical_Concept Support Us: Website: https://www.apologiacenter.com Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ApologiaCenter/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/apologiacenter Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/apologiacenter --- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/apologiacenter/support

Greystone Conversations
The Diverse Unity of the Reformed Tradition: The Myth and Reality of "Hypothetical Universalism"

Greystone Conversations

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 30, 2021 49:54


What do Reformed Christians mean today when they refer to limited atonement or particular redemption? Is it the same idea that has prevailed in the Reformed tradition historically and confessionally? Are there different Reformed ways of understanding and affirming the truth that God in Christ saves his people by his obedience and sacrifice?It is always difficult to discover that what we first learn about something doesn't quite fit the reality of the thing on closer inspection. The difficulty is often less theological and intellectual than emotional and psychological. This is true for many Reformed Christians who converted to the Reformed tradition of faith and worship by way of the many influential popular presentations of Reformed theology, often connected in some way with popular conferences and personalities. It can be jarring to discover, as some do eventually, that the so-called five points of Calvinism are not really a summary of the Reformed theology of anything, including salvation, and were never intended to be. It can also prove eye-opening to learn that most of the key distinctives of the Reformed theological tradition aren't unique to the Reformed at all but reach far back into the deep Christian tradition shared by other Christians and of which the Reformed fathers insisted the Reformed tradition was but one--though the most faithful--expression. But learning the real history and theology of the Reformed tradition is important, not only to represent it correctly in conversations and in preaching, but also to ensure that our quest to advance and build the Reformed theological tradition is advancing and building something that really does exist.The nature and purpose of the atonement is one doctrine that has enjoyed a close reexamination in terms of the actual texts, events, and figures of the critically important 16th and 17th century periods of rapid theological development and of confessionalization. This includes the reconsideration of the often misunderstood language of limited atonement, and the also often misunderstood or mischaracterized teaching of a remarkably capable Reformed theologian named John Davenant, the famous Bishop of Salisbury and prodigious British scholar. Dr. Michael Lynch knows Davenant's teaching on the atonement very well, and has just published a full monograph on the topic with Oxford University Press called John Davenant's Hypothetical Universalism: A Defense of Catholic and Reformed Orthodoxy. Whatever your own view of the matter, if you thought John Owen's teaching on the atonement was or is the only Reformed way of saying things, or if you thought Peter Lombard was a medieval hair-splitter with no relevance to contemporary theology on the person and work of Christ, or if you thought the diversity of the Reformed tradition was a problem remedied by the confessions, you'll appreciate what you learn in Dr. Lynch's book and also find my conversation with him in this episode quite interesting.Please remember, too, that we in the midst of a major push for support as we seek to take the next steps in our development and fund our operations for the coming days. Your gift at our website, however small or great, is a terrific help to that end.

Women Beyond Faith
Meet Joy Part 2 --

Women Beyond Faith

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 9, 2021 64:50


Here's the rest of the story Joy's story!   A 59-year-old mother of six , Joy's an elementary school teacher and former fundamentalist, pentecostal Christian currently residing in the Pacific Northwest.Joy spent over 5 decades loving Jesus with her whole heart, mind, and strength. She taught her children to do the same. Her oldest, at about age 19 or 20, came home from a year abroad declaring she was no longer a Christian. This devastating news forced Joy on a search for answers that could help win her eldest back to Jesus. However, as many of us who've found ourselves in this very situation understand -- the evidence Joy discovered, after many months of reading, studying, and watching debates  completely dismantled those pillars she had erected to uphold her faith. And before she knew it, her entire belief system had collapsed with a deafening thud. The next several years were tremendously difficult and yet exhilarating as she left the church (her entire support system!!), ended her 30-year marriage, and started anew.During those troubled years, Joy wrote a memoir called Joy Unspeakable, Toxic Faith and Rose-colored Glasses, as a way to process and make sense of it all. "I chronicle the ways in which my rose-colored glasses (a metaphor for my faith) distorted reality and robbed me of agency from the time I was a small child until my 50s when the glasses finally fell off." You can find her memoir on Amazon -- here's the link: https://www.amazon.com/Joy-Unspeakable-Toxic-Rose-Colored-Glasses-ebook/dp/B08NFNT2GCSupport the show (https://www.patreon.com/user?u=8739294)

The London Lyceum
The Order of Reality: Time, Space, and Vocation with Mark Garcia

The London Lyceum

Play Episode Play 54 sec Highlight Listen Later Jan 20, 2021 59:03


Jordan and Brandon talk with Dr. Mark Garcia about his Greystone modular course on the order of reality. They cover the topics of time, space, and vocation.For more information about Greystone Theological Institute and all that they have to offer, check out their website.Find more info about the London Lyceum or contact us at our website.Resources:1) The Liturgy of Creation: Understanding Calendars in Old Testament Context, Michael LeFebvre2) Church, Baptism, and Faith in the Reformed Tradition, Greystone ConversationSupport the show

Greystone Conversations
Church, Baptism, and Faith in the Reformed Tradition

Greystone Conversations

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 6, 2021 62:07


Do Reformed Christians believe in baptismal regeneration? How do Reformed Christians classically relate baptism to the Church and to faith, and is faith required for baptism?Today's Greystone Conversations episode is the last study in a series featured at Greystone Connect called We Distinguish: Scholastic Distinctions in Reformed Theology and Ministry. This is a series led by Dr. Mark Jones, a Greystone Fellow in Theology and History who is also pastor of Faith Vancouver (PCA) in Vancouver Canada, and who is a specialist in post-reformation Reformed theology. This gives rise to his special contribution in this series. Dr. Jones' experience in academic scholarship includes having edited, with Michael Haykin, A New Divinity: Transatlantic Reformed Evangelical Debates during the Long Eighteenth Century, writing with Joel Beeke A Puritan Theology: Doctrine for Life, and his own book, Why Heaven Kissed Earth: The Christology of the Puritan Reformed Orthodox Theologian, Thomas Goodwin (1600-1680). He is also the editor, with Dr. Haykin, of Drawn into Controversie: Reformed Theological Diversity and Debates Within Seventeenth-century British Puritanism.In this series, again called We Distinguish, Dr. Jones takes to task the often confusing uses of the word Calvinism today. In the opening talk of this series, Jones explains how "Calvinism" is popular today in certain Evangelical circles, but there is a great deal of uncertainty as to what we mean or should mean by the term. Arguably, the term has lost its usefulness altogether. And yet, even that is a complicated story. There are certainly some misunderstandings about Reformed theology that need to be corrected, and the use of the word "Calvinism" has made this need quite clear. And so this short course explores how the scholastic method used by several generations of Reformers and their diverse followers can still help students and practitioners of theology today in our quest to know and to promote theological truth, as well as to better understand what we mean by "Reformed."The final lecture of this series, the one featured in today's Greystone Conversations episode, is Dr. Jones' explanation of the relation of covenant, Church, baptism, and faith. How have the Reformed classically understood the relationship of covenant, regeneration, faith, the Church, the sanctification of Christ himself, and the status of children? The answers may surprise you. Understanding why these answers are in fact not only surprising but also quite diverse may go a very long way in helping us better understand the nature of differences--today and historically--among those who claim the name Reformed but have different understandings of the relationship of baptism to faith and to the Church. This series of lectures is available now on Greystone Connect for free for Greystone Members and is also an optional resource for Group Study. Become a Greystone Member today to gain access to this series and the growing library of Greystone modules.

The London Lyceum
Natural Law and Virtue in the Reformed Tradition with Jennifer Herdt

The London Lyceum

Play Episode Play 44 sec Highlight Listen Later Dec 30, 2020 45:46


Jordan talks with Jennifer Herdt about the Reformed traditions understanding of natural law and virtue. What is natural law? What is Protestant natural law and modern natural law? Are these synonymous? Can Reformed thinking on natural law retrieve Thomistic and Catholic thought and be consistent? What is the conscience? How does it function for the Reformed tradition? What is synderesis? What is the legislative vs. judicial conscience? How does the Thomistic understanding differ from Calvins? Can virtue exist in a secular society? And much more.Find more info about the London Lyceum or contact us at our website.Resources:1) The Cambridge companion to Natural Law Ethics, Ed. Tom Angier2) Putting on Virtue, Jennifer Herdt3) After Virtue, Alasdair MacIntyre4) Natural Law and the Two Kingdoms, David VanDrunenSupport the show

In Conversation: An OUP Podcast
Harrison Perkins, "Catholicity and the Covenant of Works: James Ussher and the Reformed Tradition" (Oxford UP, 2020)

In Conversation: An OUP Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 6, 2020 31:23


Historians of early modern religion recognise the importance of the development of covenant theology in the formation of Calvinism. Harrison Perkins, who teaches systematic theology at Edinburgh Theological Seminary and serves as assistant minister of London Presbyterian Church, has recently published what promises to be one of the most important accounts of the development of Reformed covenantal thinking. His new book, Catholicity and the Covenant of Works: James Ussher and the Reformed Tradition (Oxford UP, 2020), investigates the covenant theology of James Ussher, archbishop of Armagh, and shows that the idea of a covenant of works structures in significant ways his account of predestination, Christology and soteriology. Crawford Gribben is a professor of history at Queen's University Belfast. His research interests focus on the history of puritanism and evangelicalism, and he is the author most recently of An introduction to John Owen (Crossway, 2020).

New Books in British Studies
Harrison Perkins, "Catholicity and the Covenant of Works: James Ussher and the Reformed Tradition" (Oxford UP, 2020)

New Books in British Studies

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 6, 2020 31:23


Historians of early modern religion recognise the importance of the development of covenant theology in the formation of Calvinism. Harrison Perkins, who teaches systematic theology at Edinburgh Theological Seminary and serves as assistant minister of London Presbyterian Church, has recently published what promises to be one of the most important accounts of the development of Reformed covenantal thinking. His new book, Catholicity and the Covenant of Works: James Ussher and the Reformed Tradition (Oxford UP, 2020), investigates the covenant theology of James Ussher, archbishop of Armagh, and shows that the idea of a covenant of works structures in significant ways his account of predestination, Christology and soteriology. Crawford Gribben is a professor of history at Queen’s University Belfast. His research interests focus on the history of puritanism and evangelicalism, and he is the author most recently of An introduction to John Owen (Crossway, 2020). Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

New Books in Catholic Studies
Harrison Perkins, "Catholicity and the Covenant of Works: James Ussher and the Reformed Tradition" (Oxford UP, 2020)

New Books in Catholic Studies

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 6, 2020 31:23


Historians of early modern religion recognise the importance of the development of covenant theology in the formation of Calvinism. Harrison Perkins, who teaches systematic theology at Edinburgh Theological Seminary and serves as assistant minister of London Presbyterian Church, has recently published what promises to be one of the most important accounts of the development of Reformed covenantal thinking. His new book, Catholicity and the Covenant of Works: James Ussher and the Reformed Tradition (Oxford UP, 2020), investigates the covenant theology of James Ussher, archbishop of Armagh, and shows that the idea of a covenant of works structures in significant ways his account of predestination, Christology and soteriology. Crawford Gribben is a professor of history at Queen's University Belfast. His research interests focus on the history of puritanism and evangelicalism, and he is the author most recently of An introduction to John Owen (Crossway, 2020). Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

New Books in Early Modern History
Harrison Perkins, "Catholicity and the Covenant of Works: James Ussher and the Reformed Tradition" (Oxford UP, 2020)

New Books in Early Modern History

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 6, 2020 31:23


Historians of early modern religion recognise the importance of the development of covenant theology in the formation of Calvinism. Harrison Perkins, who teaches systematic theology at Edinburgh Theological Seminary and serves as assistant minister of London Presbyterian Church, has recently published what promises to be one of the most important accounts of the development of Reformed covenantal thinking. His new book, Catholicity and the Covenant of Works: James Ussher and the Reformed Tradition (Oxford UP, 2020), investigates the covenant theology of James Ussher, archbishop of Armagh, and shows that the idea of a covenant of works structures in significant ways his account of predestination, Christology and soteriology. Crawford Gribben is a professor of history at Queen's University Belfast. His research interests focus on the history of puritanism and evangelicalism, and he is the author most recently of An introduction to John Owen (Crossway, 2020). Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

New Books in Intellectual History
Harrison Perkins, "Catholicity and the Covenant of Works: James Ussher and the Reformed Tradition" (Oxford UP, 2020)

New Books in Intellectual History

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 6, 2020 31:23


Historians of early modern religion recognise the importance of the development of covenant theology in the formation of Calvinism. Harrison Perkins, who teaches systematic theology at Edinburgh Theological Seminary and serves as assistant minister of London Presbyterian Church, has recently published what promises to be one of the most important accounts of the development of Reformed covenantal thinking. His new book, Catholicity and the Covenant of Works: James Ussher and the Reformed Tradition (Oxford UP, 2020), investigates the covenant theology of James Ussher, archbishop of Armagh, and shows that the idea of a covenant of works structures in significant ways his account of predestination, Christology and soteriology. Crawford Gribben is a professor of history at Queen’s University Belfast. His research interests focus on the history of puritanism and evangelicalism, and he is the author most recently of An introduction to John Owen (Crossway, 2020). Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

New Books in Religion
Harrison Perkins, "Catholicity and the Covenant of Works: James Ussher and the Reformed Tradition" (Oxford UP, 2020)

New Books in Religion

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 6, 2020 31:23


Historians of early modern religion recognise the importance of the development of covenant theology in the formation of Calvinism. Harrison Perkins, who teaches systematic theology at Edinburgh Theological Seminary and serves as assistant minister of London Presbyterian Church, has recently published what promises to be one of the most important accounts of the development of Reformed covenantal thinking. His new book, Catholicity and the Covenant of Works: James Ussher and the Reformed Tradition (Oxford UP, 2020), investigates the covenant theology of James Ussher, archbishop of Armagh, and shows that the idea of a covenant of works structures in significant ways his account of predestination, Christology and soteriology. Crawford Gribben is a professor of history at Queen’s University Belfast. His research interests focus on the history of puritanism and evangelicalism, and he is the author most recently of An introduction to John Owen (Crossway, 2020). Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

New Books in Christian Studies
Harrison Perkins, "Catholicity and the Covenant of Works: James Ussher and the Reformed Tradition" (Oxford UP, 2020)

New Books in Christian Studies

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 6, 2020 31:23


Historians of early modern religion recognise the importance of the development of covenant theology in the formation of Calvinism. Harrison Perkins, who teaches systematic theology at Edinburgh Theological Seminary and serves as assistant minister of London Presbyterian Church, has recently published what promises to be one of the most important accounts of the development of Reformed covenantal thinking. His new book, Catholicity and the Covenant of Works: James Ussher and the Reformed Tradition (Oxford UP, 2020), investigates the covenant theology of James Ussher, archbishop of Armagh, and shows that the idea of a covenant of works structures in significant ways his account of predestination, Christology and soteriology. Crawford Gribben is a professor of history at Queen’s University Belfast. His research interests focus on the history of puritanism and evangelicalism, and he is the author most recently of An introduction to John Owen (Crossway, 2020). Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

New Books Network
Harrison Perkins, "Catholicity and the Covenant of Works: James Ussher and the Reformed Tradition" (Oxford UP, 2020)

New Books Network

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 6, 2020 31:23


Historians of early modern religion recognise the importance of the development of covenant theology in the formation of Calvinism. Harrison Perkins, who teaches systematic theology at Edinburgh Theological Seminary and serves as assistant minister of London Presbyterian Church, has recently published what promises to be one of the most important accounts of the development of Reformed covenantal thinking. His new book, Catholicity and the Covenant of Works: James Ussher and the Reformed Tradition (Oxford UP, 2020), investigates the covenant theology of James Ussher, archbishop of Armagh, and shows that the idea of a covenant of works structures in significant ways his account of predestination, Christology and soteriology. Crawford Gribben is a professor of history at Queen’s University Belfast. His research interests focus on the history of puritanism and evangelicalism, and he is the author most recently of An introduction to John Owen (Crossway, 2020). Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

Just and Sinner Podcast
Theistic Mutualism and the Reformed Tradition with Dr. Lane Tipton

Just and Sinner Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 5, 2020 64:43


On today's podcast, I was joined by Dr. Lane Tipton of the Reformed Forum to discuss contemporary debates surrounding the doctrine of God within the Reformed community.

PCIcast
#11 – Coronavirus, Covenant and James Ussher of Armagh

PCIcast

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 22, 2020 41:17


Ben and Craig talk to Rev. Dr. Harrison Perkins (assistant pastor of London City Presbyterian Church, a congregation of the Free Church of Scotland) about his own life and faith, about ministry in London during the ongoing Coronavirus lockdown and about his new book, Catholicity and the Covenant of Works: James Ussher and the Reformed Tradition.Follow us on Twitter @PCIcast. Follow Ben @benspreston, follow Craig @rookieminister and follow our guest Harrison Perkins @HarrisonP87 and London City Presbyterian Church @londoncitypresYou can view Harrison's video series on Covenant Theology by going to LCPC's website or their YouTube channel. You can also pre-order Harrison's book on the Evangelical Bookshop's website. Have a browse while you're there.

PCIcast
#5 – #5 - Defending the Faith

PCIcast

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 16, 2019 33:35


Ben and Craig talk to Dr. Darryl Hart (ruling elder in the Orthodox Presbyterian Church and Distinguished Associate Professor of History as Hillsdale College, Michigan) about J. Gresham Machen, Irish Presbyterian history, confessional Presbyterianism and evangelicalism.Dr Hart formerly taught at Westminster Seminary California, Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, and Wheaton College, Illinois. He is the author of a number of works, including Recovering Mother Kirk: A Case for Liturgy in the Reformed Tradition, Defending the Faith: J. Gresham Machen and the Crisis of Conservative Protestantism in Modern America and Deconstructing Evangelicalism: Conservative Protestantism in the Age of Billy Graham.Follow us on Twitter @PCIcast. Follow Ben @benspreston, follow Craig @rookie_minister and Dr. Hart @oldlifeThis podcast is powered by Pinecast.

Sterling Presbyterian Church (OPC)
What About The Reformed Tradition?

Sterling Presbyterian Church (OPC)

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 17, 2019 26:00


Just and Sinner Podcast
A Lecture on the Reformed Tradition

Just and Sinner Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 4, 2019 65:04


Today's program is a lecture I gave at Trinity Lutheran Church in Ithaca, NY on the Reformed tradition. I discussed both Zwingli and Calvin, and then some of the key theological differences between the Reformed and Lutheran traditions.

Saint Athanasius Podcast
The Age of Reformation (1517 – 1648) | The Radicals and The Reformed

Saint Athanasius Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 8, 2019 66:40


Teaching Outline: Why Study Church History? Ulrich Zwingli and The Anabaptists The Life of John Calvin The Sovereignty of God and Politics Predestination and Election in The Institutes The Lord’s Supper Martin Bucer and Reformed Catholicity The Reformed and Covenantal Theology Calvin and Submission to the Word Resources: Church History in Plain Language by Bruce Shelley Church History Lectures by Ryan Reeves The Institutes of the Christian Religion by John Calvin Given For You: Reclaiming Calvin's Doctrine of the Lord's Supper by Keith Mathison Beyond Calvin: Essays on the Diversity of the Reformed Tradition edited by Bradford LIttlejohn and Jonathan Tomes The Binding of God: Calvin's Role in the Development of Covenant Theology by Peter Lillback Calvin's Preaching by T. H. L. Parker

Christ Church Bellingham Podcast
Parenting: The doctrine of the covenant child in the Reformed tradition

Christ Church Bellingham Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Mar 8, 2019 46:13


Trinity Reformed Church Moscow
Our Tradition II: TRC's Reformed Tradition

Trinity Reformed Church Moscow

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 10, 2019 31:46


Plodcast
Plodcast Episode 66 - The Caravan Headed For The Border, Worship in The Reformed Tradition, Amachos

Plodcast

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 31, 2018 16:51


This week Douglas Wilson talks about the caravan headed for the border. He then goes on to recommend Hughes Oliphant Old’s, “Worship in The Reformed Tradition.” Wrapping it up with a look at “Amachos,” a New Testament word. Happy plodding!   The Caravan headed for the border We want genuine refugees to make it across the border This isn’t about genuine refugees - it’s a political stunt You can’t make policy based on a photo of a child crying at the border   Worship in The Reformed Tradition Written by Hughes Oliphant Old Biblically grounded, historically literate treatment of liturgics and worship in the Reformed tradition   Amachos Rendered as “not a brawler” 1 Tim. 3:3, Tit. 3:2

Holy Trinity Brussels
Word and Spirit: Exploring the Reformed Tradition

Holy Trinity Brussels

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 1, 2018 17:29


On 1 July 2018, David Fieldsend preached from 2 Timothy 3:10-4:5 and Luke 4:1-13, explicating the power of the Reformed tradition's emphasis on the power of Scripture.

Sermons
Calvin and the Reformed Tradition

Sermons

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 28, 2017


The Reformed tradition leading up to and including John Calvin.

L'Abri Fellowship - Southborough
Some Pitfalls of the Reformed Tradition- Ben Keyes- 2017

L'Abri Fellowship - Southborough

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 20, 2017 139:40


A lecture given by Ben Keyes at Southborough L'Abri on Oct. 6, 2017. For more information, visit www.labri.org/mass and for more L'Abri lectures, visit the L'Abri Ideas Library. While the Reformed tradition has given us much to be thankful for, in practice it has sometimes minimized important aspects of Christian theology. Did John Calvin care more about election and predestination than anything else? Is there more to the Christian faith than TULIP?   The Copyright for all material on the podcast is held by L'Abri Fellowship. We ask that you respect this by not publishing the material in full or in part in any format or post it on a website without seeking prior permission from L'Abri Fellowship. ©Southborough L'Abri 2017    

WSCAL - Office Hours
Reformation 500 - Part 3

WSCAL - Office Hours

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 14, 2016


In this episode of Office Hours Dr. R. Scott Clark, Professor of Church History and Historical Theology, gives an overview of the events and theological thought that led to what we now understand as the Reformed Tradition., focusing on Martin Luther.

WSCAL - Office Hours
Reformation 500 - Part 2

WSCAL - Office Hours

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 31, 2016


In this episode of Office Hours Dr. R. Scott Clark, Professor of Church History and Historical Theology, gives an overview of the events and theological thought that led to what we now understand as the Reformed Tradition. 

First Presbyterian Church of San Anselmo
We All Have Questions: Should the Church Be "Political"?

First Presbyterian Church of San Anselmo

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 22, 2016 19:30


Continuing our sermon series on questions about faith, this sermon explores whether churches should take positions on controversial or "political" issues affecting human rights, poverty, and human health and well-being.

Worship
AT704 Lesson 02

Worship

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 16, 2016 35:52


Explore the physicality in corporate worship. Daniel I. Block states, "Many evangelical churches resist physical prostration as an expression of homage and submission to God. This resistance represents both an unfortunate overreaction to Roman Catholic abuses and the arrogance of our culture." Why is the physicality of worship in a variety of traditions such a touchy subject? Students discuss coming from a Catholic background and from a Charismatic or Pentecostal background. Consider the stigma of bowing down in worship and the influence of a parent bowing down regularly. Everyone reacts from something in our past either positively or negatively. When we look at the Scriptures, we see a lot of bodily actions. View a wall painting from the early catacombs from 4th century Rome. Consider that our songs of worship are intoned prayers. Explore another word in Hebrew: (עָבַד) or 'ābad or in Greek, douleuō or δουλεύω which means to serve. We see it in Exodus 3:12. Another example is found in Numbers 16:19. In Matthew 6:24 we read, "No one can serve (δουλεύειν) two masters, for either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve (δουλεύειν) God and money." Other words are šārat or (שָׁרַת)in Hebrew, and Latreuō or λατρεύω used in 1 Chronicles 6:32. Steven also uses these terms as he quotes God in Acts 7:7. Consider Romans 12:1. Block prefers "reasonable service" over "spiritual worship". Another word for "serve" is leitourgeō orλειτουργέω. Nicholas Wolterstorff, “The Reformed Liturgy,” in Major Themes in the Reformed Tradition, states, "Etymologically the word leitourgia comes from two Greek words, leitos and ergon, meaning, respectively, “of the people” and “action.” In numerous books on liturgy it is said, accordingly, that the word originally meant action of the people. And often nowadays an argument for more participation of the people in the church’s liturgy is based on this claim. It is said that for something to be liturgy, it must be action of the people and not action of a few priests or pastors. But the word leitourgia never did mean action of the people. It meant action for the benefit of the people. A liturgy was a type of public service." A German word is Gottesdienst, which means "divine service". Explore Romans 15:16 and Hebrews 8:2.

Theology on Mission
S1:E31 A Future For Reformed Theology? (Roundtable)

Theology on Mission

Play Episode Listen Later May 24, 2016 36:56


Is there a future for Reformed theology? Yes, there is! But it might look different. This internationally diverse panel discusses how the Reformation can still impact the West. In this round table is Ruth Padilla Deborst, Carl Ellis, Jin Kim, Cherith Fee Nordling and David Fitch, hosted as ever by Geoff Holsclaw. Recorded at the Missio Alliance event, "The Young, Restless, and Always Reforming", around the panel titled, "The Reformed Tradition and the Christendom Legacy."

Trinities
podcast 81 – Dr. Oliver Crisp on the breadth of Reformed tradition

Trinities

Play Episode Listen Later Mar 30, 2015 40:24


In his 2014 book Deviant Calvinism, Dr. Oliver Crisp explores the boundaries of Reformed theology by way of various historical theologians.

Chapel - Audio 12-13
Novembver 14th, 2012 - ReFocus #1 - Matt Hammett (Reformed Tradition)

Chapel - Audio 12-13

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 14, 2012 28:24


Chapel 1984 - 1985
09-17-84 Dr. John Schneider

Chapel 1984 - 1985

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 13, 2011 33:43


John Schneider has a master's degree in theology from Fuller Theological Seminary, and a doctorate in Divinity from the University of Cambridge. He taught Christian theology at Westmont College from 1981-1985, and has taught theology at Calvin College since 1986. He has written three books: Philip Melanchthon's Rhetorical Construal of Biblical Authority: Oratio Sacra (Edwin Mellen, 1990); Godly Materialism (IVP, 1994); and The Good of Affluence: Seeking God in a Culture of Wealth (Eerdmans, 2002), and more than forty articles on a variety of theological subjects. In 2002 he co-taught a Calvin College Summer Seminar with Davis Young on "Natural Science and the Reformed Tradition." Currently he is working on a book that explores Protestant Christian systematic theology in the context of recent evolutionary science.

Chapel 1994 - 1995
11-11-94 Virgil Cruz ~Known By the...

Chapel 1994 - 1995

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 6, 2011 26:48


Cruz was a powerful advocate in the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) for an evangelical theology and for church renewal. Dr. Cruz served on the faculty of Louisville Seminary from 1986 to 1996. When he was called to LPTS, Cruz became the first African American professor to be tenured on the faculty. He was recognized globally for his work in biblical studies, for his preaching, and tireless efforts in race relations. In addition to presenting numerous lectures around the world, he is perhaps most recognized for his publications, Breaking Down the Walls: Responding to the Racism that Divides Us (1992) and How Shall We Witness? Faithful Evangelism in a Reformed Tradition (1995), co-edited with former Louisville Seminary Professor Milton J. Coalter.Following ordination, he became the first African American in the United Presbyterian Church of North America to lead an all-white congregation. He earned his doctorate from Free University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands and spent two years teaching at Dubuque Theological Seminary in Iowa. Following a three-year teaching position at Western Theological Seminary in Holland, Mich., Cruz joined the faculty of Louisville Seminary in 1986. While teaching, he also served on the Council of Theological Seminaries, the General Assembly Council of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), and the National Council of Churches. Upon his retirement from teaching in 1996, Louisville Seminary appointed him professor emeritus. Cruz has resided in the Netherlands for the past 14 years.

Chapel 1994 - 1995
11-9-94 Virgil Cruz ~Trading Places

Chapel 1994 - 1995

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 6, 2011 31:36


Cruz was a powerful advocate in the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) for an evangelical theology and for church renewal. Dr. Cruz served on the faculty of Louisville Seminary from 1986 to 1996. When he was called to LPTS, Cruz became the first African American professor to be tenured on the faculty. He was recognized globally for his work in biblical studies, for his preaching, and tireless efforts in race relations. In addition to presenting numerous lectures around the world, he is perhaps most recognized for his publications, Breaking Down the Walls: Responding to the Racism that Divides Us (1992) and How Shall We Witness? Faithful Evangelism in a Reformed Tradition (1995), co-edited with former Louisville Seminary Professor Milton J. Coalter.Following ordination, he became the first African American in the United Presbyterian Church of North America to lead an all-white congregation. He earned his doctorate from Free University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands and spent two years teaching at Dubuque Theological Seminary in Iowa. Following a three-year teaching position at Western Theological Seminary in Holland, Mich., Cruz joined the faculty of Louisville Seminary in 1986. While teaching, he also served on the Council of Theological Seminaries, the General Assembly Council of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), and the National Council of Churches. Upon his retirement from teaching in 1996, Louisville Seminary appointed him professor emeritus. Cruz has resided in the Netherlands for the past 14 years.

American Religious Scene
36 - What are the confessional documents of the Reformed tradition?

American Religious Scene

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 4, 2009 10:09


The History of the Christian Church
107-Reform Around the Edges

The History of the Christian Church

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 1, 1970


This 107th episode is titled, “Reform Around the Edges.”It's difficult living in the Modern World to understand the Late Medieval norm that a State had to have a single religion all its subjects observed. You'd be hard pressed to find a European of the 16th C who didn't assume this to be the case. About the only group who didn't see it that way were the Anabaptists. And even among them there were small groups, like the extremists who tried to set up the New Jerusalem at Munster, who did advocate a State Church. Mainstream Anabaptists advocated religious tolerance, but were persecuted for that stance.As we've seen in the story of the Church in Germany and as was hammered out in the Peace of Augsburg, peace was secured by deciding some regions would be Lutheran, others Catholic by the principle of cujus regis eius religio [coo-yoos regio / ay-oos rel-i-gio] meaning, “Whose realm, whose religion.” The religion of a region's ruler determined that regions subjects' religion. Under Augsburg, people were supposed to be free to relocate to another region if a ruler's religion didn't square with their convictions.Sounds simple enough >> for moderns who are highly mobile and have little sense of the historic connection between identity and place. Many think nothing today of packing up and moving to a new place across town, or across a state, nation, or even some other part of the globe. Not so most Europeans for most of their history. Personal identity was intimately connected to family. And Family was identified by location. That's why long before people had surnames, they were identified by their town. John of Locksley. William of Orange. Fred of Fillsbury. Families built a house and lived in it for many generations. Losing that home to whatever cause was one of the great tragedies that could befall one. It was a betrayal of previous generations who'd handed down both a family name and home, as well as all those future generations who now would have no home to call their own.On the surface, the Peace of Augsburg sounded like a sound solution to the religious conflicts that raged after the Reformation. But it was in fact, a highly disruptive force that ultimately helped spark the Thirty Years War.The wars of religion that washed over Europe in general and France in particular is evidence that the rule a region could have but one religion wasn't workable. Even the Edict of Nantes, passed by French King Henry IV after the bloody St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, only guaranteed the survival of French Protestantism by granting a number of Protestant cities as enclaves in an otherwise Roman Catholic realm.We've given a thumbnail sketch of the spread of the Reformation over Germany, France, England, Scotland, the Low Countries and in Scandinavian.Let's take a look now at Spain.Before the Reformation reached the Iberian Peninsula, many hoped the Spanish Church would lead the way in long-overdue reform. Queen Isabella's faith was earnest. She and Cardinal Jiménez de Cisneros implemented a massive reform—including a renewal of biblical studies centered on the Complutensian Polyglot Bible. Today a polyglot is known as a parallel Bible, where multiple versions of the bible are arranged in side-by-side columns for comparison. But in parallel Biblr, these version are all the same language. A polyglot is the comparison of different languages. The Complutensian Polyglot had the Hebrew, Latin and Greek texts of the OT as well as the Aramaic of the Torah. The NT was both Greek and Latin. Spain also had many humanists scholars similar to Erasmus—some of them in high places—who longed for reform.The arrival of the Protestant Reformation saw attitudes in Spain changed. At Worms, the upstart monk Martin Luther defied Emperor Charles V, who just happened to be King Charles I of Spain. Charles became the champion of opposition to Protestantism. The Spanish Inquisition, previously aimed at Jews and occultists, turned its attention toward those calling for reform and anything that smacked of the now-dreaded Lutheranism. Several leading humanists fled to places like the Low Countries where they were welcomed. Others stayed in Spain and tried to lay low, devoting themselves to their studies and hoping the storm would pass them by.The Inquisition wasn't able to halt the “Lutheran contagion,” as it was called. Valladolid and Seville became centers of Reformation despite frequent burnings at the stake by the Inquisition. A monastery in Santiponce near Seville was a reform center where Bibles and Protestant books were smuggled in barrels labeled as oil and wine. When one of the smugglers was captured and burned, a dozen of monks fled, agreeing to meet in a year in Geneva. One of them became pastor to a Spanish congregation there. Another, Casiodoro de Reina, spent the rest of his life translating the Bible into Spanish; a recognized masterpiece of Spanish literature released in 1569. A few years later, another of the 12, Cipriano de Valera, revised de Reina's version, which is known as the Reina-Valera Bible. Back in their monastery in Santiponce and throughout the area around Seville, the Inquisition cleansed the Church of all trace of Protestantism.We hop over now to Italy.Among the inaccessible valleys of the Alps, some more reachable parts of Northern Italy and Southern France, the ancient community of the Waldensians continued a secluded but threatened existence. They were repeatedly attacked by armies hoping to suppress their supposed heresy. But they'd long stood firm in their mountain fastness. By the early 16th C the movement lost steam as constant persecution suppressed them. Many among them felt that the price paid for disagreeing with Rome was too high, and increasing numbers returned to Catholicism.Then, strange rumors were heard. News of a great Reformation arrived. An emissary sent to inquire about these rumors returned in 1526 announcing they were true. In Germany, Switzerland, France, and even more distant regions dramatic change was afoot. Many of the doctrines of the Reformers matched what the Waldensians had held since the 12th C. More delegations met with leading reformers like Martin Bucer, who warmly received them and affirmed most of their beliefs. They suggested some points where they differed and the Waldensians ought to consider revising their stand to bring it into closer alignment with Scripture. In 1532, the Waldensians convened a synod where they adopted the main tenets of the Protestant Reformation. By doing so, they became the oldest Protestant church—existing more than 3 Cs before the Reformation.Sadly, that didn't make things any easier for the Waldensians. Their communities in Southern France, whose lands were more vulnerable than the secluded Alpine valleys, were invaded and virtually exterminated. The survivors fled to the Alps. Then a series of edicts ensued, forbidding attendance at Protestant churches and commanding attendance at Mass.  Waldensian communities in southern Italy were also exterminated.Large armies raised by the Pope, the Duke of Savoy, and several other powerful nobles wanting to prove their loyalty to Rome repeatedly invaded the Waldensian mountain enclaves, only to be routed by the defenders. On one occasion, only six men with crude firearms held back an entire army at a narrow pass while others climbed the mountains above. When rocks began raining on them, the invaders were routed.Then, in what has to be a premier, “Can't a guy catch a break?” moment, when the Waldensians had a prolonged respite from attack, a plague broke out decimating their population. Only two pastors survived. Their replacements came from the Reformed centers of Switzerland, bringing about closer ties between the Waldensians and the Reformed Church. In 1655, all Waldensians living in Northern Italy were commanded under penalty of death to forfeit their lands in three days as the lands were sold to Catholics, who then had the duty to go take them from recalcitrant rebel-Waldensians.In the same year, the Marquis of Pianeza was given the assignment of exterminating the Waldensians.  But he was convinced if he invaded the Alps his army would suffer the same fate as earlier invaders. So he offered peace to the Waldensians. They'd always said they'd only fight a war of defense. So they made peace with the Marquis and welcomed the soldiers into their homes where they were fed and housed against the bitter cold. Lovely story huh? Well, wait; it's not over yet. Two days later, at a prearranged time, the guests turned on their hosts, killing men, women and children. This “great victory” was then celebrated with a Te Deum; a short church service of thanksgiving to God.Yet still the Waldensians resisted, hoping their enemies would make peace with them. King Louis XIV of France, who ordered the expulsion of all Huguenots from France, demanded the Duke of Savoy do as the Marquis had done with his Waldensians. This proved too much for many of them who left the Alps to live in Geneva and other Protestant areas. A few insisted on remaining on their ancestral lands, where they were constantly menaced. It wasn't until 1848 that the Waldensians and other groups were granted freedom of worship in Italy.Ah, time for a breather, we'd hope. But again, it was not to be. Because just two years later, famine broke out in the long exploited and now over-populated Alpine valleys. After much debate, the first of many Waldensian groups left for Uruguay and Argentina, where they flourished. In 1975, the two Waldensian communities, one on each side of the Atlantic, made it clear that they were still one church by deciding to be governed by a single synod with two sessions, one in the Americas in February, the other in Europe in August.The Waldensians weren't the only Protestant presence in Italy. Among others, Juan de Valdés and Bernardino Ochino deserve mention.Valdés was a Spanish Protestant Humanist of the Erasmian mold. When it was clear Charles V was determined to wipe Protestantism out of Spain, he fled to in Italy in 1531 where we settled in Naples and gathered a group of colleagues who devoted themselves to Bible study.  They didn't seek to make their views public, and were moderate in their Protestant leanings. Among the members of this group was the historically fascinating Giulia Gonzaga, a woman of such immense beauty the Muslim ruler Suleiman the Great tried to have her kidnapped so he could make her the chief wife of his huge harem.  Another member of the group, Bernardino Ochino, a famous and pious preacher, was twice elected leader of the Capuchins. Ochino openly promulgated Protestant principles. When the Inquisition threatened him, he fled to Geneva, then went to Basel, Augsburg, Strasbourg, London, and finally Zürich. Ochino's journeys from city to city marked a concurrent journey from Biblical orthodox to heresy. He became ever more radical, eventually rejecting the Trinity and defending polygamy; another reason he moved around a lot. He kept getting kicked out of town.  He died of the plague in 1564.Now we take the Communio Sanctorum train to HUNGARYAt the beginning of the Reformation, Hungary was ruled by the 10-year-old boy, King Louis II. A decade later, in 1526, the Ottoman Turks defeated the Hungarians and killed him. The Hungarian nobility elected Ferdinand of Hapsburg to take the throne while nationalists named John Sigismund as king. After complex negotiations,  western Hungary was under Hapsburg rule while the East was Ottoman. Stuck between West Hungary ruled by devoted Catholic Hapsburgs and the East ruled by Muslim Ottomans, was Royal Hungary, known as Transylvania, where King Sigismund managed to carve out a small holding.Sigismund knew that religious division would weaken his already tenuous hold on the realm, so he granted four groups to have equal standing; Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, Calvinism,  and Unitarianism, which we'll take a closer look at when we consider Poland.The Ottomans, ever seeking to weaken the powerful Hapsburgs, supported whichever one of these four was weakest, so that it would continue to cause trouble to the others and so weaken the entire realm. If that group then began to gain power and influence, the Ottomans switched their support to the new underdog.Lutheranism reached Hungary early. There's evidence Luther's 95 theses circulated in Hungary only a year after their original posting in Wittenberg. By 1523, the Hapsburgs ordered Lutherans to be burned to prevent their spread. A few years later, Zwingli's teachings entered the scene, and similar measures were taken against them.Though Ottoman rule was harsh and atrocities were committed against all Christians, it was in the territories occupied by Ottomans that Protestantism grew most rapidly.Hungarians preferred the Reformed Tradition coming out of Switzerland to the church government advocated in Lutheranism. They already suffered under a highly centralized government. In the Swiss-Reformed tradition, pastors and laity shared authority. Also, this decentralized form of church government made it more difficult for Ottoman authorities to exert pressure on church leaders. Records make it clear that Ottoman authorities accepted the appointment of a parish priest on the condition the congregation pay if the priest was arrested for any reason. So, priests were often arrested, and freed only when a bribe was paid.Both Hapsburgs and Ottomans tried to prevent the spread of what they called heresy by means of the printing press. In 1483, long before the Reformation, the Sultan issued a decree condemning printers to have their hands cut off. Now the Hapsburg King Ferdinand I issued a similar ruling; except that, instead of having hands amputated, printers were drowned. But that didn't stop the circulation of Protestant books. Those were usually printed in the vernacular, the language of the common people, climaxing in the publication of the Karoly Bible in 1590 and the Vizsoly Bible in 1607, which in Hungary played a role similar to that of Luther's Bible in German. It's estimated that by 1600 as many as 4 out of 5 Hungarians were Protestant.Then conditions changed. Early in the 17th C, Ottoman power waned, and Transylvania, supported by Hungarian nationalists, clashed with the Hapsburgs.  The conflict was settled by the Treaty of Vienna, granting equal rights to both Catholics and Protestants. But the Thirty Years' War—in which Transylvania opposed the Hapsburgs and their allies—brought devastation to the country. Even after the end of the War, the conflict among the Hapsburgs, Royal Hungary and Ottomans continued. The Hapsburgs eventually gained the upper hand, and the Peace of Karlowitz in 1699 gave them control over all Hungary—a control they retained until 1918 and the end of WWI. In Hungary, as elsewhere, the Hapsburgs imposed virulent anti-Protestant measures, and eventually the country became Catholic.We end with a look at POLAND.When Luther posted his theses on that door in Wittenberg, there was already in western Poland a growing number of the followers of the Pre-Reformer, Jan Hus; Hussites who'd fled the difficulties in Bohemia. They were amped by the prolific work of the German monk. The Poles, however, had long been in conflict with Germans, and distrusted anything coming from such a source. So Lutheranism did spread, but slowly. When Calvinism made its way to Poland, Protestantism picked up steam.The king at the time was Sigismund I who vehemently opposed all Protestant doctrine. But by the middle of the 16th C, Calvinism enjoyed a measure of support from Sigismund II, who even corresponded with Calvin.The leader of the Calvinist movement in Poland was Jan Laski, a nobleman with connections to a wide circle of people with Reformed leanings, including Melanchthon and Erasmus. He purchased Erasmus' library. Exiled from Poland for being a Calvinist, he was called back by the nobility who'd come to favor the Reformed Faith. Laski translated the Bible into Polish, and worked for a meeting of the minds between Calvinists and Lutherans. His efforts led to the Synod of Sendomir in 1570, 10 years after Laski's death.The Polish government followed a policy of greater religious tolerance than most of Europe. A large number of people, mostly Jews and Christians of various faiths, sought refuge there. Among them was Faustus Socinius, who denied the Doctrine of the Trinity, launching a group known as Unitarians. His views were expressed in the Racovian Catechism, authored not by Socinius, but by two of his followers. Published in 1605, this document affirms and argues that only the Father is God, that Jesus is not divine, but purely human, and that the Holy Spirit is just a way of referring to God's power and presence.Throughout most of the 16th C and well into the 17th, Protestantism as affirmed at the Synod of Sendomir, had a growing number of Polish followers—as did Socinian Unitarianism. But as the national identity of Poland developed in opposition to Russian Orthodox Church to the East, and German Lutherans to the West, with both Russia and Germany repeatedly seeking to take Polish territory, that identity became increasingly Roman Catholic, so that by the 20th C, Poland was one of the most Catholic nations in Europe.This brief review of the Reformation around the edges of Europe reveals that within just a few decades of Martin Luther's time the ideas of Protestant theology had covered the continent and caused large scale upheaval. What we HAVEN'T considered yet, is the impact of the Reformation further East. In a later episode we'll take a look at the impact it had on the Eastern Church.