In his first appearance on True North since becoming leader of the Conservative Party of Canada, Pierre Poilievre sat down with Andrew Lawton for a wide-ranging interview about his agenda and priorities. Poilievre and Lawton discuss the Public Order Emergency Commission and broader implications of Justin Trudeau's invocation of the Emergencies Act. They also discuss the drug epidemic sweeping Canadian communities, Liberal gun bans and Alberta's new sovereignty act, among other things. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices
Agriculture and food issues often cross provincial, national and international boundaries. Being a leader of a farm organization frequently requires representatives to look well beyond the farm gate to tackle issues that impact their members. That’s certainly the case for Thunder Bay, Ont., dairy farmer Peggy Brekveld, who in 2023 will again lead the Ontario... Read More
In this episode, Robert Kavcic, a senior economist from the BMO Economics team and, Jordan Sugar, BMO's provincial bond trader, join me to discuss the Provincial landscape. We cover the fundamental backdrop following the fall fiscal updates, and how the provincial bond market has been trading. Robert reveals his favourite provinces, and Jordan provides his top trade ideas with the early December index extension and coupon payments on deck. As always, all feedback welcome.
Programa completo de Julia en la onda, con Julia Otero. Desde la Diputación Provincial de Huelva con motivo de que el 25 de noviembre de celebra el día de la eliminación de la violencia contra la mujer. Tenemos Mesa de redacción y el catedrático de Geología, Juan Antonio Morales, habla sobre las posibilidades de que ocurra un tsunami en Huelva. Además hablamos con la alcaldesa de Valverde del Camino, Syra Senra y con María Eugenia Limón, presidenta de la Diputación de Huelva. También el orden mundial con Blas Moreno y Eduardo Saldaña y El Gabinete con Carolina Bescansa, Javier Gállego, Arantxa Tirado y Asun Salvador.
On November 1st, a provincial committee released their report on the toxic drug supply and overdose crisis. The report contains 37 recommendations looking at everything from BC's proposed decriminalization to treatment beds. In response, nearly 60 organizations and individuals released an open letter saying the report obscures the issue of a poisoned drug supply, and recommends nothing outside of the status quo. We speak with Caitlin Shane of Pivot Legal.
On September 4, 2012, the people of Quebec went to the polls to vote in the Provincial election. As the day turned into night, it was clear that there was going to be new leadership for the province. Sitting outside of an election night celebration was a lone gunman with ill intent. Join our Patreon: www.patreon.com/tntcpodMerch: https://www.teepublic.com/stores/true-north-true-crime?ref_id=24376Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/tntcpod/Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/tntcpod Get bonus content on Patreon Hosted on Acast. See acast.com/privacy for more information.
Guest: David Maynier | MEC Western Cape Education Department Almost 800 000 pupils sat for a two-hour English paper in South Africa yesterday and The Department of Basic Education said there were no reported disruptions in all provinces. David Maynier is the MEC at The Western Cape Education Department and he joins us to discuss Provincial and National progress.See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
La ciudad de Zamora celebra los 950 años de la liberación del cerco de Zamora, uno de los acontecimientos más destacados de la Edad Media y muy arraigado en los zamoranos. Para conocer de cerca este episodio en la historia de la ciudad, charlamos con el historiador y antiguo director del Archivo Histórico Provincial, Florián Ferrero. Escuchar audio
Vancouver is the big test: Ken Sim put issue at the top of the agenda. David Eby and other New Democrats riding to the rescue of Kennedy Stewart. Victoria will be watched too: Steven Andrew vs Lisa Helps preferred successor, NDP endorsed Marianne Alto. Surrey: New Democrats won't miss Doug McCallum…they have not thrown weight behind Jinny Sims, NDP MLA and ex cabinet minister. Prepare to live with win by Brenda Locke, former BC Liberal cabinet minister and ex-McCallum ally. But will province have to field reversal on police force?
El primer Encuentro de Participación Local organizado por el ayuntamiento se celebrará mañana en el Centro Municipal de la Plaza de Trujillo. Las Jornadas micológicas de la Diputación Provincial incluyen en su segunda edición 6 salidas, la primera mañana sábado a Peñaparda. Este fin de semana se celebra en Calzada de Valduciel el tercer Concurso exposición internacional de Avicultura y Cunicultura. La Plaza de San Román acogerá este sábado la vigésimo séptima edición del festival Farinato Rock. Escuchar audio
In this episode, the twins try their hands again at remote recording. Roger is excited that the iconic rock magazine, CREEM, is back again. Family, books, Elton and life lately - plus another gem from the archive. SHOW NOTES: 0:00 - "Early Train" by Chris Yale - Performed at The Central (now The Viper Room), Los Angeles 1989 4:06 - Greetings / About the song / Recording this podcast remotely 4:58 - CREEM Magazine is back / "Boy Howdy" / R. Crumb / Barry Kramer / J.J. Kramer / No Depression Magazine 6:39 - Lester Bangs / Greil Marcus / Dave Marsh 7:36 - "Have a Little Faith: The John Hiatt Story" by Michael Elliot / John Hiatt music and catalog / Roger "playing ahead" 9:51 - CREEM cover - new first issue 10:23 - Roger's writing / Drumming up work and blogging 10:46 - Chris meets his granddaugher, Naomi / Rog hanging with Katie, Bill, Miles and Naomi 11:28 - Elton John in Charlotte / Elton at Barclay's Center 2019 12:54 - "Main Street" by Sinclair Lewis / "Babbitt" / Provincial blowback 14:55 - Elbert Hubbard's Scrap Book / The Note Book of Elbert Hubbard / Grove Park Inn, Asheville 15:47 - Roger's upcoming vacation / Maggie Valley and more 16:40 - 2023 shows at LuLu's North Myrtle Beach / Roger solo gigs 17:46 - Kent Kimes / Weekly Surge 18:49 - "Dead Elvis" by Greil Marcus / Books we forgot / "The Crack in the Cosmic Egg" / "Conceptual Blockbusting" / "Economics Explained" / Michael Benner / KLOS 19:45 - Pascal badgering Joe Benson at KLOS / Acid / Ancient Age 20:45 - Parting shots / Chris' mother-in-law's birthday / More CREEM
Scott Moe, Saskatchewan Premier, Bill Fortier, CTV News; Annie Bergeron-Oliver, CTV News; Larisa Galadza, Canada's Ambassador to Ukraine; Joyce Napier, CTV News; Tonda MacCharles, the Toronto Star; Nik Nanos, Nanos Research; and Cara Zwibel, Canadian Civil Liberties Association.
It's not a crime to claim asylum in Canada. It's a process. But that hasn't stopped the Canadian Border Services Agency from using an agreement with several provinces to put some of these people directly into provincial jails, where they are housed with, and treated the same as, convicted criminals and those charged with serious crimes and awaiting trial. The asylum seekers describe inhumane conditions, especially for people who face no charges or accusations. Human rights agencies say it's a violation of international law. The federal government disagrees, but won't say much beyond that. How did this happen, and how do we fix it?GUEST: Brigitte Bureau, award-winning investigative reporter, CBC Radio-Canada
Unfortunately, not everyone who needs fertility care, gets it! The infertility rates are climbing from country to country and this is a global issue. We need more education, awareness and initiatives to help meet the needs of many people who want to grow their family and need the extra medical support. In today's episode I interview Carolynn Dube, the executive director of Fertility Matters Canada, a fast growing charity to help raise awareness and funds for more equitable access to fertility care in Canada. Episode highlights: Carolynn's infertility journey Provincial coverage (or lack thereof) How Fertility Matters is raising awareness and how you could benefit from their resources Fertility Benefits Matters Campaign - how YOU can help include fertility treatments in employment benefits The need for a Federal fertility strategy Join Team Naturally Nora to help raise funds for Fertility Matters 6k CLICK HERE For more information and full show notes: http://www.naturallynora.ca/blog/26
Greetings & welcome back to the rose bros podcast.This episode, we are joined by Rafi Tahmazian - senior portfolio manager & director at Canoe Financial - a Canadian independent investment management firm with approximately $14 Billion under management. Prior to Canoe, Rafi spent 13 years at First Energy Capital, a leading investment dealer that focused on the energy industry.He left the firm in 2008 as Vice Chairman and Managing Director, and has held numerous public and private, charity and government Board positions.He is currently on the board of directors for Artis Exploration Ltd, Aureus Energy Services Inc., Well Ventures Corp, Chance Oil and Gas Ltd., and Alberta Teachers Retirement Fund.Mr. Tahmazian holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics from the University of Calgary.We sat down for a smooth cup of rose bros coffee and among other things discussed why energy is a catalyst for life and death, record breaking Federal & Provincial tax revenues, the problem with top town governments, separating good energy investments from the best, and why today's energy industry is akin to a broken bank machine spitting out cash. Enjoy!This episode is also available on YouTube, so check out the rose bros channel, and if you enjoyed the conversation, subscribe to the channel. Also, this week's podcast was brought to you by Rundle Eco Services. Looking for a way to recycle your frac pond and pit liners used in the oil and gas industry? Rundle collects and processes liners using an environmentally friendly system, leaving a clean environmental footprint. The end use of these liners are shredded and processed into pellets that then can be extruded into various forms of usable plastic products including furniture, various building materials, industrial packaging etc. Checkout rundleco.com for more details on how you can recycle your industrial pond and pit liners today. Also, this podcast is sponsored by Headracingcanada.comLooking for high performance ski gear this winter? In partnership with 4x-Olympian Manny-Osborne Paradis, Headracingcanada.com is offering the lowest prices possible through its online storefront, by passing brick and mortar savings to customers. Check out Headracingcanada.com for more info on high performance gear for the upcoming ski season.Support the show
Sport Minister Pascale St-Onge talks about what her government wants to see from Hockey Canada in light of questions about how it has handled sexual misconduct allegations. Plus, two journalists and the Power Panel look ahead to the United Conservative Party electing a new leader tomorrow.
In part 1 of this Big Favour, we meet Nompilo Dlamini, who wrote to big favour on behalf of the local boys. She wrote the letter as they need some financial assistance with 3 of their rugby kids in the Inanda area who want to go off to a provincial tournament in Bloem this month. #DarrenKeriSkyOnECR #BigFavour Big Favour: KZN Slots makes contribution to assist KZNRU Sharks Youth Club players
Host Piya Chattopadhyay breaks down the ballot box questions ahead of Quebec's provincial election with columnists Yves Boisvert and Emilie Nicolas, Kent Monkman questions the canon of Candian art, Dr. Jean Marmoreo and journalist Johanna Schneller navigate the complexity of MAID, and we launch our new brain game: That's Puzzling! Discover more at https://www.cbc.ca/1.6602297
Frederick F. Anscombe is a Senior Lecturer in Contemporary History at Birkbeck, University of London. Fred's research interest lie in the history of the Ottoman empire and post-Ottoman territories, ranging from the late seventeenth to twentieth centuries and from the Middle East to the Balkans. While having a strong interest in Ottoman imperial history, Fred found it helpful to break away from the traditional focus upon the Centre, looking instead at social and political orders in European and Asian provinces. Provincial history offers a useful way to gauge what it meant to be 'Ottoman', to see if and how the sultan's subjects were affected by, and reacted to, politics and policies of the Centre. --- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/out-of-the-blank-podcast/support
We all love our pets. It doesn't matter if it's a cat, a dog, a bunny rabbit, or a hedgehog. Your pet provides comfort and companionship. Many people would agree that pets have a positive impact on well-being, but that doesn't mean they can be classed as an actual "service animal." There are rules on that, and the provincial government updated them recently. John Abbott is the minister of Children, Seniors and Social Development, and the Minister Responsible for the Status of Persons with Disabilities.
La Universidad de Salamanca celebró ayer el acto oficial de apertura del curso 22/23. La empresa Feltrero División Arte se ha hecho con el Premio Pyme del Año 2022 de Salamanca. La Plaza de la Concordia acoge este martes y el miercoles las actividades de la "Vial Week" que anualmente organiza la Confederación Nacional de Autoescuelas. El ayuntamiento de Salamanca ha iniciado la construcción de 48 viviendas protegidas de alquiler con opción de compra y garajes en Pizarrales. El Instituto de las Identidades de la Diputación Provincial ha organizado un Ciclo de conferencias sobre el patrimonio inmaterial salmantino, que bajo el título de "Palabra de tradición" mostrará las diferentes perspectivas del legado heredado de los mayores. Dentro de las jornadas de puertas abiertas organizadas por la Asociación de Enfermos de Alzheimer de Salamanca (con motivo del Dia Mundial del Alzheimer que se conmemora mañana), este martes los tecnicos de la Residencia Boni Mediero darán a conocer como funciona el Servicio de Promoción de la Autonomía Personal para los enfermos que se encuentran en fases iniciales. Escuchar audio
Saturday of the 24th Week in Ordinary Time Optional Memorial of St. Robert Bellarmine, 1542-1621; born in Italy, entered the Jesuits in 1560; eventually became Provincial of Naples and a Cardinal; spiritual father of St. Aloysius Gonzaga; helped St. Francis de Sales obtain formal approval of the Visitation Order; left a host of important writings Office of Readings and Morning Prayer for 9/17/22 Gospel: Luke 8:4-15
Halifax is the start line for an electric vehicle rally that will last five days and cover 3,000 km. Race Director Stephane Pascalon of the Fondation Québécoise d'éducation en Sécurité Routière tells us more.
Coucou everyone! Sure, you may have been to Versailles and you may know about its kings and Marie Antoinette, but how about its court? Cat tells Kate what it was like to live there, including who was sleeping with who, how foul it smelled, and the pressure that was put on those who lived there. Then Kate tells Cat a cute little Provincial myth. Fun! Don't forget to follow us on Instagram :) Main topic sources: Extreme Stories From The Court Of Versailles Palace of Versailles wiki Minitopic sources: Off Beat France Recommendations: Kate's Recommendation - "La Piscine" (1969) directed by Jacques Deray Catherine's Recommendation - "Versailles" show on Netflix Cover art and logo by Kate Walker Mixed and edited by Catherine Roehre Theme song by Lumehill Thank you all - ciao!
Segment éditorial de Sophie Durocher : l'actualité sous la loupe de Sophie Durocher. Entrevue avec Raôul Duguay, artiste multidisciplinaire, philosophe, environnementaliste et auteur de « La bitte à Tibi » : il dénonce l'émission actuelle d'arsenic à Rouyn Noranda qui est plus élevée que la norme québécoise fixée à 3 nanogrammes par mètre cube. Chronique de Steve E. Fortin, chroniqueur et blogueur au Journal de Montréal Journal de Québec : l'art de la caricature est-il voué à se conformer à la rectitude du moment? La rencontre Nantel-Durocher avec Guy Nantel : retour sur la déclaration de Pierre-Karl Péladeau, qui dit que le Parti québécois est « trop solide » pour disparaître. Entrevue avec Pamela Perdegas, jeune femme de 25 ans qui s'est rebellée contre sa famille et sa religion : sortie de son livre intitulé « Sauver ma peau : tout perdre pour échapper aux Témoins de Jéhovah » Une production QUB Radio Septembre 2021Pour de l'information concernant l'utilisation de vos données personnelles - https://omnystudio.com/policies/listener/fr
For those of us who love the heat and sunshine, this summer was spectacular. But, the hot, dry weather could have longer-term effects on vital resources such as drinking water. Many communities draw their water from wells or groundwater sources, both of which are threatened by a lack of rain. Paula Dawe is Manager of Water Resources with the provincial department of Environment and Climate Change, and she spoke with CBC's Leigh Anne Power.
In this Swift Chat, Marie Swift of Impact Communications, Inc. speaks with Blain Wease, President of Provincial Development Group, LLC about what makes Provincial different in their approach to helping wealth management firms implement solutions. Working with RIAs and Broker Dealers, Blain shares how Provincial's comprehensive system improves the health of the firm. They discuss leadership, key metrics and insights on meeting goals by optimizing opportunity. To learn more about Blain and Provincial Development Group please visit: www.ProvincialDevelopment.com
The Alberta Teachers' Alliance was created in 1917, at a meeting of the Alberta Educational Association. The Alliance's inaugural annual meeting was held in First Presbyterian Church in Edmonton during Easter week of 1918. Among the members of the Alberta Educational Association were those of many walks of life interested in advancing education in the new province of Alberta, but it was not a professional organization equipped or mandated to address teachers' salaries, classroom and working conditions, or the professional views of teachers. At the time, teachers were leaving the profession by the hundreds, either through enlistment in the armed forces or to other professions offering better salary and living conditions. As a result, thousands of unqualified persons were granted the authority to teach. Teachers were disadvantaged socially and economically. Tenure did not exist; short-term contracts were the order of the day; and teachers had no appeal against dismissal. The Liberal government of Premier Charles Stewart (1917–1921) and the Honourable J R Boyle (1912–1918), minister of education, attempted, albeit unsuccessfully, to remedy the situation. Their plan was to enact a statutory minimum teacher salary. That plan failed and it was with the establishment of the Alberta Teachers' Alliance that teachers began to organize professionally and advocate for the improvement of the profession. In todays episode we talk with current President Jason Schilling about the ATA, relations with the Provincial government, and what's next for the ATA. *************************************************** Visit www.crossborderinterviews.ca for more details and a list of all the links mentioned during this interview. The Cross Border Interview Podcast was Produced and Edited by Miranda, Brown & Associates Inc © 2022
University of Arizona Alumni Jasmine Safar joins the show! Jas grew up playing for Defensa where she won Provincial medals before focusing on beach full time. Safar has represented Canada at U19 & U21 World Championships and done well domestically including finishing 2nd at OVA Adult Elite Ontario Championships. We cover her career, her ability to play with anyone, and so much more! We hope you enjoy this episode. If you've read this far please, please, please leave a comment, a 5 Star review and the best compliment you can give the show is telling your friends about us!
On the Civic Panel: Andrea Reimer, Founder and Principal of Tawaw Strategies Mary Polak, Strategic Advisor for Maple Leaf Strategies and former MLA for Langley Khelsilem, Squamish Nation Council Chair
HA SIDO POSIBLE CREAR EL PROGRAMA “EN LA SOMBRA” GRACIAS A TU AYUDA COMO GUARDIÁN MECENAS. ***** HAZTE MECENAS EN HTTP://WWW.PATREON.COM/LAREUNIONSECRETA Esta noche vive en directo la segunda temporada de #EnlaSombra a las 22:00 hora española. El programa que presenta Jorge Gómez (exagente del CNI. Analista de inteligencia) y dirigido por Joan Miquel MJ. No se lo digas a nadie… ¡PÁSALO! 🔁💪🤫 Conexiones en directo con: - Dr. Jesús Herranz (Doctor en Psicología. Psicólogo clínico. He participado en el diseño de proyectos para prevenir las diferentes formas violencia contra las personas (Acoso escolar, Violencia de pareja, Violencia sexual, Abusos sexuales a menores...). Desde 2007 ha colaborado en actividades de formación en prevención de la violencia y el acoso en la escuela y de la violencia de pareja en población adolescente y juvenil para la Diputación Provincial de Alicante. Cuenta con más de 35 años de ejercicio profesional como psicólogo clínico, forense y penitenciario en el Hospital Psiquiátrico Penitenciario de Alicante (España), centro dependiente de la Administración General del Estado (AGE), en el que he atendido a personas con trastornos mentales graves que han cometido delitos (violentos o extremadamente violentos) y que han sido consideradas penalmente inimputables por los tribunales y a las que se les ha aplicado una medida de seguridad de internamiento en centro hospitalario de régimen cerrado) - Luis Rendueles (Ha trabajado para el diario El Sol, TVE y Antena 3. Fue reportero y subdirector de la revista ‘Interviú’. Forma parte de ‘El periódico de Catalunya’) - Manu Marlasca (Periodista. Trabaja en los informativos de La Sexta. Colabora en el programa ‘Más vale tarde’ de dicha cadena. Ha colaborado con ‘Interviú’, ‘Espejo Público’ y Onda Cero, entre otros) Con el equipo habitual de “EN LA SOMBRA”: Joan Miquel MJ, Jorge Gómez, Carlos Martínez, Inna Kovalska, Lourdes Martínez, Olga Ralló y Rafael Alarcón. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ SÍGUENOS EN REDES Twitter: https://twitter.com/lrsecreta Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lareunionse... Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/LRsecreta REDES SOCIALES DEL EQUIPO | DIRECTOR | - Joan Miquel MJ - https://www.instagram.com/official_joan_miquel_mj/ | JORGE GÓMEZ | - https://twitter.com/Yuri_HSI | PRODUCTORA | - Lourdes Martínez - https://twitter.com/chicadelaradio | AYUDANTE DE DIRECCIÓN | - Olga Ralló - https://twitter.com/olgarallo | ANALISTA DE DATOS | - Carlos Martínez - https://twitter.com/Carlitos_martnz | EXPERTA EN GESTIÓN. APOYO OPERATIVO | - Inna Kovalska - https://twitter.com/KovalskaInna | AYUDANTE DE PRODUCCIÓN | - Rafael Alarcón - https://www.instagram.com/rafaelalarcon_/ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Information Morning's healthcare columnist Mary Jane Hampton takes a look at the restrictions health professionals face in crossing provincial borders to work out of province... and how it's harming our healthcare system.
Actualizar la ley que protege la información clasificada del Estado, de la que tanto hablamos para quejarnos de lo que no sabemos del 23F, de la Transición o sobre la Corona, es una vieja promesa de la izquierda y de otros grupos parlamentarios. ¿Por qué el Gobierno ha aprobado algo así en agosto, cuando nadie mira, en vez de presumir a lo grande? Hablamos con Aitor Riveiro, redactor de elDiario.es que se ha estudiado el anteproyecto de la nueva ley de Información Clasificada, y escuchamos a María del Olmo, directora del Archivo Histórico Provincial de Alicante. *** Si te gusta este podcast, en el boletín ‘Al día' te resumimos cada mañana las claves de la actualidad en un correo electrónico que tardas cuatro minutos en leer. Se envía a las 7.30h. Suscríbete aquí: https://www.eldiario.es/blog/al-dia/suscribir-boletin-al-dia/ See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
In a province facing concerns over health care, education, and what to do with a booming oil-based budget surplus, the race to replace Jason Kenney as United Conservative Party and premier has largely focused on one major issue: Alberta's autonomy. The discussion about various ways to advance Alberta's place in Confederation was once again front and centre at the final leadership debate in Edmonton. National Post reporter Tyler Dawson joins the program to discuss Tuesday's debate, whether anyone appears to have gained any ground on front-runner Danielle Smith, and why the issue of autonomy, or sovereignty, has been such a looming presence. Background reading: Final UCP leadership debate focuses on same issues that ended Kenney's term: Alberta autonomy and COVID-19 Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices
Last time we spoke, the Qing Dynasty faced the last real death throes of the Ming Dynasty. What is known as the Revolt of three Feudatories resulted in a war against Wu Sangui, Geng Jingzhong & Shang Zhixin. One by one each warlord fell to the Qing dynasty's vast armies and with each defeat brought more territory and populace under the Qing yolk. However one last major enemy loomed, the Kingdom of Taiwan established by Koxinga. Koxinga's descendent Zheng Keshuang would eventually be defeated and with his submission it seemed the Qing Dynasty would have eternal peace. However, the Qing' enemies remained within and outside its borders at all times. Holding the new empire together would not be easy. The Qing empire, much like the great wall of China could be destroyed, brick by brick and only time would tell how that wall would hold. This episode is the White Lotus Rebellion Welcome to the Fall and Rise of China Podcast, I am your dutiful host Craig Watson. But, before we start I want to also remind you this podcast is only made possible through the efforts of Kings and Generals over at Youtube. Perhaps you want to learn more about the history of Asia? Kings and Generals have an assortment of episodes on the history of asia and much more so go give them a look over on Youtube. So please subscribe to Kings and Generals over at Youtube and to continue helping us produce this content please check out www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals. If you are still hungry for some more history related content, over on my channel, the Pacific War Channel where I cover the history of China and Japan from the 19th century until the end of the Pacific War. The revolt of the 3 feudatories had ended, Wu Sangui, Geng Jingzhong & Shang Zhixin were all defeated. The grandson of Koxinga, Zheng Keshuang was defeated, Taiwan was conquered and brought under the fold of the Qing dynasty. The Qing also managed to defend its borders from the external threat of the Tsardom of Russia. The Russians had ventured into border skirmishes around the Amur River valley, first in 1658 with the Battle of Hutong, in which a force of Manchu and Koreans overwhelmed a force of 500 Cossacks aboard 11 ships, sending them fleeing to Albazin. Albazin was a Russian settlement on the Amur River right along the Qing Dynasty's border and it remained a point of conflict in the late 17th century. Since their defeat at the battle of Hutong, the Russians began a campaign of persuading nearby populaces to their cause rather than the Qing which became such a nuisance by 1685 that the Qing sent a force to lay siege to the settlement. In just one day the settlement garrisoned by 450 men surrendered, however a year later the Russians would return to the settlement looking to re-establish themselves. The Qing yet again besieged the settlement in 1686, however this time it was much bloodier. The Qing threw around 3000 men at Albazin which was garrisoned by 800, by the end of the ordeal it is said just 24 men survived within Albazin and the Qing lost perhaps 1500 casualties. In the greater scheme of things, it was just a small border clash, but the result was rather significant. The Russians had been acting rather boldly, because of all the strife going on between the Qing and Ming, but now that the Qing had consolidated their new empire they were more than capable of defending any encroachments, especially those in Manchuria,their native homelands. After defeating the Russians again at the Siege of Albazin, the Qing government sent letters to the Tsar suggesting they sign a peace treaty, because for quite a long time now, the Qing were dealing with an age old enemy, the Mongols, to be precise the Dzungar Mongols. Emperor Kangxi wished to rid the Russian nuisance from the Amur area which was the northern border so he could focus his army on the north-western problem that was the Dzungar Mongols. The Russians knew they could not hope to defend outposts as far as the Amur region and the idea of peace talks perked their interests as trade would be far more beneficial to them then border skirmishes. A treaty would be signed called the Treaty of Nerchinsk, which established trade between the 2 empires and relative peace for quite a long time. This was also the first treaty between the Tsardom of Russia and the Qing dynasty, so a bit of legitimizing for the new-ish regime. The Qing would have a hell of a time with the Dzungar Mongols which accumulated into what is known as the Dzungar-Qing war which almost went on for a hundred years. By the time the Qing would effectively end the wars with the Dzungar mongols, and all culminated in what is known as the Dzungar genocide. By the end of the wars in the 1750's it is estimated that around 80% of the Dzungar population, something like 500-800 thousand people were killed. During the early 18th century, the Qianlong Emperor gave a directive stating “"Show no mercy at all to these rebels. Only the old and weak should be saved. Our previous military campaigns were too lenient. If we act as before, our troops will withdraw, and further trouble will occur. If a rebel is captured and his followers wish to surrender, he must personally come to the garrison, prostrate himself before the commander, and request surrender. If he only sends someone to request submission, it is undoubtedly a trick. Tell Tsengünjav to massacre these crafty Zunghars. Do not believe what they say."”. As you can imagine such directives led to the massacres of countless people. On Top of the killings, the remaining Dzungar peoples were forcefully relocated to places all over China. Reports from a QING scholar named Wei Yuan who lived almost 100 years after the events state that 30% of the Dzungar people were killed by the Qing military, 40% died of disease such as a smallpox epidemic, 20% fled to other places like Russia and modern day Kazakhstan. There are quite a few historians who argue the Qianlong Emperor simply engaged in a genocidal campaign. Regardless after this rather horrible and bloody ordeal, for the most part the Qing dynasty undergoes a period of relative peace, and I mean the word peace should be taken with a grain of salt, for all Chinese history I don't think there is a single year some revolt or rebellion is not occurring. When Emperor Kangxi took the throne from 1661-1722 this began what is called the Qing Golden Age. His successor Emperor Yongzheng continued the golden age from 1723-1735 and was further succeeded by Emperor Qianlong who would rule from 1735-1796 which is seen as the peak of the Golden age. During this period China annexed most of Mongolia, northeast China, Xinjiang, Tibet and Taiwan, aside from Taiwan, its basically the borders of the very China we know today. China at this time amounted to over 32% of the worlds industrial output, its population soared past 100 million for the first time in history and soon grew to an enormous 300 million, hell I live in Canada and we barely have 38 million right now! Despite being such a colossus, China for the most part was quite isolated in its market. China allowed foreign trade through places like Macau, but it was quite limited in scope. Eventually it would be expanded upon. When the Qianlong Emperor took the throne he began numerous projects including the Ten Great Campaigns, which was a series of military campaigns that enlarged the empire to the extent I had mentioned previously. He put together the largest collection of books in Chinese history to that point known as the Siku Quanshu, “complete repository of the Four branches of Literature”. The exploration of the new world also brought riches in the form of new foods to China. The potato and peanut dramatically improved food supplies allowing for China's population to boom. Now the upcoming episodes are going to specifically look at the emergence of European powers mingling with China. But this episode is going to be directed at an internal story, and one that is not often talked about. Stating that I will be glossing over some very very important events such as the journey of James Flint and the mission of Lord George Macartney, but rest assured those stories will be the very forefront after this one. In the spring of 1794, the HMS Lion departed from Macau for its long voyage back home to England and a rumor spread amongst its crew that in the mountainous counties of Shanxi province, that a “true master” had appeared. This so-called Master was said to be marked with the character for the sun upon his left hand and the character of the moon on his right. Together these characters formed the character “Ming”, dun dun dunnnn. According to another rumor, a giant boulder in the village of where this master was born had suddenly split open revealing a hidden scripture inside thar read: “A black wind will blow for a day and a night. It will destroy men beyond number. White bones will be piled into mountains, and Blood will flow to become an ocean” It was the telling of an apocalypse, and rumors sprang all through China that the only way to escape the destruction was to memorize that scripture from the boulder and to chant it. Oh and to begin stockpiling guns and other weapons and be ready to support the great master's uprising against the Qing. It was said the “black wind” would hit in the spring of 1796 and it would destroy the world and usher in a new age. Zhang Zhengmo, a peasant living in Hubei province was one of many who believed the prophecy. At 32 years of age he had heard it told to him by a sect leader named Bai who explained to Zhang and many others that the True Master's doctrine was part of the White Lotus teachings. The White Lotus sect had been around for hundreds of years, it was something like a marriage between Buddhism and Daoism. For the most part, the White Lotus sects amounted to nothing more than harmless people practicing a faith based on healing and protection from misfortune. The founder of the Ming dynasty Zhu Yuanzhang, joined a White Lotus Revolution that took shape in 1352 in Guangzhou. The revolution saw him taking firm control over the head of a rebellious army and he would go on to conquer Nanjing and take the title of Emperor Hongwu ushering in a new age. His title also held religious sentiment of the White Lotus. This religion however like many others held a prediction of an apocalypse and its followers believed that with it would come the second coming of Buddha who would return in the form of a bodhisattva named Maitreya to rid the world of corruption and suffering. Maitreya would destroy the corrupt government and the non believers and a utopia would be formed for those who helped bring upon the apocalypse. So put yourself in the shoes of the Manchu rulers of the new Qing dynasty. You hear these rumors going around and see the potential rebellion you might be seeing from this religious group. White Lotus groups had sprung uprisings countless times in history and hell the dynasty you just defeated was made by one of those uprisings! Back to Zhang Zhengmo, well he was a recent convert and Bai who was a traveling sect leader became his teacher who indoctrinated him in the True Master's doctrine. Zhang donated money to the cause, not much, he was a peasant after all, but enough to start hoarding weapons. He then began to recruit other followers to become his students…you can see where this is going, think of a good old fashion MLM scam of today like herbalife or scientology haha except instead of toxic shakes or alien stories its people hoarding weapons to begin an apocalypse. So you can sort of get the picture, you become a follower, in the process you pay money to hoard weapons. Then you recruit other followers, rinse and repeat, soon you got yourself a rebellion cooking. Zhang Zhengmo lived in a part of China considered to be an internal frontier, wide mountain ranges along the points where Hubei, Shaanxi and Sichuan pressed against another, same types of places all the bandit armies would run up into when the Qing came after them. This particular region was known as the Han River Highlands, which fed into the Yangzi river, not a very hospitable area and thus less developed. It was dense with forest, hills and such, perfect for bandits to hang out in. The reason I am describing this area is to emphasize something that is going on in China. I mentioned the population boom, from 100-300 million, it was enormous. With so many people, the necessity for agricultural expansion was enormous as well. Most of the southern and eastern parts of China were being cleared out for crops, literally everywhere was getting gulped up by farms. More and more people were forced to move into areas like the Han River Highlands and all of this culminated in more and more competition between settlers over natural resources. Like with most frontier societies, this got violent very fast. The Han River Highlands were a pretty scary place to live in the late 18th century, there was just about no security because the government officials were all in other areas. Thus without much intervention, who could step in to marshall such places? The White Lotus thats who. The White Lotus promised safety for all of its followers and were more than happy to accept any settlers. By 1794 the Qing administration warily watched as regions such as the Han River Highlands had sects such as the White Lotus grow. Provincial authorities saw the potential risk of insurrection and began to work at dismantling such cells before they could cause trouble. A crackdown came in 1794 targeting groups based out of Sichuan, Shaanxi and Hubei. Emperor Qianlong made an edict in September ordering all captured sectarians to be punished according to the nature of their guilt. So for example, spiritual leaders would be executed by being cut into pieces, wozzors. Those who spread the White Lotus teachings would be beheaded. Mere followers, would be arrested and deported to Manchuria as slaves. All in all not a very subtle edict. So the local Qing officials set to work, first it was village headmen who organized forces to round up White Lotus members. Within a few months time they had arrested 20 teachers and over a hundred followers, and as you can imagine their methodology was brutal and would intensify the situation. There was not enough forces to get the job done so the local officials began to hire local thugs to go house to house. As you can imagine the thugs began to run amok, many began to threaten to arrest people if they didn't pay them off. So those who paid them off or somehow managed to prove they were not White Lotus members received placards that they could put on their doors marking them as “decent people”. Everyone else were open targets for abuse as they were suspected White Lotus members. When Zhang Zhengmo heard the officials going house to house he quickly abandoned his home and fled before inspectors could get him. He returned to his native county in the same province where he continued his mission to recruit more followers. By the late winter of 1796, it is estimated that Zhang had more than 1000 followers. Only 2 months before the planned date for the apocalypse or better called uprising, Zhang found out that local officials were mounting a new crackdown now in his native county. Fearing his arrest, Zhang prepared for their arrival, calling upon his followers and telling him the time had come. Zhang's followers took to the roads where they joined up with other cells that other recruiters had grown. In only a few days more than 10,000 White Lotus members converged under the leadership of Zhang Zhengmo. They brought with them, swords, guns, gunpowder and other supplies necessary for waging a rebellion. They plundered villages for supplies and began conscripting the local populace, coercing them with food. This all mattered not to the White Lotus believers who were taught that non believers would all be destroyed when Buddha returned regardless, so who cares if they harm any of these people in the meantime. The worshipers and their indentured conscripts soon swelled to 20,000 and they began to create blockades along the roads and pathways and made their way to the hills. Zhang Zhengmo's first HQ was to be a mountain estate of a very wealthy believer, but Zhang worried it was to undefendable and thus brought his force further into the mountains where he knew they could hold up better. A campment was built with thousands of shacks, white banners were spread out and the force began to adopt white headbands to identify themselves as legitimate rebels. Their weaponry was mostly swords, knives, though they did have 300 matchlock rifles and 6 chestnut wood cannons. They also had a ton of crossbows and a lot of poison tipped bolts. The defense of the mountain was typical guerilla stuff seen to this day, booby trapped paths, watch towers, makeshift landmines and people hidden around every nook and cranny. Despite all the preparation, Zhang Zhengmo was quite reluctant to take his newfound rebel army down the mountain side, fearing they would all be slaughtered by the Qing army who must surely be awaiting them. So they all dug in for months, only sending the occasional raiding party down to gather supplies. July came and Zhang received word the Qing were slowly closing in on the mountain. He had burned his name in the registers hoping that he might be able to make an escape and some of his followers began to see he was not the leader they thought him to be. They had been told he had met the True master, but many found out this was a lie. They looked to him for guidance, but all he could provide were cheap parlor tricks. When Zhang had called for the uprising he thought all of the White Lotus followers from miles all around would heed the cause. Yet after the first 10,000 flocked to him none others were found, he assumed everyone had been arrested and killed. They were trapped on this mountain, there was nowhere to escape to, there was no help coming. They held out another 2 months, but then in September the Qing broke their perimeter and arrested the lot of them. Zhang was to be executed, but before the deed a Qing interrogator demanded to know why he and his followers rebelled. “You are all peasants, you receive the blessings of the emperor. He relieves you of taxes and tribute grain. He relieves your debts. When there is a flood or a drought he gives you aid. You have a human heart, and you should feel gratitude and abide by the laws. So why, under the banner of these evil teachings, did you start a rebellion? In the end, what was it you wanted?”. Zhang replied “We have indeed received blessings from the emperor. We had warm clothes and could eat our fill. We were peasants, and we were grateful. It was at a time when I was ignorant, that I first began to practice this religion. It was only because I wanted to encourage people to do good deeds and to avoid misfortune. But then the investigations and arrests intensified, and I saw that when people who practiced our religion were captured, all of them were charged with heavy crimes. So I became afraid”. So he was nothing more than a peasant, who ignorantly was led astray and when the crackdown occurred he did what he did out of fear. It is the excuse given by countless peasant uprisings, reckless bursts of defiance towards an perceived malevolent empire, nothing too remarkable. Zhang's force of 20,000 were brushed aside….and little did they know what had occurred all over China. The “black wind” uprising spread like wildfire. The vast range and appeal of the apocalyptic rumors that had pushed Zhang and his followers had only increased exponentially. From word of mouth through the province, uprisings began to all explode spontaneously through the hill countries of the Han River Highlands. Zhang had no idea, but it was his movement that became the spark to see the entire forest ablaze. By the time the Qing officials had dealt with Zhang Zhengmo's camp, all of Hubei was engulfed in a wave of rebellion, and soon it spread to the neighboring provinces of Sichuan and Shaanxi. On february 9th of 1796, the first day of the lunar new year and just 6 days before Zhang Zhengmo began his uprising, Emperor Qianlong gave up the throne. The abdication had been planned for a very long time, all the way back to 1735 when Qianlong had given an edict that he planned to rule as long as high grandfather had. Emperor Kangxi had reigned for 61 years and Qianlong wanted to keep his word, but not entirely. While on the surface he did quote en quote abdicate on his 60th year as emperor, giving the throne to his son Jiaqing, in reality all he did was install a puppet. The calendars record the new year as Jiaqing Year 1, but within the capital it was truly Qianlong year 61. 2 calendars were kept, 2 sets of imperial annals with one referring to the supreme retired emperor Qianlong, who would continue to rule while his son kept the throne warm. It probably would have been better for China if Emperor Qianlong really did abdicate, for while his reign was impressive, his effectiveness was deteriorating with his age. A Korean diplomat in 1794 reported to his superiors that Emperor Qianlong had acted in a bizarre manner. He stated that the Emperor ordered breakfast immediately after eating breakfast on some occasions. Thus the implication here was that the Emperor was going senile. Later in 1797 a different Korean envoy reported that the Emperor seemed to be unable to remember what occurred during the morning of their meeting nor what they had done the day prior. With the emperor in a weakened state, factions within his court began to vie for power. One of Emperor Qianlong's closest court officials a man named Heshen began to act out in the emperors name. The more the Emperors mental health declined the more Heshen would speak on his behalf. As observed by the western George Staunton in 1790 “Heshen enjoyed, almost exclusivity, the confidence of the emperor. He might be said to possess, in fact, under the emperor, the whole power of the empire”. It just so happens, Heshen was one of the most corrupt officials in Chinese history during a particularly corrupt ridden time in Chinese history. Heshen treated large amounts of the Qing governments bureaucracy as his own personal patronage network. For example, he began to appoint officials into positions and expected them to pay him handsomely for such appointments. This led the officials to embezzle money to pay him back. In one example he appointed a man to the Yellow River Conservancy, which controlled the funding for flood control over China's second longest river and the man embezzled over 6 million tales of silver each year to pay back Heshen. That money of course was required to help prevent the Yellow River from flooding and by the end of the 18th century about 1/10th of the government funds were actually used for flood prevention. As Heshen and others sucked up the money, the peasants on the floodplain suffered tremendously as the appointed official at the Yellow River Conservancy found it was in the best interests of everyone to allow the river to breach its dikes periodically, just to make sure the government funds kept pouring in. Heshen's corruption was widely apparent to the court, but to make any accusations against him was a death sentence as he had the mouth of the emperor. Now back to the White Lotus rebellion, it was spreading as I said with great speed and this was greatly aided by government corruption. With the rampant corruption came a huge lack of government forces to respond to the initial uprisings. Skeleton garrisons in key locations such as Hubei allowed for the uprisings to spread like wildfire. The officials were caught off guard and massively unprepared. Across Hubei overwhelmed government forces tried to resist the rebels with whatever weapons they could muster, but soon began pleading other provinces for reinforcement. With such a lack of governmental forces to protect the common people, landowners resorted to raising private militias called “Xiangyong” (means local braves) which in turn began to simply plunder areas. As one witness reported “the so called militia soldiers just continued the work of stealing everything the refugees had left behind in their houses. There wasn't an empty hand anywhere…if the White Lotus rebels are like an ordinary comb, the private militia are the fine-toothed one”. These militias killed, robbed and caused further havoc. To the government all of them were rebels and in turn this caused all the rebels to find common cause. The slogan “the officials oppress, and the people rebel” spread across multiple rebel groups, and at the forefront was the White Lotus. The Qing government began a cycle of violence, redoubled its efforts to extinguish the White Lotus sects, only to give justification to them to increase their rebellious activity. It is interesting to note the hiring of these militia's will play a crucial role in the downfall of the Qing dynasty. Many scholars attribute the adoption of hired militia's by the Qing government to being something like cutting off your limbs and eating them during starvation. The idea being that while the Qing could raise such militia's to try and stamp out the endless rebellions that will occur during their dynasty's reign, these were short term solutions and only hurt them in the long run. Hiring civilians in war showcased how the Qing standing armies were losing their fighting capability and greatly hurt the Qing treasuries. Regardless this will all be showcased much more in the future. Emperor Qianlong saw the uprisings as a local issue that should be dealt with by local forces. His focus was on internal unrest, not the problems of the frontier lands and so he denied requests for military aid. He kept telling provincial officials to use the resources they had to deal with the uprisings even though he held ample elite troops that could have swept in to restore the peace. What Emperor Qianlong did do however was send funds to the province to help as the government treasury was jam packed with silver during this age. Without the capitals troops to reinforce them, provincial officials began to follow the lead of the militia rebels and armed peasants to fight off the rebels. At the beginning of the uprising most frontier territories had government militias of just a few hundred, luckier ones perhaps a few thousand. But as the rebellion spread into neighboring provinces and the funds from Beijing poured in, the militia armies grew exponentially. By 1798, Hubei had nearly 400,000 militiamen registered on its books and Sichuan and Shaanxi each had comparably large militia forces. In the concert of the war against the rebels, the 3 provinces reported a total of 100,000 government soldiers and upto a possible million militiamen. The militiamen strategy proved to be very ineffective against the rebels, in fact the militias did more harm than good. Militiamen came from all walks of life, from farmers, to unemployed city folk to ruthless criminals. If you were a bandit, it was actually far more beneficial to join the militia which paid a salary about the same as a government soldier. These militiamen had no real allegiance beyond the salary they were paid so as the White Lotus watched the government hiring all of these people they simply offered them the same salary or more. By the later years of the uprising it turned out nearly half the White Lotus armies were made up of former militiamen! And if you were wondering what else than money could persuade these militiamen to join the White Lotus hear this. The governor general of Sichuan province reported with disgust that whenever government troops went into battle they simply quote “sent the militia to charge in ahead of them as they hung back where it was safe. If the militiamen got turned back by the rebels and started to run away, the government soldiers just ran after them”. On top of this, tons of false victories over the rebel armies were being reported when in reality, the government troops would just pretend to engage the rebels and continuously move their camps around. There was even reports that government forces would murder refugees from nearby villages and set up their mutilated bodies at their camps to make it look like they had caught rebels. The fact the government forces were really not engaging the rebel armies very much was so apparent one witness said “where the rebels are, there are no government forces; and where the government forces are, there are no rebels”. With the declining mental health of Emperor Qianlong growing worse, the campaign against the White Lotus fell into the hands of Heshen who was too busy using the opportunity to enrich himself. As emperor Qianlong obsessed over the reports of the rebel war, apparently barely sleeping while he read them day and night according to accounts from his son, well Heshen was doing his best to control which reports came to the emperor. Heshen made sure all the reports were fake victory stories making it seem that the entire campaign was going off without a hitch. Heshen had appointed his own personal goons to be in key military positions who in turn fed falsified victory reports for money or military honors in return. This went further to whitewash massacres done to the civilian population by the government armies. And of course the funds for the military were going to the goons who in turn paid tribute right back to Heshen, making sure they kept their positions regardless of how incompetent they were. For the first 3 years of the war, Heshen effectively controlled the central government's military funding. It would also turn out that the registry of over 300,000 militia soldiers recruited to fight the White Lotus did not exist and it was an embezzlement scheme. It gets even worse. Those militia soldiers who did exist and who died fighting the rebels, well the corrupt officials would embezzle their death benefits, so a ton of mourning families got nothing and this had the disgusting side effect of creating an incentive for corrupt officers to have more of their soldiers die on the battlefield. The Militia related expenses would claim at least half the war effort funding according to Jiaqing who discovered the racket. A scholar in Hubei said this of the situation “At first they nibbled away like worms, gradually taking more and more until they were gulping like whales. In the beginning, their embezzlements could be reckoned in hundreds and thousands of taels, but presently nothing less than ten thousand would attract notice. Soon amounts ran to scores of thousands, then to hundreds of thousands, then to millions.” Emperor Qianlong expected an easy victory over the White Lotus, but the war was not ending. After reading so many countless reports of victories over the rebels, Qianlong because frustrated and confused as to why the White Lotus rebels did not submit. By 1799, the cost of the war was reaching nearly 100 million taels of silver, an unbelievable sum that had completely exhausted the treasury surplus and there still was no end in sight. Emperor Qianlong spent his last years of life losing his mind to the rebellion and died in a position of helplessness with the treasury emptied. Jiaqing did not have an enviable start to his reign. He was a broad, fat man with a talent for archery and was left with a clean up job that was simply immense. He had been forced to suffer the indemnity of being enthroned in 1796 only to find out he was a puppet and that his father was not even in charge, it was Heshen. He was in his 40's and quite powerless as long as his father remained alive. The day after Emperor Qianlong died in 1799, one of Jiaqings first major acts was to order the arrest of Heshen, boom. There was a swift and very publicized trial where the board of punishments found Heshen to be guilty of a long list of corruption related charges and the sentence would be death. Because Heshen held one of the highest ranks in the court he was allowed to strangle himself with a silk cord, a privilege considered more honorable than having your head cut off. Although the execution of Heshen was symbolically cathartic, it did little to stop the rot of corruption within the government. Heshen was blamed for just about all the sins of the time, as if he alone dragged the empire down…though one could argue he certainly provided a helping hand. All Heshens misdeeds were laid to bare and his enormous wealth was unimaginable. Heshen had a sprawling mansion of over 730 rooms. In his secondary residence there were 620 rooms. He held landholdings of over 120,000 acres of productive farmland. All the stories you can imagine were there, he had golden chopsticks, silver place settings for banquets, entire rooms filled with jewels, jade and other riches. He owned 10 banks, 10 pawnshops and millions upon millions of taels of silver hoarded into them. Apparently one wall in his main residence turned out to be filled with 5000 pounds of gold bullion if its to be believed. One extremely overexaggerated estimate his sum worth was around 800 million taels of silver, thats around 1.5 billion at the time, around 4 times the entire gross domestic product of the United States of America. More conservative estimates are at around 80 million taels of silver, which was more than the entire treasury surplus that preceded the White Lotus war and enough to make Heshen as wealthy as the Emperor! After dealing with Heshen, Jiaqing began a campaign against the corruption in the government. However, Jiaqing understood how an anti corruption campaign could fall into chaos and become a general purge, so he allowed it to peter out pretty quick. What did happen, was the Qing government saw a lot of old scores settled and factionalism rose amongst officials. The first order of business after dealing with Heshen was obviously the White Lotus war. The day after Qianlong's death, Jiaqing issued an edict naming the suppression of antigovernment religious sects as the dynasty's most urgent priority. Jiaqing rallied against the corrupt military officers accusing them of dragging out the war in order to fill their pockets. He laid blame for the insurrection upon the civil servants who extorted the peasants. “The peasants enjoy few fruits from their labor. So how can they possibly supply such insatiable demands? It is the local officials who provoked these rebellions”. Emperor Jiaqing began removing corrupt and incompetent military officials to try and replace them with better men, but the reality at the time was quite thin pickings. Most of the Manchu generals of his father or grandfathers generation were dead or far too old to lead. The younger generation were not born into the same world as their parents. If you've ever listened to Dan Carlin's podcast and yes I am nothing but a mere fanboy, he often makes the analogy of how empires go soft. The old quasi proverb of old wooden shoes going up the stairs and soft silken sandals going down them. This new generation of Manchu did not live the hardened lifestyle of their ancestors, they were living in a world of luxury now. A ton of the younger generation were also tainted by the Heshen click. Yet there was a minority of great warriors and some of the old guard so to say that had won Emperor Qianlong some victories back in the day. The very best of them was a physically enduring Manchu named Eldemboo. At 51 years old in the year of 1799 he was selected to lead the White Lotus suppression. He was quite old, but experienced, ruthless and said to be incorruptible. Elemboo's had been part of campaigns in the 1770's to bring parts of the frontiers under the Qing Yolk. He fought the Burmese in southern Yunnan. He fought during the Tibetan rebellion in the1770's, during a muslim uprising in Gansu in 1784, helped put down a rebellion in Taiwan in 1787 and served in the far west against the Gurkhas in Tibet and Nepal in the 1790s. By 1797 he was a Lt-general who had just succeeded in suppressing a Miao ethnic uprising in Hunan province. The campaign against the White Lotus faced a crucial problem, that of mobility. The rebels required little in terms of weaponry and could get pretty much anything on the go from just about any village. They did not construct elaborate camps, they were accustomed to the mountains and forests and could carry out guerilla warfare at a moments notice. The Qing military was another beast altogether. It required enormous logistical operations to move its food, matchlock muskets, ammunition, powder, bows and arrows, this all required carts and beasts of burden. Usually these logistics were not a problem, but for mountains and forest regions it was a nightmare. The rebels understood the advantage and made sure to take up positions in the worst possible places for such logistics. Because of these logistical problems the Qing forces had been simply setting up stations in fixed positions hoping to cast a net around rebel pockets. Many commanders simply did not have the stomach to march into forests or up mountain sides to chase an enemy that would use every obstacle against them. Eldemboo unlike his predecessor commanders not only was willing to venture into the forests and mountains, but was perfectly willing to endure the hardship of such ventures alongside his men. A new approach was necessary for the campaign. Eldemboo called for “jianbi qingye” “fortify the walls and clear the countryside”. The idea was two fold, first to separate the good peasants from those who would support the White Lotus, by concentrating them in places of safety ie, behind fortified encampments known as baozhai. In these Baozhai, some peasants would be trained as militia to defend their respective camps. The second idea was to clear the countryside, by moving all the grain harvest and food stores away and into the Baozhai where all the good peasants would be taking refuge. The hope was the rebels would eventually be unable to scavenge food from the emptied countryside and would be forced to come out of their hiding and fight the government forces on their terms. Under the command of Eldemboo, the jianbi qingye strategy was implemented throughout the war zone. Hundreds of fortified camps were in the wartorn provinces. The fortified camps held strong walls and deep moats. The militiamen would defend them and not be taken out on campaigns that earlier had caused so much havoc upon the populace. The new role of the militiamen was to protect their own families, neighbors and such and thus they were far less likely to fall into banditry. While the quote “good” population concentrated in their Baozhai, defended by their good militiamen, Eldemboo's manchu and Han troops were now free to campaign at will through any wartorn province. Soon Eldemboo began producing a string of victories over the weakened rebel forces. By early 1803, Eldemboo's campaign had moved into its final phase, a brutal mop up operation. The remnants of the broken rebels needed to be crushed and the demilitarization of all the militiamen needed to gradually begin. Emperor Jiaqing warned his generals not to relax in their campaigns prematurely. “Though the main disease is cured, there are boils and sores that remain. If even a single rebel is left alive, it would be enough for them to keep spreading and growing”. Emperor Jiaqing's generals heeded his words and continued to ruthlessly crush the remnants of the rebels. A systematic program of pacification was enacted. The “good” populace was continuously resettled into the fortified cities, while the Qing forces pursued and exterminated the rebel guerrilla bands, though it should be noted they did give amnesty to many rebels who deserted. It was the combination of military and social policies that were winning the day. Qing administrators seized and destroyed all White Lotus scriptures they could find in the warzones. By the late summer of 1803, some of Jiaqing's commanders reported back to him that after 8 years of extermination efforts against the White Lotus in the 3 provinces, it seemed for all intensive purposes the job was complete. In early 1804, Eldemboo traveled back to Beijing and returned his carved seal of authority to the Emperor, signifying that the war was over. It would be the last great victory of Eldemboo's very long career. The next year at the age of 57 Eldemboo died and with him the last of that hardened generation. In 1805, Emperor Jiaqing was able to address the empire without the ongoing drain of resources due to the White Lotus War. It was a very bitter victory, most rebellions are. A chinese scholar wrote a few decades later that it was estimated that several hundred thousand rebels had been killed during the war. For the governmental forces, militiamen and countless civilians who died of war and starvation the scholar simply stated it could not be calculated. There was also no way to differentiate the White Lotus from the rebels as there were countless groups rebelling for differing reasons. A major problem with the White Lotus Rebellion aside from the death and horror was the loss of prestige for the Qing military. There was a sort of myth of invincibility for the Manchu warriors, hell they had conquered the Ming Dynasty afterall. But the scale of damage caused by the White Lotus Rebellion was eye opening, it took the Qing 8 years to quell it! And quell it is a strong word, for the White Lotus were not truly gone or anything, there would be sporadic revolts throughout the early 19th century, just not on the same scale as the 8 year war. The Manchu army of the early 19th century was not the same generation that once conquered the Ming. The wooden shoes were being cast off and silky slippers were starting to become the norm so to say for you Dan Carlin fans. To make everything much worse, the adoption of training and hiring militia's would have a devastating effect on the Qing dynasty until its demise in the 20th century. This was not a unique problem for China, many empires fell for this same reason. Take example the Egyptian empire under the Ptolemy's. Under the reign of Ptolemy IV Philophater the military was forced to hire local native Egyptians in large numbers for the first time to deal with the 4th Syrian war of 219-217BC. Prior to this war, the Ptolemiac empire had a military consisted mostly of Greeks and for a very important reason, they did not want to train or arm the native population who did not like them very much. When their backs were against the wall they trained around 30,000 native egyptians as Phalangites and hell it paid off during the battle of Raphia when they smashed the army of Antiochus III. The Ptolemies had finally ended what was an ongoing manpower problem. Oh and then the trained and armed Egyptians rebelled and created a separate kingdom that lasted 20 years. It was an enormous turning point in Ptolemaic history and a bitter lesson. For the Qing the hiring of militia armies will occur on countless occasions for countless reasons, but one thing is for sure it is part of a long list of reasons as to why the great dynasty will crumble. I would like to take this time to remind you all that this podcast is only made possible through the efforts of Kings and Generals over at Youtube. Please go subscribe to Kings and Generals over at Youtube and to continue helping us produce this content please check out www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals. If you are still hungry after that, give my personal channel a look over at The Pacific War Channel at Youtube, it would mean a lot to me. The once mighty Qing have proven to be not so mighty anymore. The 8 year White Lotus Rebellion was quelled, but at what cost to the empire? With the death of Eldemboo came also the deaths of a generation of strong warriors. And while this rebellion was going on, something else was afoot, this time not an internal issue, but a growing external one.
Monday to Friday enjoy the audio version of Ezra Levant's daily TV-style show, The Ezra Levant Show, where Ezra gives you his contrarian and conservative take on free speech, politics, and foreign policy through in-depth commentary and interviews. Tuesday evenings check out Miss Understood with Nat Biase and Kat Krozonouski the latest Rebel News show about pop culture and politics from a Christian-conservative perspective. Wednesday evenings you can listen to the audio version of The Gunn Show with Sheila Gunn Reid the Chief Reporter of Rebel News. Sheila brings a western sensibility to Canadian news. With one foot in the oil patch and one foot in agriculture, Sheila challenges mainstream media narratives and stands up for Albertans. Thursday nights catch Andrew Says with Andrew Chapados this show features notable guests from politics, entertainment and the news world. Join Andrew for an honest discussion on on-going world issues like public policy, censorship and freedom. Finally on Friday nights, catch the audio version of Rebel Roundup with David Menzies. David interviews three journalists about some of the most interesting stories they have been reporting on over the past week. If you want to watch the video versions of these podcasts, make sure to begin your free RebelNewsPlus trial by subscribing at http://www.RebelNewsPlus.com
En nuestra sección sobre los Monasterios de Aragón, esta semana conocemos en profundidad la historia y la riqueza patrimonial de La Cartuja Monasterio de Nuestra Señora de las Fuentes de Sariñena y de la que nos habla Alberto lasheras, guia de la cartuja. (Foto: Diputación Provincial de Huesca)
Three women involved in a project to build a centre dedicated to the healing and support of Indigenous women, girls and 2SLGBTQIA+ people and their families are celebrating their dream finally becoming a reality.
Today on the Richard Syrett Show: Jim Karahalios, leader of the New Blue Party of Ontario reacts to the provincial budget. The founder of RealClimateScience.com, Tony Heller discusses Australia's Great Barrier Reef being the healthiest it's been in 36 years & the rich world's message to the poor. Then politician & candidate for Toronto mayor, Blake Acton talks about his campaign and platform.Jay Goldberg, Ontario director at the Canadian Taxpayers Federation brings up how taxpayers are disappointed with the Ford government's throne speech and budget. Then host of the “Quiggin Report” podcast, Tom Quiggin weighs in on an Ottawa police detective who is facing misconduct charges for allegedly seeking links between COVID vaccines and child deaths.
Since the summer of Black Lives Matter in 2020, institutions all over the U.S. have been exploring their pasts. In order to understand how they may have contributed to or helped perpetuate systemic racism. Universities, private businesses, and non-profits have all been working to try to understand what it means to be Anti-Racist. The American Statistical Association launched an Anti-Racism Task Force to explore this very thing, and that's the focus of this episode of Stats+Stories with guests Dr. Adrian Coles and Dr. David Marker. Dr. Coles is an Associate Director of Biostatistics at Bristol Myers Squibb. He is a collaborative researcher who specializes in the design and implementation of clinical trials and the interpretation of clinical trial data to facilitate the assessment of benefit/risk for promising pharmaceutical innovations. He is also a subject matter expert in diversity, equity, and inclusion and chairs the American Statistical Association's Committee on Minorities in Statistics as well as the organization's Antiracism Taskforce. Dr. Marker is a senior statistician who recently retired after 37+ years at Westat. He is continuing to consult on topics of personal interest. He has worked on studies in the fields of public health, environmental pollution, homelessness, voting rights, and many others. He recently served as co-chair of the American Statistical Association's Anti-Racism Task Force. Dr. Marker is an internationally recognized consultant in total quality management, having advised the Swedish, Norwegian, Finnish, South African, Dutch, and Danish Governments on improving the quality of their data collection activities. He has also appeared as an expert witness before Federal, state, and local governments and on voting rights and language-minority rights before Federal, State, and Provincial courts. Dr. Marker is a Fellow of the ASA and American Academy for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and an Elected member of the International Statistical Institute. He will receive a Founders Award from the ASA at this summer's Joint Statistical Meetings.
(9 de agosto: Día Internacional de las Poblaciones Indígenas) Cuando los conquistadores españoles arribaron a las costas de Mesoamérica, los nahuas se habían diseminado desde lo que hoy llamamos México hasta América Central, con asentamientos de importancia en Nicaragua. Entre aquel grupo de pueblos que tenían en común la lengua náhuatl, había una superstición muy curiosa que tenía que ver con la infidelidad. Según la superstición, si los ratones abrían un hoyo en el vestido de una esposa, el esposo consideraba que era señal de que ella le había sido infiel; en cambio, si los ratones roían la ropa del esposo, entonces ella lo juzgaba culpable de infidelidad a él.1 Ahora bien, para quienes pudieran juzgar, por su parte, que esa superstición de los nahuas fuera algo inconcebible para los españoles, presuntamente más civilizados, más vale que vuelvan a pensarlo. Es que había una tradición española igualmente curiosa que tenía que ver también con la infidelidad y que tenía como escenario el monumental Colegio de San Ciriaco y Santa Paula, más conocido como Colegio de Málaga, en Alcalá de Henares. En uno de los patios del interior de aquel Colegio, hay una gran fuente decorada con la figura de un monstruo por donde antiguamente salía el agua. Según la tradición, cuando una mujer dudaba de la lealtad de su amado, lo llevaba a ese patio y lo obligaba a jurarle amor eterno con la mano derecha metida hasta la muñeca en la boca del monstruo. Y si el hombre se atrevía a mentir, la figura de piedra cerraba su gran boca, tragándose la mano del amante infiel.2 En lo que más se parecen esas supersticiones de los nahuas y de los españoles es que dan por sentado que la infidelidad es intolerable. Es un engaño que merece un castigo severo, sobre todo tratándose de personas que se han jurado lealtad. Y no debiera extrañarnos que dos culturas tan distintas tuvieran en común esa norma de conducta, si consideramos que los integrantes de las dos fueron creados por el mismo Dios a su imagen y semejanza. Y conste que se trata de un Dios que, antes de darnos el mandamiento que prohíbe el adulterio, nos prohíbe que le seamos infieles adorando ídolos o a otros presuntos dioses, diciendo textualmente: «Yo, el Señor tu Dios, soy un Dios celoso».3 ¿Cómo es que se manifiestan esos celos? En el libro del profeta Oseas, habiendo juzgado que reina la infidelidad entre su pueblo, Dios decide enseñarle a ese pueblo infiel una lección objetiva. Manda a Oseas que se case con una prostituta, sabiendo de antemano que ella lo va a engañar, y cuando la esposa le es infiel, Dios le ordena al pobre profeta que la ame, a pesar de que es adúltera, tal y como Él ama a su pueblo, a pesar de que éste se ha vuelto a dioses ajenos. Pero su amor es tal que, en la lección que le enseña a su pueblo, Dios no se limita a pedirle cuentas por su conducta, como tenemos la tendencia a hacer nosotros, sino que se dispone a perdonar a todo el que se vuelva a Él arrepentido.4 Más vale, entonces, que aprovechemos el perdón que Dios nos ofrece, y que cultivemos una relación estrecha con Él, agradecidos de que para Él es tan insoportable que dejemos de amarlo como lo es que dejemos de serle fieles. Pues si mantenemos esa relación íntima con Él, disfrutaremos del único amor que es de veras eterno. Carlos ReyUn Mensaje a la Concienciawww.conciencia.net 1 Daniel G. Brinton, «Historia del baile del Güegüence», en Baile de El Güegüence o Macho Ratón (Managua, Nicaragua: Editorial Hispamer, 1998), p. 15. 2 Arsenio E. Lope Huerta y M. Vicente Sánchez Molto, Leyendas y refranes complutenses (Madrid, España: Diputación Provincial de Madrid, Delegación de Cultura, Deportes y Turismo, 1982), p. 136. 3 Éx 20:3,4,14; Dt 5:7,8,18 4 Os 3:1; 4:1; 14:2
China now has a migrant population of 125 million. Can a direct settlement policy across provinces help reduce medical expenses for migrant workers? We take a look at the nuts and bolts of this development (00:48). / Apple would like to get into your car (27:22). / Motivational Monday (46:16)! On the show: Heyang, Laiming & Huang Shan
Mao explains his refusal to comply with orders from the Hunan Provincial Committee.Further reading:Stephen Averill, Revolution in the Highlands: China's Jinggangshan Base AreaStuart Schram, ed., Mao's Road to Power, vol. 3: From the Jinggangshan to the Establishment of the Jiangxi Soviets, July 1927-December 1930Pang Xianzhi and Jin Chongji, Mao Zedong: A Biography, vol. 1: 1893-1949Some names from this episode:Du Xiujing, Inspector sent to the Jinggangshan by the Hunan Provincial Committee in May 1928 and who returned in JuneYuan Desheng, Representative of the Hunan Provincial Committee in the JinggangshanYang Chisheng, Guomindang commander defeated by the Communists in June 1928Wang Zuo, Bandit leader who joined with Mao ZedongYuan Wencai, Bandit leader who joined with Mao ZedongWang Jun, Guomindang military commander in JiangxiShang Chengjie, Guomindang military commander in HunanXu Kexiang, Guomindang military commander in HunanWu Shang, Guomindang military commander in HunanSupport the show