Podcasts about Modi

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Best podcasts about Modi

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Latest podcast episodes about Modi

FT News Briefing
Adani scrambles to reassure investors

FT News Briefing

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 8, 2023 8:56


Federal Reserve chair Jay Powell said on Tuesday that reducing inflation would take a “significant period of time”, Turkey declared a state of emergency in areas ravaged by the region's worst earthquake in decades, and the FT's John Reed explains how allegations of stock manipulation at Indian conglomerate Adani present a challenge to the country's institutions. Mentioned in this podcast:Erdoğan declares state of emergency in Turkey after deadly earthquakeDesperate victims of Turkish earthquake victims cry, pray and wait for newsThe Adani affair: the fallout for Modi's IndiaSound credit: BBC NewsnightThe FT News Briefing is produced by Fiona Symon, Sonja Hutson and Marc Filippino. The show's editor is Jess Smith. Additional help by Peter Barber, Michael Lello, David da Silva and Gavin Kallmann. Topher Forhecz is the FT's executive producer. The FT's global head of audio is Cheryl Brumley. The show's theme song is by Metaphor Music. Read a transcript of this episode on FT.com Hosted on Acast. See acast.com/privacy for more information.

ThePrint
ThePrintAM : Who are the 5 new SC judges, elevated amid Modi govt-collegium standoff?

ThePrint

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 7, 2023 7:39


The New Flesh
Salvatore Babones | India's Democracy | Ep. 186

The New Flesh

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 6, 2023 65:05


In this week's episode, Ricky and Jon interview Salvatore Babones. Salvatore is a political sociologist at the University of Sydney. His book "The New Authoritarianism: Trump, Populism, and the Tyranny of Experts" was named ‘Best on Politics 2018' by the Wall Street Journal. His newest research focuses on India's democracy and the world democracy rankings. We took a deep dive on the problems with the international democracy rankings and India's success as a post colonialist democratic state. ---ARTICLES AND LINKS DISCUSSEDFollow Salvatore on Twitter:@sbabones Indian Democracy at 75: Who Are the Barbarians at the Gate?:https://www.hindudvesha.org/blog/indian-democracy-at-75-who-are-the-barbarians-at-the-gate---FOLLOW THE CONVERSATION ON reddit:https://www.reddit.com/r/thenewfleshpodcast/---SUPPORT THE NEW FLESHBuy Me A Coffee:https://www.buymeacoffee.com/thenewflesh---Instagram: @thenewfleshpodcast---Twitter: @TheNewFleshpod---Follow Ricky: @ricky_allpike on InstagramFollow Jon: @thejonastro on Instagram---Logo Design by Made To Move: @made.tomove on InstagramTheme Song: Dreamdrive "Chase Dreams"

Bharatiya Junta Podcast
BJPod Newsein and Thoughtein: Full Sapot Adani, Pathan and logic and kya Modi Ji Marvel universe ke Superman hai?

Bharatiya Junta Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 6, 2023 87:52


Gang discusses Adani debacle. And try to make sense of Pathan. Aditya talks about his India exp and why he can now vote for BJP also his missed connection with Modi Ji. We also talk of the Shetty and YRF universe and how that is our Marvel and DC. And ask big questions like, isn't BJP central committee meeting the real Indian avengers? Also for fans of Aditya- HE BACK

ThePrint
Cut The Clutter: RSS chief Mohan Bhagwat on caste & jobs, Congress asks Modi Govt 3 questions on Adani a day

ThePrint

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 6, 2023 23:13


As multiple political developments take place across India, from the Congress questioning the Centre on the Adani controversy in Parliament to Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh chief Mohan Bhagwat talking about caste in his speech Sunday, ThePrint Editor-in-Chief Shekhar Gupta decodes the political nuances of it all, in episode 1168 of ‘Cut the Clutter'.

ELON
Mentimos a Elon Musk para que nos haga Retweet

ELON

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 4, 2023 42:50


Elon Musk se traga cualquier chorrada que lee en Internet, así que no vamos a ser nosotros menos, que de chorradas sabemos mucho. Patrocinador: Aunque el Gobierno haya eliminado las ayudas, en BP siguen los ahorros de 10 céntimos por litro utilizando la tarjeta MI BP, que puedes instalar como aplicación en tu móvil, y en cuestión de segundos empezar a ahorrar y acumular puntos. — Te dejo el catálogo de regalos y privilegios como los descuentos en Amazon. No tenemos mucho dinero, pero tampoco somos honrados. Elon Musk ha ganado el juicio después de que finalizáramos de grabar este episodio, así que no nos hagáis mucho caso. Comentamos el despegue inminente de Starship, lo bien que le va a Tesla, y lo mal que le va a Twitter. La reacción de Elon Musk al conocer los planes de Argentina y Brasil para tener una moneda común Judge rejects Elon Musk's bid to move trial from S.F. | Automotive News It Began When Elon Musk Reportedly Parked His Tesla in the Wrong Spot… Saudi Arabia's sovereign fund builds $2bn Tesla stake | Financial Times (2) Elon Musk on Twitter: "Investor support is confirmed. Only reason why this is not certain is that it's contingent on a shareholder vote." / Twitter Tesla grows headcount to new record despite waves of layoffs Elon Musk dismisses his negative impact on Tesla's reputation with douchey answer | Electrek Tesla, Mexico in talks on new Gigafactory but no deal yet: state official - Nikkei Asia SpaceX carga por primera vez –y a la primera– un Starship de propelentes Elon Musk Removes BBC Doc at Request of India PM Modi India: Gobierno censura un documental sobre Modi; hubo arrestos tras algunas proyecciones Musk Apologizes for Tweeting Baseless Paul Pelosi Conspiracy Theory ELON está presentado por Matías S. Zavia (@matiass) y Álex Barredo (@somospostpc). Su tema original está compuesto por Nahúm García (@nahum). — Alojado en Cuonda (@cuonda)

The Jaipur Dialogues
The Sinister Plans of BBC against Modi _ Dr Rajeev Mishra, Advaita Kala, Sanjay Dixitt

The Jaipur Dialogues

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 4, 2023 43:40


The two BBC documentaries on Modi are clearly a hit job. Part 2 makes out a case of Modi against Muslims. The template is pretty much the Global Left template against India, Hindus and Modi. Advaita Kala and Dr. Rajeev Mishra join Sanjay Dixit to discuss.

The Jaipur Dialogues
The Amazing Budget by Modi Goverment _ Middle Class Budget 2023

The Jaipur Dialogues

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 3, 2023 90:25


The Amazing Budget by Modi Goverment _ Middle Class Budget 2023

Daily Cogito
3 Modi per rendere utile e inutile la Filosofia

Daily Cogito

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 3, 2023 45:17


La Filosofia può essere utile oppure inutile, tutto dipende da quale atteggiamento adottiamo nei suoi confronti. Pre-ordina "La Parola a don Chisciotte" ➤➤➤ https://amzn.to/3jmCYpQ CAMBLY diventa ancora più EFFICACE! Da oggi con Cambly Groups e potrai migliorare il tuo inglese anche con piccoli gruppi che renderanno ancor più conveniente il servizio! Usa il codice sconto cogitocg e iscriviti con il 50% di sconto: http://bit.ly/3jgD8Pu  I prossimi eventi dal vivo ➤➤➤ https://www.dailycogito.com/eventi  Impara ad argomentare bene ➤➤➤ https://www.dailycogito.com/video-corso/  Il canale Youtube ➤➤➤ https://www.youtube.com/c/RiccardoDalFerro  Entra nella Community ➤➤➤ https://www.patreon.com/rickdufer  La newsletter gratuita ➤➤➤ http://eepurl.com/c-LKfz  Daily Cogito su Spotify ➤➤➤ http://bit.ly/DailySpoty  Canale Discord (chat per abbonati) ➤➤➤ https://discord.gg/pSVdzMB Tutti i miei libri ➤➤➤ https://www.dailycogito.com/libri/  Il negozio (felpe, tazze, maglie e altro) ➤➤➤ https://www.dailycogito.org/  INSTAGRAM: https://instagram.com/rickdufer  INSTAGRAM di Daily Cogito: https://instagram.com/dailycogito  TELEGRAM: http://bit.ly/DuFerTelegram  FACEBOOK: http://bit.ly/duferfb   LINKEDIN: https://www.linkedin.com/pub/riccardo-dal-ferro/31/845/b14  -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chi sono io: https://www.dailycogito.com/rick-dufer/  -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- La sigla è stata prodotta da Freaknchic: https://www.freaknchic.it/  La voce è della divina Romina Falconi, la produzione del divino Immanuel Casto.  A cura di Stefano Maggiore. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

ThePrint
ThePrintAM : What are the key takeaways from Modi govt's Budget 2023?

ThePrint

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 2, 2023 4:26


ThePrint
#CutTheClutter: Why's defence budget static in Modi years, even falling as % of GDP & budget & implications

ThePrint

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 2, 2023 20:51


Defence has been allocated Rs 5.94 lakh crore , a notional rise. At 13.18 % of the total national budget and just about 2% of GDP, it's the lowest % on both yardsticks. ThePrint Editor-In-Chief Shekhar Gupta unpacks the nuances of the defence budget & Modi Govt's thinking behind it. Episode 1166 of #CutTheClutter --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cut The Clutter Episode 205 : https://youtu.be/i3qRNXA3GFo --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Arsenal for Pakistan prepped, Army now focuses on ammo reserves to deal with China: https://theprint.in/defence/arsenal-for-pakistan-prepped-army-now-focuses-on-ammo-reserves-to-deal-with-china/296531/?amp 

The Jaipur Dialogues
The Amazing Budget by Modi Goverment Middle Class Budget 2023

The Jaipur Dialogues

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 2, 2023 75:48


The Amazing Budget by Modi Goverment Middle Class Budget 2023

ThePrint
#CutTheClutter: Politics of the budget which rides 3 engines of Modi-BJP politics yet cuts taxes for the richest

ThePrint

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 1, 2023 12:28


Nirmala Sitharaman today presented the union budget for 2023-2024, the last full-year budget of Modi Govt before the 2024 elections, ThePrint Editor-in-Chief Shekhar Gupta explains the political message of this budget, from tax cut for the rich to a big increase in allocation for railways & more, in episode 1165 of ‘Cut the Clutter'.

The Media Show
BBC's Modi documentary controversy

The Media Show

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 1, 2023 28:00


In India, a BBC documentary about India's Prime Minister Narendra Modi is causing controversy. The documentary explores tensions between Narendra Modi and India's Muslim minority. The Indian government says it has ordered Twitter and YouTube to take down video clips from the documentary, but what are the implications for press freedom in India? Also in the programme, how Spotify's podcast strategy is changing and what it means for how we listen to radio and podcasts in the future. Guests: Rishi Iyengar, staff writer at Foreign Policy magazine; Supriya Sharma, Executive Editor of the news website Scroll; Raman Jit Singh Chima, Asia policy director at Access Now; Nick Hilton, podcast industry analyst and founder of Podot; Arielle Nissenblatt, founder of the EarBuds Podcast Collective newsletter. Producer: Dan Hardoon Presenter: Ros Atkins

ThePrint
ThePrintPod : Modi is opening BJP to minorities. We can thank Rahul Gandhi's Bharat Jodo Yatra for it

ThePrint

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 1, 2023 6:33


Advani's rath yatra left a legacy of violence in the form of riots. Rahul Gandhi's yatra has been staked on the power of nonviolence. On this yardstick, Bharat Jodo Yatra is a winner.

Grand Tamasha
The Congress Party's Quest for Relevance

Grand Tamasha

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 1, 2023 42:22


The Congress Party's Bharat Jodo Yatra has spent more than 120 days traveling the length of India from the southern city of Kanniyakumari to the northern state of Jammu and Kashmir.After traveling more than 3,500 kilometers, the march formally ended on January 30 in Srinagar. The yatra has grabbed headlines and riled up Congress supporters, but the question remains—what does it actually mean for the future of the Congress Party? To talk about the yatra's legacy, Milan is joined on the show this week by Dipankar Ghose, deputy national editor of the Hindustan Times and three-time winner of the prestigious Ramnath Goenka Award. Dipankar covered the yatra when it traveled through Rajasthan in late December, and he and Milan discuss the yatra's impact on the Congress Party's fortunes, Rahul Gandhi's image, and the party's “vision” problem. Plus, the two discuss the BJP's reaction to the yatra and what comes next for India's struggling principal opposition party. Dipankar Ghose, “Counting milestones: A day in the life of the Bharat Jodo Yatra,” Hindustan Times, December 16, 2022.Dipankar Ghose, “Congress political crisis: The parallels in Rajasthan and Chhattisgarh,” Hindustan Times, September 26, 2022.“G20, State Elections, and the Future of the Congress Party (with Sadanand Dhume and Tanvi Madan),” Grand Tamasha, December 14, 2022.  

ThePrint
ThePrintPod : Budget 2023: Eye on polls, Modi govt allots Rs 15,000 cr for tribal development — 5x hike

ThePrint

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 1, 2023 5:47


Of nine states headed for polls this year, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland have over 85% tribal population, while two, Chhattisgarh and Tripura, have more than 30%.

Far From Fact
239: BBC Modi Documentary

Far From Fact

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 31, 2023 24:55


The BBC made a documentary on Prime Minister Narendra Modi. What has given the documentary its biggest boost in publicity is the fact that the government has banned it. The opposition and several student bodies across the country believe it should not be banned. The government on the other hand is calling it propaganda with a colonial mindset. Either way, no documentary has enjoyed this kind of word-of-mouth ever. Catch the lads as they try to find the silver lining in all of this chaos. Here is a link to the video + Music credit - Simon D'Souza + Write to us - hello@farfromfact.in + Follow us https://www.instagram.com/farfromfact/ Paypal paypal.me/farfromfact

The Seen and the Unseen - hosted by Amit Varma
Ep 314: The Life and Times of Jerry Pinto

The Seen and the Unseen - hosted by Amit Varma

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 30, 2023 484:32


Poet, novelist, translator, journalist, crime fiction writer, children's book author, teacher, math tutor: now here is a man who contains multitudes. Jerry Pinto joins Amit Varma in episode 314 of The Seen and the Unseen to talk about his life and learnings. (FOR FULL LINKED SHOW NOTES, GO TO SEENUNSEEN.IN.) Also check out: 1. Jerry Pinto on Instagram, Amazon and his own website. 2. Em and the Big Hoom -- Jerry Pinto. 3. The Education of Yuri -- Jerry Pinto. 4. Murder in Mahim -- Jerry Pinto. 5. A Book of Light -- Edited by Jerry Pinto. 6. Baluta -- Daya Pawar (translated by Jerry Pinto). 7. I Have Not Seen Mandu -- Swadesh Deepak (translated by Jerry Pinto). 8. Cobalt Blue -- Sachin Kundalkar (translated by Jerry Pinto). 9. The Life and Times of Shanta Gokhale -- Episode 311 of The Seen and the Unseen. 10. ‘Sometimes I feel I have to be completely invisible as a poet' -- Jerry Pinto's interview of Adil Jussawalla. 11. A Godless Congregation — Amit Varma. 12. The Rooted Cosmopolitanism of Sugata Srinivasaraju — Episode 277 of The Seen and the Unseen. 13. The Big Questions — Steven E Landsburg. 14. Unlikely is Inevitable — Amit Varma. 15. The Law of Truly Large Numbers. 16. The Gentle Wisdom of Pratap Bhanu Mehta — Episode 300 of The Seen and the Unseen. 17. Young India — Episode 83 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Snigdha Poonam). 18. Dreamers — Snigdha Poonam. 19. The Loneliness of the Indian Man — Episode 303 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Nikhil Taneja). 20. The History Boys -- Alan Bennett. 21. The Connell Guide to How to Write Well -- Tim de Lisle. 22. Thinking Better: The Art of the Shortcut -- Marcus Du Sautoy. 23. Dead Poet's Society -- Peter Weir. 24. A Mathematician's Apology -- GH Hardy. 25. The Man Who Knew Infinity -- Robert Kanigel. 26. David Berlinski and Martin Gardner on Amazon, and Mukul Sharma on Wikipedia.. 27. Range Rover -- The archives of Amit Varma's column on poker for The Economic Times. 28. Luck is All Around -- Amit Varma. 29. Stoicism on Wikipedia, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy and Britannica. 30. House of the Dead —  Fyodor Dostoevsky. 31. Black Beauty -- Anna Sewell. 32. Lady Chatterley's Lover -- DH Lawrence. 33. Mr Norris Changes Trains -- Chistopher Isherwood. 34. Sigrid Undset on Amazon and Wikipedia. 35. Some Prefer Nettles -- Junichiro Tanizaki. 36. Things Fall Apart — Chinua Achebe. 37. Jane Austen and Thomas Hardy on Amazon. 38. Orientalism -- Edward Said. 39. Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne and Kurt Vonnegut on Amazon. 40. Johnny Got His Gun -- Dalton Trumbo. 41. Selected Poems -- Kamala Das. 42. Collected Poems -- Kamala Das. 43. In Which Annie Gives It Those Ones — Pradip Krishen. 44. Dance Dance For the Halva Waala — Episode 294 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Jai Arjun Singh and Subrat Mohanty). 45. Tosca -- Giacomo Puccini. 46. Civilisation by Kenneth Clark on YouTube and Wikipedia. 47. Archives of The World This Week. 48. Dardi Rab Rab Kardi -- Daler Mehndi. 49. Is Old Music Killing New Music? — Ted Gioia. 50. Mother India (Mehboob Khan) and Mughal-E-Azam (K Asif). 51. A Meditation on Form — Amit Varma. 52. Sara Rai Inhales Literature — Episode 255 of The Seen and the Unseen. 53. Collected Poems — Mark Strand. 54. Forgive Me, Mother -- Eunice de Souza. 55. Porphyria's Lover -- Robert Browning. 56. Island -- Nissim Ezekiel. 57. Paper Menagerie — Ken Liu. 58. Jhumpa Lahiri on Writing, Translation, and Crossing Between Cultures — Episode 17 of Conversations With Tyler. 59. The Notebook Trilogy — Agota Kristof. 60. Amitava Kumar Finds the Breath of Life — Episode 265 of The Seen and the Unseen. 61. The Blue Book: A Writer's Journal — Amitava Kumar. 62. Nissim Ezekiel on Amazon, Wikipedia and All Poetry. 63. Adil Jussawalla on Amazon, Wikipedia and Poetry International. 64. Eunice de Souza on Amazon, Wikipedia and Poetry International. 65. Dom Moraes on Amazon, Wikipedia and Poem Hunter. 66. WH Auden and Stephen Spender on Amazon. 67. Pilloo Pochkhanawala on Wikipedia and JNAF. 68. Arvind Krishna Mehrotra on Amazon, Wikipedia and Poetry Foundation. 69. Amar Akbar Anthony -- Manmohan Desai. 67. Ranjit Hoskote on Amazon, Instagram, Twitter, Wikipedia and Poetry International. 71. Arundhathi Subramaniam on Amazon, Instagram, Wikipedia, Poetry International and her own website. 72. The Red Wheelbarrow -- William Carlos Williams. 73. Mary Oliver's analysis of The Red Wheelbarrow. 74. A Poetry Handbook — Mary Oliver. 75. The War Against Cliche -- Martin Amis. 76. Seamus Heaney on Amazon, Wikipedia and Poetry Foundation. 77. The world behind 'Em and the Big Hoom' -- Jerry Pinto interviewed by Swetha Amit. 78. Jerry Pinto interviewed for the New York Times by Max Bearak. 79. Salman Rushdie, Amitav Ghosh and GV Desani on Amazon. 80. Episodes of The Seen and the Unseen on the creator ecosystem with Roshan Abbas, Varun Duggirala, Neelesh Misra, Snehal Pradhan, Chuck Gopal, Nishant Jain, Deepak Shenoy and Abhijit Bhaduri. 81. Graham Greene, W Somerset Maugham and Aldous Huxley on Amazon. 82. Surviving Men -- Shobhaa De. 83. Surviving Men -- Jerry Pinto. 84. The Essays of GK Chesterton. 85. The Life and Times of Nilanjana Roy — Episode 284 of The Seen and the Unseen. 86. City Improbable: Writings on Delhi -- Edited by Khushwant Singh. 87. Bombay, Meri Jaan -- Edited by Jerry Pinto and Naresh Fernandes. 88. The Life and Times of Urvashi Butalia — Episode 287 of The Seen and the Unseen. 89. Films, Feminism, Paromita — Episode 155 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Paromita Vohra). 90. Wanting -- Luke Burgis. 91. Kalpish Ratna and Sjowall & Wahloo on Amazon. 92. Memories and Things — Episode 195 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Aanchal Malhotra). 93. Ashad ka Ek Din -- Mohan Rakesh. 94. Anna Karenina -- Leo Tolstoy (translated by Constance Garnett). 95. Gordon Lish: ‘Had I not revised Carver, would he be paid the attention given him? Baloney!' -- Christian Lorentzen.. 96. Sooraj Barjatya and Yash Chopra. 97. The Life and Times of Mrinal Pande — Episode 263 of The Seen and the Unseen. 98. Don't think too much of yourself. You're an accident — Amit Varma. 99. Phineas Gage. 100. Georges Simenon on Amazon and Wikipedia.. 101. The Interpreter -- Amit Varma on Michael Gazzaniga's iconic neuroscience experiment. 102. The Life and Times of Abhinandan Sekhri — Episode 254 of The Seen and the Unseen.. 103. Madame Bovary -- Gustave Flaubert. 104. Self-Portrait — AK Ramanujan. 105. Ivan Turgenev, Ryu Murakami and Patricia Highsmith on Amazon. 106. A Clockwork Orange -- Anthony Burgess. 107. On Exactitude in Science — Jorge Luis Borges. 110. Playwright at the Centre: Marathi Drama from 1843 to the Present — Shanta Gokhale. 111. Kubla Khan -- Samuel Taylor Coleridge. 112. Girish Shahane, Naresh Fernandes, Suketu Mehta, David Godwin and Kiran Desai. 113. The Count of Monte Cristo -- Alexandre Dumas. 114. Pedro Almodóvar and Yasujirō Ozu. 115. The Art of Translation — Episode 168 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Arunava Sinha). 116. The Lives of the Poets -- Samuel Johnson. 117. Lives of the Women -- Various authors, edited by Jerry Pinto. 118. Lessons from an Ankhon Dekhi Prime Minister — Amit Varma. 119. On Bullshit — Harry Frankfurt. 120. The Facts Do Not Matter — Amit Varma. 121. Beware of the Useful Idiots — Amit Varma. 122. Modi's Lost Opportunity — Episode 119 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Salman Soz). 123. Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala. 124. The Importance of Data Journalism — Episode 196 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Rukmini S). 125. Rukmini Sees India's Multitudes — Episode 261 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Rukmini S). 126. Pramit Bhattacharya Believes in Just One Ism — Episode 256 of The Seen and the Unseen. 127. Listen, The Internet Has SPACE -- Amit Varma.. 128. Fixing Indian Education — Episode 185 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Karthik Muralidharan). 129. The Reflections of Samarth Bansal — Episode 299 of The Seen and the Unseen. 130. The Saturdays -- Elizabeth Enwright. 131. Summer of My German Soldier -- Bette Greene. 132. I am David -- Anne Holm. 133. Tove Jannson and Beatrix Potter on Amazon. 134. The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings -- JRR Tolkien. 135. Darkness Visible: A Memoir of Madness -- William Styron. 136. An Unquiet Mind: A Memoir of Moods and Madness -- Kay Redfield Jamison. 137. Searching for Swadesh -- Nirupama Dutt.. 138. Parsai Rachanawali -- Harishankar Parsai. 139. Not Dark Yet (official) (newly released outtake) -- Bob Dylan.. 140. How This Nobel Has Redefined Literature -- Amit Varma on Dylan winning the Nobel Prize.. 141. The New World Upon Us — Amit Varma. 142. PG Wodehouse on Amazon and Wikipedia. 143. I Heard the Owl Call My Name -- Margaret Craven. 144. 84, Charing Cross Road -- Helen Hanff. 145. Great Expectations, Little Dorrit and Bleak House -- Charles Dickens. 146. Middlemarch -- George Eliot. 147. The Pillow Book -- Sei Shonagon. 148. The Diary of Lady Murasaki -- Murasaki Shikibu. 149. My Experiments With Truth -- Mohandas Gandhi. 150. Ariel -- Sylvia Plath. 151. Jejuri -- Arun Kolatkar. 152. Missing Person -- Adil Jussawalla. 153. All About H Hatterr -- GV Desani. 154. The Ground Beneath Her Feet -- Salman Rushdie. 155. A Fine Balance -- Rohinton Mistry. 156. Tales from Firozsha Baag -- Rohinton Mistry. 157. Amores Perros -- Alejandro G Iñárritu. 158. Samira Makhmalbaf on Wikipedia and IMDb. 159. Ingmar Bergman on Wikipedia and IMDb. 160. The Silence, Autumn Sonata and Wild Strawberries - Ingmar Bergman. 161. The Mahabharata. 162. Yuganta — Irawati Karve. 163. Kalyug -- Shyam Benegal. 164. The Hungry Tide -- Amitav Ghosh. 165. On Hinduism and The Hindus -- Wendy Doniger. 166. I, Lalla: The Poems of Lal Dĕd — Lal Dĕd (translated by Ranjit Hoskote). 167. The Essential Kabir -- Arvind Krishna Mehrotra. 168. The Absent Traveller -- Arvind Krishna Mehrotra. 169. These My Words: The Penguin Book of Indian Poetry -- Edited by Eunice de Souza and Melanie Silgardo. This episode is sponsored by CTQ Compounds. Check out The Daily Reader and FutureStack. Use the code UNSEEN for Rs 2500 off. Check out Amit's online course, The Art of Clear Writing. And subscribe to The India Uncut Newsletter. It's free! Episode art: ‘He is Reading' by Simahina.

ThePrint
National Interest: Return of the Muslim: From Modi ‘sermon' to Pathaan to Bharat Jodo Yatra

ThePrint

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 28, 2023 10:26


The Listening Post
Why India banned the BBC's Modi documentary | The Listening Post

The Listening Post

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 28, 2023 25:16


The Indian government's decision to ban a BBC documentary about Prime Minister Narendra Modi's role in the 2002 Gujarat riots, which left more than a thousand people dead, has become its own story.It has drawn global attention to Modi's record in office and the subsequent decline of media freedom in the world's largest democracy.Contributors:Maya Mirchandani - Journalist, The WireMitali Saran - Writer and columnistShruti Kapila - Professor of Indian history and global political thought, University of CambridgeSanjay Kapoor - Editor, HardNews MagazineOn our radar:Investigations by Open Democracy and the Financial Times have uncovered how libel lawyers in London helped Yevgeny Prigozhin, the head of the Wagner mercenary group and one of Vladimir Putin's key allies, to go after his critics, including journalists, in the British courts. Producer Tariq Nafi talks us through the findings.Striking Back: United Kingdom's unions vs the media:With the United Kingdom in a state of political disarray, a wave of work stoppages has put trade unions, and the media's treatment of them, into the spotlight. One particular union leader, Mick Lynch, has flipped the script, putting journalists on the defensive for their habitual anti-union approach. Daniel Turi reports on the coverage of labour issues in the British media.Contributors:Aditya Chakrabortty - Senior economics commentator, The GuardianJulia Langdon - Former political editor, The Sunday Telegraph; former political editor, The Daily Mirror; chairwoman, British Journalism ReviewNicholas Jones - Former industrial correspondent, BBCMick Lynch - General secretary, RMT UnionSubscribe to our channel http://bit.ly/AJSubscribeFollow us on Twitter https://twitter.com/AJEnglishFind us on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/aljazeeraCheck our website: http://www.aljazeera.com/Check out our Instagram page: https://www.instagram.com/aljazeeraenglish/@AljazeeraEnglish#Aljazeeraenglish#News

ThePrint
Global Print: Why Pakistan Army is backing Shehbaz Sharif & whether it wants peace with Modi

ThePrint

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 27, 2023 18:38


India-Pak relations are poised once again on the anvil of peace. Here's why the Pakistan military establishment, the all powerful player in Pakistan, may be backing PM Shehbaz Sharif and pushing for peace with India. Watch the latest episode of #GlobalPrint with Jyoti Malhotra @jomalhotra ----more----Read this week's Global Print here: https://theprint.in/opinion/global-print/pakistan-army-must-be-on-board-with-shehbaz-peace-call-its-a-change-of-heart-helping-modi/1333414/

ThePrint
ThePrintPod : Budget 2023 will continue Modi's infrastructure push. But older projects lag

ThePrint

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 27, 2023 6:19


Despite slow progress on projects, experts are optimistic. They emphasise that India has shifted focus from bare minimum needs to next-level infra & infra for future, which takes time.

Tech 24
Moderation à la Modi: Indian government's crackdown on BBC documentary backfires

Tech 24

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 27, 2023 5:13


The Indian federal government's attempt to suppress a BBC documentary about Prime Minister Narendra Modi's role during the deadly 2002 anti-Muslim riots in Gujarat has backfired. Activists have been organising screenings across the country, and many people are continuing to share clips on platforms other than Twitter and YouTube. In this week's edition of Tech 24, Peter O'Brien breaks down what the consequences are, particularly for Twitter and the Modi government.

Monocle 24: The Globalist
Friday 27 January

Monocle 24: The Globalist

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 27, 2023 60:00


Today on the show, we unpack the ethical conundrum faced by Ukrainian journalists who must choose between professional duty and patriotism. Plus, India's Modi documentary ban, the latest Nordic news, and Walt Disney turns 100.

The Jaipur Dialogues
Why did Modi Show Support for Bollywood While Boycott Bollywood is on the Rise Rajesh Kumar Singh

The Jaipur Dialogues

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 26, 2023 47:06


There's one question on everyone's mind and that is, Why did Modi show support for Bollywood while boycott Bollywood is on the rise? Bollywood aka Urduwood has always been blatantly against Hindus, their culture and identity per se. Hence, this significant gesture of Modi speaking to protect Bollywood doesn't reflect good on his projected ideals and the stand taken by the Hindus to protect themselves. Rajesh Kumar Singh and Sanjay Dixit discuss the repercussions of the same.

The Rob is Right Podcast
Rules for Thee

The Rob is Right Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 26, 2023 19:30


Tomorrow's news today from the legendary Rob Smith! It is January 26th 2023! Today's Stories are Classified Files, Mayor Pete, Stanford's AI Problem, Tanks, and Modi demands Censorship. Don't forget to LIKE, SUBSCRIBE, COMMENT, ALL THAT GOOD STUFF! WE POST DAILY! If you don't see us, check our other socials. If you got a favorite, we are most likely on it! The All My Links has all of our Socials! - https://allmylinks.com/robisright

The Jaipur Dialogues
Ravish Kumar Plays Victim Card and Targets Modi in the Name of Fear Abhishek Tiwari and Sanjay Dixit

The Jaipur Dialogues

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 25, 2023 45:27


Ravish Kumar Plays Victim Card and Targets Modi in the Name of Fear Abhishek Tiwari and Sanjay Dixit

AND HERE’S MODI
Eli Levin

AND HERE’S MODI

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 25, 2023 64:49


Episode 62: Modi and Periel sit down with Eli Levin and discuss all things Jewish music.About our guest: Eli Levin is a singer/musician based out of Brooklyn, New York. He is known for his soulful 'Hartzig" music. No matter what genre - be it Chasidish, Israeli, pop, or classic rock, Eli loves to add a soulful flavor. Eli has brought his music and heartwarming voice to many simchas and events worldwide, adding a special energy that connects and spiritually uplifts his audience. Follow Eli on Instagram @elilevinmusic.For information about upcoming shows visit www.modilive.com.Follow Modi on Instagram at @modi_live.

Breaking Points with Krystal and Saagar
1/25/23 CounterPoints: Pence Classified Docs Found, DOJ Sues Google, Trump Charges, Cop City, Bezos Washington Post Sale, Ticketmaster, Elon Caves to India Censorship

Breaking Points with Krystal and Saagar

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 25, 2023 74:42


Ryan and Emily discuss classified documents found in Mike Pence's home, the Department of Justice announcing its anti trust case against Google, the final report of Fulton County grand jury investigating Trump may be released soon, guest Tina-Disiree joins us to discuss Cop City and how protestors of the new development have been charged as "Domestic Terrorists", reports Jeff Bezos may sell Washington Post to buy Commanders football team, and guest Raqib Naik joins to talk about Elon Musk caving to India's censorship demands over a BBC documentary on Modi. Timestamps: SoS: (0:00) Pence Docs: (1:50) Google DOJ: (10:10) Trump Charges: (20:57) COP CITY Protestors: (29:14) Bezos WaPo: (38:10) Ticketmaster Hearing: (49:51) Elon Bans BBC Doc: (57:38) EoS: (1:12:37) To become a Breaking Points Premium Member and watch/listen to the show uncut and 1 hour early visit: https://breakingpoints.supercast.com/ To listen to Breaking Points as a podcast, check them out on Apple and Spotify Apple: https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/breaking-points-with-krystal-and-saagar/id1570045623   Spotify: https://open.spotify.com/show/4Kbsy61zJSzPxNZZ3PKbXl   Merch: https://breaking-points.myshopify.com/ AUSTIN LIVE SHOW FEB 3RD Tickets: https://tickets.austintheatre.org/9053/9054 Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

Daily Dose
Daily Dose Ep 1261: Sisi meets Modi, Jamia students detained, Ladakh areas ‘lost'

Daily Dose

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 25, 2023 8:09


Gurmehar Kaur brings you the news from Delhi, Supreme Court, Hyderabad, and Pakistan.Produced by P Madhu Kumar, edited by Chanchal Gupta Hosted on Acast. See acast.com/privacy for more information.

Un jour dans le monde
L'Inde censure un documentaire de la BBC sur le premier ministre Narendra Modi

Un jour dans le monde

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 24, 2023 4:20


durée : 00:04:20 - Sous les radars - par : Sébastien LAUGENIE - Le gouvernement indien a annoncé samedi avoir bloqué des vidéos et des tweets partageant un documentaire de la BBC sur le rôle du Premier ministre Narendra Modi dans les émeutes communautaires du Gujarat en 2002, le qualifiant de "propagande".

InterNational
L'Inde censure un documentaire de la BBC sur le premier ministre Narendra Modi

InterNational

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 24, 2023 4:20


durée : 00:04:20 - Sous les radars - par : Sébastien LAUGENIE - Le gouvernement indien a annoncé samedi avoir bloqué des vidéos et des tweets partageant un documentaire de la BBC sur le rôle du Premier ministre Narendra Modi dans les émeutes communautaires du Gujarat en 2002, le qualifiant de "propagande".

ThePrint
ThePrintPOD: BBC Modi documentary row highlights highly risky nature of India's new image wars

ThePrint

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 23, 2023 7:19


In blocking any circulation or mention of the documentary on social media platforms, PM Modi has reinforced his image and actions as those of a strongman.

ThePrint
#ThePrintPod: What is ‘living will' and what are the Supreme Court's hearings on passive euthanasia about

ThePrint

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 23, 2023 5:26


Last week, the Supreme Court pulled up Modi government for not pushing a law on passive euthanasia. The court also promised to modify its guidelines to simplify the procedure.   ----more---- https://theprint.in/judiciary/what-is-living-will-and-what-are-the-supreme-courts-hearings-on-passive-euthanasia-about/1328680/

WorldAffairs
How Tech Layoffs Threaten Silicon Valley's Immigrant Workers

WorldAffairs

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 23, 2023 21:54


Silicon Valley relies on a huge foreign born workforce, mostly from India and China, to provide specialized skills in fields like engineering, biotech, AI and computer science. But after the most recent round of tech layoffs, visa holders have 60 days to find a new job, or lose their residency in the U.S.   Tech reporter Pranav Dixit has been paying attention to the outsized role foreign born workers play in companies like Google, Meta, and Amazon, who have laid off more than 26,000 employees in 2023, and thousands more at the end of 2022. In the course of his reporting, Dixit has found that these drastic cuts have left immigrant programmers and computer scientists wondering if it's worth staying in the U.S. “People are really using this time to reevaluate their priorities and their relationships,” said Dixit, “with both the US and their own country in many cases.”   Read more of Pranav Dixit's reporting for Buzzfeed: Laid-Off Tech Workers On H-1B Visas Might Be Forced To Leave The Country   And check out his past appearance on the program: Podcast: Why Farmers are Fighting in Modi's India - World Affairs Council    Guest:   Pranav Dixit, tech reporter at Buzzfeed   Host:     Ray Suarez   If you appreciate this episode and want to support the work we do, please consider making a donation to World Affairs. We cannot do this work without your help. Thank you.

Psicologia con Luca Mazzucchelli
Diversi modi di essere intelligente: perché non si può parlare di intelligenza

Psicologia con Luca Mazzucchelli

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 23, 2023 7:15


L'intelligenza non è una, ci sono diversi modi di essere intelligente. Ecco perché non si può parlare di intelligenza, ma si deve parlare di intelligenze al plurale. Howard Gardner, psicologo americano, è stato il primo a capire che non esisteva solo l'intelligenza logica matematica e che il test del QI poteva spiegare solo un modo di "essere intelligenti".Gardner ha spiegato, nella sua teoria delle intelligenze multiple, che esistono almeno 7 tipi di intelligenza, oltre quella logico-matematica: quella linguistica, l'intelligenza spaziale, l'intelligenza corporeo-cinestesica, musicale, l'intelligenza interpersonale e l'intelligenza intrapersonale. Proprio queste ultime due sono quelle che mi stanno particolarmente a cuore: l'intelligenza interpersonale e l'intelligenza intrapersonale. Vediamole insieme.Se vuoi saperne di più della teoria delle Intelligenze multiple di Gardner, ti aspetto su Audibile con il podcast “Scuola di Psicologia” in cui la collega Laura Pirotta parliamo dei grandi protagonisti della storia della psicologia, qui al link: https://bit.ly/3tde2jA.

The Jaipur Dialogues
MiLords vs Modi on Gay Judge via Collegium System Sanjay Dixit

The Jaipur Dialogues

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 21, 2023 14:40


MiLords vs Modi on Gay Judge via Collegium System Sanjay Dixit

Improve the News
January 21, 2023 top stories: No SCOTUS leak suspect, Alphabet job cuts, and Usain Bolt scammed

Improve the News

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 21, 2023 33:23


Facts & Spin for January 21, 2023 top stories: An investigation fails to identify the source of the SCOTUS draft leak, Google's parent Alphabet says it will cut 12,000 jobs, Germany comes under more pressure to provide tanks to Kyiv, the IMF chief says the global economic outlook is ‘less bad' than feared, Usain Bolt loses $12M in an alleged scam, police and protesters clash in Peru as thousands try to ‘take Lima,' India denounces a BBC documentary on Modi's alleged role in the Gujarat riots, Trump and a lawyer are fined nearly $1 million for a lawsuit against Clinton, a US judge orders Boeing to be arraigned on MAX fraud charges, and a new program lets private citizens sponsor refugees in the US. Sources: https://www.improvethenews.org/ Brief Listener Survey: https://www.improvethenews.org/pod

The Jaipur Dialogues
Has Modi Given Up Hindutva - Pasmanda, Sufi, Bollywood Appeasement Sanjay Dixit

The Jaipur Dialogues

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 21, 2023 16:26


Has Modi Given Up Hindutva - Pasmanda, Sufi, Bollywood Appeasement Sanjay Dixit

The Jaipur Dialogues
BBC Documentary - Narrative to Defeat Modi and Hindutva in 2024 Dhirendra Pundir and Sanjay Dixit

The Jaipur Dialogues

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 21, 2023 43:30


The BBC Documentary - 'The Modi Question' - is a propaganda work based on those very narratives and those very personalities who have been discredited in the witness boxes. Dhirendra Pundir joins Sanjay Dixit to discuss the timing and intent of this hit job.

Ideas Untrapped
Why Education, Electricity, And Fertility Matter for Development

Ideas Untrapped

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 21, 2023 81:36


Welcome to another episode of Ideas Untrapped. My guest today is Charlie Robertson, who is the chief economist of Renaissance Capital - a global investment bank - and in this episode we talked about the subject of Charlie's new book, "The Time-Travelling Economist''. The book explores the connection between education, electricity, and fertility to economic development. The thrust of the book's argument is that no poor country can escape poverty without education, and that electricity is an important factor for investors looking to build businesses. It also explains that a low fertility rate helps to increase household savings. Charlie argues, with a lot of data and historical parallels, that countries need at least a 70-80% adult literacy rate (defined as being able to read and write four sentences in any language) and cheap electricity (an average of 300 - 500 kWh per capita) in order to industrialize and grow their economies rapidly. Small(er) families (3 children per woman) mean households are able to save more money, which can improve domestic investments by lowering interest rates - otherwise countries may repeatedly stumble into debt crises. We also discussed how increasing education can lead to higher domestic wages, but that this is usually offset by a large increase in the working-age population - and other interesting implications of Charlie's argument.TRANSCRIPTTobi;The usual place I would start with is what inspired you to write it. You mentioned in the book that it was an IMF paper that sort of started your curiosity about the relationship between education, electricity, fertility, and economic development. Generally. So, what was the Eureka moment?Charlie;Yeah, the eureka moment actually came in Kenya, um, because I'd already done a lot of work showing how important education was. It's the most important, no country escapes poverty without education. So I'd already made that clear and there wasn't much debate about that. Perhaps there was a debate about why some countries have gone faster than others, but there wasn't much debate about that. The second thing I was very clear on was electricity, which kept on coming up in meetings across Sub-Saharan Africa, Pakistan, [at] a number of countries, people kept on talking about the importance of electricity. But the eureka moment came when somebody pointed out to me that Kenya, where I was at the time, couldn't afford to build huge excess capacity of electricity, which I was arguing you need to have. You need to have too much electricity, so that it's cheap and it's reliable.And then investors come in and say, "great! I've got cheap educated labour, and I've got cheap reliable electricity. I've got the human capital and the power I need, that then enables me to invest and build a business here." And the question then was, well, why was it so expensive in Kenya but so cheap in China? Why was the cost of borrowing so high in Nigeria but so cheap in Morocco or Mauritius? And when I was trying to work out where did the savings come from in China, uh, well I was looking globally, but China's the best example of economic success and development success we've seen in the last 50 years. Over half the answer came from this IMF paper saying, actually it came from their low fertility rate. That's over half of the rise in household savings, which are massive in China, came about because the fertility rate had fallen so dramatically.And I then thought, could this possibly be true for other countries as well? Could this help explain why interest rates are so high in Nigeria or Kenya and so low elsewhere? And the answer is yes. So this book, The Time Travelling Economist is bringing all of these three things together - the fertility rate, the education rate, and electricity - to say not just how countries develop, cause I think I've answered that, but when they develop. Because once we know those three factors are key, we can then work out the when. Not just in the past [of] countries, but also in the future. Um, so that's where this came from.Tobi;I mean, we're going to be talking about each of those factors over the course of this conversation, but another question...some would say boring question, but I know how development economists and economists generally always try to defend their turf, you know, around issues like these. So, has anybody like taking you to task on the causal link between these three factors and development? And how would you defend yourself against that were it to be asked?Charlie;I haven't found anyone yet who's argued successfully against these points. Um, the closest criticism I get, and just to say, you know, this book came about off the back of three key reports I did in 2017 on education, 2018 on electricity, and 2019 on fertility and savings. So I've now been talking about these ideas for three to five years. The book only came out in July, 2022, bringing them all together. But in five years I haven't had pushback other than people ask, "is it not correlated?" You know, "is it not perhaps economic growth leads fertility declines or boosts savings?" And I think I show really clearly in the data that "no." Um, the fertility declines give us the growth. You don't get growth without adult literacy of at least 40%, you certainly don't get industrialization until literacy is at 70 to 80.So, you know, I'm looking at the data and I think it's pretty crystal clear that you've gotta get these other things right first before your economy can take off. And I can't find any counter-examples. Except, I mean there's the inevitable few, those countries like Qatar or Kuwait with huge amounts of energy exports per capita or diamonds in Botswana's case. And there you don't have to get everything right before you get wealthier because you just happen to be lucky to have huge amounts of energy exports per person and a very small population. But they are a bit of an exception. I think you could probably argue that they do grow first before they get everything else right. But for the vast majority of the planet and all countries in history, it's the other way around. You gotta get education, power, fertility rates in the right place to take off.Tobi;So I mean, getting into the weeds, let's look at education first. Before your book, personally for me, and I should say what I really like about your book is, it's well written, it's an interesting read. It comes across as a bit less analytical, which is what you get from the standard development literature, you know, and I think that's partly because you are writing about a lot of the countries that you have also worked in and interacted with a lot of these factors. So it really gives it a first-hand experience kind of narrative. So I like that very much. So prior to your book, if someone were to ask me about the relationship between education and economic development or catch-up growth, generally, the reference usually goes to Studwell's big claim, Joe Studwell, that: Yeah. You don't really need a super high level of education metrics for a country to industrialize because the standard explanation is that how a relatively poor country starts industrializing is from the low-skill, uh, labour-intensive, low-skill manufacturing jobs, that you don't need a high level of education and skill for you to be able to do that.So what I wanna work out here is what is the transmission mechanism between adult literacy and industrialization the way you've, like, clearly analyzed in your book?Charlie;Well, thank you very much for saying it was nicely written, I appreciate that. I wanted to try and make it as accessible as possible. Yeah, I think Joe Studwell's books are really good and I think he's right that you don't need a high level of education to do that first step out of rural poverty, subsistence farming into a textile mill. I think what's interesting is how many people writing about development forget how important just adult literacy actually is, because we've taken [it] so much for granted. So Adam Smith, who wrote The Wealth of Nations, the father of economics back in the 18th century in Scotland, he didn't make a big deal about adult literacy driving growth. And more recently, you know, people like Dani Rodrik have echoed exactly that saying you don't need any great education to work in a textile mill. You just need to be dextrous with your fingers. Which is almost exactly actually what Adam Smith said 250 years ago. And I was sympathetic to that, but I then kept on seeing in the data, well, first of all, I found this theory written in the sixties that said that no country has industrialized even to that first basic level of textiles without adult literacy being about 70 to 80% of the population. Which means basically all adults, all men, plus well over half the female population as well. And this was the theory written in the sixties and when I looked at the data, it was proven right and I couldn't quite understand why - if you just need dextrous fingers to work in a textile mill, why would there be that link? And I ended up talking to a guy who ran Levi's factories in Asia in the 1980s and he said, “Charlie, just think about it.”You've got this box of Levi's jeans coming down the conveyor belt. Do you put that box onto the truck labelled United States or that truck labelled Europe for export? And if you can't read and write, you won't even get that right. So the adult literacy thing I think is overlooked. People are focusing on secondary school, high school education, how much [many] university graduates a country needs and they do need graduates too. But until you get to that 70 to 80% adult literacy, textile mills don't go to a country. And we can see that they did go to China in the nineties when they got to adult literacy of 70%. They are in Southeast Asia. They're in Bangladesh since education hit about 70 to 80% in the last 10 to 15 years. But they're not big in sub-Saharan Africa, or at least in parts of Nigeria or the Sahel or West Africa because the education levels still aren't there yet. So, you know, I looked as far back as I could go to the 19th century and even the first non-European country to take off, Japan, had an adult literacy rate of about 70% by 1900 and 20 years later, they had a thriving textile industry. The education always comes first. And Korea copied that Japan model in the 1950s and sixties, Taiwan, Hong Kong, all the rest [of] Southeast Asia's followed. Now, South Asia's doing it and luckily it's spreading across Africa too. But the adult literacy is the first essential step.Tobi;One possible objection. And I haven't seen this anywhere, but I couldn't really get it out of my mind while I was reading that part of the book is that some will argue that increasing education also increases domestic wages and that is really a problem for industrializing. And, if I recall, one particular point that the anonymous economic historian on Twitter, Pseudoerasmus, made particularly about Asia, is they were able to combine a very high adult literacy rate - a measure which you use is completion of secondary education…Charlie;Yeah.Tobi;With very unusually low domestic wages. What role do wages play in your analysis?Charlie;I think that's the norm actually. It connects to the fertility thing. And I'm not sure if you want to jump there just yet, but what tends to happen when you've educated your population is that the fertility rate drops a lot. And when that happens, the number of people who have to stay at home looking after 5, 6, 7 children goes down a lot too. Women can go into the workforce and of course cause you've got the education, right? Those women are educated so they can join the industrial workforce as well. So very roughly, if we say there's a hundred people in Nigeria, 50 kids and 50 adults, let's say 25 of the adults have to be staying at home to look after 50 kids, you're talking 25% of the population can go out and work of the overall population. You go to Asia today and it's more like 70% adults, say 30% of kids.So you need maybe 15% of adults to stay at home. And you end up with something like 85% of the whole population can go out to work instead of 25%. Now, the consequence of that is a massive rise in the working-age population. And I think that that keeps industrial wages low for a few generations, in fact. Or at least three decades. Probably 40 years, where the education's come through, the fertility rates come down, you've got this huge excess supply of labour, which is then joining the industrial workforce and getting jobs. But because there keeps on being more people joining that workforce, it keeps wages relatively low. Now, what eventually happens then after a few decades is that that big increase in the workforce stops increasing as fast. We've seen this in China in the last 20 years. So, 20 years ago China's per capita GDP was about fifteen hundred dollars, $1,500.Whereas now, now the population has stopped growing. Working age population's shrinking. It's gone up to over $11,500. It's gone up tenfold. So the big reward for industrialization comes later. And we had this in Europe of course in the 19th century, you know, wages were pretty awful and industrial working was pretty awful experience in the 19th century. I mean it paid slightly better than rural subsistence farming, which is why people came to the cities. But London was a horrible place for the vast majority of people. And the industrial workhouses were terrible places as well. And that lasted for generations. It's only when that big population, kind of, boom stories started to shift that labour eventually got any bargaining power. Cause when there was too much labour coming into the market, they had no bargaining power with the factory owners. It wasn't until the 1870s that the trade unions became legal in, say, the United States. Because up till then, you know, "you join a union, I fire you," you know, could be what the factory owner would say in the United States, cause there's always gonna be another person I can employ. But once the workforce starts to gain a bit of bargaining power, cause it's not expanding quite so fast, then finally wages start to pick up. So I think what's happened in Asia is pretty normal and will probably be the experience that we've seen across Africa as well.Tobi;Inevitably this will take us into what it means to be educated, really. Because a lot of countries, I mean it's pretty much standard - they say, Oh yeah, we want invest in education. Um, we know it is important for human capital. We know how important it is to have an educated population and all that. You talked about some data challenges also for some countries in your book. So what I wanna ask here is what exactly does it mean to be educated in the sense that you are talking about in the book?Charlie;Yeah, this is a really fair question. Why am I talking about adult literacy? The definition is can you read and write four sentences in any language? Sentences like "farming is hard work." So it's not a very high threshold and I wouldn't argue, I don't think you would, that it's highly educated. It's just educated enough to put that box of jeans onto the right truck when it's going to America or Europe. But all that's doing then is taking your country's per capita GDP from your per person kind of wealth from say $500 a year, a thousand dollars a year to the kind of two, $3,000 a year level. It doesn't mean you've got the education levels you need to get to the $10,000 per capita GDP level growth or 20 or 50 or even a hundred. Um, to get to the 10,000 level, I think you probably need very good secondary school education as well.And to get to the $20,000 per capital GDP level, you're talking a lot of graduates coming out of university and you need to have that education then spreading throughout the population, both broadening and deeper education as well. And that is a process that takes decades. I mean I focused quite a bit on Korea because it was one of the most successful models and then China came along and did it even faster. But what Korea prioritized in the 1950s was getting that adult literacy rate from 35% or so, too low even to grow sustainably, to about 90% they said by 1960. So in about 10 or 15 years they got it from 35 to 90 and that was enough then to have textile mills do really well in the 1960s and they became a manufacturing country, an industrialized country by the early 1970s.But already then the government said, right, we need more engineers, we need graduates coming out of university to do heavy industry, to do cars, shipbuilding. But Korea had no cars or shipbuilding at the time, nothing significant. So they were changing the university focus from, kind of, the arts or law towards engineering and the sciences before they had the economic sectors that they were trying to promote. And then about 10 to 20 years later, all these graduates were then in the economy and ready to start up companies like Deawoo, Hyundai, Kia, Samsung. And they started small obviously in the 1980s and early nineties. But this kind of sequential thinking about it meant that Korea kept on having the right human capital at every stage of development. So my book's trying to focus on, you know, why hasn't Pakistan got all the textile factories?Why does Bangladesh have them? Why doesn't Nigeria have them? Why does Vietnam have them? And this is saying first you've gotta get that sequencing right of everybody ideally being literate, everybody having had school up to 11 years old and come out with a good standard of education. On the quality issue you just raised, the problem here is a couple of things. So I mean firstly people sometimes just make up the data and say, yes, my population is literate when it's not. But secondly, when you try and kind of shoehorn a hundred kids into one class to say, you know, they're all going to school now, but you've only got one teacher, you are not coming out with a good education at all. You might not even be coming out literate at all. So that, you know, I'm also trying to warn that governments can't do this on the cheap. Or not completely. They have to take it seriously and say, look, we actually need to make sure everyone really is coming out able to read and write. It's not just trying to tick a box to say everyone's at school.Tobi;Hopefully, we'll circle back to policy questions around this later. Let's talk briefly about electricity, which as you say, once you start investigating these factors, then you start teasing out what's what for each country. And the way you introduce that is [that] there are some countries with very high adult literacy rates but still weren't getting the benefits - like [the] Philippines, which was your example in the book. And it turns out what was missing in that particular case was electricity generation. But first I want you to make one distinction for me quite quickly. Cause it's funny, I was reading David Pilling's brief coverage of your book in the FT and he talked about the fertility part being controversial and I wonder that people miss the obvious controversy in electricity, but we'll get to that. So, now, is it really about investment in electricity that is often missing in countries that can't quite manage to get it right or the way their electricity market is structured? I know you are quite familiar with Nigeria and it's really a big, big, big debate that we've been having for, I don't know, like 20 years. So, some people will say you need very large upfront investment, possibly by the government, in generating capacity transmission, machinery and co. We argue, oh no, you really need to restructure the electricity market first. People have to pay for what they use. You need to restructure the tariff system, blah blah blah, blah, blah. What are your thoughts?Charlie;Um, big issues. And there is a debate. There're so many debates about this actually. There's the debate about whether you need a big national grid, big national generation and distribution companies or whether you can have localized electricity. Um, you are getting a couple of points though that I think it's easier to say some answers to. And one of them was to do with getting people to actually pay their bills. Certainly a problem in Nigeria, apparently, you know, discos will say that because there hasn't been good metering and despite privatization that those meters have not been rolled out. I know the government's promising to roll it out to all 10 million account holders now, but because there hasn't been metering, you can't charge necessarily the fair price for the amount of electricity people have used. So then people don't wanna pay. So then the discos are losing money, then they can't pay the generators and this then becomes a problem.And I think there is a case to say that if the generators can sell some power directly to some big companies, that could be one way around part of the problem. So in a place like Lagos, very similar to the Philippines in the 20th century, good educated population just held back by a lack of cheap reliable power. You know, I think if Lagos could have its own electricity story, it would be a phenomenally successful economy. It should be over the next three or four decades. So there is a case about how you structure this. But I found two or three things interesting when I was looking into this issue in 2018. And the first was just clarifying that it really is electricity that people need more than say transport infrastructure. You know, this is a survey the world bank had done and the only countries where they've said transport infrastructure was the bigger problem was countries where there wasn't an electricity problem because there's so much of it.So countries, where there's a load of electricity, say yes we need more transport infrastructure, but everybody else says we have to have the electricity first. So then it's a question of how do you roll that out in a way that makes money and supports development? And there is a... I think, a problem at the moment with well-meaning policies from people like the United Nations or the African Development Bank saying everybody should have access to electricity. But my point in the book is, and Adam Smith said the same thing in the 18th century, you want your infrastructure to be making money not losing money. You need to make sure that if you're going to supply people with a road or a bridge or electricity, that they can pay for it. And if you start building stuff that loses you money because people can't pay their bills, then you'll end up with an uneconomic electricity system which can't function properly and can't give industry what it needs.And what I try to emphasize in this is that every country from America and France in the 1920s to Turkey in the 1960s or seventies to Korea in the 1970s, every country has said, okay, let's make sure we've got electricity for industry first. Profitable, makes money, and then households over time? Yeah, okay, we'll connect them over time, but only when they can start affording to pay for electricity. It's not another subsidy that governments can't afford, we just can't do that. [This] is what every other country's done. But at the moment I do see this pressure for electricity systems to try and roll out universal access and so, in places like Kenya that's putting the whole electricity system under financial pressure because it's hurting their profits. And if you're trying to roll out cheap electricity to households, well how do you pay for that?Well, government subsidies partly, but the other way to pay for it is to make industry pay a high price. But if you're making industry pay a high price industry won't come. They'll go to Asia; where they get a low price for electricity. They're not going to go to somewhere that's got a high price. Cause no company's gonna say, I just wanna subsidize households getting electricity. Companies are coming to build stuff in countries because they'll make a good profit from doing so. So I think you've raised a number of issues there, you know, is localized electricity good, and so on? You know, what should you be prioritizing first - industry or households? And there's a whole host of issues. But I hope I've answered that.Tobi;Actually, that's the controversy I was referring to at the beginning of that question because the background that is, it'll be a very, very tough sell in the current political climate, for example in Nigeria, for any person aspiring to public office to make this argument that you have to power industry first. What it's going to sound like is: you are just trying to prioritize the rich and trying to exclude some people from what, like you said, has come to be framed as a universal basic right. You talk to a lot of small businesses, even individuals, like you mentioned with the World Bank Survey, the importance of electricity is so paramount on everybody's mind that if there's stable electricity, I can start X and Y businesses. I could make money and, I mean, no one needs the government for anything else. Just give us electricity.Charlie;Yeah.Tobi;So my point is practically… thinking about this practically, how do you think a sensible government that is not trying to bankrupt itself prematurely can manage this situation?Charlie;Well, I think it's hard work. Um, how did the Koreans do it in the sixties or the seventies or the eighties? They gave you no right to protest - military government. How did the communists do so well at getting this industry first, households later? How did they get it right in China or Russia? Same thing. You've got no rights to protest. "Your interests don't matter, we're thinking 10 to 20 years ahead how to make our country better off and how to make everyone better off. So you suffer now because we are gonna prioritize business." So that is one model. I'm not recommending it, I'm just saying it is a model that can be done. The other way is to allow it to be done by the private sector. And if you let the private sector roll out electricity, they will not supply electricity to people who won't pay their bills.And that is the story that you saw in western Europe, it's the story you saw in the States, and to some extent you're seeing actually in Kenya. There's quite an interesting company there called M-KOPA. And M-KOPA will sell you, well, they'll lend you, they'll lease you, a solar panel, a little one that you can put on your - actually, a friend of mine was showing it to me the other day in Uganda...they put it on the straw roof of the mud hut and that solar panel, you pay a monthly fee and after about 18 months you've paid for the panel, you've also got energy during that time enough to supply a mobile phone and so on, lights a little bit, and then it's yours and that's effectively privatizing that rural distribution story. But I think the difficulty is that politicians find it really hard to do this.And part of what I'm writing about in the book is how really hard it is for governments in a country with no savings, big population growth, to constantly meet all of the different demands. With huge population growth you're having to build new schools all the time, you have to hire even more teachers all the time. You've got population pressure, maybe, causing clashes over agricultural land like the Fulani herdsman in Central Nigeria, Northern Nigeria as well. And all of these pressures are on you all of the time. And there's constant demand to spend more on bridges, on hospitals, on education, on security. And what you can't afford to be doing is making a loss. And so I think what politicians need to do is say, we've gotta sequence this right. The same thing as with education. It's no good having a million university graduates if a country isn't literate enough to have an industrial base, you've gotta have the literacy first.And equally, it's no good having electricity rolled out to every household when there are no factories for people to go and get the jobs they need to be able to pay the electricity bill. And it's not easy. I, I totally understand it's not an easy situation for anyone to be in. The difficulty is [that] because it's not easy, too many political leaders will take what appears to be the easy option of saying, "I tell you what, let's just go and borrow a load of dollars offshore. Nigeria's going to go and issue a lot of dollar debt and we'll use that to try and sort these problems out." Kenya's done the same, Ghana's done the same, Pakistan's done the same. And the risk then is that you end up in default situations. So that feeds into one of the other chapters in the book as well.But I think it's very difficult. I think realistically governments need to say, what can we do here? And this is how long it's going to take. And it's going to be not a five-year story, it's going be a 20-year story, a 30-year story to get it right. And people, sadly, need to be patient, which is hard; when for generations people have been waiting for things to get much, much better and little progress has been made, relatively little progress has been made compared to Asia and that causes a lot of political frustration. I think.Tobi;I mean, speaking about Asia and I mean your point about taking away the right to protest, I think Africa and Nigeria sort of missed that window when we had military governments everywhere. So, uh, let me give you one experience I've had in trying to discuss your book with friends. So I get two reactions to the fertility section.It's almost automatic, you know, when you discuss fertility being at a certain level and I try to, you know, successfully argue your point, you get two strands of reactions in my experience, one goes immediately to the China issue - the one-child policy; that, "oh, so are you trying to say we should do what China did?" The other slightly more technical objection I get goes to the relationship between population growth and economic growth that is quite pervasive in the growth literature. Did you also experience that while writing the book and debating with colleagues?Charlie;Now I'll take each point in turn. Um, the China one-child policy story helps explain this massive rise in Chinese savings and then their very strong growth. What I'm trying to show in the book, of course, is that every rich country has seen a fertility decline. And what I'm arguing is probably the right sort of level for countries to aim for is about two to three kids on average. I don't care if people have five kids or one kid, it's just as a country the average of two to three kids is consistent with a very high, well, a big jump in the level of sayings. And with those savings, you can then industrialize and grow, and grow fast. Um, China I think actually made a mistake. I think China got it wrong by going for the one-child policy because they kind of turbocharged that story, that story that every rich country has got, of lower fertility, it took a really long time in Europe. I mean it took a really, really long time in Europe and that's why Europe had the slowest growth of any industrial revolution. It was done faster by the communism [they had] in Russia and they did faster growth and we've done even faster in China. But the consequence of this one-child policy and what the Chinese have discovered is it's bloody hard to get the fertility rate back up again once you've had one kid. I was talking to a Chinese professor on a plane back from Asia once and she was saying all of her friends, they can't get married, they can't stay married. They get married and they can't stay married because they're all used to being a one-child kind of princess or prince in the family who gets everything they want and then they try married life and they discover as you might well know, that you never get everything you want in a marriage, and you have to compromise.And it's certainly created a problem now that China can't get the kids, they can't raise the fertility level and it's not just China that's discovered that once you've got a low fertility rate, too low, I think of one, you have a problem raising it. Again, Italy's had the same problem, Iran, uh, Russia. So I think China did it too fast. And you certainly don't need to do it and loads of other countries show you that just aiming for that two to three kids figure really helps your economy and gets you onto the path to being middle-income and then a rich country. So I don't think you need to do the China one child. No. Um, the second issue, the population growth versus economic growth. What I show, what we did in this was we looked back at every country's growth rate since 1960 and I compared the per capita GDP growth, the per personal growth of an economy, it's the best way to measure how well an economy itself is really doing. And I compared that growth rate against the share of adults to kids that I was talking to you about a little earlier.Tobi;Yeah.Charlie;And where it's 50-50 roughly, between adults and kids, per capita GDP grows at 1% and that was the story of Asia in the sixties and seventies. It's still the story for a good number of countries including Nigeria today. So per capita GDP growth is about 1% when half your population can't work because they're kids. But once you get two-thirds of the population being adults, your average per capita growth in lower-income countries by half of America's wealth level, so not even lower-income, lower or middle-income countries, your per capita growth, and it averages three to 5% a year. So the structure of your population tells you what your per capita GDP growth is. So it's just... I can't see that there's any other way to explain this than you've gotta get that fertility rate down first before you can start to get the high per capita GDP growth. Um, and it's connected to the savings, of course; cause once you've got two kids instead of six, you're saving money in the bank, the bank starts to have more cash to lend out. There's more money for lending for investment. The government can borrow more cheaply so it can build infrastructure, roads and rail, electricity and cheap electricity cause interest rates are low cause the savings are high because most families are able to put some money aside at the end of the week. But that doesn't happen when 50% of the population are kids. They're not earning any money, they're not saving anything and the poor parents are trying to manage to feed five, six kids on average. You know, they've got nothing left at the end of the week to put into a bank.So the bank's got no cash. So interest rates are really high cause there's no money in the bank. Um, so money's really expensive. So the government can't afford to invest in infrastructure and if it does build electricity it has to charge a lot of money cause it's having to pay a lot of interest on the debt it's taken on. So to me, I've yet to find someone demolish the argument and uh, you know, it could happen.Tobi;Yeah.Charlie;But so far it seems you've got to get the fertility rate down first if you want to get fast growth. Now if you don't want to grow at three, four, 5% a year, you could do it really slowly like Europe did and you grow at say, one and a half, two, eventually, you get from European farming in 1800 to factories that are producing not great stuff by 1900, a hundred years later. But when I'm looking at Nigeria today, I don't want Nigeria to be waiting a hundred years to be doing what Europe took a hundred years to do. I also don't think the Chinese model of it taking 30 years, 20, 30 years but then having a population problem of being too old, I don't think that's the right solution either. But there's somewhere in between. At the moment though, Nigeria's on that long growth story, it's not yet ready for the faster growth storyTobi;On the China question, um, thinking about your answer there, is extremely low fertility or what they say "fertility below the replacement rate" a feature of the kind of explosive growth 30, 35, 40-year trajectory that we've seen in Asia. Because if you look at Korea, Korea even have worse demographic numbers than China and there was no draconian population policy, but it's kind of gone through this explosive growth phase that is even faster and bigger than China's.Charlie;Well, it's been going on for longer. So what the Koreans got right was they raised their adult literacy rate to, you know, they said about 90% by 1960. China, despite being communist and communists tend to say they really appreciate education, didn't get to over 70% literacy until 1990, sometime in the early 1990s, which is 25, 35 years later than Korea. Uh, so Korea was already booming in 1970 at a time when China was having the catastrophic mistakes of the cultural revolution and really bad growth and people feared mass famine. Well many, many did die in China in the sixties. So what I would argue is that Korea had a slower fertility decline and the growth rates were not as fast as China's but they've been growing for 50, 60 years already. So Korea's two to three times richer than China is today. But as you say, they're so ageing that they're gonna be the oldest country in the world by 2030.And what's gonna get interesting then, and I can't really answer this in the book cause we haven't seen it yet, but what's interesting about Korea and we're going to have to watch it carefully, is that you are going to end up with, not 70% adults and 30% kids, it'll be less and less working-age adults, maybe 60%, I dunno maybe eventually 50% and it'll be 50% kids and old age pensioners who can't work. And my guess is that Korean growth is going to slow back to about the 1% per capita growth that Nigeria's got at the moment because Korea's going to be too old. You know, and that's not something that I think people should be thinking about or worrying about. [People should be thinking about] Pakistan, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa at the moment. It's [Korea is] just not a...you know, that's a problem to worry about in 50, 60 years. But it is going to be interesting to watch what does happen to growth in really old countries. Um, can pensioners actually still do work? You know, maybe they end up retiring at 70 or 75 or 80, I dunno. It's gonna be quite interesting to see.Tobi;So I mean the question then is, uh, for countries that have fertility rates that are higher than what you described in the book.Charlie;Yeah.Tobi;It then becomes how do we get it to the point where domestic savings start going up, interest rate for the domestic investment environment then benefits from that virtuous cycle. You talked about access to uh, reproductive interventions like contraception, also education, which takes us to where we started this conversation from, especially the education of women and girls, generally. I was taking a look at David Le Bris recently where he was talking about equality between siblings and inequality between siblings and how it affects the overall capital formation, whether it's physical capital or human capital in the society. So my question then is, do you see individual sort of personalized household decision-making affecting this more or it is sort of a national policy thing?Charlie;When it's something as important as family, you know, the individual decisions matter a huge amount. And as I said earlier, I've got no issues with anyone doing what they choose to do. But that big family story, I was just talking to a former minister, actually, of a... former finance minister of a country and he's got five kids, he's saying that he's been able to help fund them go to university, but he can't afford to help them buy a house cause he just hasn't got the cash. And I thought that was a really interesting example of even in a wealthier country, you know, it still matters how big that family is. You know, when I looked into this on how do you get the fertility rate down and there's been quite a lot written about it. I don't have a magic or a single answer, but the theories are first: girls if they're staying at school until they're 18, versus girls who leave school at 13. If you leave school at 13, perhaps you have your first kid at 14, maybe a second kid at 17, third kid at 20. But if you stay at school until you're 18, perhaps the first kid's at 20. So already you've reduced the fertility rate by two just by keeping girls at school. And the key figure, but just kind of remind, well tell people is the key figure is at about three to four kids per woman on average, the banking system has got deposits cash in it of about 35% of GDP, at four to five kids, it's around 30, 25 to 30. At five to six kids, which is where Nigeria is, it's about 20% of GDP. Um, so 20, 30, you know, these sort of levels. If you get to two to three kids though, if you get it below three kids, it more than doubles to about 60% of GDP.That's when banks suddenly have loads of cash. When banks have got loads of cash, there's loads of lending, suddenly access to finance isn't a problem anymore. So how do you get it below three kids? So you educate girls, there's an incentive when women are educated for them to work cause they can start to make decent money in a textile factory that you can't do unless you've got that literacy. Um, the government just telling people that low fertility is a good thing is shown to have some success. From Indonesia to India, these kinds of government campaigns suggesting lower fertility rates have made a difference. The third thing, which really surprised me cause it's such a strong correlation, is [to] stop kids [from] dying. And I was pretty upset, actually, to see the numbers where, for Nigeria, you've got a 10% chance, just over a 10% chance of dying before the age of five because you're born in Nigeria. And when I was comparing that to Covid - which the world spent, what, trillions trying to fight - with a fatality rate of about one or 2%, you think of those with more than a 10% chance of dying just before the age of five in Nigeria. Anyway, it's kind of shockingly high, but when you have such a high chance of losing a child, you tend to have more children and the correlation is really quite strong. So, if you can try and address infant, [and] young child mortality rates, which doesn't cost that much, you can see countries with Nigeria's wealth level that have a mortality rate of not over 10%, but five or even 3%. And usually, countries with such a low mortality rate then have a much lower fertility rate as well. So, people tend to have less kids when they are more confident that all their kids are going to survive childhood. So, some investment in basic healthcare for children, education of girls, contraception availability, yes it does help, and government information campaigns. You put those things together and then you get a country like Bangladesh. Bangladesh which had the same population as Nigeria about 15 years ago. But today Nigeria's got tens of millions more. But Bangladesh is growing as fast as India. Bangladesh's per capita GDP is over $2,000. And it keeps on growing at six, seven, 8% every year. Because they have on average two kids per woman, they've got savings, they don't have much foreign debt because they don't need to borrow dollars from abroad to fund their growth, because they've got their own savings, because the fertility rate is low. Muslim Bangladesh: tremendous success story over the last two or three decades.Tobi;You sort of made allowances for countries that can't quite get their savings right up to the levels where they can get the desired domestic savings and really positively affect their investment environment in a big way. And you talked about debt in the book, which would be familiar to anybody that's been in the new cycle about Nigeria currently, which is that government revenue has collapsed. Debt servicing is rapidly approaching a hundred percent of what the government can collect. And it's only a matter of time before we are talking about a debt crisis. But, like you said, a debt crisis is, like, unavoidable if you're trying to grow and you don't have to requisite domestic savings to sort of mitigate that. But this inevitably brings in the question of debt restructuring which, again, some would also argue does not help you grow. So, in terms of just the sheer macroeconomics management of this, how do you go about it?Charlie;It's tough. The book's arguing, obviously, that a whole chunk of this stuff is really long term. You got to get the education right. So, you've got to have enough teachers and that takes, well, at best Korea did it in 15, 20 years. But even if you've got the education, then you've got to get the fertility rate down. And that takes at best 10 years to get it down by about two kids per woman. Nigeria's at 5.3 kids or so at the moment. It needs to be below three to have the local savings. So, we're talking at least 15 years, even if every priority was made today to try and improve education, do all this reproductive education and so on. So, the governments then have the choice of what do you do? I mean, if you're going to wait 15 years, you can grow at 1% a year per person. But you'll find the population is getting pretty cross because you've got all these other countries in the world growing at three, four, 5% per person every year. You know, why is my country growing at one [percent]? So, the politicians then...[it] becomes so attractive to go out and borrow and, you know, every country, not every single one, but the vast majority of debt defaults in the second half of the 20th century were in high fertility countries. The fertility rate I think was around, on average, five - five kids per woman was the average fertility rate in countries that defaulted in the second half of the 20th century. Wherever they were in the world. A lot of them were in Latin America in the debt crisis of 1980s. So firstly, debt crises are really common in high fertility countries because governments say I want to speed up my growth and they borrow when the markets let them.And we've certainly seen that in Africa in the last 10 years too. And then they borrow too much and then they go into default and then they can lose maybe a decade. And that is what happened in Latin America in the 1980s. But the alternative is to only grow at 1% a year. And yeah, you can avoid debt default. I'm not saying every high fertility country defaults. I'm saying almost all the countries that have defaulted are high fertility. So, you can settle for the low growth but if you don't want to settle for the low growth, the debt becomes a very attractive way to try and get faster growth. But it causes a problem. I end up finding roughly two other ways that you can try.Tobi;Okay.Charlie;And grow faster. Is it okay to jump on to those?Tobi;Yeah, go ahead please.Charlie;Yeah. First is to try and bring in as much foreign investment as you can. Cause you haven't got enough local savings, you don't want to take on too much debt cause eventually you'll default. So, you can try and make yourself very attractive for foreign investors. Foreign direct investors. The only problem with that model is that those foreign direct investors do also want their cheap electricity and the good infrastructure that unfortunately high fertility countries haven't got the money to pay for. So, it's difficult to get in a lot of foreign direct investment. Foreign direct investment in China, I was just reading a really good book by David Lubin, who's the chief economist of Citi for Emerging Markets and he did a book called Dance of the Trillions. Highly recommend, it's brilliant on emerging markets. And he says FDI suddenly started in China in the 1990s. Now, I know why. My book is explaining why I think, which is you finally had a literate population, 70% literacy and you also had the low fertility rate. So, you had the high savings, you had the good infrastructure. But the FDI didn't come 10 years before into China. It only really picked up in the 1990s. So, the point of then is, I mean yeah, try and get some [FDI] if you can, but the last option that I can see other than to just, perhaps, try to go full Stalinist, kind of communist, take control of every part of the economy. But even that still education and low fertility really helps... Um, the last option which any country can do is to run a current account surplus, I think. Have a currency level that's so cheap that you are running a trade surplus. A current account surplus, which is obviously trade plus services and remittances and so on.If you've got a surplus on that current account, you are bringing dollars into the economy and those dollars help reduce interest rates. And Nigeria saw that actually in 2005, six, seven and eight when the oil price was booming. Nigeria had that flood of dollars coming into the economy. Interest rates were really low below inflation and investment was relatively cheap and easy to finance. Now it's a problem to manage when it's a commodity-driven boom because commodities then bust. So, all that flood of money that came in suddenly disappeared again, you know, once the oil price collapsed there wasn't that current account surplus anymore. But if you run a cheap currency policy to make sure you always run a current account surplus, then that helps give you that supply of savings that you can then use to start investing. So that seems to me one of the few ways that a low-income country that's got not enough local savings, doesn't want to wait forever until its fertility rate's down [and] low enough to build the domestic savings, this is one way that looks sustainable that can bring in some foreign cash to help support growth.Tobi;But one minor aside on FDI and you can really correct me here if I'm wrong, wouldn't that really be a bit unstable? Because if you have loads of FDI, if other indicators are really working in your favour and at the slightest hint of a crisis, all that money then flows out.Charlie;Yeah. Well, I'll just differentiate between foreign direct investment and foreign portfolio investment. And, again, David Lubin's book is very good on this because the Washington consensus, which is this set of policies that were drawn up by policy makers around 1989, 1990, it said countries should welcome foreign direct investment. Building factories that it's pretty hard to move out of the country, that that should be welcomed. But when the original guys who drew up the Washington Consensus wrote down the kind of 10 principles, they weren't that keen on foreign portfolio investment. This is the hot money that will include a lot of my investors who will come in and buy shares in companies in the Nigerian Stock Exchange and might come in and buy bonds. And I think it's fair to say that that money can leave in times of trouble and doesn't really support...isn't necessarily as supportive [of growth] and that money we count on the capital account because it is foreign capital.What I was talking about on the current account surplus was obviously the trade surplus, the remittances, the services and so on. So, I think it's more debatable. I think a number of countries have restricted foreign portfolio flows into equity market or the bond market. And if they've got other things going for them, like a low fertility rate, they can kind of get away with that. Um, what I'm highlighting is that for some countries they just don't have that choice. And when America was short of capital in the 19th century, it was British capital that went over and built their railways, that bought all the shares in their infrastructure companies. The Brits owned America for much of the 19th century and then the French actually owned most of Russia. Uh, the railways and the ports and some of the industry, the coal mines [were] very significantly owned by French investors, portfolio funds, and portfolio guys are there to make money as well. You know, they're there to make profit and if you're making good profit, five, 10% a year or whatever sitting in Nigerian equity market, people will stay, and it won't leave. They'll be happy to stay there for many, many years as people are and have been doing in India, actually, since India's education fertility and electricity numbers have all come together in the last 10 years in a really good way. Foreign portfolio guys are saying, "Hey, we wanna put our money into the Indian stock market too." And Indian shares are pretty expensive right now because of that. But the money doesn't want to leave. It'll leave when policy mistakes are made but fundamentally doesn't want to leave. However, I don't deny that there is a reasonable argument you can make to say we're going to choose foreign direct investment, we're going to be more restrictive on foreign portfolio investment. Because that can be more volatile. It can leave quicker. And I wouldn't argue with that. Well, I mean we could debate it, but I think it's harder to prove that you must have foreign portfolio investments to thrive. I think the current account surplus is a better policy choice because it's in your control. Foreign portfolio investors and what they do, that's not in your control.Tobi;One question that stayed with me throughout your book, which is a bit silent in the book itself, maybe it's implied, you can tell me, is that it's really difficult to find a country at any particular point where all these three factors align at the same time. Where you have the requisite adult literacy rate, electricity and fertility, they rarely align at the same point in time in the history of any one country. Because your book did not really distinguish between any particular political preference or institutional arrangements, which I like that, but what institutional arrangement favours the consistency for all these factors to sort of come together, uh, in the economic history basically of a country. Because we know that political leaders tend to favour what benefits their ambition at any particular point in time, you know? And a lot of these things are investments that do pay off in the long run, you know? Like we talked about on savings, a lot of political leaders would want to borrow a lot of money and then leave the debt crisis to the next administration.Charlie;Yeah. Yeah. Happens a lot.Tobi;Yeah. You know, and so many other things, whether you are investing in electricity or education or whatever, they don't really want to do the hard work. They want to do the easy stuff and just leave it to the next guy.So, what institutional arrangements have you found in your observation and study of this that favours the patient consistent build-up to the alignment of these three factors?Charlie;I think it's really, um, it's kind of interesting actually because in each chapter I try and say which countries are at the right place for industrialization, education, which countries are at the right place for electricity, and which countries are at the right place for fertility. Perhaps I didn't properly bring that together in one chapter at the end to say, "so, who's the fast growth story?" But right now, the countries that have brought them together are Vietnam, India, Philippines, Indonesia, Bangladesh, and I think those five countries, Morocco actually six, um, those six countries should be the countries that will show the really good growth for the next 30 to 40 years. Um it's going to be great. And I'm then trying to highlight who's closest to joining them on a 10 year view. Um, Pakistan and Egypt both got big debt problems right now, but five to 10 years they could be joining that group as well and Ghana and actually Kenya and I would argue southern Nigeria could be, could be there in the 2030s.Um, so I am trying to say when they come together. The question you are asking, though, about institutions or perhaps leadership and so on, I think is a really important one because I guess this book in lots of ways is an argument against Why Nations Fail, which was a really interesting book; and [it] said it is all about institutions and the right institutions and that's why if you walk a kilometre across the US border into Mexico, things are run so very differently. It's got to be the institutions, that book argues, that makes the difference between a country succeeding or not. And what I'm arguing is that I don't think that's true. I think you appear to have the good institutions when everything else is running well and you appear to have the terrible institutions when you don't have the education or you don't have the electricity or you don't have the low fertility or worst of all, you haven't got any of them.So, a country that hasn't got any of them, like Niger, Chad, Somalia, you know, these are countries in a terrible place. But I'm saying that they can't have good institutions cause there's no money in the economy, there are not enough educated people in the economy. There's just no way that you're going to get a good setup in those countries. And actually, even at the beginning when, at the first 10 years or so, when you've got these things all coming together, you still don't think the institutions are good. You know, you go to India today, people don't think, "wow, this is a brilliantly run civil service. It's so uncorrupt[ed]." Such wonderful institutions everywhere. They don't say that. They don't say that about Philippines' Duterte, the president who's been just recently retired, by people who were worried the institutions found it difficult to control his populism. And yet Philippines boomed under Duterte, and India's boomed under Modi and countries like Korea boomed even with a level of corruption that means in the last 10 years we've seen four presidents go to jail for corruption.Um, so I argue that the better institutions come afterwards and that's why four presidents have gone to jail in Korea because they're now getting the institutions better. And I read a really good book about why democracies die by some American academics about three or four years ago now. I recommend it. And they pointed out that Latin America, across Latin America, they just copied the American institutions. They said, look, what's working in the Americas is North America. It's United States, they've got it right. Let's copy their institutions, we'll put them into my country, be it Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina, whoever. And then they discovered that actually if the human capital is not as advanced, people will undermine the institutions. And you arguably saw Trump try it in the United States itself, but the human capital and the rest of the place was good enough to stop him from going too far.This is all debatable stuff, but you know, this is... So, I think the institutions do work when everything else has been working for some time and before then it's very hard to argue that the institutions work or can make a huge difference. I think the fundamental economic reality of are you growing at 1% a year or three to 5% a year per capita? That isn't about the institutions. Having said all of that? I think there's no doubt that you can have, if you're lucky, very lucky, really good leadership. A leader like Lee Kuan Yew in Singapore, who has got vision, understands or is lucky, but he prioritized education and all the rest, who gets it right and takes the country onto a new path. When I think of some of the most obvious successes, a lot of them are small Singapore, Hong Kong, even Taiwan really.And maybe it's just tougher to do it in a country the size of Nigeria with over 200 million people or, or uh, India with over a billion, which is why it took India so long or Brazil. But I remember even the French president, Charles de Gaulle, I think in the sixties or seventies said, "how is it possible to govern a country with 350 types of cheese?".Um, and in India you'd say, "how can you govern a country of over a billion people with that many different dialects, different customs, different local cultures?" Um, and it is hard, but once you get these fundamentals of education, electricity and fertility right, suddenly, it looks like you can govern well. So, I want to think there is a role for good leadership, um, and it can make a difference and it does help. I just think history's telling us over the last 300 years that we can't count on luck and that lucky guy who happens to be the right leader to come in, sometimes woman who can come in, and push reform in the right way. What we can count on is that if you get the education, electricity and fertility numbers right, you will get out of poverty, you will get better off and your kids will have a much, much better future and your grandchildren even more so.So, I think that's probably one area [where] my book differs from many in the last 10, 15 years is saying, "I don't think it is so much about the things that we all like to pay attention to [like] who's going to win the next election and what are their different policies going to be?" And you know, most of the time I'm arguing it doesn't really make as much difference as we'd like to think.Tobi;Now, another point that came in the later chapters in the book, which I found interesting, and which is quite also a bit of a political issue right now, surrounds migration. Uh, a lot of Nigerians are leaving, I mean it's become even a social media trend and meme - "who is...Charlie;The Japa trend.Tobi;Who is leaving next, uh, yeah, yeah, Japa. So, like, who is leaving next, you know? Right. But you argued in the book that as countries grow richer, there will be more migration not less because what you often hear is that the reason why people are living is because the country is so bad and they're looking for a way to make better lives for themselves, which is true anyway. So, and that the way to really stop this migration wave is if you can improve the domestic economy and then suddenly you see a drop, but you are saying no, um, we are actually going to see more migration as countries grow richer. Now, how do you suppose that this can be resolved with the current, should I say, political environment in Europe and to some extent in America that is increasingly seeing migration from poorer countries as a problem, right? Is it a case of as countries grow richer, then the migration demographic just, sort of, changes to more educated people leaving and less tension and political rancour about migration?Charlie;Um, I doubt, I mean, I doubt that these political problems about immigration in Europe and The States are going to disappear. Cause we've seen election results just in the last two, three weeks in Italy with the far right becoming dominant, in Sweden as well. Where they took in a huge amount of, I think, it was Syrian refugees and before that Somalian refugees. Um, and you're trying to integrate people coming from a country with very low adult literacy into, particularly in Somalia's case, into a country like Sweden, which had a hundred percent, nearly a hundred percent adult literacy already by 1900. That's an integration process that takes generations. As America's still struggling 150 years after civil war, still struggling to manage integration. So, I think that political problem is going to carry on, but it is going to get more acute for Europe, um, and eventually United States because Europe is this aging old continent that hasn't got enough people.I was in Germany two weeks ago and there, there was a surprising number of industrialists saying "we must have a much more open border situation." I said, well, you know, that'll be really interesting to see if you do that because the backlash that we're seeing elsewhere says there is a limit to what countries politics seem ready to accept. And, I think, I even think the Brexit vote was about that. It was about the East European migration into the UK, which had the most open approach to east European countries from Poland and Hungary and Czech coming to the UK. Every other country in Europe kept in a border, well, restrictions, but the UK didn't. And I think that backfired on the UK when it had a Brexit vote that said, "oh, we have too many Polish people eating sausage in our supermarkets. And I, I, yeah, I mean really people cared.I don't understand it. I love the variety obviously, but while I don't understand, while I don't feel the same, [some] people do. So, I think that's the political problem. And even educated people who are needed by the economy might find it hard to integrate, say, beyond the bigger urban centres. I was really shocked when I was writing the book and I was looking at what happens when you've got an educated population but a high fertility rate. What happens across history is people leave. Cause there aren't enough jobs at home. Cause the fertility rate's so high, there's thousands, millions of people coming into the workforce. The savings aren't there to help create the jobs. So, they leave and it's the Philippines, you know, in the 20th century, it's Pakistanis now, where a number of people are well educated, not everyone sadly. But 150 years ago, it was Ireland, and it was Norway, and they were sending their excess population to America, and it caused huge controversy.There was, you know, rioting between, kind of, the Italian immigrants and the Irish immigrants in New York. T

ThePrint
GlobalPrint: Why Modi is unhappy with Biden & how India is navigating its ties between US and Russia

ThePrint

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 20, 2023 14:16


In this edition of #GlobalPrint, ThePrint's Senior Consulting Editor Jyoti Malhotra explains why India chose the middle path in the Russia-Ukraine conflict and where it stands in its diplomatic relations with the US Watch #GlobalPrint----more----Read full article here: https://theprint.in/opinion/global-print/how-gautam-adani-is-helping-modi-govt-with-indias-foreign-policy-challenges/1318527/

ThePrint
ThePrintPod: Pakistan PM is aiming for Peace Prize, not peace talk. India has seen this olive branch before

ThePrint

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 20, 2023 5:08


No PM of Pakistan can sell the idea of talks with India without mentioning Kashmir. The issue is the new red line that the Modi govt has drawn for Pakistan.

ThePrint
ThePrintPod: Modi govt's Mumbai push ahead of key BMC polls — Dharavi revamp to sewage treatment plants

ThePrint

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 20, 2023 6:14


The Jaipur Dialogues
How Rahul Gandhi is Helping Modi Win 2024 with Record Seats - Bhau Torsekar

The Jaipur Dialogues

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 19, 2023 19:19


How Rahul Gandhi is Helping Modi Win 2024 with Record Seats _ Bhau Torsekar

A Public Affair
The Strengthening on the Alt-Right with Max Elbaum

A Public Affair

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 19, 2023 53:21


“There is a particular attraction in the MAGA block to the most right wing governments around the world: Trump, Netanyahu, Modi in India, Duterte and now Marcos in the Philippines, […] The post The Strengthening on the Alt-Right with Max Elbaum appeared first on WORT-FM 89.9.

ThePrint
ThePrintPod: Sidelined by BJP, shunned by family over ‘ideology': The dilemma of being Varun Gandhi

ThePrint

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 18, 2023 7:04


Congress leader Rahul Gandhi has said that his cousin Varun has a different ideology. The statement seems to limit options for the Pilibhit MP, who's been a vocal Modi govt critic.----more----Read the article here: https://theprint.in/politics/sidelined-by-bjp-shunned-by-family-over-ideology-the-dilemma-of-being-varun-gandhi/1319678/

ThePrint
ThePrintPod : Bank harassment, hidden charges undoing gains of Modi's PMJDY and financial inclusion

ThePrint

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 17, 2023 4:54


The government has merged several public sector banks to improve profitability. But users have not been informed of the complications these mergers have caused.

Conspirituality
136: Virtual Strongmen (w/Ruth Ben-Ghiat)

Conspirituality

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 12, 2023 76:18


Where have all the strongmen gone, long time scrolling? Where have all the strongmen gone, long time ago? Where have all the strongmen gone? Gone to posting, everyone. Oh when will they ever turn off their phones? Not anytime soon. Trump on Truth Social, Modi on Instagram, Bolsonaro tweeting from a Kentucky Fried Chicken in Miami.Today we're looking at the new strongmen at the top of our political circuses. According to our guest, strongman-whisperer historian Ruth Ben-Ghiat, they're of new breed. They're not the steampunk fascists of 100 years ago. They're not Cold War autocrats, installed by the CIA. These guys are posters. They do not need to seize the means of production. Their goal is to disrupt the production of meaning. Julian's interview with Ben-Ghiat gives us a great opportunity to look at the strongman fetish in conspirituality, and to rate the top male influencers in our book on a scale of 10 Gaddafis.Show NotesTwitter's moderation system is in tattersWho is the 'Trump of the Tropics?': Brazil's divisive new president, Jair Bolsonaro— in his own words-- -- --Support us on PatreonPre-order Conspirituality: How New Age Conspiracy Theories Became a Health Threat: America | Canada Follow us on Instagram | Twitter: Derek | Matthew | JulianOriginal music by EarthRise SoundSystem