Internal war in the United States over slavery
In Hong Kong in the autumn of 1854, a young man boarded a U.S. naval vessel and embarked on an American adventure. Arriving in New York, he worked briefly in Washington D.C. before moving to South Carolina to create a formal plantation garden on Edisto Island. Displaced by the American Civil War, he found asylum at the State Hospital and raised a family in Columbia. We'll follow the story of Oqui Adair, master gardener and South Carolina's earliest-known resident of Chinese ancestry.
Tom and Grant Dalgliesh stop by to discuss their successful Kickstarter campaign for Napoleon, and the new Kickstarter for Bobby Lee. Plus, your host has seven reasons why you should be playing more wargames about the American Civil War. (c) 2013 Tom Grant
Ed Beach discusses his boardgames, including Here I Stand, Virgin Queen, and the Great Campaigns of the American Civil War series. We also talk about Ed’s work on the Civilization V computer game, including the new Gods & Kings expansion. How similar or different are board games and computer games, from a design perspective? Plus, […]
Today on the show we have Claire Griffin. She is a great supporter of the show and is the author of the novel, A Rebellious Woman! This is the story of Confederate spy Belle Boyd. More on Claire Griffin Here: https://www.clairejgriffin.com/Sign up on Patreon and be in the running for the upcoming raffle: https://www.patreon.com/user?u=51151470&fan_landing=truMusic is graciously provided by Craig Duncan.Support the show:(The podcast receives monetary compensation from these options.)Make a one time donation of any amount here: https://www.paypal.me/supportuntoldCWMake a monthly payment through Patreon and get the most up to date news on the podcast! Also, if you choose the 2,3, or 4 tier, you'll be able to ask the experts questions ahead of time!https://www.patreon.com/user?u=51151470&fan_landing=truThis show is made possible by the support of our sponsors. Please check them out below:The Badge Maker, proudly carrying affordable, USA made products for reenactors, living history interpreters, and lovers of history. https://www.civilwarcorpsbadges.com/Civil War Trails is the world's largest 'Open Air Museum' offering over 1,350 sites across six states. Paddle to Frederick Douglass's birthplace, follow the Gettysburg Campaign turn-by-turn in your car, or hike to mountain tops where long forgotten earthworks and artillery positions await you. Follow Civil War Trails and create some history of your own. www.civilwartrails.orgMilitary Images is America's only magazine dedicated solely to the study of portrait photographs of Civil War soldiers. In each quarterly issue of MI, readers find a mix of analysis, case studies, examinations of material culture and personal stories that offer a unique perspective on the human aspect of the Civil War.http://militaryimagesmagazine.com/The Excelsior BrigadeDealers in FINE CIVIL WAR MEMORABILIA.The goal of the "Brigade" is to offer high quality, original items while ensuring the best in service and customer satisfaction. https://www.excelsiorbrigade.com/Check us out on Facebook, Instagram, and Youtube:https://www.facebook.com/untoldcivilwar/ https://www.instagram.com/untold_civil_war/https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCMMWxSupport the show
Strider always wondered who was awarded the very first Medal of Honor. It was Union Army Private Jacob Parrott who was part of a train heist mission during the American Civil War. There a lot of brave men in this story! Support Stride and his pod by receiving exclusive content at PATREON.COM/STRIDERWILSON Sources: Thoughtco.com ‘American Civil War: Great Locomotive Chase' by Kennedy Hickman, Myetx.com, Wikipedia.org, Army.mil, Cmohs.org See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
In this week's Vatican Insider, Joan Lewis updates us on the recovery of Pope Francis and tells us about his calendar from the precious week. She describes how the pope met with wives of soldiers fighting in Mariupol and Phan Thi Kim Phuc who broke into the world's consciousness as the subject of a Pulitzer Prize winning photo as she desperately fled down a road while she was covered in napalm. After much more news from the Vatican, Joan discusses Joseph Dutton, a veteran of the American Civil War who eventually served as a missionary with St Damien of Molokai, whose feast was May 10. Listen to hear all this and much, much more!
Join us for a chat with Award-winning author, Ann H. Gabhart as she shares her latest release When the Meadow Blooms. Pinch of the Past takes a look at Canada and the American Civil War. And our Bookworm Review Features Long Way Home by Lynn Austin.
词汇提示1.cattle drives 赶牛2.conqueror 占领者3.roamed 漫步4.prairies 草原5.interbred 杂交6.temper 脾气7.aggressiveness 攻击性8.disbanded 遣散9.tribes 部落10.wagon 马车11.barred 被禁止12.barbed wire 带刺铁丝网围栏13.dealer 商人14.sheriff 治安官15.tamed 驯服16.herd 牧群17.rancher 牧场主18.chuck wagon 流动餐车19.portable 便携的20.fenced 被围起来原文CowboysThe golden age of the American cowboy was short lived.It began in the 1860s with the great cattle drives from Texas north to Kansas.By 1890, when railroads had reached remote areas, there was no more need for large scale cattle drives.Of course, cowboys have a history before 1860.In fact, there were Mexican cowboys long before that.The Spanish conqueror of Mexico, Hernan Cortes, brought cattle with him.In 1521, Cortes also branded his cattle with a three-cross design.The Spanish sharp horned cattle roamed the deserts and prairies freely.Eventually, they found their way to Texas.American settlers in Texas interbreed their animals with the Spanish breed.The Texas long-horn cow was the result.It was famous for its bad temper and aggressiveness.The long horn was a dangerous animal, with each of its horns measuring up to three and one half feet long.After the American Civil War ended in 1865, disbanded soldiers who were former black slaves and young men seeking adventure headed west.At that time, there were about 5 million cattle in Texas.Back in the east, there was a big demand for beef.By this time, railways from the east extended as far west as Kansas.It was still more than 600 miles from South Texas to the railway between the two places.There were rivers to cross Indian tribes, bad lands and other problems.Fur trader named Jesse Chism had driven his wagon north.In 1865, cowboys and cattle followed the Chism trail north to Abilene, Kansas.This cattle trail became the most famous route for driving cattle, until it was barred with barbed wire in 1884.In 1867, cattle dealer Joseph G McCoy built pens for 3000 cattle in the little town of Abilene.Soon, Abilene was the most dangerous town in America.After the long cattle drive, cowboys who had just been paid went wild.Sheriff “Wild Bill”Hickok tamed Abilene in 1871 by forcing cowboys to turn over their guns when they arrived in town.Other towns replaced Abilene as the wildest town in the west-Newton, Wichita, Ellsworth and Dodge City in Kansas.A herd of 3000 Texas long horns might sell for 100000 dollars, making the rancher rich.The cowboys might get 200 dollars in wages, which often disappeared on drink women and gambling.Getting cattle to Kansas was far from easy.One of the biggest difficulties was getting the herd across rivers, especially when the river was high.There were no bridges. In 1871, 350 cowboys driving 60000 cattle waited two weeks for the water level in the Red River to go down.Food for men and animals was also difficult to find at times. An early cattleman developed the Chuck Wagon, which were both a supply wagon and a portable kitchen.In the 1870s, there were probably 40000 cowboys in the West.After the prairies were fenced in, there was less work.Large ranchers still employ cowboys to round up the cattle for branding or for sale.Even today, about 20000 cowboys still work in North America.翻译牛仔美国牛仔的黄金时代是短暂的。它始于19世纪60年代，从德克萨斯向北到堪萨斯的大规模赶牛。到1890年，当铁路到达偏远地区时，就不再需要大规模的赶牛了。当然，牛仔在1860年以前就有了。事实上，早在那之前就有墨西哥牛仔了。墨西哥的西班牙征服者埃尔南·科尔特斯带来了牛。1521年，科尔特斯还在他的牛身上烙上了一个三叉图案。西班牙尖角牛在沙漠和大草原上自由游荡。最终，他们找到了去德克萨斯州的路。德克萨斯州的美国定居者将他们的牛与西班牙品种杂交。得克萨斯长角牛就是结果。它以坏脾气和好斗而闻名。长角牛是一种危险的动物，它的每个角都有3.5英尺长。1865年美国内战结束后，被解散的士兵包括曾经黑人奴隶的和寻求冒险的年轻人向西进发。当时，德克萨斯州大约有500万头牛。美国东部对牛肉的需求很大。此时，铁路从东部一直延伸到西部的堪萨斯州。从南德克萨斯到这两个地方之间的铁路仍然有600多英里。有河流、穿越印第安部落，有恶劣的土地和其他问题。名叫杰西·克里斯的皮草商人把他的马车开到了北方。1865年，牛仔和牛群沿着克里斯小道向北来到堪萨斯州的阿比林。这条牛道成为最著名的赶牛路线，直到1884年才被铁丝网封死。1867年，牛贩子约瑟夫·G·麦考伊(Joseph G McCoy)在小镇阿比林(Abilene)建造了3000头牛的围栏。很快，阿比林成了美国最危险的城镇。经过长时间的赶牛，刚拿到报酬的牛仔们变得发狂。1871年，“狂野比尔”希科克警长驯服了阿比林，他强迫牛仔们在进城时交出他们的枪支。其他城镇取代阿比林成为西部最荒凉的城镇——堪萨斯州的牛顿、威奇托、埃尔斯沃斯和道奇城。一群3000只德克萨斯长角牛可以卖到10万美元，这让牧场主变得富有。牛仔们可能会得到200美元的工资，而这些工资往往会因为酗酒的女人和赌博而消失。把牛运到堪萨斯并不容易。最大的困难之一是让牛群过河，尤其是在水位高的时候。因为路上没有桥。1871年，350名牛仔赶着60000头牛等了两个星期，才等等红河的水位下降。人类和动物的食物有时也很难找到。一位早期的牧人发明了查克马车（流动餐车），它既是一辆补给车，也是一个便携式厨房。在19世纪70年代，西部大约有4万名牛仔。大草原用篱笆围起来之后，工作就少了。大牧场主仍然雇用牛仔把牛圈起来打上商标或出售。直到今天，仍有约2万名牛仔在北美工作。文稿及音频 关注公众号“高效英语磨耳朵”
160 years ago on May 12th 1862, in the midst of the American Civil War, a small Confederate boat, captained by a mysterious man in a straw hat, runs up the white flag and surrenders to the US Navy. Is it all too good to be true or could it be some true good news?
Today we tell the story of two Irish men who ended up fighting on the opposite sides of the American Civil War. One was Patrick Cleburne - also known as "Stonewall of the West" - who was born in the same village as Carina. The other was Thomas Francis Meagher - who came from Waterford - who escaped from his open prison in Tasmania to America where he was involved in leading the "Fighting 69th" before becoming the deputy governor of Montana. Two amazing stories of Irish emigrant men!
Who was the most influential leader of the 20th century? What would have happened if the South had won the American Civil War? Would you rather be under siege from the Mongols, the Romans, or the Assyrians?In a huge moment for transatlantic history podcasting, Tom and Dominic are joined by titan of the genre and friend of the show Dan Carlin, the host of one of the world's largest history podcasts, Hardcore History.Over the course of two episodes, Dan, Tom and Dominic tackle ten of the biggest questions in history, including counterfactuals and hypothetical matchups.The second part of this double-header is out on Thursday.For Hardcore History fans listening to The Rest Is History for the first time - welcome! If you enjoyed this episode, feel free to check out some of our other pods. Below are a few suggestions:Young Putin, the KGB and the Soviet UnionWatergateAlexander the GreatIf you want the second part right now, head over to restishistorypod.com to join The Rest Is History Club. You'll also get ad-free listening to the full archive, weekly bonus episodes, live streamed shows and access to an exclusive chatroom community.Producer: Dom JohnsonExec Producer: Tony Pastor & Jack DavenportTwitter:@TheRestHistory@holland_tom@dcsandbrookEmail: firstname.lastname@example.org See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
What better day to throwback a classic episode than MOTHER'S DAY! What do you know about the origin of the holiday? Here's your chance to explore its founder. Anna Jarvis started Mother's Day to honor the wishes of her late mother, Ann Jarvis, who originally created the day as a way to bring families together after the end of the American Civil War. When she was successful, the holiday grew larger and spun out of control, far beyond what her mother would have intended. We also compare the rise of Mother's Day to the origin of Father's Day, which was also founded by a Broad You Should Know. — A Broad is a woman who lives by her own rules. Broads You Should Know is the podcast about the Broads who helped shape our world! 3 Ways you can help support the podcast: Write a review on iTunes Share your favorite episode on social Tell a friend! — THE HOSTS This episode of Broads You Should Know is hosted by Sara Gorsky, Chloe Skye, and Jupiter Stone. IG: @BroadsYouShouldKnow Email: BroadsYouShouldKnow@gmail.com — Sara Gorsky IG: @SaraGorsky Web master / site design: www.BroadsYouShouldKnow.com — Chloe Skye Blog: www.chloejadeskye.com Podcasts: Skye and Stone do Television, where Chloe Skye & Jupiter Stone review TV shows. Thus far, they've covered Euphoria, Watchmen, and Lovecraft Country — Jupiter Stone TikTok: @JupiterFStone www.JupiterFStone.com Podcast: Modern Eyes with Skye and Stone, where Chloe Skye & Jupiter Stone look at films from 10 or more years ago through Modern Eyes
Bootlegging has been around in America since the American Civil War, but it's still going on to this day. In part two of this two-part episode, we will discuss prominent bootleggers who made their fortunates making, transporting, and selling illegal alcohol. The episodes will cover prominent NASCAR racer Junior Johnson, hotshot lawyer George Remus, master distiller Roger “Buck” Nance, and sailor William Frederick McCoy.
Bootlegging has been around in America since the American Civil War, but it's still going on to this day. In part one of this two-part episode, we will discuss prominent bootleggers who made their fortunates making, transporting, and selling illegal alcohol. The episodes will cover prominent NASCAR racer Junior Johnson, hotshot lawyer George Remus, master distiller Roger “Buck” Nance, and sailor William Frederick McCoy.
Hosts: Jim, Jon & KentGuest: Reece AmbroseWe take an alternate look at World War II, imagining a world in which the Nazis found a mystical artifact that would lead them to conquer Europe and change the face of global politics forever. Wiki entry to follow!00:00 Tomfoolery00:36 Intro02:15 Nazis03:00 Determining Basics05:07 World War II06:27 Deciding Era & Society07:27 American Civil War07:59 Atomic Bomb08:25 Pearl Harbor10:00 Determining Rules & History10:12 Rome / Carthage / Rome vs Carthage11:18 Hiroshima / Nagasaki11:55 Hermetic Magic13:46 Vulcan / Neptune14:06 Hermes Trismegistus / Hermes / Thoth14:22 Alchemy / Astrology / Theurgy14:38 Thule Society15:18 Axis / Allies / Axis vs Allies16:24 Afrika Korps / Virgil19:36 Stormtrooper19:52 Mars20:07 Fifth Column21:16 Sodom & Gomorrah21:32 Poseidon / The Kraken / Hermann Göring24:08 Hadrian's Wall24:26 Winston Churchill26:09 Picts28:55 Navajo / Code Talkers29:42 Determining Locations / Machu Picchu29:54 Navajo Cliff Dwellings / Area 5130:10 Trinity / Alomogordo30:56 Heinrich Schliemann / Troy31:28 Gibraltar / Pillars of Hercules31:56 Victoria Falls / Niagara Falls / Zambezi32:27 Mount Fuji / Ulan Bator / Genghis Khan32:53 Gobi Desert / Mount Everest / Taroko Gorge33:15 Dreamtime34:31 Fighting Monks35:52 Determining Factions38:21 Albert Einstein40:05 Pineapple Grenade44:14 Imperial Japan / Communism47:34 Chinese Gunpowder48:03 Panacea / Elixir Vitae49:31 KGB50:15 Cheka / Vladimir Lenin / NKGB50:33 Political Directorate (OGPU) / Joseph Stalin53:20 Rwandan Genocide 53:54 Vodoun (Voodoo)55:24 Grigori Rasputin / Bolshevik55:50 Naming Groups56:02 Manhattan Project58:13 Dynasty58:57 Naming the Setting59:27 3rd Reich60:27 Conclusion & OutroDOWNLOAD EPISODE 7 - NEPTUNE'S REICH
Hosts: Jim, Jon & KentWe tackle the Superhero, Steampunk and Historical Fiction genres all at once by leaping into a world in which the Civil War is being fought not only with armies, but with strange technology and stranger heroes. Find it in the wiki here.Recommendations: Jon recommends World War Z by Max Brooks. Jim recommends Matthew Wayne Selznick's World Building series.00:00 Tomfoolery00:22 Mr. Rogers / HAL 900000:55 Introduction01:32 Recommendations / World War Z03:10 Matthew Wayne Selznick04:07 Deciding Genre04:38 DC / Marvel05:09 The New Gods05:16 Green Lantern / Superman / The Flash05:24 Thor / The Incredible Hulk / The Silver Surfer / X-Men06:10 Deciding Superhero Power Level & Geographic Scale07:15 Gambit (Remy LeBeau) / Rogue07:33 The Civil War08:34 Hat with Gears09:27 Confederate Ironclads / Submarines10:34 Washington, D.C. / Richmond, VA11:20 Creating Characters12:44 Kentucky Fried Chicken / Colonel Sanders13:27 Snow Crash13:45 Captain America / Golden Age of Comics14:13 Professor X15:23 Dime Novel15:46 Battle Hymn of the Republic17:16 Batman17:42 D&D / Cavalier / The Cavalier18:25 Colt Dragoon18:55 Sergeant Major20:08 Benjamin Franklin20:19 Q / Futurama21:28 Fu Manchu22:20 Abraham Lincoln / Pinkerton Detective Agency22:41 Allan Pinkerton / Secret Service23:22 Locations23:52 Georgetown, SC24:09 Tuskegee Airmen24:28 Deadlands 31:13 S.H.I.E.L.D.32:28 Tuskegee, AL34:09 Percy Jackson / Ares34:54 Poseidon35:16 Leonidas / Menelaus35:46 Odysseus36:08 Ulysses S. Grant36:20 Captain Nemo38:44 Geomancy39:58 Acadians42:11 Joan of Arc43:30 Catching Up on Names45:05 Gone With the Wind / Scarlett O'Hara / Vivien Leigh46:15 Geomancers46:44 Butte47:32 Ursa Major49:18 Highlander50:18 Conclusion & Outro DOWNLOAD EPISODE 5 - THE CIVIL ENGAGEMENT
I sit with Mike Medhurst who has been actively buying and selling antique photography for more than 35 years. He is currently the President of the Daguerreian Society and an avid collector. On this episode we discuss the pioneers of photography who would document the conflict for ages to come.More from Mike Medhurst here: https://mikemedhurst.com/default.asp?1 See my new project, The Tactical Historian:https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCbekCvEU7ipS5shKt9lJIhgMusic is graciously provided by Craig Duncan.Support the show:(The podcast receives monetary compensation from these options.)Make a one time donation of any amount here: https://www.paypal.me/supportuntoldCWMake a monthly payment through Patreon and get the most up to date news on the podcast! Also, if you choose the 2,3, or 4 tier, you'll be able to ask the experts questions ahead of time!https://www.patreon.com/user?u=51151470&fan_landing=truThis show is made possible by the support of our sponsors. Please check them out below:The Badge Maker, proudly carrying affordable, USA made products for reenactors, living history interpreters, and lovers of history. https://www.civilwarcorpsbadges.com/Civil War Trails is the world's largest 'Open Air Museum' offering over 1,350 sites across six states. Paddle to Frederick Douglass's birthplace, follow the Gettysburg Campaign turn-by-turn in your car, or hike to mountain tops where long forgotten earthworks and artillery positions await you. Follow Civil War Trails and create some history of your own. www.civilwartrails.orgMilitary Images is America's only magazine dedicated solely to the study of portrait photographs of Civil War soldiers. In each quarterly issue of MI, readers find a mix of analysis, case studies, examinations of material culture and personal stories that offer a unique perspective on the human aspect of the Civil War.http://militaryimagesmagazine.com/The Excelsior BrigadeDealers in FINE CIVIL WAR MEMORABILIA.The goal of the "Brigade" is to offer high quality, original items while ensuring the best in service and customer satisfaction. https://www.excelsiorbrigade.com/Check us out on Facebook, Instagram, and Youtube:https://www.facebook.com/untoldcivilwar/ https://www.instagram.com/untold_civil_war/https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCMMWxSupport the show (https://www.patreon.com/user?u=51151470&fan_landing=true)
*Listener discretion advised* About this episode: There have been more works written on the American Civil War than there have been days since it ended, and the number of topics can be overwhelming. However, one aspect of the military experience has largely been overlooked. Hidden from families and posterity, a topic as timeless as war itself. This episode: sex and the American Civil War. ----more---- Some Characters Mentioned In This Episode: Charles Lutwidge Dodgson - AKA Lewis Carroll Joseph Hooker Louis Pasteur Walt Whitman Joshua Speed Daniel Sickles Additional Resources: "Prostitute License" for Anna Johnson "Prostitute License" for Bettie Duncan Get The Guide: Want to learn more about the Civil War? A great place to start is Fred's guide, The Civil War: A History of the War between the States from Workman Publishing. The guide is in its 9th printing. Producer: Dan Irving Thank you to our sponsor Bob Graesser, Raleigh Civil War Round Table's editor of The Knapsack newsletter and the Round Table's webmaster at http://www.raleighcwrt.org
It's Easter Week with Father Koys and he's coming in loud and clear on this Wednesday. Today, Father Koys has many things to wrinkle everyone's brains, including an idea of what Heaven looks like. First off, he starts off by looking at the past, in the time of the American Civil War and how things associated with it have come into the present time today, associated with former and present politicians and moral values we have. For his main topic of discussion, Father Koys tries to find the partnership between Catholicism and Judaism. https://ststanschurch.org/
Beyond the Blue and Gray is a sub-series about the unique units of the Civil War. We look at their uniforms, traditions, cultures, and war record. Today we will be looking at Company K of the U.S. Regulars.Learn more about Company K here: https://www.3rdusreenactors.com/ See my new project, The Tactical Historian:https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCbekCvEU7ipS5shKt9lJIhgMusic is graciously provided by Craig Duncan.Support the show:(The podcast receives monetary compensation from these options.)Make a one time donation of any amount here: https://www.paypal.me/supportuntoldCWMake a monthly payment through Patreon and get the most up to date news on the podcast! Also, if you choose the 2,3, or 4 tier, you'll be able to ask the experts questions ahead of time!https://www.patreon.com/user?u=51151470&fan_landing=truThis show is made possible by the support of our sponsors. Please check them out below:The Badge Maker, proudly carrying affordable, USA made products for reenactors, living history interpreters, and lovers of history. https://www.civilwarcorpsbadges.com/Civil War Trails is the world's largest 'Open Air Museum' offering over 1,350 sites across six states. Paddle to Frederick Douglass's birthplace, follow the Gettysburg Campaign turn-by-turn in your car, or hike to mountain tops where long forgotten earthworks and artillery positions await you. Follow Civil War Trails and create some history of your own. www.civilwartrails.orgMilitary Images is America's only magazine dedicated solely to the study of portrait photographs of Civil War soldiers. In each quarterly issue of MI, readers find a mix of analysis, case studies, examinations of material culture and personal stories that offer a unique perspective on the human aspect of the Civil War.http://militaryimagesmagazine.com/The Excelsior BrigadeDealers in FINE CIVIL WAR MEMORABILIA.The goal of the "Brigade" is to offer high quality, original items while ensuring the best in service and customer satisfaction. https://www.excelsiorbrigade.com/Check us out on Facebook, Instagram, and Youtube:https://www.facebook.com/untoldcivilwar/ https://www.instagram.com/untold_civil_war/https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCMMWxSupport the show (https://www.patreon.com/user?u=51151470&fan_landing=true)
Just a month after the beginning of the American Civil War, on May 16th, 1861, arguably the world's most infamous serial killer was born in Gilmanton, New Hampshire. In this episode Shane explores the early life of Herman Webster Mudgett, also known as H. H. Holmes, to discover if there are any clues that could hint to the monster her is rumored to become in Chicago during the World's Fair. Join Shane as he explores the life and crimes of the infamous H. H. Holmes on this season of Foul Play. Find us on all platforms: https://link.chtbl.com/foulplayVisit us online at: Itsfoulplay.comSupport our podcast by becoming a patron at: Patreon.com/itsfoulplayEpisode Sponsors:- Download Best Fiends FREE today on the App Store or Google Play!- Download June's Journey FREE today on the App Store or Google Play!
Join me today in learning more about the legendary rancher C.C. Slaughter and his Texas Empire. From his Wikipedia: Christopher Columbus Slaughter (a.k.a. C.C. Slaughter or Lum Slaughter) (1837–1919) was an American rancher, cattle drover and breeder, banker and philanthropist in the Old West. After serving in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War of 1861–1865, he came to own 40,000 cattle and over one million acres of ranch land in West Texas. He became the largest taxpayer in Texas, and used his wealth to endow Baptist institutions. He was known as the "Cattle King of Texas." Book Mentioned: https://www.tamupress.com/book/9781623499716/the-rise-and-fall-of-the-lazy-s-ranch/ My Links: YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCvdB0pjMM-5cIq5wnvTABmA/featured Instagram: @therancherpod https://www.instagram.com/therancherpod/ Email: email@example.com Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheRancherPod --- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/rancher-podcast/support
On this episode of Battles & Banter, Avery, Codie & Tony are joined by recurring guest host and Civil War historian Ryan Quint to discuss the 160th anniversary of one of the bloodiest battles from the American Civil War; a battle that set the tone for how horrific the battles would become for the rest of the conflict. Along the west banks of the Tennessee River, the Confederate Army of Mississippi under General Albert Sidney Johnston attacked the U.S. Army of the Tennessee under Major General Ulysses S. Grant while they were encamped in the woods around Pittsburg Landing. The two-day engagement fought on April 6-7, 1862 would become better known by the name of a small, wooden Methodist church on site, which translated to "Place of Peace" in Hebrew. The guys discuss the battle and its far-reaching consequences not only on the war itself, but in the larger context of Civil War memory. Enjoy!
In this episode I look at the Library of America's anthology of Civil War writing, focusing on the end of 1862 and the Battle of Fredericksburg and emancipation. Next, we will take a break from the Civil War and look at MAIN STREET by Sinclair Lewis.
In her concise history Slavery and Abolition in Pennsylvania, Beverly Tomek corrects the long-held notion that slavery in the North was “not so bad” as, or somehow “more humane” than, in the South due to the presence of abolitionists. While the Quaker presence focused on moral and practical opposition to bondage, slavery was ubiquitous. Nevertheless, Pennsylvania was the first state to pass an abolition law in the United States. Slavery and Abolition in Pennsylvania traces this movement from its beginning to the years immediately following the American Civil War. Discussions of the complexities of the state's antislavery movement illustrate how different groups of Pennsylvanians followed different paths in an effort to achieve their goal. Tomek also examines the backlash abolitionists and Black Americans faced. In addition, she considers the civil rights movement from the period of state reconstruction through the national reconstruction that occurred after the Civil War. Beverly C. Tomek is Associate Professor of History and Associate Provost for Curriculum and Student Achievement at the University of Houston-Victoria.
In a future 2017, in the midst of the 2nd American Civil War, nightclub owner Barbara Kopetski (AKA Barb Wire) is forced to decide between maintaining her neutrality or supporting a cause she left behind long ago. Based on a Dark Horse comic of the same name, Barb Wire is one of those late 90s action films that cranks it up to 11 and doesn't back down. This week, Nigel and Kaitlyn discuss their apocalypse nicknames, the effectiveness of show don't tell, and their enthusiastic love of this film. You won't want to miss it! Barb Wire Directed by: David Hogan Written by: Chris Warner, Ilene Chaiken, Chuck Pfarrer Starring: Pamela Anderson, Udo Kier, Clint Howard, Temuera Morison, Don't forget to hit that subscribe button! Support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/ajourneyintofilm Want merch? Click this link here Follow us on Instagram and Twitter This has been a production of AJourneyIntoFilm.com
Abraham Lincoln's unique political wisdom for winning the peace at the end of the American Civil War provides a goldmine of actionable wisdom for our own troubled times. Steve talks with John Avlon, author of Lincoln and the Fight for Peace. [...]
Lots going on in the fall of 1862, in the aftermath of the Emancipation Proclamation as new debates emerge. This episode follows those debates, the firing of McClellan and Lincoln's 1862 message to Congress. Just how into colonization was Lincoln?
If you're new to the show, you'd probably like it best if you started listening to this sprawling story at episode 1.1 or 1.3 ... depending how you like consuming your stories. If you're not new to the show, read on :) In this mini-episode of the Forgotten Wars Podcast....Learn how balloons were wielded as weapons before and during the Anglo-Boer War. 1) More sources from today's episode available at https://forgottenwarspodcast.com/blog/ 2) Choose how you'd like to keep the show going at https://forgottenwarspodcast.com/donate/
About this episode: James Murray Mason was a Virginian. As a former member of the U.S. Senate, he once served as Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. His credentials made him a natural selection for a diplomatic mission to London as a representative for the Confederate States of America. Then there was John Slidell, a native New Yorker, who moved to Louisiana where, as a young man, he embraced the French language and culture. He, too, was perfect for his assignment to Paris - to the court of Napoleon III. In November of 1861, they made their way on a mission which, if successful, would create a tipping point that would have profound consequences for the American Civil War. Then an event in the Bahama Channel abruptly interrupted their journey. Found on a British vessel, they were captured in international waters by a US armed sloop and, because of that, the two came the closest to accomplishing their designated mission long before they ever arrived. This is their story and the incredible ramifications of their capture. This is the story of the Trent Affair. ----more---- Some Characters Mentioned In This Episode: Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerson Napoleon III Robert Barnwell Rhett Queen Victoria Charles Francis Adams Sr. James Murray Mason John Slidell Charles Wilkes Get The Guide: Want to learn more about the Civil War? A great place to start is Fred's guide, The Civil War: A History of the War between the States from Workman Publishing. The guide is in its 9th printing. Producer: Dan Irving Thank you to our sponsor Bob Graesser, Raleigh Civil War Round Table's editor of The Knapsack newsletter and the Round Table's webmaster at http://www.raleighcwrt.org
In this episode, we look at the importance of studying and understanding your own local history by showing you what we were able to find on our local Civil War battlefield, The Battle of Dandridge, where one of the greatest military blunders of the American Civil War occurred!! Please help us out by taking 20 seconds and giving us a rate and review or tell us how we can make a better show. We Appreciate Youz Guyz! Please help us out by leaving a comment and sharing our show with others! Don't forget to Subscribe, Comment & leave us a rating and review. We also have a YouTube Channel "Chasing History" where we take you into the field with the men & women who discover history!
A St. Patrick's Day Special to pair nicely with your pint of Guinness! In order to learn more on the Irish experience in the Civil War, I sit with the team behind the, "Irish in the American Civil War Blog." Hear us tell a story that links two nations on opposite sides of the ocean. More on the Irish here: https://irishamericancivilwar.com/Checkout our website: https://untoldcivilwar.squarespace.com/See my new project, The Tactical Historian: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCbekCvEU7ipS5shKt9lJIhgMusic is graciously provided by Craig Duncan.This show is made possible by the support of our sponsors. Please check them out below:The Badge Maker, proudly carrying affordable, USA made products for reenactors, living history interpreters, and lovers of history. https://www.civilwarcorpsbadges.com/Civil War Trails is the world's largest 'Open Air Museum' offering over 1,350 sites across six states. Paddle to Frederick Douglass's birthplace, follow the Gettysburg Campaign turn-by-turn in your car, or hike to mountain tops where long forgotten earthworks and artillery positions await you. Follow Civil War Trails and create some history of your own. www.civilwartrails.orgMilitary Images is America's only magazine dedicated solely to the study of portrait photographs of Civil War soldiers. In each quarterly issue of MI, readers find a mix of analysis, case studies, examinations of material culture and personal stories that offer a unique perspective on the human aspect of the Civil War.http://militaryimagesmagazine.com/Support the show:(The podcast receives monetary compensation from these options.)Make a one time donation of any amount here: https://www.paypal.me/supportuntoldCWMake a monthly payment through Patreon and get the most up to date news on the podcast! Also, if you choose the 2,3, or 4 tier, you'll be able to ask the experts questions ahead of time!https://www.patreon.com/user?u=51151470&fan_landing=truCheck us out on Facebook, Instagram, and Youtube:https://www.facebook.com/untoldcivilwar/ https://www.instagram.com/untold_civil_war/https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCMMWxSupport the show (https://www.patreon.com/user?u=51151470&fan_landing=true)
The American Civil war was one of the bloodiest and horrific events in American history (for a great cause, though). Izzy and Cam talk about the ways that comes up time and again in pop culture; from Glory to Cold Mountain to The Good, The Bad and The Ugly, it has cemented its place in movies and TV. Not to mention all the strategy video games that you can play. You always pick the north, right? RIGHT?!The episode ends peacefully with a game of "Civil War Movie or Lifetime Movie." It's harder than you think. Doubly so for Cam and Israel. Support the show (https://www.buymeacoffee.com/pcfmpodcast)
The 1800s were a time of milking cows and going to the county fair. Sure... but what else? We tend to think of this century as a quiet, pastoral era when people were friendly and life was simple. But the 1800s were a crazy time! The American Civil War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Spanish-American War, conquest, the suffrage movement, the prohibition movement, massive technological changes. It's a wonder we ever made it out alive. In this episode, we explore the early life of William Jennings Bryan and the Democratic Party, the party of Jim Crow that he would soon lead. After the Civil War, it was the Democrats who created Black Codes in the South to restrict the upward mobility of African Americans. They were the party of white farmers and soon transitioned into representing labor unions and, eventually, many black people in the United States. Bryan was one of the men responsible for that transition. Helpful Links and Sources: "A Godly Hero" by Michael Kazin Truce episode about the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) Meeting notes of the 1873 Evangelical Alliance "Fundamentalism and American Culture" by George Marsden "A Righteous Cause" by Robert W. Cherny (book on William Jennings Bryan) Interesting bio on Stephen Douglas President Hays' acceptance speech Discussion Questions: What do you think of when you think of the 1800s? Was the 1800s a simpler time? What mistakes did the Republican Party make in ending Reconstruction? How should abolitionists have handled the South after the Civil War? Can a Christian lead a racist political party? Should they? What were some technological advances that came about in the 1800s? How might they have shifted the way people lived and thought back then? Are there technological changes going on now that could shift the way we think and interact with each other? Chris ends the episode by talking about how Christians should be a people of the means, not necessarily the ends. Do you think the ends ever justify the means for Christians? Learn more about your ad choices. Visit podcastchoices.com/adchoices
In this episode, Luke and Eleanor continue their ever-expanding series on Historical Materialism by covering the years from 1815-1865. this includes the aftermath of the Napoleonic era, the numerous failed revolutions of 1848, the promulgation of the Communist Manifesto, and America's very own suicide pact with itself: the American Civil War
"The Boarded Window: An Incident in the Life of an Ohio Pioneer" is a short story by American Civil War soldier, wit, and writer Ambrose Bierce. It was first published in The San Francisco Examiner on April 12, 1891 and was reprinted the same year in Bierce's collection Tales of Soldiers and Civilians.
We explore the long and complicated relationship between the United States and the Papal States, the political-religious home of the Roman Catholic Church. The Papal States were ruled by the Pope from his seat in the Vatican until the city fell in 1870 and became the capital of a new nation called "Italy." In this episode, we follow the careers of consuls William Stillman and Edwin Cushman who served in the 1860s. Stillman and Cushman had the hard task of representing the United States during an era of intense conflict for both their home nation and the location of their consulate. For as the war in Italy between the Pope and the Italians escalated, so did the fight across the Atlantic ocean that became the American Civil War. As we focus in on Stillman and Cushman's experiences, we see how supposedly internal conflicts involve people and governments around the world.
Abraham Lincoln - The Gettysburg Address - The Great Task Remaining Before Us. Hi, I'm Christy Shriver, and we're here to discuss books that have changed the world and have changed us. I am Garry Shriver, and this is the How to. Love Lit Podcast. This episode we will focus on one more American document very much connected to the Letter from Birmingham jail, but in a very special way. This document is memorized every year by students all across the United States. It's a two minute, ten sentence speech of only 272 words. In fact, it wasn't called a speech at all, but instead it a “few appropriate remarks” given at the conclusion of a full day of ceremony dedicating America's first national cemetery. Today it is called the Gettysburg Address given by the 16th American president, President Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln, very unusually accepted the invitation extended to him by a young lawyer by the name of David Wills who had been tasked with organizing the event. One unusual thing was that on the day of the speech, although he diidn't know it yet, he had an early stage of small pox and was sick. His speech wasn't even the highlight of the event. That honor would go to former governor and renowned orator Edward Everett. It was received by the press with typical reviews- the democratic press denounced it, the republican papers praised it- as Lincoln was a Republican, that was to be expected. However, today the Gettysburg Addressed is engraved inside the Lincoln Memorial, and the Lincoln Memorial has become the most visited location in the United States Nation's capital. Over 7 million people from around the world are expected to visit it next year. It is open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and everyone who visits it will read the words spoken on that day. The question we want consider today is why? Is it because it's such a brilliant example of sophisticated parallelism- it is that, btw- containing ten sentences of complex structure organizing and juxtaposing complicated idea after idea- in simplified single syllable prose that was both easy to listen to and highly understandable. Christy, as interesting as that is for an English teacher, I'm sure that's not that reason. True- a second idea I've heard thrown away is that it's famous just because it is short and we like Lincoln. It was easily printed that day, and newspapers carried it in its entirety around the world. It's something easy to make kids memorize in school, and we've just gotten used to memorizing it. Well, of course that's true too, and in that case, and by that logic, it elevatates this speech to the level of Shakespeare. Many of us were forced to learn, “But soft what light through yonder window breaks” from Romeo or Juliet or the the lines I've seen you force on students from Julius Caesar, “Friends, Romans, Countrymen, Lend me your ear”. But, of course, as a historian, I just don't think the literary reasons are enough to account for its enduring and even transcendental appeal. Okay, well, we could look at the history. Of course, there are historical reasons that it's famous. The Battle of Gettysburg was the bloodiest engagement in the entire Civil War. The statistics speak for themselves, after only three days of fighting, over 170,000 casualities- of those 53,000 soldiers lay dead on the ground. It's unimaginable the level of death. And, I guess, even I must adeit, that's more compelling than parallelism. But of course, that really is only interesting to those of us who are American. Those are signicant to the history of this country, and of course that matters, but we would like to suggest that the reasons for reading and thinking about the Gettysburg Addres are much more transcendental.- This document, although an American one is belongs not only to the American continent. The words are universal and it is because of their universality are worthy of our attention and analysis. The Gettysburg address, although over 150 years old, resonates with practicality even in regard to today's political and philosophical discourse. So Garry, before we address the transcendent qualities of these two paragraphs, let's begin by putting the Gettysburg address in its original historical context. For sure, and, of course, I agree completely that it is very much transcendental in its appeal- and I want to to suggest that from the moment it was uttered, the audience knew immediately that it was important and perhaps even immortal. There are many myths surrounding the origins of this address. There's one that says he composed it on the train on a napkin; another that he wrote it on an envelope- both totally untrue. Lincoln likely started writing it not long after the battle ended in July. There's also stories that no one cared about it at the time or recognized its greatness. That's also not true. On November 19, 1863, the day Lincoln delivered these words, he got up to speak, and began to read his two minute speech very slowly. However, he was interrupted five times by spontaneous applause. (by most accounts, the number of interruptions is still in dispute), but regardless- he's literally being stopped as people considered each idea. Well, if that's the case, I don't understand why anyone would suggest, he wasn't good or well-received. The first reason is because it's generally believed that when Lincoln finished speaking, in typical Lincoln fashion, he turned to Marshal Lamon, a US marshal there, and said,: "Lamon, that speech won't scour! It is a flat failure and the people are disappointed." That sounds brutal, Well, it does but if you study Lincoln, you quickly see that self-depricating comments like that are normal for him. He was always underselling his rhetoric, even though he was extremely skilled at it, to the point that he had famously took down the more educated more renowned Stephen Douglass in their famous debates .. So, you can't go by Lincoln. Instead of going by Lincoln's off handed remark, a better judge would be the opinion of the key note speaker of the event, Edward Everett- the man man universally considered the undisputed greatest orator of his generation. Everett had been center stage for the entire day and had been given two hours to speak., but his opinion of Lincoln's appropriate remarks could be summarized by a comment Everett himself made to Lincoln a bit later, "I should be glad, if I could flatter myself that I came as near to the central idea of the occasion, in two hours, as you did in two minutes."- and yes- Everett's speech was all of two hours. Wow. Clearly, Lincoln made an impression on his immediate audience. So, let's remember who that audience was,- obviously there were politicians, dignitaries and journalists- this was the first time in the United States that the federal government had built a cemetery, so that was a big deal. But beyond the VIP guests, there were thousands of Union soldiers, relatives of soldiers, and regular people who lived in the town of Gettysburg- which was actually a bustling county seat, even if only 2000 residents today seems small. There were people there whose friends and family members were literally buried in the dirt before them. Of the 15,000 people in attendance that day, none would escape the personal pain of loss represented by that cemetery. For many of us today, it's strange to think of 15,000 people coming out to a cemetery dedication, even an important one, even one where the president would be at. In fact, the American Civil War itself is difficult to understand. Of course, we know it was about slavery, we also know that most of it was fought in the South, but realistically, and almost all of the casualities were white men. This is not an uprising of people liberating themselves at all- it's not a revolution or a rebellion. No, there had been a few slave rebellions, notably Nat Turner, but he'd had no weapons. More recently and more realistically and more frightening to the South was the one John Brown almost pulled one off at Harper's Ferry in 1859. But those events were before and not part of Civil War It was the South that succeeded, not the North. Lincoln was in favor of preserving the Union, not splitting it up, and although he was against slavery, he was willing, at least in the beginning to be satisfied by just keeping it from expanding. True, he was also in favor of compensated emancipation. His idea was to emancipate the slaves by buying them from slave owners for $400 a person- but this was something the Southern States rejected. Well and because Gettysburg isn't even in the South; you'd image that slavery would feel far away.- the way slave labor feels today. We don't actually see it, so we tend to dismiss it. There were no slaves in Gettysburg. And finally, a fact, I learned when moving to the the South but interesting to understand, even to this day many in the South don't claim that the Civil War was a war over slavery. True- there is a lot to be confused about the Civil War in general and the Battle of Gettysburg particularly. Let's go with the easy stuff than get to the most complicated. First of all- location- Gettysburg is in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania, if you look on a map is between Maryland to the South and New York to the North. It's 82 north of Washington DC. BTW, just for a reference Washington DC, which of course is the capital of the North is basically halfway between Gettysburg and Richmond, the capital of the South is in Virginia- Gettyburg is a little under a two hour drive to DC and Richmond a little over two hours- depending on the traffic, of course. So if DC is halfway between Richmond and Gettysburg, it seems kind of out of the way for the. South to be invading it. Well, that's true too, but let's go back to the issue of why they were fighting to begin with. For a Long time, on both sides of the Atlantic that was up for debate. On December 20, 1860, a special convention in South Carolina unanimously voted to succeed. Now remember, the Gettysburg address isn't until 1863, but even after 1863, the US will fight for two more years. Not long after that, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana left and eventually a total of 11 Southern states seceded from the United States. If you had asked any Southern farm boy fighting on the ground why he was fighting, he would have likely told you he was fighting for “States Rights”- and of course that was true. Most of the young men fighting in the field were not Slave holders, nor would ever be. But the aristocratic Southern leaders who did own slaves and who controlled all of the money, the media, and the assets wanted the right to control their way of life. They preached that democracy itself- was under siege because of the election of the radical Republican anti-slavery Mid-western uneducated redneck lawyer Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln's election marked the first time that a president had been elected without the vote of a single Southern State, and it was foreseeable that the South would never again be represented as they had been in the past- after all there were more states now and that trend was growing. So, Lincoln was the threat to slavery. Yes- but it went beyond that really, if you can believe that. We can't just look at the Civil War from an American perspective- the entire world was watching- and monarchies across the ocean were watching nervously. And this is where our arrogance of the presence really has a difficult time conceptualizing a world 150 years. In 1860, there weren't democracies around world, and in fact, the whole idea of democracy seemed ridiculous for most of the world. It is true that African-Americans could not vote in America, nor could women, but most American men were given a voice as to their future- and America was the only place this had happened up to this point. Otto von Bismarck who led the great nation of Germany during their reunification days and beyond voiced the general opinion of many leaders on the continent when he said that in his early life his tendencies were all toward republicanism, but he had discovered when you have governed men for several years , that a liberal will be transformed from a Republican to a monarchist.” He, along with most on planet earth on that time, believed you could not build a great nation or build prosperity without authority. Leaders had to be authoritarian to be successful- and many great leaders who had built great kingdoms around the world over the course of human history- had proven that to be true. The generally accepted idea, of the inhabitants on our planet, to quote Orwell is that some people really are are more equal than others, and those who are the most equal are entitled to commensurate wealth and power. The reason I reference Bismarck and European history is that the European experience of the 1840s seemed to confirm this. Democratic uprising after uprising faltered. - Of course, most of us are familiar with the French Revolution which sadly descended into chaos and then tyranny with Napoleon. That's a predominant example, but it's not the only one. Spain and Russia had both had democratic uprisings come and fail. The Revolutions of 1848 had seen Republican uprisings all over the continent, but they all failed. Monarchs held the authority- monarchs knew what was best. Regular people were not smart enough, not informed enough, nor disciplined enough to rule themselves. Average people needed to be told what to do and what to think- and most importantly they needed to stay in their place. And so…The European monarchs were filled with schadenfreude to watch the red-neck, ill mannered, uncouth average under-educated Americans blow up their entire democratic experiment with war not even 100 years after Thomas Jefferson arrogantly pronounced to the European aristocracy the new idea that all men were created equal and they were going to build a country on that principle. The Spanish ambassador wrote back to Queen Isabella, “The Union is in agony and Our mission is not to delay its death.” And the very idea that President Lincoln, would risk the entire experiment under the banner of equality and the equality of African-Americans- slaves- no less- was absurd to consider, and to watch the ship wreck would be a relief. For most of the world, the Southern model of aristocratic control of resources, the authority and rule of those who know better was the proven model- and even though most European countries did not support slavery up until the Emancipation Proclamation and then the Gettysburg address, they didn't see the Civil War as entirely about that. The south was very much an oligarchy that was directly descended from European style feudalism. So, by States rights, we mean more than slavery but including slavery. For sure at the beginning of the war, but by 1863, and really through the rhetoric of the Gettysburg Address- Lincoln shifted the war from being about states rights. He made the central issue one of human equality. If America was to be a land of liberty, it would be about every man's God-given right to be who can make himself to be before a just and omniscient God. It made no sense for half of it to own slaves. It's not about the states at all- it's about the people- the people who inhabited the land of liberty. And had this always been Lincoln's personal belief- in the equality of every human before God? That's always been the question, although, I don't even know if it's a fair question. When we think about Thomas Jefferson who wrote the Declaration of Independence, for example, we think about his personal inconsistency of owning slaves. But, I think, and I recommend going back and listening to our episode on the Declaration of Independence, that even Jefferson's ideals evolved and though he never fully realized them in his personal life, he did believe them, If Jefferson and Washington can be called the Founding Fathers of the American experiment, which they are, Lincoln led the country to make the personal sacrifices to establish it. In 1861, Lincoln became the 16th president of the United States. If we look at his ideas on slavery and equality from those early years, we can see that he always hated the idea of owning people, and he always believed in economic equality. What we can't see for sure is that he believed in social equality like we understand it today. But. he always hated human bondage. He believed that African-Americans should be allowed to work and have financial freedom to build their own lives. He spoke of African-Americans as citizens and as humans. But, at the same time, as president, Lincoln did not believe, he had the authority to simply abolish slavery simply based on his personal convictions. It was protected by the US constitution. For Lincoln, it would take a constitutional amendment to free them- Which is what eventually happened. Yes, but by 1863, we can see through Lincoln's public statements, that he was willing to walk back the idea that he couldn't single-handedly free slaves. He had given African-Americans equality under military law- they had the right to serve the country- and over 200,000 of them would do so by the end of the war. The. Southern States were in rebellion, and because of that, the North had the right to seize property as a wartime concession. If slaves were property, he would seize them and free them. And, so he did. In September of 1862, five days after the battle of Antietam- the first Union non-loss and the single deadliest day of the Civil War, Lincoln makes the statement that as of January 1, 1863, “all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free." It is called the Emancipation Proclamation. The language was charged , but in reality, it had no real authority. It only applied to the states in rebellion, and there wasn't any real way of enforcing it besides the war they were already waging, But what it did do, was signal what was coming, should the South fail to succeed things would change drastically. And so we finally get to Gettysburg. The Battle of Gettysburg would come in July after the Emancipation Proclamation. So, how and why does the Southern Army get all the way to Pennsylvania?. General Robert E Lee, who was the most important leader of the South, the leader of the notorious Southern Army decided time was not on the side of the South They needed the people in the North to feel the pain of the war; they needed to face the North on Northern soil. And, an election year was coming up. There was northern opposition to the war called the copperhead movement. Lee believed a quick strike victory in northern territory would fuel the anti-war copperheaad movement, so there was a political motivation as well. The Southern Army had better leadership and their troops were more skilled. The problem was that the North had more of everything- else more men, more guns, more food, more resources. The war was going on too long. Lee felt he must bring the war to the homes of the people in the North, so they would demand that Lincoln relinquish. It was a gamble, but he marched his army of 75,000 well-trained battle hardened soldiers onto Pennsylvania soil. General George Meade was Lincoln's choice to lead the Union Army of the Potomac to confront them- although they didn't really know for sure they would be meeting in Gettysburg, they knew there was going to be a clash. The Union Army had around 85,000 soldiers. After three days of fighting, the confederates lost 23,000 men; the Union lost 28,000- but the confederate army was forced to retreat out of Pennsylvania. So, in theory Gettysburg was Union victory, but in reality who wins with so much death- it was a pyrrhic victory at best. Exactly, and we must understand that the losses were felt. 12 Southern states and 18 northern states sent troops to Gettysburg. Every family at this point in the war had experienced personal loss to some degree. In fact, just to put the entire Civil War in perspective, more Americans died in the Civil war than in World War 1, 2, Vietnam, Korea, and Afghanistan combined. At the time there was an estimated 620,000 deaths out of a population of 31 million, modern day historians, however, looking back at the historical record claim that number is likely closer to 820,000- in other words 1 out of every 10 white American males was dead within those four years. And so standing at that cemetery dedication in November of 1863 looking out at the ones who had survived was the man mostly responsible for the carnage- and not just the carnage of Gettysburg, but for all of it and for the more that was to come. Lincoln wanted to be at that cemetery dedication and he felt compelled to put in words the WHY. He had been thinking on what to say for a while. How could he ever explain what was worth so much death? For an answer like that, one must think transcendentallym and so what he began to speech, he uttered familiar words, words easily recognizable as coming from the diction and speech patterns of the commonly read and understood King James version of the Bible. “Four Score and Seven Years ago, our Fathers brought forth on This Continent a New nation conceived in Liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.” Psalm 90:10 in the Bible reads “ The days of our years are threescore years and ten; and if by reason of strength they be fourscore years,” The subtext may be lost on us, most who have never even opened the King James Version of the Bible, but in 1863, there is no one who would have not immediately recognized the phrase “score” meaning 20 years- that's how the bible talked. The allusion and subtext is obvious. Our lives our short- counted in scores—the life of our country is too- four score- a human life- but when we came to this country, when our fathers came here, they came here on a Biblical principle that every man was created by God and by virtue of God's creation we are all of equal value. I am of value- and therefore- so are you. It's about African-American slaves- yes- but it's about all of us- if they are not equal- than no one is. That's the subtext. And let me add this, it wasn't just the founding fathers that came to America. Immigration to America during the Civil War years was in full throttle, which is strange if you think about it. 1 out of every 4 Union soldier was a first generation immigrant. Think about that, thousands came to America, got off the boat, picked up a gun, and fought for a country they had barely met. Why do that? Why did they leave Europe? Was it because of that very promise of equality? I think it's likely. Many came because of a promise- this promise. Now we are engaged in a great Civil War, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure. See, he's addressing the idea of republicanism or democracy in general. They told us it wasn't possible. Is it true that a bunch of under-educated rednecks carving out their own lives on their own terms- on the terms that every one is truly equal, is it true that such a group of people can exist? We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is all together fitting and proper that we should do this. Let me add, this, if you go to the Gettysburg Cemetery today, you will see there is the official cemetery where all the soldiers are buried, but near it, still in the park, is another cemetery- a normal one. This cemetery at the time of the dedication was called Citizens Cemetery. Like most cemeteries, it has beautiful headmarkers of every shape and size- some big because the deceased is an important person, some smaller- we've all seen a cemetery- but if you look across from Citizens cemetery to the one Lincoln was dedicating, the military one- you will see that every burial marker is the same. The men that are buried there are not distinguished by class, status or anything- no one is more equal than the other- the 15,000 there on that inaugural day would have seen this distinction. They would have understood that those markers represented the idea for which their loved ones died. But, in a larger, sense we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The Brave men, living and dead, who struggled here have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. And of course, those are the most ironic lines of the entire speech. After Lincolns' assassination in April 1865, Senator CharlesSumner of Massachusetts wrote of the Gettysburg address, “That speech, uttered at the field of Gettysburg…and now sanctified by the martyrdom of its author, is a monumental act. In the modesty of his nature he said ‘the world will little note, nor long remember what we say here; but it can never forget what they did here.' He was mistaken. The world at once noted what he said, and will never cease to remember it.” And of course, it is at this point that he changes directions in the speech. It is not about looking back anymore. It's not about honoring anymore- it's about moving forward. What is this war about? What is worth so much carnage and personal loss. Here is the answer. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.” We must not quit. We must not quit. We must not quit. You know, the words “under God” were not in the manuscript Lincoln used on the day. It wasn't part of the prepared remarks. We know he said under God because it was in the transcripts and in the copies made later, but it was not in the original version of the text. It was spontaneious but it was not casually uttered. In fact here at the end there are other intentional phrases that a Biblical church-goer would recognize- the idea of a new Birth is a New Testament idea from the words of Jesus Christ- the promise that every sinner can have a second chance- a redemptive moment to start again. The phrases “resting place” , “might life”, “in vain”, “shall not perish from the earth”, are all taken from different parts of Biblical text that were recognizable. So, why do that? Why harken to Biblical language. I think it's because of that last phrase- the one where he repeated the same word three times- three different way' of the people, by the people, for the people- it is about the dignity and worth of every human- you plus I. It is the shared belief of the crowd that day, that life, liberty, freedom- it was one thing- and it was a gift from God- something the state or no person- no matter how great or powerful- had the right to take from another. There IS something greater than any great man or human institution- and that is a creator God. For the monotheistic audience of that day, in that crowd, Lincoln was declaring that it was not by his authority, but it was by virtue of God's authority that they gave their lives. They had a fighting chance, if they would defend it, that their children, their neighbors and all the people of this land would indeed be free. And of course, it is for the transcendency of this reason that when Dr. King got up to give his I Have a Dream Speech 100 years later, he would start with his own reference to that Biblical language Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity. Yes, and when President Barak Obama got up to give his first inaugural address in 2009, he references Gettysburg, and ends his speech with these words, and I quote President Obama, “Let it be said by our children's children that when we were tested we refused to let this journey end, that we did not turn back nor did we falter; and with eyes fixed on the horizon and God's grace upon us, we carried forth that great gift of freedom and delivered it safely to future generations.” And of course, it is transcendent; this is not just an American ideal or even just a Christian one- although that was the exigence of Lincoln's moment . Today, almost half the countries of the world are democracies of some sort. Today, only a little over half of the residents of the United States claim to be Christian. But the ideal of a government of the people, by the people and for the people- resonates in the human heart. The proposition that all men are created equal- as limited as we have understood it at times, is still the heartbeat of many human souls. Christy, you're starting to sound like a preacher. HA!! If I can sound like Lincoln, that would be a compliment. Indeed, it would be- thank you for listening. ladeedadeeda
After the American Civil War, Southern governments created laws to keep freed Black people working without pay or legal recourse. Learn how the Black Codes shaped history in this episode of BrainStuff, based on this article: https://history.howstuffworks.com/american-civil-war/black-codes.htm Learn more about your ad-choices at https://www.iheartpodcastnetwork.com