Jewish rabbinical law
In the case of somebody who needed an injection on Shabbat, and after the injection he wants to use a cotton ball to clean the area where the injection was made, a number of Halachic questions arise. Firstly, if he does not have cotton balls, and needs instead to rip a piece of cotton from a cotton roll, the question becomes whether this violates the prohibition of Kore'a – tearing on Shabbat. Indeed, Hacham Bension Abba Shaul (Israel, 1924-1998), in Or Le'sion (36:22), writes that it is forbidden to rip cotton on Shabbat, for this reason. Hacham Ovadia Yosef, however, disagrees. In Hazon Ovadia – Shabbat (vol. 3, p. 377), he writes that cotton does not qualify as a "Hibur Gamur" – meaning, the strands of cotton are not completely attached such that removing a piece would constitute "tearing" with respect to the prohibition of Kore'a. According to Hacham Ovadia, then, it is entirely permissible to tear a piece of cotton on Shabbat.A second question arises regarding the use of cotton to rub alcohol on the wound. The Halachic authorities note that if one pours alcohol onto a piece of cotton, it is all but certain that he will end up extracting absorbed alcohol from the cotton, in violation of the prohibition of Sehita. Cotton is so porous that it is virtually impossible to avoid Sehita when handling cotton after pouring liquid on it. Therefore, one would either have to use a material other than cotton for applying the alcohol onto the skin, or pour the alcohol directly onto the skin and then gently pat the moist skin with cotton. This is the ruling of Rav Moshe Ha'levi (Israel, 1961-2000), in his Menuhat Ahaba.Summary: It is permissible to rip a piece of cotton from a cotton roll on Shabbat. One may not, however, pour alcohol onto a piece of cotton on Shabbat, as he will then inevitably end up extracting absorbed liquid from the cotton. Therefore, one who needs to apply alcohol to his skin on Shabbat must either use a different material or pour the alcohol directly onto the skin.
Hacham Ovadia Yosef ruled that a diabetic who needs an insulin injection on Shabbat may inject the insulin, as such a patient is treated as a "Holeh She'yesh Bo Sakana" – somebody in a potentially life-threatening condition. Preferably, Hacham Ovadia writes, the insulin should be injected into a muscle, as opposed to a vein. Injections in veins cause bleeding, and so in the interest in minimizing the extent of Shabbat violation, it is preferable to make the injection into a muscle. However, if this is not possible, the insulin may be injected into a vein. This is also the ruling of Hacham Bension Abba Shaul (Israel, 1924-1998), in his work Or Le'sion. However, whereas Hacham Ovadia allows even preparing the injections on Shabbat, Hacham Bension Abba maintains that the injections should be prepared before Shabbat. (Hacham Ovadia's discussion appears in Yehaveh Da'at 2:56, and in Yabia Omer, vol. 9, Orah Haim 108:187.)Hacham Ovadia also writes that if a patient needs a nebulizer to help with breathing on Shabbat, the machine should be set up before Shabbat. However, if, for whatever reason, the machine was not set up before Shabbat, or if it was turned off or unplugged on Shabbat, then it may be set up or plugged in on Shabbat, despite the Shabbat violations entailed, given the potential risk to the patient's life if he or she is unable to breathe properly. Likewise, if the water in the machine runs out on Shabbat, one may add water, even if the water will be heated. In such a case, Hacham Ovadia writes, it is preferable to use water that had already been heated previously. The Rambam (Rabbi Moshe Maimonides, Spain-Egypt, 1135-1204) maintained that "En Bishul Ahar Bishul Be'lah" – meaning, the Shabbat prohibition against cooking does not apply to something that had been previously cooked, even a liquid that had been boiled and has since cooled. Thus, in the interest of minimizing Shabbat desecration, it is preferable to pour into the nebulizer water that was previously heated, as this would not constitute a Shabbat violation according to the view of the Rambam.One example of this Halacha is the situation of a patient suffering from croup who needs a vapor machine to breathe properly. It would be entirely permissible to turn on the hot water to create the vapor to help the patient breathe. Summary: A diabetic may take insulin injections on Shabbat if necessary, though the injections should preferably be made in a muscle, instead of in a vein, to avoid bleeding. The injections may be prepared on Shabbat. If a patient needs a nebulizer in order to breathe properly, the machine should be set up before Shabbat. If, however, the machine was not set up before Shabbat, or if it ran out of water before Shabbat, one may turn it on or add water if the patient needs the machine. Preferably, one should use water that had already been boiled previously.
Keeping Foods Hot from Before Shabbat:It is permissible to keep food on a blech or electric Shabbat hotplate from before Shabbat. This alleviates the concern that one may adjust the flame on Shabbat and solves many Halachic problems that would otherwise arise. Reheating Food on Shabbat:It is always forbidden to put any food on an open flame on Shabbat. Doing so constitutes a violation of Mechzay K'Mivashel-it appears that one is cooking. Solid Dry Food:One can be lenient and take cold, solid food from the refrigerator on Shabbat and put it on the blech. The reason is that the blech neutralizes the concern of adjusting the flame as well as the issue of Mechzay K'Mivashel.The definition of dry food depends on the nature of the food and the amount of liquid present. A solid food containing a small amount of gravy can be considered dry. If there is a lot of gravy, even Hacham Ovadia prohibits reheating it. Liquid Foods:It is always forbidden to reheat cold liquids, even on a blech or hotplate. It is permissible to return a liquid that has not cooled down to the fire- if three conditions are met:1. One uses a blech or Shabbat hotplate.2. The liquid is still at least 80 degrees Celsius (176 degrees Fahrenheit) (According to the Menachem Sion and Hacham David)3. The pot was not placed in the meantime on the floor or counter. Warming Food in an Oven:An oven has the same Halacha as a stovetop only if the Shabbat mode is activated and an oven blech insert or other distinguishing apparatus is used. Warming drawers have the same halachot as a blech on a stovetop. If One Forgot to Use a Blech:If one unintentionally left food on the open flame of a modern stovetop from before Shabbat, b'diavad, after the fact, the food is permissible to eat on Shabbat. Using an Non-Jew to Reheat Food on Shabbat:It is permissible to tell a non-Jew to reheat fully cooked, cold, dry food on an open flame (ignited before Shabbat). Likewise, It is permissible to tell a non-Jew to reheat fully cooked cold liquids-but only on a blech or Shabbat hotplate. Congealed or Frozen liquids:It is permitted (according to the Sepharadim) to put a dry solid food containing congealed fat back on the blech on Shabbat. However, it is forbidden to defrost and reheat a frozen soup on the blech.
There is a Halachic problem covering a pot of non-fully cooked food on the Blech. Covering the pot enhances and speeds the cooking process. Even though the food would have eventually become cooked, it is prohibited to augment the process; it may well be an Hiyuv Hatat-a Torah prohibition. Covering the pot is comparable to the prohibition of "Megis"-stirring, which also enhances the cooking. Therefore, if one removes the cover to check the food and discovers that it is not fully cooked, he may not put the cover back on the pot. Even regarding fully cooked food, there may be an issue in removing the cover. The steam creates condensation which gathers on the lid and would then fall back into the cooking pot when removed. Some would argue that this is considered cooking because the condensation immediately cools off in the air before falling into the hot contents. Hacham David, in his Halacha Berura, rejects this approach for several reasons and does not regard that as cooking. First, it is not his intent to cook these droplets. Even though it is inevitable, he does not care about it whatsoever. Moreover, these droplets are already cooked and have merely cooled down. In such a case, the Rambam holds that "En Bishul Ahar Bishul B'Lach"-there is no problem recooking cooled liquid, and his minority opinion can also be factored in. Also, these droplets are so minute that they don't constitute the minimum Shiur (measure) of cooking. Finally, not all agree that the droplets which fall from the lid, which is also a Keli Rishon, cool off and lose their status. For all these reasons, Hacham David permits removing the lid. Hacham David continues that it is more problematic to replace the lid, since in the meantime, the drops have certainly cooled off, according to all opinions. Therefore, one of the lenient factors is no longer present. He concludes that nevertheless it is permitted to replace the cover and shake off the drops of condensation before returning the lid to the pot. However, it is praiseworthy to completely dry the cover before returning it. SUMMARYIt is completely prohibited to place a cover on a pot of not fully cooked food.It is permitted to remove a pot cover in all circumstances. If the food is fully cooked, he may return the cover, preferably shaking the condensation off the cover before he returns it. If he wants to be stricter, he should dry it totally.
Is there any Heter ever for taking one's own life? Terminal illness? Extreme poverty? Mafia chasing him? How do we view someone who commits suicide due to mental health issues? How do we prevent this tragedy? with Rabbi Mordechai Twersky – Horonsteipel Rebbe – 27:13 with Tzvi Gluck – Director of Amudim – 43:00 with Mrs. Aliza Bulow – Mother of child who commited suicide, Founder of CORE – 1:05:06 with Dr. Chaim Nissel – Licensed Psychologist Yeshiva University Vice Provost, Senior trainer for American Association of Suicidology – 1:14:01 with Rabbi Yehuda Leib Wiener – Rov of Cedars-Sinai in Los Angeles, Rov of Knesses Yisrael – 1:31:08 מראי מקומות
The Shulhan Aruch (244:5) rules that it is permissible to hire a Non-Jew as a personal tailor or secretary, on a yearly basis. Even though the Non-Jew might make the suit or write the letters on Shabbat, it is still permissible, since the Jew doesn't care when he does it. There is no benefit to the Jew if the employee does the work on Shabbat; he is paying him an annual retainer. This leniency is based on the opinion of the Rambam. The Shulhan Aruch then brings down a "yesh omrim", the Raavad, prohibiting such an arrangement. The Raavad argues that if the Non-Jew performs the task on Shabbat, the Jew benefits the availability of the employee on Sunday to carry out new tasks. Nevertheless, the Shulhan Aruch himself holds that, in principle, it is permitted. However, this leniency only applies to cases in which the Non-Jew is performing work on his own premises. A Non-Jew is never allowed to do work in the Jew's house. Therefore, the Mishna Berura (Rav Yisrael Meir Kagan of Radin, 1839-1933) rules that maids are not allowed to violate the Shabbat in the home of their Jewish employer. Even if they would be paid on a per-task basis, which is not the usual arrangement, it is still prohibited because of M'arit Ayin . There are some poskim that even prohibit work done by the maid for her own personal benefit, e.g. doing her own laundry. However, clearly, a maid is not allowed to do the laundry of her Jewish employer in their home on Shabbat, even if she is only doing it then to clear her schedule. A maid is allowed to do work in a prohibited way that could have been performed by in a permissible fashion by the Jew. For example, she is allowed to wash dishes with hot water, since the Jew could also have washed them with cold water.Those that employ help in the house must be very careful to know the parameters of what work is permissible for them to do and what is forbidden.SUMMARYIt is permitted to hire a Non-Jewish tailor or secretary on an annual basis to perform work on demand in the Non-Jew's premises.It is never permitted for a Non-Jewish maid to do prohibited work in the home of the Jew on Shabbat.A Non-Jewish maid is allowed to wash dishes with hot water on Shabbat in the home of a Jew.
The laws of using non-Jews to work on Shabbat are very complex. They are discussed at length by the Shulhan Aruch in simanim 244, 245, 246, 247 etc. Each case must be analyzed individually; one cannot extrapolate from one case to another. One of the questions that arises is whether a Jew is permitted to give a non-Jew money before Shabbat to invest on his behalf, in exchange for a fee or percentage. Does the fact that the non-Jew could potentially execute transactions on Shabbat or Yom Tob render such an arrangement forbidden? The Shulhan Aruch (245:4) rules that it is permitted to do so for several reasons. First, the Jew is not instructing the non-Jew to work specifically on Shabbat. It does not matter to the Jew when he invests, as long as he makes a profit.Second, since the non-Jew is receiving a fee or percentage, he is considered to be working for himself; it his own interest to accomplish the task. Third, there is no issue of marit ayin; no outside observer could misconstrue this as an illicit arrangement. Since money, by its nature, is not associated with its source, no one can easily trace the Shabbat transaction back to the Jew. Questions involving a Jewishly owned store or company are more susceptible to this issue. Fourth, the transactions are happening in the non-Jew's office. A non-Jew is not permitted to do prohibited work in a Jewish home on Shabbat.Finally, the arrangement does not entail the Jew working a different day instead of the non-Jew. Therefore, the non-Jew is not considered the agent of the Jew on Shabbat.Because of all of these reasons, it is permitted to invest money through a non-Jewish bank or stockbroker. It is even permissible to instruct a broker to buy and sell at a certain number, as long as he was not told to specifically do so on Shabbat. Similarly, Shulhan Aruch (245:5) writes that this principle applies to merchandise as well. A Jew is permitted to give a non-Jew merchandise to sell on his behalf in exchange for a commission, even though the non-Jew will sell on Shabbat. Moreover, Hacham Ovadia (Yehave Da'at, vol. 3) is lenient even in certain cases in which the market is only open on Shabbat, for example, a certain trade show in which the vendors are all there. Even though it is almost certain that the non-Jew will sell there on Shabbat, Hacham Ovadia is lenient especially in a case of hefsed (financial loss). The Ben Ish Hai (Rav Yosef Haim of Baghdad, 1833-1909) in his sefer Rav Berachot is also lenient in such a case, even though in Sefer Ben Ish Hai parashat Vayishlach he was more machmir (strict).SUMMARYIt is permissible to give money or merchandise for a non-Jew to invest or sell, even though he may do so on Shabbat or Yom Tob.
If one called a technician to perform repairs in his home, and he arrived on Shabbat, is one allowed to let him in to do the work? Clearly, the question pertains to a case where one did not instruct the technician to come specifically on Shabbat. Therefore, one could argue to be lenient and classify this as "Kablanut," in which a worker is contracted on a per-job basis. In general, such arrangements are permitted, because the non-Jew chose to do the work on Shabbat for his own benefit and convenience.Nevertheless, the Halacha is stringent in this case. Since the work is being carried out on the premises of the Jew, there is the concern of Marit Ayin. Outside observers are likely to assume that the non-Jew was hired in a non-Halachic arrangement. The Mishna Berura (252:17) cites the Hayeh Adam (Rav Abraham Danzig of Vilna, 1748-1820) who rules that this presents a problem even though all technicians work on a "Kablanut" basis, and no one will think that he was hired by the hour. Nevertheless, people who see the technician working in the Jew's house may assume that the Jew ordered his services specifically for Shabbat. Therefore, when ordering technicians, one should tell them not to come on Shabbat. If they do arrive on Shabbat, one must tell them to leave and return after Shabbat.SUMMARY: One is not permitted to allow a technician to perform repairs in his home on Shabbat.
We discuss the following misconceptions: 1) Double covering for yarmulka, 2) Tattoo in cemetery, 3) Red strings, 4) Not walking over someone, 5) Not going to grave twice in 1 day, 6) Going to grave after 10 years, 7) Walking around the block after shiva, 8) Schlissel Challah, 9)Glass Mechitzah in shul, 10) Leaving a hole in window, 11) Segulah for Kvatar for childless couple, 12) Throwing bread for tashlich
At the end of Siman 302, the Shulhan Aruch prohibits drying drinking glasses with a towel on Shabbat, out of concern that the residual water in the glass will lead to "Sehita"-wringing out the water from the towel. The Poskim question whether such a small amount of water is likely to lead to "Sehita." Therefore, the Radbaz (Rabbi David Ben Zimra, Egypt-Tsfat , 1479-1573), as cited by the Mishna Berura, disagrees with this ruling. Hacham Bension concurs, saying that Maran's ruling only applies to thin cloths. However, today, our towels are thick and do not present a problem. The only concern may be when drying a very narrow glass, which requires forcing the tip of the towel into the opening. SUMMARYIt is permitted to dry glasses and other utensils with a towel on Shabbat.
There are two basic actions which constitute the prohibition of Kibus (laundering) on Shabbat. First, the very act of applying water to a garment constitutes laundering-"Shriyato Zehu Kibuso." The second act is wringing out water from a garment-"Sehita". The Mishna Berura (Rav Yisrael Meir Kagan of Radin, 1839-1933) in Siman 302:39 outlines three opinions in the Rishonim (early authorities) as to which garments are subject to the prohibition of Kibus (laundering). The first opinion holds that Kibus only applies to a soiled garment. There is no Torah prohibition to launder a clean garment. The second position maintains that even clean garments are subject to Kibus. However, there is no problem if the water is applied "Derech Lichluch"-in a manner that soils the garment, instead of cleaning it. For example, it is permitted to dry one's hands on a towel, since the water from the hands does not clean the towel, but rather dirties it. The third opinion is more stringent and prohibits applying large quantities of water, even to a clean garment, even "Derech Lichluch"-in a manner that soils it.Hacham Ovadia and Hacham Bension both hold that Maran's opinion is in accordance with the first, more lenient, opinion that Kibus only applies to a soiled garment. Therefore, Hacham Bension permits preparing a cold compress for someone with fever by dousing a clean towel with water, so long as the rag does not become soaked and present a potential problem that he will wring it out. Hacham Ovadia presents an additional application of this leniency. If one end of a garment is set on fire, he permits dousing the other end with water so that the blaze will be extinguished. Maran (302:19) writes that it is "good" to shake the excess water off the hands before drying them. Seemingly, this is in accordance with the third opinion that large quantities of water constitute laundering, even when drying hands on a clean garment. However, the Magen Abraham (Rav Abraham Gombiner, Poland, 1637-1682) explains that it is not the letter of the law, but a recommended Humra that takes the third opinion into account when washing hands, as it is possible that the excess water constitutes a "large amount."It is important to note, that sometimes at large meals, many people dry their hands on the same towel. By the time the last people use the towel it is already soaking wet, and "drying" their hands would be a problem of "Sehita"-wringing out the water from the towel. Therefore, it is advisable in such cases to provide several towels or use disposable towels.SUMMARYThe Halacha permits dousing a clean towel with water. Therefore, it is permissible to prepare a cold compress on Shabbat. However, it is preferable that one shake off the excess water from his hands before drying them. One should be careful not to dry his hands on a towel that it already soaking wet.
The Shulhan Aruch (302:6) discusses the prohibition of scraping one's shoes on the ground to remove the dirt or mud from them. By doing so, one may come to smooth the ground and fill holes, which constitutes a violation of Shabbat. However, it is permitted on a paved sidewalk.The Mishna Berura (Rav Yisrael Meir Kagan of Radin, 1839-1933) is strict regarding rubbing shoes against a wall or pole, as it appears that one is building. Nevertheless, Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Israel, 1910-1995) writes that nowadays there is no concern. No one will be under the impression that he is building; on the contrary, it looks like he is ruining the wall. The Mishna Berura discusses the prohibition of rubbing the leather sole of a shoe against something sharp, such as a metal grate, in order to clean it. Doing so is problematic, because it constitutes the Melacha of "Memahek"-smoothing the leather. Hacham Bension rules that today, it is not a problem, since the process of refining leather today is done in a different fashion. There is also no concern regarding the Melacha of Tohen-grinding the dry mud into particles, since it is being done with a Shinui (unusual method). According to the Shulhan Aruch, it would also be permitted to pour water over a leather shoe. The principle that soaking constitutes laundering does not apply to leather. For example, if someone wants to step into a puddle of water to clean his shoes, he may do so. However, it would be prohibited to scrub the shoe. SUMMARYIt is prohibited to scrape a muddy shoe on the ground, but it is permitted to do so on a paved surface, wall or metal grate. It is also permissible to apply water to a shoe to clean it, as long as one does not scrub it.
The poskim discuss a case where a person wants to put his Shabbat hotplate on a timer so that it will be activated on Shabbat. It has already been established that there is a Halachic basis to use timers to turn on lights. As Maran rules in siman 252, there is no prohibition to set up a mechanism that automatically causes a Melacha to be performed on Shabbat. Fundamentally, a hotplate would be no different. The case of the hotplate poses a more problematic question. Granted that one can activate the hotplate with a timer; is it also permissible to put food on the hotplate on Shabbat, when the hotplate is still off, knowing that in it will soon go on? Hacham Ovadia (Yabia Omer, vol. 10) presents a specific application of this question. May one place a pot of cold soup on the hotplate on Shabbat, before it is activated by the timer. In this case, as opposed to lights, the person is performing an action on Shabbat that causes the prohibited Melacha of cooking to transpire. In Halacha, this is referred to as Gerama (Causing).The classic example of Gerama in the Shulhan Aruch (siman 334) is causing a fire to be extinguished on Shabbat by means of placing water-filled vessels in the path of the blaze, before it arrives. When the flames hit the vessels, they will burst and their water will extinguish the fire. That's considered Gerama, because at the time the vessels were placed, there was no fire; although the person knew that the fire will eventually get there. The Shulhan Aruch rules that Gerama like this is permitted.There is considerable debate among the Rishonim (early commentators), whether Gerama on Shabbat is permitted only in the cases like a fire, where there could be a monetary loss. Hacham Ovadia proves that most authorities concur that Gerama is permitted even in cases where there is no monetary loss. Accordingly, it should have been permissible to place food on a hotplate before it is activated by the timer. Nevertheless, he does not rule like their opinion because of the other authorities who disagree and permit Gerama only in the case of loss. However, Hacham Ovadia concludes that in our case of reheating cold soup, one can be lenient. Since the soup was already cooked, there is the opinion of the Rambam that "ain bishul achar bishul" (there is no prohibition of reheating cooked foods) applies even to cold liquids. Although, we do not hold like that, Hacham Ovadia is willing to use that minority opinion in conjunction with the opinions that Gerama is permissible even without a monetary loss. Each opinion by itself would not be a solid basis to be lenient; however, when combined, they can be relied on.None of the Poskim allow placing a raw food on the hotplate on Shabbat before the timer turns it on. Hacham Ovadia only permitted placing a cooked soup that had already cooled off. However, it seems that it would be permitted to put a raw food on the hotplate BEFORE Shabbat, and set the timer to activate on Shabbat. There is room to be lenient in such a case because everything was already done before Shabbat. It would be no different than lights on a timer. Nonetheless, Rav Moshe Feinstein restricted the use of timers in general. He felt that it was a zilzul (disgrace) to Shabbat and that eventually people would utilize timers to run their factories and businesses on the holy Shabbat. Therefore, before using timers for other applications, one should always ask a competent Posek.In conclusion, those who want to reheat cold soup on Shabbat using a timer can rely on Hacham Ovadia. SUMMARY1. On Shabbat, it is forbidden to put a raw food on an electric hotplate that will later be activated by a timer.2. Before Shabbat, one can be lenient a place a raw food on an electric hotplate that will be activated by a timer on Shabbat.3. On Shabbat, one can be lenient and place a pot of cooked, cold soup on an electric hotplate that will later be activated by a timer. 4. In general, one should consult with a posek before using timers to activate mechanism other than lights on Shabbat.
Dedication opportunities are available for episodes and series at ohr.edu/donate/qa Questions? Comments? firstname.lastname@example.org Subscribe to the Rabbi Breitowitz Q&A Podcast at https://plnk.to/rbq&a Submit questions for the Q&A with Rabbi Breitowitz https://forms.gle/VCZSK3wQJJ4fSd3Q7 Subscribe to our YouTube Channel at https://www.youtube.com/c/OhrSomayach/videos 00:00 What is the definition of a rasha and a talmid chochom? 04:20 What is the Bircas hamozon etiquette and who says tehilas Hashem? 11:34 How do we relate to Halacha vs mitzvos consequentially? 16:57 Does doing teshuva on spilling seed retroactively get rid of the demons that were created from the act? 26:50 I listened to one of the lectures on real jewish intimacy and it mentioned that couples that don't get along in this world will also continue driving each other crazy in the next world (Zohar). What about those jewish couples that got divorced and don't get remarried? 28:28 What does it mean to be a Jewish doctor? Are there certain halachos that need to be followed differently? 31:40 Does one get reward for wearing tzitzis at night or while sleeping? 34:40 Where does someone draw the line between bitul Torah and time for relaxing? 39:20 What's the argument from Avraham to save Sodom? 48:00 I have recently started learning ערוך השולחן as my Halacha Sefer. What I find best about the Aruch is that, unlike the Mishnah brura, he always gives a psak. My question is whether i can I use this Sefer as my go to Halacha resource and can rely on all the aruch's Psak, even if it goes against the MB and other more embraced piskei Halacha. Essentially, can the Aruch HaShulchan be my ‘rebbi'. 58:35 What Torah is exactly taught to the baby by the angel in the womb? 1:03:45 What is the origin of saying or not saying a bracha on mezonos by dessert at a bread meal? 1:09:00 When exactly should a davener interrupt to answer the chazan? 1:11:30 Should we consider learning the Netivos Olam sefer by Maharal in English? 1:15:25 What are the general principles of giving cavod to rebbeim? 1:19:07 How many people does a chazan have to wait for in order to begin the chazaras hashatz? 1:20:12 What's the value of making a siyum? 1:22:02 If I am at a concert or sporting event, can I move to a vacant, more expensive seat assuming there is no chillul Hashem? Is there a difference if I want to move to a less expensive seat, if it's superior in my eyes? Can I walk into a hotel and use the lobby bathroom without asking permission, or is this a form of gezel? 1:25:17 What are the parameters of doing certain acts of charity for a person based on their wealth? 1:28:42 Does the standing for a Rav minimally make a difference? 1:29:58 What makes a Rav merit to have their own psak? Like the GRA? Why is it accepted? 1:31:45 Is there a source for saying mazal tov by a simcha, and is this a tefila or a bracha? 1:34:10 When exactly should we say amen? 1:36:02 Does saying mazal tov count for loving my neighbor as myself? 1:36:30 Should I notify someone not to count me in a minyan if I already davened? 1:37:04 How should someone be sure that their humility is not coming from an arrogant place? You can listen to this and many other Ohr Somayach programs by downloading our app, on Apple and Google Play, ohr.edu and all major podcast platforms. Visit us @ ohr.edu PRODUCED BY: CEDAR MEDIA STUDIOS
One of the Shabbat prohibitions enacted by Hazal is that of Hatmana, which forbids insulating hot food before Shabbat in a manner that adds more heat to the food. If the insulation not only retains the pot's heat, but is "Mosif Haval" – increases its heat – then one may not insulate the pot in this manner before Shabbat. In ancient times, people would keep food warm by insulting the pot in hot coals, which added to the pot's heat so the food can continue cooking. The Sages were concerned that if one insulated a pot in coals before Shabbat, which clearly indicates that he wants the food to continue cooking, he might stoke the coals on Shabbat, which would constitute a Torah violation. They therefore enacted a provision forbidding insulating food before Shabbat in a manner that is "Mosif Haval."The Shulhan Aruch applies this prohibition even to "Hatmana Mi'sad Ehad" – insulating just one side of the pot. Meaning, according to the Shulhan Aruch's ruling, it is forbidden even to place a pot on top of hot coals, such that only the bottom is insulated. Since this type of arrangement also increases the pot's heat, it is forbidden, despite the fact that the majority of the pot is not insulated.In light of the Shulhan Aruch's ruling, one might wonder why it is customary to place hot food on a "blech" – a metal sheet over the fire – before Shabbat. The blech with the fire underneath certainly increases the pot's heat, and thus this should seemingly be forbidden due to the prohibition of Hatmana. The answer is that "Hatmana Mi'sad Ehad" is forbidden only because one might eventually thrust the entire pot into the coals, and might then stoke the coals. When it comes to a hard, solid surface, such as a "blech," there is obviously no possibility of thrusting the entire pot into the heat source. Therefore, it is entirely permissible to place a pot of cooked food on a "blech" over a fire before Shabbat, and this is not included in the prohibition of "Hatmana Mi'sad Ehad." This is the ruling of several leading Halachic authorities, including Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Minhat Shelomo, 3:12), Rav Yosef Shalom Elyashiv, and Rabbi Moshe Halevi (Tefila Le'Moshe, 1:1).Summary: Although it is forbidden to insulate food before Shabbat in a manner that adds to its heat, it is permissible to place cooked food on a "blech" over the stove before Shabbat, as is customary.
The Poskim discuss whether it is permissible to insulate pots on the Blech with towels before Shabbat. The general principle regarding Hatmana (insulating) is that any material which does not "Mosif Haval" (add heat), such a quilts or towels, may only be applied before Shabbat. On Shabbat, it is prohibited to cover the pots with any material. This principle applies to a standard case in which the pots are not on a source of heat. In the current question, there is a new element-the pots are on the Blech. While the towels themselves are not Mosif Haval, does the fact that the pots are on the Blech change the status of the towels to Mosif Haval? If they are regarded as not Mosif Haval, the pots could be covered before Shabbat. If the Blech renders this Mosif Haval, it would be prohibited to cover the pots, even before Shabbat. One might argue that since the insulating element itself, the towel, does not add heat, it should be considered as not Mosif Haval. This logic is found in the Ran in the name of the Ramban (listen to recording for exact quote). He says that their custom was to cover the pot of Hamin with cloth that is not Mosif Haval on top of a "Kirah Ketuma" (covered stovetop). He clearly says that the Hatmana and the Shehiya (leaving the pot on the stove) are two unrelated Halachic issues, since the pot separates between them. The Hatmana is permitted because it's not Mosif Haval, and the Shehiya is permitted because it's on the covered fire. The heating element does not transform the insulating cloth into Mosif Haval. However, Rabbenu Yonah ruled that it is prohibited, since the act of insulating even when it's a covered fire, demonstrates that he is very keen on preserving the heat. Therefore, the Hachamim are concerned that he may adjust the flame to achieve the desired heating effect. Thus, there is a Machloket Rishonim (disagreement among the early authorities) whether it is permitted to insulate pots on a blech with towels before Shabbat. Maran in Siman 257:8 rules in accordance with Rabbenu Yonah that it is prohibited. He says that the combination of the towels with the covered fire transforms the towels into Mosif Haval. However, he does permit a case in which the towels do not directly touch the pot. Nevertheless, Hacham Bension ruled that the custom is to be lenient even if the towel is touching the pot. SUMMARYThe custom is to permit covering pots on the Blech with towels before Shabbat.
Hashem's Kindness is Forever Podcasts http://www.puresoulband.com/podcast/Bitachon85.mp3 Tue, 15 Nov 2022 14:01:00 +0300 We continue discussing pesukim in Yirmiyahu (Jeremiah) and Tehillim, and the powerful words of Yirmiyahu and King David form the backbone of our discussion of the importance of putting our full trust only in Hashem. We continue discussing pesukim in Yirmiyahu (Jeremiah) and Tehillim, and the powerful words of Yirmiyahu and King David form the backbone of our discussion of the importance of putting our full trust only in Hashem. 21:49 Ari, Goldwag, Jewish, Dvar, D'var, Torah, Spirituality, God, Judaism, Moshiach, Messianic, Kabbalah, Sefirot, Shabbat, Shabbos, Halacha, Law of attraction,
Join the WA Group with this temporary link: https://chat.whatsapp.com/ImKfk9mdJ7vJZoARz38cBn Volunteer to share your personal story on the Franciska Show - email: email@example.com About Our Guest: Jed Siev is associate professor of psychology at Swarthmore College, and a licensed clinical psychologist. Previously, he directed the Anxiety Treatment Center and founded the OCD and Related Disorders Program at Nova Southeastern University, after completing training at the Massachusetts General Hospital and the University of Pennsylvania. Jed's research focuses on information processing, judgment and decision making, and meta-cognitive processes involved in the maintenance and reduction of OCD, hoarding, and anxiety, and he has a particular interest in unacceptable thoughts and especially scrupulosity. He is currently writing a book for Oxford University Press on how to treat scrupulosity. Follow Dr. Jed Siev on Twitter: @drjedsiev The Podcast DIY Launch Course: https://www.franciskakosman.com/courselaunch If you'd like to book a consult session with Franciska, click here: https://checkout.square.site/merchant/5BECR8D49NYV3/checkout/FVSNPB7HVW36LOYAR3L7SJMU If you'd like to sponsor an episode, click here: https://checkout.square.site/merchant/5BECR8D49NYV3/checkout/6KYMG7OGFR4Y63C43RREZ5MV Are you in love with The Franciska Show? You might also like the other podcasts on the Jewish Cofee House network: https://jewishcoffeehouse.com/
Dedication opportunities are available for episodes and series at ohr.edu/donate/qa Questions? Comments? firstname.lastname@example.org Subscribe to the Rabbi Breitowitz Q&A Podcast at https://plnk.to/rbq&a Submit questions for the Q&A with Rabbi Breitowitz https://forms.gle/VCZSK3wQJJ4fSd3Q7 Subscribe to our YouTube Channel at https://www.youtube.com/c/OhrSomayach/videos 00:00 What kind of changes in Halacha or otherwise will happen after Mashiach comes? 08:18 What's with saying G-d is of one name but He has more than that? 13:02 What is the proper kavod for wearing the begged of tzitzis outside your clothes? 17:16 What is special about Ashrei that we remove the letter nun, when we don't do that in other alphabetical supplications? 21:22 Is technology something that ideally we wouldn't have, but now that we do, we have to use it responsibly with rules and gedarim, or alternatively is it something we should embrace and prefer, while being aware and alert of potential consequences? 27:59 What is the source for a certain pasuk in sfarad mussaf? 32:35 Is it permissible to associate with friends who are not on the same Torah level as me? Should we try to be mekarev them? 37:14 What should our attitude be towards area of halacha that are seemingly less effective or suitable in a modern society compared with today's secular laws, specifically in regards to contracts and financial matters. Should our attitude be that we are not appreciating the halacha properly, or should we acknowledge it's not ideal and be extra hopeful for Mashiach to come so a Sanhedrin can make some updates. 42:36 Why is Rabbi Jonathan Sacks not so accepted in the frum world? 49:36 In uncensored Gemara Avoda Zara, it mentions that Jesus was not real, is this true? 53:20: What is a heavenly decree and when exactly are they made? How do we have the power to rip them up? 54:51 Is there a heter for a convert to use their biological father's name when called to the Torah? 56:37 How can someone tell when they are starting to burn out in their learning? 59:55 Would it be halachally mutar to buy clothes at a store in America and bring them back to Israel and sell them at a higher price to bachurim or otherwise? 1:01:03 Should we use our YH to try to be better in learning? 1:03:53 Gematria is incredible, but many seem to dismiss it as fluffy. Is there practical gain from knowing it? 1:06:03 What do we do with Gematrias of politicians or otherwise? 1:08:54 Are we allowed to calculate the messianic timeline? 1:12:50 What is Rebbe's view on reading secular books - theoretically, alternatively, one could be reading a Jewish book (even if not a Sefer); would it affect anything if there are yesodos in human psyche and/or Etzahs on life? Especially if the book has been held in a very high regard by society (a classic)? For example: Crime and Punishment by Dostoevsky (a classic), or, in the other regard, Man's Search for Meaning by Viktor Frankel (life-changing)? 1:20:26 Can I rely on a leniency just to be convenient or for pleasure? 1:21:12 Do halachos of shomer negia, yichud, etc. apply to transgender people? 1:25:40 When we read the amida we pray for the return of the Davidic dynasty, would it be possible to re-establish the kingdom without mashiach? 1:30:20 How do we understand the malchus of Shaul when he was from Binyamin? 1:32:08 Do we say amen to brachos said incorrectly? 1:33:07 Do we say brachos in order, even if I want to cover something less chashuv than others? 1:34:11 Is being clean-shaven an issur d'oraissa? You can listen to this and many other Ohr Somayach programs by downloading our app, on Apple and Google Play, ohr.edu and all major podcast platforms. Visit us @ ohr.edu PRODUCED BY: CEDAR MEDIA STUDIOS
A common question that arises with regard to Hatmana is whether it is permitted to wrap a food in aluminum foil and place it on the blech or hotplate. Although, the foil does not generate its own heat, it is still not considered davar she'mosif haval; Maran (257:8) already established the rule whereby the combination of the foil wrapping in direct contact with the heating element below constitutes a status of davar she'mosif haval-A heat generating insulation system), which is prohibited even on Erev Shabbat. If so, we would expect the halacha to prohibit placing foil-wrapped food on the blech not only on Shabbat, but on Erev Shabbat as well.Nonetheless, we find two different approaches in the poskim to permit placing foil-wrapped food on the blech. The first approach assumes that such a case is indeed considered Hatmana. Yet, even within the parameters of Hatmana, there is room to be lenient based on a principle established by Maran (257:2). He rules that the Halachic status of an act of Hatmana depends on the kavana (intent) for which it was performed. If the covering was placed with intent to retain heat, then it is prohibited. However, if one places a covering on a pot to protect the food from dirt or bugs, it is permitted. Even though the action in both cases is technically Hatmana, the outcome is defined by the kavana. Therefore, in our case of a foil wrapping, we must determine why a person wrapped his food with foil. If his intent was merely to prevent the food from falling apart or drying out, then we can be lenient. However, if the kavana was to enhance the heat retention, it is prohibited even on Erev Shabbat.There is a second approach to this question adopted by Rav Shelomo Zalman Orbach, Rav Eliashiv and many other poskim. They say that wrapping a food in tin foil, no matter what the intention, is not defined as an act of Hatmana. The first layer of material containing and covering a food is not considered insulation. It is no different than the pot in which food is cooked. Nobody would consider the pot insulation; the pot that encompasses and "covers" the food is simply the normal way of cooking. Hatmana occurs when one adds an additional layer of covering to insulate the extant container.Therefore, according to those opinions, the issue of foil-wrapped foods on the blech is no different than the halacha of heating up foods in a pot. Just like on Erev Shabbat and Shabbat, it is permitted to put a pot on the blech under certain circumstances, so too, with reheating foil-wrapped foods. According to this more lenient approach, it would be permitted even if one's explicit intent was to retain heat.Since the halacha of Hatmana is D'rabanan (Rabbinically ordained), one can be lenient in accordance with the second approach.SUMMARYIt is permitted to place foil-wrapped foods on the blech or hotplate, both on Erev Shabbat and Shabbat, according to the same halachot that govern reheating foods in a pot.
What's the definition of being on the “derech” and “in-the-box”? How have those definitions changed over time? Is the “derech” too narrow and the “box” too confining? Does being “out-of-the box” violate Halacha or just societal expectations and norms? Are there halachic requirements to: wear white shirts and black pants, always wear a hat, go into certain occupations, not play sports and music? ***Guest Hosted by Ari Wasserman *** Author of "Making it Work", "Making it ALL Work" (for women) and 10 other Seforim, Maggid Shiur, Yerushalayim with Rabbi Berel Wein - Renowned Rov, Author, Historian and Lecturer – 11:28 with Rabbi Yitzchok Berkowitz – Rosh Yeshiva of Aish HaTorah – 24:42 with Rabbi Dr. Yitzchak Breitowitz – Senior Lecturer at Yeshivas Ohr Somayach – 31:48 with Rabbi Avi Wiesenfeld – Rosh Yeshiva of Beis Dovid and posek of Kav Halacha Beis Hora'ah – 1:09:57 with Rabbi Gedalia Oppen – Rosh Yeshiva of Yeshivas Ateres Eitz Chaim – 1:30:39 מראי מקומות
On Erev Shabbat, many people cover pots on the blech or hotplate with towels to retain the heat. This would seem to be justifiable because towels are davar she'aino mosif haval; they do not generate heat and would therefore be permitted to use for hatmana on Erev Shabbat. Nevertheless, Maran rules (257:5) that while the towel itself does not generate heat, the heat of the blech acts in conjunction with the towel to create a status of davar hamosif haval, a heat generating insulation. Accordingly, it would be forbidden on Erev Shabbat to put a towel over pots on a hotplate or blech. However, the Zechor L'Yis'hak (Halachic Responsa of R. Yitshak Harari, 18th Century Syria, siman 74) writes that the custom of the Sepharadim was to be lenient in this matter. Hacham Ovadia explains that the custom is justified based on two factors. First, he cites opinions that Hatmana is not a problem if the food being covered is meant for the next day. Second, the Ramban holds that Hatmana on Erev Shabbat is forbidden only in a case where the pot is placed in the embers. If it's not actually touching the coals, and certainly if the pot is on a blech, where there is no issue of adjusting the heat, there are more leniencies. Based on these opinions, Hacham Ovadia permits covering the pots on a blech with towels on Erev Shabbat.Hacham Ben Sion Abba Shaul (Israel, 1923-1998) adds that it is advisable to ensure that one side of the pots is not covered. In such a case, it is possible that even Maran would have agreed to be lenient.Now that we have established that insulating with towels can be permitted, a new question arises: Is it permitted on Shabbat to put challot underneath the towel? Ostensibly, it would be forbidden to do so, as all forms of Hatmana are prohibited on Shabbat itself. Therefore, one must be careful and place the challot on top of the towel. However, Rabbi Moshe Halevi (Israel, 1961-2001), in his Menuhat Ahaba presents a chidush and says that the halacha of putting challot under the towel will be determined by the intent of the person. If a person placed the challot under the towel for the purpose of utilizing the insulation, it is certainly prohibited. However, if he put the challot under the towel simply because there was no other space available on the blech, then it would be permitted. He compares this to the leniency of putting a cover on a pot, which Maran (257:2) permits if the intention is not for Hatmana, but rather to safeguard against dust or mice.SUMMARY1. On Erev Shabbat, it is permitted to place towels over pots on the blech or hotplate. Ideally, one should leave one side of the pots exposed.2. On Shabbat, it is prohibited to place a challah on the blech under the towel, with the intention of utilizing the insulation provided by the towel.
The Halachot of Hatmana touch on may practical issues. One example discussed by the poskim is warming a baby bottle by immersing it in a bowl of hot water. Since the hot water is a Keli Sheni, there is no issue of Bishul (Cooking). The question is does the fact that the bottle is "insulated" and surrounded by the hot water present a problem of Hatmana.Clearly, the hot water is not considered Mosif Hevel, heat generating insulating; the water temperature is constantly dropping. Nonetheless, Hatmana on Shabbat is prohibited even with non- heat generating substances. Nevertheless, Hacham Ovadia permits fully immersing the bottle in the Keli Sheni. This leniency is based on the ruling of Maran (Orah Chayim 318:13, 257:6) that insulating cold items, such as the bottle, is less problematic than insulating hot items. This is also the opinion of the Eliya Raba (Commentary on the Shulhan Aruch by R. Eliyahu Spira, Prague, 1660–1712) and the Zera Emet Halachic work by R. Yishmael HaKohen 18th Century Italy) who quotes from Rishonim such as the Riaz. Hacham Ben Sion Abba Shaul (Israel, 1923-1998) disagrees and takes into account the stricter opinion of the Mishna Berura (Rav Yisrael Meir Kagan of Radin, 1839-1933 in siman 258), the Taz (Rabbi David Segal, Poland, 1586-1667), and the Rashba. Hacham Ben Sion concludes that it is forbidden to fully submerge the bottle. It is permitted to put the bottle in hot water, only if part of the bottle remains above the surface. That way, it is only considered a Hatmana B'Miktzat, a partial insulation. While one can rely on the leniency of Hacham Ovadia, nevertheless, it is preferable to adopt the ruling of Hacham Ben Sion, as it is not difficult to insure that the upper edge of the bottle remains above the surface.SUMMARY:It is permissible to immerse a cold baby bottle in hot water of a Keli Sheni. Preferably, part of the bottle should remain out of the water.
Trust Completely in Hashem Podcasts http://www.puresoulband.com/podcast/Bitachon84.mp3 Wed, 9 Nov 2022 18:40:00 +0300 We continue discussing pesukim in Yirmiyahu (Jeremiah) and Tehillim, and the powerful words of Yirmiyahu and King David form the backbone of our discussion of the importance of putting our full trust only in Hashem. We continue discussing pesukim in Yirmiyahu (Jeremiah) and Tehillim, and the powerful words of Yirmiyahu and King David form the backbone of our discussion of the importance of putting our full trust only in Hashem. 21:55 Ari, Goldwag, Jewish, Dvar, D'var, Torah, Spirituality, God, Judaism, Moshiach, Messianic, Kabbalah, Sefirot, Shabbat, Shabbos, Halacha, Law of attraction,
The principles of Hatmana can be applied to numerous practical issues. One question that arises concerns wrapped foods submersed in a hot liquid. For example, is it permitted to place a kugel wrapped in foil or rice in a cooking bag inside the Hamin before Shabbat? Is the wrapping considered a type of insulation? One could argue that on Erev Shabbat, it is permitted to insulate with foil and cooking bags, as they are not Mosif Hevel; they don't generate their own heat. Nevertheless, Shulhan Aruch holds that even non-heat generating insulants when placed on a surface which is Mosif Hevel, namely, the pot that's cooking the hamin, the Hatmana is considered Mosif Hevel. Thus, the question remains as to whether it is permitted to submerse wrapped foods in the hamin on Erev Shabbat.Hacham Ovadia, in Hazon Ovadia (Section 1, p. 61) rules that it is permitted. He outlines four reasons to be lenient. First, the Shulhan Aruch (318:4) holds that placing a food within a food is not considered Hatmana. Secondly, there are opinions that there is no issue of Hatmana if one is not planning to eat the food until the morning. In our case the hamin is meant for the morning. Although, we do not hold like that opinion, it can be relied on in conjunction with other factors. Third, the Rama (Rabbi Moshe Isserles, Cracow, 1520-1572) brings down an opinion that if the food is fully cooked, there's no problem of Hatmana. In our case the kugel or rice is fully cooked. Again, we would not rely on this opinion alone; but, it can be used along with other justifications.Finally, the main reason for being lenient is that the definition of Hatmana is determined by the intent of the person. That is, for what purpose is he covering and insulating this item? In our case, his intent is clearly not to retain the heat of the food. Even without the wrapping, the kugel or rice would stay hot. Obviously, he wrapped it so that the kugel or rice won't intermix with the other foods in the pot; he wants it to remain separate. Therefore, since his intent is not l'shem hatmana, for the sake of insulating heat, rather, it's for separation, it is permitted. Hacham Ben Sion Abba Shaul (Israel, 1923-1998) also rules, that it's permissible to put food in a bag or aluminum foil and submerse it in the hamin(Or L'Sion, Hilchot Shabbat). On the other hand, the Menuhat Ahaba (Rabbi Moshe Halevi Israel, 1961-2001), and the Shebet Ha'levi (Rav Shemuel Wosner, 1913-2015) disagreed and held that it is prohibited. However, we rely on Hacham Ovadia and Hacham Ben Sion. Another question that arises is regarding the custom to put an egg in the hamin before Shabbat. There are those who argue that the shell of the egg serves to insulate the egg and would pose a problem of Hatmana. Hacham Ovadia rejects this view, citing the Rashba who points out that an egg shell cannot be considered an insulating element because it is porous. This can be demonstrated by conducting an experiment in which the egg is immersed in colored water; the result, of course, is that the egg itself becomes colored. Therefore, the egg is not considered a separate entity from the rest of the hamin. Just as there is no Hatmana when one cooks rice and potatoes together, so too, the egg is considered part of the mixture. Thus, it is permissible on Erev Shabbat to put an egg in a pot of hamin over the Shabbat.SUMMARY1. It is permitted on Erev Shabbat to put a kugel wrapped in foil or rice enclosed in a cooking bag into the hamin.2. It is permitted to put an egg into the hamin before Shabbat.
On Erev Shabbat, it is prohibited to use heat generating materials to insulate a pot of food. The Rama (Rabbi Moshe Isserles, Cracow, 1520-1572, Siman 257) cites a lenient opinion that if one is insulating food on Erev Shabbat L'Sorech Machar, to remain hot until tomorrow morning, he would be allowed to use even heat generating materials. The rules of Hatmana would not apply to such a case because he has taken his mind off the food until morning. Therefore, we are not concerned that he will come to do prohibited activity.Maran does not agree with this position. He holds that the Halachot of Hatmana apply even if the food is meant for the next day. Hacham Ovadia, in Hazon Ovadia, rules like Maran and does not rely on the Rama's leniency. However, he is willing to use this leniency in conjunction with an additional leniency. While each leniency by itself would not be sufficient to rely on, together they form a solid a Halachic basis.For example, there are opinions that it is permitted to insulate, if one does not fully cover all sides of the pot. We do not hold like those opinions. However, we can combine those opinions with the opinion of the Rama that L'Sorech Machar, insulating for the next day, is permitted. That is, it is permitted to insulate on Friday without covering the entire pot for the purpose of eating the food tomorrow.SUMMARY: One is permitted to insulate a pot on Erev Shabbat with heat generating materials if the following two conditions are met:1. The food in the pot is meant to be consumed the next day, on Shabbat morning.2. The Insulation does not fully cover all sides of the pot.
Most people set up an electric hot water urn before Shabbat. These urns are not considered Garuf V'Katum, and have the status of an open flame. This poses the question of how to avoid the prohibition of Shehiya when leaving hot water for Shabbat. The Hachamim were concerned that one might adjust the flame to hasten the cooking process. Under what conditions can one heat water left on such a heating element? One might claim that the case of water is more lenient, since it could be considered Mistamek V'Ra Lo, a food that gets worse as it cooks. Such a food is permitted to be left on an open fire since a person does not have an interest to advance its cooking. Water could possibly be considered Mistamek V'Ra Lo because it evaporates and there is less water for consumption. Nevertheless, Shulhan Aruch does not hold like that. On the contrary, Shulhan Aruch holds that water is enhanced as it is heated. Accordingly, water at room temperature would not be considered half-cooked, which would have been sufficient, according to some opinions, for food to be left on an open flame. It is more severe than half-cooked, because water is better when it's warmed, and therefore there is still a gezeira that one might adjust the heat. The Halacha says that so long as the water was heated before Shabbat, it will be permitted to continue heating it in the electric urn. What degree of heat must be reached before Shabbat? Assuming that we hold like Hanania, the food must be at least half-cooked to be left on an open fire. The Menuhat Ahava (exposition of the laws of Shabbat by Rabbi Moshe Halevi (1961-2001) of Bnei-Brak) ruled that it is sufficient to heat the water to 25 degrees Celsius in order to leave it for Shabbat. Other Poskim rule that the water must reach a temperature of Yad Soledet Bo, the point where it begins to create vapor.The practical outcome of this discussion is that one must turn on the urn in sufficient time before Shabbat so that the water can reach the proper level of heat. Generally, if the urn is plugged in by candle lighting time, which is 18 minutes before sunset, it will get hot enough by sunset to satisfy all the opinions. Even 5-10 minutes will allow the water to reach 25 degrees Celsius, depending on the type of urn. In the event that one did not turn the urn on until immediately prior to sunset, it will be a problem of Shehiya.The same would be true of putting a kettle of water on an open fire. As long as it reached 25 degrees Celsius before Shabbat, it can remain on the fire. Of course, if one puts the kettle on a blech, there is no issue of Shehiya whatsoever.SUMMARY1. One must turn on the Shabbat urn in sufficient time so that the water reaches at least 25 degrees Celsius before Shabbat.2. If one leaves a kettle of water on an open flame, it must reach a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius before Shabbat.
Mental Health and Halacha - What Kinds of She'elot Arise, special sicha for the Overseas Students, with Rav Yoni Rosensweig Rabbi of the Netzach Menashe community of Beit Shemesh, and founder of Maaglei Nefesh, a center for halacha, community and mental health. Recently published a book in hebrew, נפשי בשאלתי - הלכות בריאות הנפש, Koren Publishers.
In siman 257, Maran begins to outline the basic principles of the halachot of Hatmana, insulating a pot of food in order to keep it warm. In general, there are two forms of Hatmana. The more problematic form is called Mosif Hevel, where the insulation actually generates heat. The second, more lenient method is referred to as Aino Mosif Hevel, where the insulation merely maintains the heat already present in the pot. On Shabbat itself, both methods of Hatmana are prohibited. The Hachamim were concerned that if one engages in insulating, his concern for the heat of the pot might bring him to actually heat up the food on a flame, in the event that it already cooled off.On Erev Shabbat, the laws of Hatmana are more lenient. It is permitted to insulate with a material that does not generate heat, Davar SheAino Mosif Hevel. However, it is prohibited to insulate with Davar SheMosif Hevel, a heat-generating material.One might ask, what could possibly be wrong with insulating before the start of Shabbat? The answer is that the Hachamim were concerned that one might insulate using Remetz, hot ashes and come to stoke the embers to rekindle the fire. SUMMARY1. On Shabbat it is prohibited to insulate a pot with any material.2. On Erev Shabbat it is permitted to insulate a pot only with a material that does not generate heat.
Hacham David ruled that it is permitted to put a food with congealed fat back on the blech or hotplate. The congealed fat is considered a solid because that was its state when put on the blech, even though it melts after a few minutes.Based on this reasoning, would it also be permitted to take frozen soup out of the freezer and place it on the blech to defrost and reheat? At first glance it would seem to be the same case as the congealed fat. In both instances, the food was a solid at the time of being placed on the blech, and it should, therefore, theoretically, be permitted.However, Hacham David rules that reheating the frozen soup is forbidden. He explains the difference between the case of the congealed fat and the frozen soup using the following halachic principle: Any food that melts by itself and reverts to a liquid at room temperature is considered a liquid. Whereas, a food that only reverts to a liquid when heated is considered a solid. According to this principle, the congealed fat is considered a solid because even if it was left on the counter at room temperature, it would remain jelly. Therefore, it is considered a dry solid and can be reheated on the blech. Frozen soup, on the other hand, would melt even at room temperature and is thus considered a liquid and may not be reheated.Summary:1. It is permitted to reheat a food containing congealed fat on the blech.2. It is forbidden to defrost and reheat a frozen soup on the blech.
On Shabbat it is forbidden to return any type of food to an open fire. The Rabbis were concerned that this would bring someone to stoke the fire or create the appearance that one is actually cooking on Shabbat. The question is, under what circumstances may one ask a non-Jew to return food to the fire on Shabbat. There are three cases we must discuss.The first case is having a non-Jew return a cooked dry food to an open flame. The Be'ur Halacha (Rav Yisrael Meir Kagan of Radin, 1839-1933) rules in siman 253 that it permissible because it constitutes a Shvut D'Shvut, a Rabbinic prohibition on a Rabbinic prohibition. That is, telling the non-Jew to violate Shabbat is itself only a Rabbinic prohibition; and returning cold cooked dry food to an open flame is only a Rabbinic prohibition. When the prohibition is a "Double D'Rabanan," we can be lenient in a case where the action is necessary for enhancing Shabbat. This would be a solution in the event that someone forgot to set up his Blech or hotplate. It is only permitted to have the non-Jew return the food to a fire that was already lit before Shabbat.The second case is having a non-Jew return cold liquids to the fire. Here, the Be'ur Halacha quotes the Birkei Yosef (The H"ida, Rav Haim Yosef David Azulai, 1724-1806) who says, fundamentally, this is also permissible. Even though we hold that reheating cold soup constitutes a "new" cooking, however, since there is a disagreement between the poskim on this matter, we can permit it to be done by a non-Jew. Hacham David Yosef in Halacha Berura, as well as the B'eur Halacha, add a caveat to this leniency: The non-Jew may only return the cold soup to a fire that is garuf or katum, i.e. a blech or Shabbat hotplate. The third case involves returning a Ma'achal Ben Drosai, a food that was only half-cooked. Perhaps today we would refer to it as extra-rare, although edible. There is a disagreement between the poskim whether continuing to heat such a food, bringing it from rare to medium to well done, constitutes the Torah prohibition of cooking. We hold that it is forbidden, and therefore, a Jew certainly cannot put such a dish on the blech. However, Hacham David writes in Halacha Berura (siman 318) that it would be permissible for a non-Jew since there is a dissenting opinion.Summary:1. It is permissible to tell a non-Jew to reheat fully cooked, cold, dry food on an open flame (ignited before Shabbat).2. It is permissible to tell a non-Jew to reheat fully cooked cold liquids only on a blech or Shabbat hotplate.3. It is permissible to tell a non-Jew to put a partially cooked food only on a blech or Shabbat hotplate.
The Shulchan Aruch (253) discusses a case of one who transgressed the halacha and left something on an open flame going into Shabbat. After the fact, is one allowed to eat the food or not? The halacha in such a case depends on numerous factors such as the type of food, the degree to which it was cooked and the intention of the cook. The practical application of this halacha would be, for example, a case where one is a guest in someone else's home for the Shabbat meal. The host of course keeps kosher and knows that it is forbidden to cook on Shabbat, but they are not familiar with the halachic details concerning blechs and leaving food on the flame. If one comes into their house on Friday night and sees to his dismay that all the food is on an open flame without a blech, the question is: Is it permissible to eat this food? Does one have to begin investigating the various factors discussed in the Shulchan Aruch regarding the type of food, the degree it was cooked and the intention of the cook?Hacham Ben Sion in the second volume of Or LeSion (Three-volume collection of responsa by Hacham Ben Sion Abba Shaul, one of the leading Sephardic Rabbis in 20th-century Israel) offers a chidush in this case. He says that it is true that one must be strict with regard to our stovetops and use a blech. However, b'diavad, after the fact, if the food was already left on the open flame, one may be lenient and eat the food. This ruling is based on the reasoning that our modern day stovetops are less problematic than old-fashioned ovens. In ancient, wood burning ovens there was a clear concern that one might come to stoke the dwindling coals. In our stovetops, the flame is fed by a constant and steady flow of gas that is either on or off. There is no dwindling of the fire which might evoke stoking. Therefore, although the proper practice is to use a blech, if someone inadvertently did not do so, the food is still permissible to be eaten. However, if a person intentionally violated the halacha, knowing that placing food on the open flame was forbidden, Hacham Ben Sion would not be so lenient. Summary: If one unintentionally left food on the open flame of a modern stovetop from before Shabbat, the food is permissible to eat on Shabbat.
ABOUT THIS EPISODE Rabbanit Chana Henkin is a pioneer in women's Jewish education, founder of Nishmat and progenitor of the Yoa'tzot Halahca program. She is also the mother of Rav Eitam Henkin, H"yd, who along with his wife Naama was murdered by terrorists on Succot of 2015/5776. Rav Eitam was an exceptional scholar whose literary output by his death at 31 already was prodigious. Posthomously, the family has published a great deal more of his breathtaking work, including a recently translated volume, "Studies in Halacha and Rabbinic History." KEY LINKS Nishmat: https://nishmat.net/ Yoatzot Halacha: https://www.yoatzot.org/yoatzot-halacha-intro/ Studies in Halacha and Rabbinic History by Rav Eitam Henkin, H"yd: https://www.amazon.com/Studies-Halakhah-Rabbinic-History-Henkin/dp/159264581X -------------------- ABOUT THIS PODCAST Jews You Should Know introduces the broader community to interesting and inspiring Jewish men and women making a difference in our world. Some are already famous, some not yet so. But each is a Jew You Should Know. The host, Rabbi Ari Koretzky, is Executive Director of MEOR Maryland (www.meormd.org), a premier Jewish outreach and educational organization. MEOR operates nationally on twenty campuses and in Manhattan; visit the national website at www.meor.org. Please visit www.JewsYouShouldKnow.com, follow us on Twitter @JewsUShouldKnow or on Facebook. Have feedback for the show, or suggestions for future guests? E-mail us at JewsYouShouldKnow@gmail.com. Want to support this podcast? Visit Patreon.com/JewsYouShouldKnow. A small monthly contribution goes a long way!! A special thank you to Jacob Rupp of the Lift Your Legacy podcast for his invaluable production assistance.