Podcasts about Poland

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Best podcasts about Poland

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Latest podcast episodes about Poland

Newshour
Clashes in European Parliament over rule of law in Poland

Newshour

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 19, 2021 48:34


The President of the European Commission, Ursula von der Leyen, has accused Poland of threatening the fundamental legal order of the EU. Today the European Parliament is debating threats to the rule of law in Poland, where the Constitutional Court recently rejected the primacy of EU law. Also in the programme: the Ethiopian federal government has admitted carrying out air strikes on the Tigrayan regional capital Mekelle – but is a peace process possible? And new research on the genetic bases of drug resistance in tuberculosis could be a game-changer in the fight to eliminate the disease that killed 1.4 million people last year. (Image: Polish Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki delivers a speech during a debate on Poland's challenge to the supremacy of EU laws at the European Parliament in Strasbourg, France October 19, 2021 / Credit: Ronald Wittek/Pool via Reuters)

John Dalton - gently does it . . .
Ep 210 – Anna Wypych Uncut

John Dalton - gently does it . . .

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 18, 2021 115:59


Patreon and Paypal link – Another Uncut Podcast. In this episode, I am chatting with artist, Anna Wypych in Poland. Anna answers your questions on a variety of subjects. To find out more about Anna and her work go to: https://annawypych.com/ Anna’s Instagram @wypychanna   Thanks for listening! Click here to support the podcast. Subscribe […]

Challenge Mania
Ep. 256: Gabo & The Situation

Challenge Mania

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 18, 2021 52:15


Derrick Kosinski & Scot Yager are joined by Gabo.They also surprise him with a drop-in from his idol Mike The Situation.The Spies, Lies and Allies rookie drops by to discuss his time on The Challenge, his reality history in Hungary and Poland, why he looks up to Mike and MORE!www.ChallengeMania.Livewww.ChallengeMania.Shopwww.Patreon.com/ChallengeMania

The Bob Harden Show
Wrath: America Enraged

The Bob Harden Show

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 18, 2021 61:07


Thank you so much for listening to the Bob Harden Show, celebrating over ten years broadcasting weekdays – providing you news and commentary rooted in the principles of individual liberty, personal responsibility, limited government and the rule of law. On Monday's show, we visit with Marc Schulman, Founder and Publisher of HistoryCentral.com, about current world events, including the disruption of the global supply chain, and developments in China, Iraq, Poland, and Lebanon. We visit with the President Emeritus of the Foundation for Economic Education, Larry Reed, about the chronic political dilemma of “lust for power.” We also have an interesting visit with Peter Wood, author of the recently published, “Wrath: America Enraged.” We have great guests lined up for Tuesday's show including our State Senator, Kathleen Passidomo, the author of “Greetings from Paradise” (and my wife) Linda Harden, entertaining local guest commentator Boo Mortenson, and the founder and President of Less Government, Seton Motley. Please join us live at 7 a.m. on this website, or you can access the show anytime on podcast platforms (iTunes, TuneIn, Spotify, and Stitcher, Vurbl, and ChoiceSocial).

Speaking Tongues
75. Speaking German, Dutch, Russian & Polish

Speaking Tongues

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 18, 2021 63:49


Hello Language Lovers! Thank you for joining me for this episode of Speaking Tongues- the podcast in conversation with multilinguals. This week, I'm so happy to bring you this conversation with Dr. Timothy Douglas of Lancaster University where we talk about his languages of German, Dutch Russian & Polish but also about his background as a researcher and how languages have played a role in his scientific career. Timothy talks to us about his journey through Slavic and Germanic languages and how a biomaterials conference that he attended in Poland was a turning point in realizing that languages could impact his field. He talks about appreciating the subtle differences in the Slavic languages and how he's been able to keep from confusing them with one another. He tells us about the ways that languages can be used the in scientific community to build rapport and that there is value in learning a language even though it is often underrated as a soft skill. We talk about the trouble of collaborating in English as a native English speaker and the reasons why will most likely surprise you -- and we draw parallels between researching and language learning as well as knowing yourself as a researcher and as a language learner. Timothy gives us his opinion on how he thinks the scientific community can promote multilingualism. Thank you to Dr. Douglas for this insightful and thought-provoking conversation weaving language with science. If you enjoy this episode of Speaking Tongues, don't forget to subscribe, rate and review the Speaking Tongues Podcast on Apple Podcasts or like and subscribe on YouTube so that other language lovers like ourselves can find the show! And, If you've been a long time listener of the show or a recent listener, you can now support the show on Buy Me a Coffee dot com. Links to all platforms are in the show notes! ---------------------------------------------------- LISTENER DEAL ALERT!! ---- > Speaking Tongues listeners receive a special 10% off all languages with our friends at NaTakallam! NaTakallam pairs displaced people with learners worldwide for online language learning & cultural exchange. With NaTakallam, you can support these individuals & their host communities by working with them as online tutors, teachers, translators, & cultural exchange partners – regardless of their location & status. Languages offered include Arabic, Armenian, Persian, Kurdish, French, Spanish and English! Use my code 'SPEAKING10' through this link here: tiny.cc/speaking10 -------------------------------------------------- Speaking Tongues Podcast: Follow on IG: @speakingtonguespod Follow on Twitter: @stpodcasthost Like our Facebook Page: @speakingtonguespod Subscribe on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCJFOPq3j7wGteY-PjcZaMxg Did you enjoy this episode? Support Speaking Tongues on Buy me a Coffee: https://www.buymeacoffee.com/speakingtongues --- Send in a voice message: https://anchor.fm/speaking-tongues/message

Polski Daily
PD115 Dziwne pytania o Polskę, które ludzie zadają Googlowi

Polski Daily

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 18, 2021 28:47


Myślisz, że używasz wyszukiwarki Google anonimowo? Na pewno nie. Wszystkie frazy i pytania są analizowane i potem można się dowiedzieć jakich bzdur ludzie szukają w internecie. Są do tego ciekawe narzędzia na przykład strona Ask the Public, z której skorzystałam do nagrania tego odcinka!W tym odcinku dowiesz się, o co obcokrajowcy zainteresowani Polską pytają wujka Google. Zapraszam do słuchania!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Have you discovered the Polski Daily Club yet? If not go to https://www.polskidaily.eu/signup and join the club!

New Books Network
David Hieatt: Co-Founder Hiut Denim Co & The Do Lectures

New Books Network

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 18, 2021 82:51


David Hieatt explains the importance of telling stories in brand building and how he applied the skills he learned in advertising to build globally recognised brands. His life is so unusual that it's hard to be sure what our listeners will take away, but he is clearly grounded in what he is doing now, recognised as successful in the eyes of his peers, and has built a brand, business and events that have impact and meaning for him, and others and his local community in Wales. He co-founded Howies which was acquired by Timberland, later The Hiut Denim Co, whose mission was and is to bring jeans making back to his hometown in Wales, and a popular & unique event called "The Do Lectures" which attendees say is better than TED and/or Burning Man. While taking us through some of the big moments in his life, he shares how his interest in brands got him into advertising, how he managed to position himself as an expert in marketing sports brands to young consumers at the age of 13, and to lose half his father's savings when he was 16. We hear about the power of persistence, doing things that other people don't do, and counter intuitive episodes in his life. We hear how half the people in his company were happy when he sold Howies to Timberland because he drove things too hard, and the exit made him unhappy. How he showed up with his friend for job interviews and was rejected 150 times and moved from living on "beans on toast" to a senior position in a global advertising agency through working all hours, studying hard, and taking the jobs that nobody else wanted. We get some insights into the "Mad Men" alcohol fuelled culture of "chaos with bright people". He asks an important question for any entrepreneur "Why would you sell something you love for money?". We learn how a good entrepreneur who wants to build a brand needs to have two factories: one producing the product, the other producing the stories. If you listen to this episode you may learn where you should never ever underestimate the power of a sticker. We hear about the challenges of success associated with the Do lectures event which, despite being expensive, sell out, and from which amazing people have to be turned away. Perhaps in 2022 they will have randomised selection. About David Hieatt and other links Read interviews with David life here and here David's Linkedin The Do Lectures "The idea is a simple one: To gather together the world's DOers, disruptors and change makers, experts and pioneers, to share their stories, and encourage others to go and DO." The Hiiutt Denim Company "We make jeans. Nothing else. No distractions. No bobble caps. No perfumes. We focus on doing one thing well." To compare Do Lectures events with TEDx- check the global TEDx or look at articles about how TEDxKazimierz is organised by Richard Lucas Getting a ticket to TEDxKazimierz , Getting to speak at TEDxKazimierz and How to build community at events About Kimon Fountoukidis Twitter Linkedin Kimon is the founder of both Argos Multilingual and PMR Both companies were founded in the mid 90s with zero capital and both have gone on to become market leaders in their respective sectors. Kimon was born in New York and moved to Krakow, Poland in 1993. Listen to his story here About Richard Lucas Twitter Linkedin Richard is a business and social entrepreneur who founded or invested in more than 30 businesses, including investments in Argos Multilingual, PMR https://www.pmrmarketexperts.com/en and, in 2020, the New Books Network. Richard has been a TEDx event organiser, supports the pro-entrepreneurship ecosystem, and leads entrepreneurship workshops at all levels: from pre- to business schools. Richard was born in Oxford and moved to Poland in 1991. Read more here. Listen to his story in an autobiographical TEDx talk here. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/new-books-network

Dark Downeast
What Happened to Wanda Mitchell?

Dark Downeast

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 18, 2021 33:44


UNDETERMINED, 1980: She was one day shy of her 15th birthday when Wanda Mitchell ran away from home. Less than a year later, her remains were recovered from the woods in Poland, Maine. To this day, her death is considered undetermined -- not a homicide, not an accident, not a single clear answer as to what happened to the teenage girl or who, if anyone, is responsible.  The search for answers has gone on for over 40 years. Wanda's mother is keeping her story alive. This is the story of Wanda Jean Mitchell told by her mother Sheila Simoneaux.

SBS Polish - SBS po polsku
Week in Poland - Tydzień w Polsce

SBS Polish - SBS po polsku

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 17, 2021 6:32


Summary of the most important events of last week in Poland. Report by Przemek Przybylski. - Podsumowanie ważniejszych wydarzeń ubiegłego tygodnia w Polsce, w korespondencji Przemka Przybylskiego.

SOFREP Radio
Episode 582: John Pomfret, Award-Winning Journalist and Author, and Fred Hart US Army Officer

SOFREP Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 16, 2021 64:04


In this week's episode SOFREP senior editor and SOFREP Radio host Steve Balestrieri talks with John Pomfret and Fred Hart about how Polish spies saved Operation Desert Storm. John is an award-winning journalist and author. Among other publications, he has worked for the Associated Press and Washington Post eventually becoming the editor of the Post's weekend opinion section. He has written and worked extensively on China. His latest book is the upcoming From Warsaw with Love: Polish Spies, the CIA, and the Forging of an Unlikely Alliance. The book tells the unlikely story of how Poland saved Operation Desert Storm and the first Gulf War.  As the U.S. was planning Operation Desert Storm, six American officers became trapped in Iraq. If the intelligence they carried were captured by the Iraqis the upcoming operation could be doomed. To rescue the officers the CIA turned to Poland, famous for its excellent spies. Fred Hart was one of the six trapped U.S. officers and he recounts to Steve the exciting events that led to their escape.   Join us for a gripping episode of SOFREP Radio with John Pomfret and Fred Hart and discover the unknown story that determined Operation Desert Storm. Learn more about your ad-choices at https://www.iheartpodcastnetwork.com

Christian History Almanac
Saturday, October 16, 2021

Christian History Almanac

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 16, 2021 6:20


Today on the Almanac, we look at Pope John Paul II Day in Poland. #OTD #1517 #churchhistory — SHOW NOTES are available: https://www.1517.org/podcasts/the-christian-history-almanac GIVE BACK: Support the work of 1517 today CONTACT: CHA@1517.org SUBSCRIBE: Apple Podcasts Spotify Stitcher Overcast Google Play FOLLOW US: Facebook Twitter Audio production by Christopher Gillespie (gillespie.media).

Daily Halacha Podcast - Daily Halacha By Rabbi Eli J. Mansour
Dropping Off Clothes at the Cleaners on Erev Shabbat

Daily Halacha Podcast - Daily Halacha By Rabbi Eli J. Mansour

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 15, 2021 5:09


The Halacha prohibits instructing a non-Jew to perform melacha on Shabbat. This restriction applies even when the Jew gave the instructions before Shabbat. Nevertheless, it is permitted to engage the non-Jewish worker as a "Kablan," i.e. based on a fixed price per task. As long as the Jew does not specify to perform the work on Shabbat, and the work is not performed on the Jew's premises, any work done on Shabbat is the Non-Jew's initiative for his own convenience.One application of this Halacha is dropping off laundry at the dry cleaners on Friday afternoon. It is permitted to do so since the cleaners is a "Kablan," charging a fixed price per garment. Even if he chooses to do the work on Shabbat, it was not done on the Jew's premises or at the Jew's request. However, the Magen Abraham (Rav Abraham Gombiner, Poland, 1637-1682) holds that dropping off the laundry very close to Shabbat and ordering it to be ready on Mosei Shabbat is prohibited. This is tantamount to instructing the non-Jew to work on Shabbat, since there is no other time he could do it. Hacham Ben Sion Abba Shaul (Israel, 1923-1998) applied this reasoning to prohibit bringing a car for repair at the garage on Friday afternoon, in order to pick it up right after Shabbat. However, Hacham Ovadia in Yehaveh Da'at (Vol. 3) and Hazon Ovadia (Vol. 1, p. 159) says that the Shulhan Aruch (siman 307) is lenient in such cases, based on the opinion of the Ran, who holds that as long as the Jew did not explicitly tell the non-Jew to execute the task on Shabbat, it is permitted. This is also the opinion of the Minhat Kohen, as well as Rav Yehuda Ayash. The Ben Ish Hai (Rav Yosef Haim of Baghdad, 1833-1909), in his work, Rav Berachot, is also lenient, even though in his halachot he was more stringent. Hacham Ovadia rules that under extenuating circumstances, one may be lenient in accordance with these opinions. It is important to note that in any case that the workload will be in the hands of the non-Jew over Shabbat, Sepharadim require engaging the non-Jew as a "Kablan," even if the work was submitted before Friday. Ashkenazim are more lenient and do not require this arrangement, if the work was submitted before Friday.SUMMARY: It is permitted to drop off clothes at the cleaners on Friday afternoon. Under extenuating circumstances, it is even permissible to have the order ready on Mosei Shabbat.

Mark Leonard's World in 30 Minutes
Out of Order: the Polish Constitutional Court's challenge to the European Union

Mark Leonard's World in 30 Minutes

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 15, 2021 33:27


A major ruling of Poland's Constitutional Court challenging the primacy of EU law has escalated Warsaw's legal and political dispute with Brussels and unleashed serious concerns of a ‘Polexit.' In this week's episode, host Mark Leonard speaks with Piotr Buras, head of ECFR's Warsaw office, and Jana Puglierin, head of ECFR's Berlin office, about the implications of the ruling for Poland as well as for the European Union. Should the EU fear ‘Polexit'? What steps can the EU take to defend its legal order and protect the authority of the Court of Justice of the European Union? This podcast was recorded on 14 October 2021. Further reading: Forget Polexit – the EU must defend the CJEU by Piotr Buras on Balkan Insight: https://buff.ly/3FA2Ftj Bookshelf: - Aftershocks: Pandemic politics and the end of the old international order by Colin Kahl and Thomas Wright - Angela Merkel: Die Kanzlerin und ihre Zeit by Ralph Bollmann - The Age of Unpeace: How Connectivity causes Conflict by Mark Leonard

The New European Podcast
From Brexit to Polexit: an idiot, and an existential crisis, abroad

The New European Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 14, 2021 26:13


In this week's episode, host Steve Anglesey hears listeners' thoughts on Boris Johnson's recent jaunt to Marbella, most of whom weren't best pleased. Senior journalist for The New European Suna Erdem joins the podcast to discuss the situation in Poland and the seriousness of the threat of 'Polexit'. Is European populism in its final days and, back home, how much longer can the government emerge from poor decisions smelling like roses? These are both questions Suna discusses. Plus, Martin Daubney, Ann Widdecombe and Iain Duncan Smith all feature in the Hall of Shame this week. Enjoyed this episode and the podcast's new shorter, snappier format? Let us know by tweeting @TheNewEuropean

Daily Halacha Podcast - Daily Halacha By Rabbi Eli J. Mansour
Ordering a Taxi for Immediately After Shabbat

Daily Halacha Podcast - Daily Halacha By Rabbi Eli J. Mansour

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 14, 2021 5:20


The Poskim discuss whether it is permissible to order a non-Jewish taxi service to pick one up immediately after Shabbat. Obviously, the non-Jewish driver would have to violate the Shabbat in order to reach the address on time. The question is whether his driving on Shabbat is considered Melacha done for the Jew, which is prohibited to benefit from.Rav Yishak Yaakov Weiss (1901-1989), in his Minhat Yishak (Vol. 6:25) was asked a similar question with regard to calling a non-Jewish driver on Friday to pick up Jews who spent Shabbat in Meron at the tomb of Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai. He concluded that it is prohibited to do so. This strict ruling was questioned by other authorities, including Rav Shelomo Miller. They rule that it is permitted based on the Mishna Berura (Rav Yisrael Meir Kagan, 1839-1933, 276:27). The Mishna Berura cites the opinion of the Taz (Rabbi David Segal, Poland, 1586-1667) who permits instructing a non-Jewish maid to wash dishes, which is intrinsically a permitted act, even though she will have to turn on the lights in the kitchen to do so. He reasons that the Jew has no direct benefit from the light; it was her prerogative to turn them on, and she did so for her own benefit. The Mishna Berura applies this leniency to sending a non-Jewish messenger on a mission on Shabbat, even though he will kindle a candle to illuminate his path. Based on these precedents, these Poskim are lenient and permit ordering the taxi for Mosei Shabbat, since the Jew did not direct him to drive on Shabbat; he is doing so for his own benefit. This lenient opinion is the accepted Halacha. However, one must exercise caution not to accidentally order a Jewish driver. It is possible that the Minhat Yishak was strict on this issue, because he was dealing with a case where the taxi company charged for the drive to the Jew on Shabbat. In such a case, the time driving on Shabbat constitutes an integral part of the service provided to the Jew.SUMMARY: It is permitted on Friday to order a non-Jewish driver to pick one up immediately after Shabbat.

In Our Time
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

In Our Time

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 14, 2021 48:43


Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the republic that emerged from the union of the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 14th Century. At first this was a personal union, similar to that of James I and VI in Britain, but this was formalised in 1569 into a vast republic, stretching from the Baltic to the Black Sea. Kings and princes from across Europe would compete for parliament to elect them King and Grand Duke, and the greatest power lay with the parliaments. When the system worked well, the Commonwealth was a powerhouse, and it was their leader Jan Sobieski who relieved the siege of Vienna in 1683, defeating the Ottomans. Its neighbours exploited its parliament's need for unanimity, though, and this contributed to its downfall. Austria, Russia and Prussia divided its territory between them from 1772, before the new, smaller states only emerged in the 20th Century. The image above is Jan III Sobieski (1629-1696), King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, at the Battle of Vienna 1683, by Marcello Bacciarelli (1731-1818) With Robert Frost The Burnett Fletcher Chair of History at the University of Aberdeen Katarzyna Kosior Lecturer in Early Modern History at Northumbria University And Norman Davies Professor Emeritus in History and Honorary Fellow of St Antony's College, University of Oxford Producer: Simon Tillotson

In Our Time: History
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

In Our Time: History

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 14, 2021 48:43


Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the republic that emerged from the union of the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 14th Century. At first this was a personal union, similar to that of James I and VI in Britain, but this was formalised in 1569 into a vast republic, stretching from the Baltic to the Black Sea. Kings and princes from across Europe would compete for parliament to elect them King and Grand Duke, and the greatest power lay with the parliaments. When the system worked well, the Commonwealth was a powerhouse, and it was their leader Jan Sobieski who relieved the siege of Vienna in 1683, defeating the Ottomans. Its neighbours exploited its parliament's need for unanimity, though, and this contributed to its downfall. Austria, Russia and Prussia divided its territory between them from 1772, before the new, smaller states only emerged in the 20th Century. The image above is Jan III Sobieski (1629-1696), King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, at the Battle of Vienna 1683, by Marcello Bacciarelli (1731-1818) With Robert Frost The Burnett Fletcher Chair of History at the University of Aberdeen Katarzyna Kosior Lecturer in Early Modern History at Northumbria University And Norman Davies Professor Emeritus in History and Honorary Fellow of St Antony's College, University of Oxford Producer: Simon Tillotson

New Books in History
Eliyana R. Adler, "Survival on the Margins: Polish Jewish Refugees in the Wartime Soviet Union" (Harvard UP, 2020)

New Books in History

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 14, 2021 63:34


Between 1940 and 1946, thousands of Jewish refugees from Poland lived and toiled in the harsh Soviet interior. They endured hard labor, bitter cold, and extreme deprivation. But out of reach of the Nazis, they escaped the fate of millions of their coreligionists in the Holocaust. In Survival on the Margins: Polish Jewish Refugees in the Wartime Soviet Union (Harvard University Press, 2020), Eliyana Adler provides the first comprehensive account in English of their experiences. Eliyana Adler is Associate Professor of History and Jewish Studies at Pennsylvania State University. Schneur Zalman Newfield is an Assistant Professor of Sociology at Borough of Manhattan Community College, City University of New York, and the author of Degrees of Separation: Identity Formation While Leaving Ultra-Orthodox Judaism (Temple University Press, 2020). Visit him online at ZalmanNewfield.com. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/history

New Books Network
Eliyana R. Adler, "Survival on the Margins: Polish Jewish Refugees in the Wartime Soviet Union" (Harvard UP, 2020)

New Books Network

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 14, 2021 63:34


Between 1940 and 1946, thousands of Jewish refugees from Poland lived and toiled in the harsh Soviet interior. They endured hard labor, bitter cold, and extreme deprivation. But out of reach of the Nazis, they escaped the fate of millions of their coreligionists in the Holocaust. In Survival on the Margins: Polish Jewish Refugees in the Wartime Soviet Union (Harvard University Press, 2020), Eliyana Adler provides the first comprehensive account in English of their experiences. Eliyana Adler is Associate Professor of History and Jewish Studies at Pennsylvania State University. Schneur Zalman Newfield is an Assistant Professor of Sociology at Borough of Manhattan Community College, City University of New York, and the author of Degrees of Separation: Identity Formation While Leaving Ultra-Orthodox Judaism (Temple University Press, 2020). Visit him online at ZalmanNewfield.com. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/new-books-network

New Books in Jewish Studies
Eliyana R. Adler, "Survival on the Margins: Polish Jewish Refugees in the Wartime Soviet Union" (Harvard UP, 2020)

New Books in Jewish Studies

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 14, 2021 63:34


Between 1940 and 1946, thousands of Jewish refugees from Poland lived and toiled in the harsh Soviet interior. They endured hard labor, bitter cold, and extreme deprivation. But out of reach of the Nazis, they escaped the fate of millions of their coreligionists in the Holocaust. In Survival on the Margins: Polish Jewish Refugees in the Wartime Soviet Union (Harvard University Press, 2020), Eliyana Adler provides the first comprehensive account in English of their experiences. Eliyana Adler is Associate Professor of History and Jewish Studies at Pennsylvania State University. Schneur Zalman Newfield is an Assistant Professor of Sociology at Borough of Manhattan Community College, City University of New York, and the author of Degrees of Separation: Identity Formation While Leaving Ultra-Orthodox Judaism (Temple University Press, 2020). Visit him online at ZalmanNewfield.com. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/jewish-studies

Unorthodox
The Artful Dodger

Unorthodox

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 14, 2021 17:01


This week, while Mark's on book tour and Stephanie is dancing with diapers, we're bringing you a minisode with a special story of the impact of a single hungry draft dodger. Enjoy! On October 19 at 12pm ET, Liel will be moderating a live discussion along with Manya Brachear Pashman of American Jewish Committee's podcast, People of the Pod. This is the first in a four-part series by Tablet Magazine and AJC titled “21st Century Europe and the Jews”, which aims to address timely issues related to Jewish life and the protection of democracies in Europe. The series will delve into the most pressing issues in the United Kingdom, Poland, France, and Germany. The October 19th live program, “How the Jews Went Right in Britain,” will start with the UK. Go to AJC.org/Tablet to register, and for more details! Please support Unorthodox and the other Tablet shows you know and love by visiting bit.ly/givetounorthodox and giving a gift of any amount! Aa always, let us know what you think of the show! Send us comments and questions at unorthodox@tabletmag.com, or leave us a voicemail at (914) 570-4869. You can also record a voice memo on your smartphone and email it to us. Subscribe to our weekly newsletter to get new episodes, photos, and more. Join our Facebook group, and follow Unorthodox on Twitter and Instagram. Get a behind-the-scenes look at our recording sessions on our YouTube channel! Get your Unorthodox T-shirts, mugs, and baby onesies at bit.ly/unorthoshirt. Want to book us for a live show? Email producer Josh Kross at jkross@tabletmag.com. Check out all of Tablet's podcasts at tabletmag.com/podcasts. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

The Europeans
What the hell just happened in Poland?

The Europeans

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 14, 2021 30:36


Wondering why everyone is suddenly talking about the prospect of a 'Polexit'? This week we're talking to excellent Polandsplainer Jakub Jaraczewski about why the government in Warsaw has just got itself into a huge legal mess. We're also talking about the downfall of Austria's Wunderkind, why so many young Spaniards live with their parents, and the mysterious power of the European chestnut. Jakub is a research coordinator at Democracy Reporting International. You can follow him here on Twitter. This week's Isolation Inspiration: the Earthshot Prize on Saturday, October 16, and 'On Time And Water' by Andri Snær Magnason. You can also watch his video for TED here. This episode was produced as part of Sphera, a collective of independent European media. Find out more at sphera-hub.com. Thanks for listening! If you enjoy our podcast and would like to help us keep making it, we'd love it if you'd consider chipping in a few euros / dollars / pounds a month at patreon.com/europeanspodcast. You can also help new listeners find the show by leaving us a review. Producers: Katy Lee and Wojciech Oleksiak Senior producer: Katz Laszlo Music: Jim Barne and Mariska Martina This podcast is part of the Are We Europe family. Find more like-minded European podcasts at areweeurope.com/audio-family. Twitter | Instagram | Facebook | hello@europeanspodcast.com

We Have Ways of Making You Talk
382. The Sosabowskis

We Have Ways of Making You Talk

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 14, 2021 29:46


There are few stories more extraordinary than that of General Stanisław Sosabowski, commander of the Polish Parachute Brigade. After fighting fiercely against the German invaders of Poland he was captured, escaped and made his way to Britain. He later led his men at Market Garden and is perhaps most widely known for being played by Gene Hackman in A Bridge Too Far. His great grandson, Hal Sosabowski, tells the General's story, and also that of the General's son, who was instrumental in the fighting in Warsaw.A Goalhanger Films productionProduced by Vasco Andrade & Rotimi KolapoExec Producer Tony PastorTwitter: #WeHaveWays@WeHaveWaysPodWebsite: www.wehavewayspod.comEmail: wehavewayspodcast@gmail.com See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

Virtual Economy
Episode 104: So… We Heard You Like Money (News Show)

Virtual Economy

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 13, 2021 75:19


I know. We don't call. We don't write. Life has been a little bananas. BUT WE'RE BACK! We're catching up with a bunch of investment news and quick hits to set the table for a return to our regular schedule on Saturday. In this episode: Sony (finally) confirms its acquisition of Bluepoint, Netflix makes moves, and there's some weirdness around a rumored Nintendo 4K dev kit. You can support Virtual Economy's growth via our Ko-Fi and also purchase Virtual Economy merchandise! TIME STAMPS [00:03:18] - Investment Interlude [00:37:09] - Quick Hits SOURCES Xbox Accessibility Showcase - October 2021 - YouTube INVESTMENT INTERLUDE NACON ANNOUNCES THE 100% ACQUISITION OF ISHTAR GAMES Mobile gaming company Voodoo acquires Beach Bum | TechCrunch About Netflix - Expanding Our Games Team With the Acquisition of Night School Studio We are joining the Netflix team. - Night School Studio Netflix launches new mobile games in Poland, Italy and Spain as a members-only perk | TechCrunch Welcoming Bluepoint Games to the PlayStation Studios family FIRESPRITE LIMITED COMPLETES ACQUISITION OF FABRIK GAMES LIMITED Niantic Acquires Developer Experience Leader, Hoss AppLovin to Acquire Twitter's MoPub Business AppLovin to Acquire MoPub Business From Twitter | AppLovin Supersocial raises $5.2M to make games for the Roblox metaverse ARISTOCRAT CONTINUES TO INVEST IN EXPANDING DIGITAL GAME PIPELINE AND PORTFOLIO DIVERSIFICATION FOR GROWTH Kepler Interactive, New "Super‑Developer" Group, Announces $120M Funding Round 1939 Games raises $5.3m to create Kards mobile game Game Jolt raises $2.6M to expand social platform for Gen Z gamers MY.GAMES VENTURE CAPITAL INVESTED $ 3 MILLION TO SUPPORT CIS STUDIOS Mobile gaming startup Homa Games raises $50 million SideQuest raises $3m to fuel VR development

Cloud Surfing
38 - Colt Mavity - Cloud Surfing with Jake Rider

Cloud Surfing

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 13, 2021 179:04


SPONSOR-Thank you to Hankey Law for continuing to sponsor the show! Your support is the very best around!You can visit them at https://www.hankeyjustice.com/We are back! Today, we welcome Colt Mavity to the show! Colt, a world traveler, teacher, salesman, and everything in-between, is here to tell us about some of the stories and experiences he's had from his years on Earth. Calling in all the way from Poland in Europe, we hear about current events from around the world and consider ways to critically think and evaluate the world around us and the information we are given. Thank you for joining the show!Video used during the show is provided by Term Limits and is fair to use under section 107 of the Copyright Act. All Rights Are Reserved.

Highlights from Moncrieff
Poland's fraught relationship with the EU

Highlights from Moncrieff

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 13, 2021 12:15


Ronan McCrea who is a Professor of Constitutional and European law at the University College of London joined Sean on the show... Listen and subscribe to Moncrieff on Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts or Spotify.    Download, listen and subscribe on the Newstalk App.     You can also listen to Newstalk live on newstalk.com or on Alexa, by adding the Newstalk skill and asking: 'Alexa, play Newstalk'.

Mayo Clinic Q&A
Continuing progress in battle against COVID-19

Mayo Clinic Q&A

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 13, 2021 18:20


"October is going to be a very exciting month in the U.S., regarding COVID-19 vaccines," says Dr. Gregory Poland, head of Mayo Clinic's Vaccine Research Group. "On Oct. 14 the Federal Drug Administration is going to look at COVID-19 boosters for Moderna. On Oct. 15, (the FDA will review) boosters for Johnson & Johnsons' COVID-19 vaccine. And on Oct. 29, the FDA will look at extending emergency use for the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine for children down to 5 years of age," says Dr. Poland. He adds that vaccinations of children could begin within a couple of weeks of the emergency use authorization.  Dr. Poland also says approval of Merck's antiviral COVID-19 pill is expected soon, too."We're excited about this because it's oral," says Dr. Poland. "The nice part about this is you can take it at home, and it fits with the same paradigm we already have in clinical medicine — treating influenza with an antiviral."In this Mayo Clinic Q&A podcast, Dr. Poland also talks about waning immunities and the approval possibility of mixing and matching COVID-19 booster vaccines being approved. And he reminds women who are pregnant to get a COVID-19 vaccine.

Monocle 24: The Globalist
Wednesday 13 October

Monocle 24: The Globalist

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 13, 2021 60:00


We react to the G20's latest meeting in Italy, as the member states hope to solve the deepening humanitarian crisis in Afghanistan. Plus: Europe's energy woes and the latest on Poland's rule-of-law debate.

Collège de France (Général)
Liberal and Illiberal Projects in Today's Europe 3/4

Collège de France (Général)

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 13, 2021 47:48


Samantha Besson Droit international des institutions Collège de France Année 2021-2022 Ivan Krastev - Conférencier invité - Cycle europe du Collège de France : L'angoisse du déclin. Démocratie, démographie et clivage Est-Ouest en Europe Conference in English (Conférence en anglais) This lecture defines liberalism and illiberalism as two distinct responses to the changing demographic structure of European societies. In a democracy, the most existential collective right is the right to exclude. Democracy is preconditioned on the right of the democratic political community to decide who can and who cannot be a member. How you define the right to exclude is what distinguishes liberal from illiberal democracies. The European liberal project focuses on the protection of the rights of minorities as the way to manage diversity at a time when a growing number of migrants are coming from outside Europe. The illiberal project in Europe, associated with the current governments of Hungary and Poland, is about preserving the ethnic state in rapidly diversifying societies. The European illiberalism of the twenty-first century is not the second coming of nineteenth- or twentieth-century European nationalism. It is not about gathering all Bulgarians, Hungarians, or Poles into their own respective territorial political entities. It is about preserving the ethnic homogeneity of the electoral body while accepting the need to open its labor market to foreigners.

The John Batchelor Show
1758: The EU migrant tragedy returns in Poland and Lithuania. Judy Dempsey, @Judy_Dempsey Carnegie Endowment for Peace, @Carnegie_Europe, Strategic Europe.

The John Batchelor Show

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 13, 2021 7:55


Photo: No known restrictions on publication. CBS Eye on the World with John Batchelor CBS Audio Network @Batchelorshow The EU migrant tragedy returns in Poland and Lithuania. Judy Dempsey, @Judy_Dempsey Carnegie Endowment for Peace, @Carnegie_Europe, Strategic Europe.  https://carnegieeurope.eu/strategiceurope/85494

Fault Lines
Poland Challenges EU Authority; Polexit?

Fault Lines

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 12, 2021 170:06


On this episode of Fault Lines, hosts Jamarl Thomas and Shane Stranahan talk about the question of the authority of the European Union posed in a Polish court, the growing debt of the United States, and the ramping up of the shadow war the US and China are engaging in.Guests:Peter Oliver - EU correspondent for RT International | EU Authority Challenged, Poland & German Court Challenge EU SupremacyTed Rall - Political cartoonist and syndicated columnist | McConnell Sends Letter To Biden, Won't Assist On Debt CeilingMark Sleboda - International relations and security analyst | Daniel Ellsberg on Milley, China and the Dangerous of Nuclear WarIn the first hour Peter Oliver joined the show to talk about the dispute between Poland and the European Union which is being manifested in Polish and German courts. Peter predicts this will have a larger impact over time for the politics of Poland and other European Union players.In the second hour Fault Lines was joined by Ted Rall for a discussion on the credit of the United States, specifically regarding the value of the dollar. Ted also discussed Trump being thrown to the wolves whilst past presidents are protected.In the third hour Mark Sleboda joined the conversation to talk about the growing conflict between the United States and China over the independence of Taiwan. China and the US are both readying up for a possible nuclear outcome.

THE TWO TANKERS AND A CAT PODCAST
EPISODE #69 - THE SWEDISH KONIGSTIGER (KING TIGER) AND CURRENT AFFAIRS IN POLAND TODAY!

THE TWO TANKERS AND A CAT PODCAST

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 12, 2021 57:05


Welcome to the 69th Episode of The Two Tankers and a Cat Podcast!  Charlie dug up some good tidbits about the Swedish King Tiger that they acquired during World War II.  The Swedish performed about every test on the King Tiger that is imaginable.  Whatever happened to the Swedish King Tiger after they performed their tests?  Well we will tell you all about it during this episode.  A big thank you to tanksencyclopedia.com for putting out there a lot of information on this topic.  We also talk about tanks in the news, and how Poland is in the process of buying several M1 Abrams tanks from the United States!  Happy Tanking and Have A Great Week! Russel & Charlie 

The Stand with Eamon Dunphy
Ep 1231: Poland and Hungary Find Support Among Other Member States as the EU Turns Right

The Stand with Eamon Dunphy

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 12, 2021 25:37


Naomi O'Leary, Europe Correspondent for the Irish Times, reports on developments in the EU as Lord David Frost pre-empts the EU response to the UK's demands for change to the Brexit Agreement. Also as Poland's courts rule they have authority over the European Court of Justice how is the EU responding to increasing moves to the right across Europe? The Stand is proudly sponsored by Tesco. Recorded 12/10/21

The Duran Podcast
EU picks off Czech Republic. Next up for EU...Poland then Hungary (Part 2)

The Duran Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 12, 2021 23:35


EU picks off Czech Republic. Next up for EU...Poland then Hungary (Part 2) The Duran: Episode 1111 Czech PM edged out in narrow election, after corruption claims in wake of Pandora Papers bolster opposition https://www.rt.com/news/537076-czech-election-results-pandora-papers/ #CzechRepublic #PandoraPapers #Poland #TheDuran

The Duran Podcast
EU picks off Czech Republic. Next up for EU...Poland then Hungary (Part 2)

The Duran Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 12, 2021 23:35


EU picks off Czech Republic. Next up for EU...Poland then Hungary (Part 2) The Duran: Episode 1111 Czech PM edged out in narrow election, after corruption claims in wake of Pandora Papers bolster opposition https://www.rt.com/news/537076-czech-election-results-pandora-papers/

Waking Up From Work
Creating Your Your Writing Career From China To Poland W/ Author Dave Norman

Waking Up From Work

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 12, 2021 80:13


E130:   After speaking with so many people from so many places it's great to speak to another creative near my home again but when you hear his story you'll hear many places far away from it. On this episode we speak with author, hasher, and paintball aficionado Dave Norman. We speak on creating an income from what you love starting as kid by adding value and understanding where and how the money moves in the business to place yourself in it. We talk on traveling and taking an opportunity when it comes to you instead of letting it pass by. How cities become really cool from art then because of that exact creation become too expensive for artists to live in like many other unfortunate cycles. Great episode for authors, writers, travelers, and of course creatives trying to make a living doing what they love.     In This Episode We Cover Getting into writing as a job How to pitch articles Figuring out how to make a living off your craft Creating the gig Add value Seeing how it works and finding a way to get involved Wear a cup Take the ride Taking the opportunity as it happens City gentrification and population movements in the art community Say yes   Quotes   “What's happening here, you have these mentors, they say this where money is moving, this is what's adding value, these are the dollar signs of what's happening. You saw this is how it works, this is where they are adding value. These are what I'll do to join those and bring something to the community as well!” - Host Dave Swillum   “There's a clear but not easily defined line between being stubborn and good self advocacy.” - David Norman   “If you bought the ticket, take the ride, ride it till the end as long as it's ethical to others, who cares what others think.” - David Norman   Resources Noted In This Podcast   Find a mentor anywhere you have done a lot of growth and learning and ask them to hang out then learn from them.   Dave Norman's Links   Website www.DaveThinksTooMuch.com   Facebook https://www.facebook.com/theauthordavenorman/   Dave's Books   Following Josh https://amzn.to/3BDtvOM   White River Junctions https://amzn.to/3Fx4KpX   Email: dave@davethinkstoomuch.com     Waking Up From Work Podcast Links    IG / Tik Tok / Clubhouse / Twitter / HiHo Follow & DM Me! @davewakeup   Merch To Support Us! https://wakeup.itemorder.com/sale?fbclid=IwAR30nyVXdpFaax0mN0CRcC_mVjNzafbMo0spds82eoG-GMo01HG6Uq0dvzw   Patreon (If you want to support the show check out our sweet offers for you) https://www.patreon.com/wakingupfromwork   Facebook Community to connect to creatives https://www.facebook.com/groups/wakingupfromwork/about/   Email wakeupfromworkpodcast@gmail.com   Youtube Channel & Series https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCJeddF25VuWn8Eg3Fhy13fQ?view_as=subscriber   For audio advice and more in depth music content from Dave www.crawlspaceaudio.com   Dave's Indie Band Broadwing https://distrokid.com/hyperfollow/broadwing/tennessee

Economist Radio
Exit Poles? A bold challenge to the EU

Economist Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 12, 2021 20:01


After a court ruling in Poland that is an affront to a core European Union principle, Poles hit the streets—fearing a “Pol-exit” they do not want. Who will back down? Hydrogen has been touted for decades as a fuel with green credentials. At last its time has come. And the herd of unicorns popping up in Mexico.For full access to print, digital and audio editions of The Economist, subscribe here www.economist.com/intelligenceoffer See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

The Intelligence
Exit Poles? A bold challenge to the EU

The Intelligence

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 12, 2021 20:01


After a court ruling in Poland that is an affront to a core European Union principle, Poles hit the streets—fearing a “Pol-exit” they do not want. Who will back down? Hydrogen has been touted for decades as a fuel with green credentials. At last its time has come. And the herd of unicorns popping up in Mexico.For full access to print, digital and audio editions of The Economist, subscribe here www.economist.com/intelligenceoffer See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

Series Podcast: This Way Out
This Way Out: DADT Repeal Anniversary + global LGBTQ news!, Segment 1

Series Podcast: This Way Out

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 12, 2021


A tenth anniversary salute to the end of "Don't Ask, Don't Tell"; a Missouri student walkout targets anti-queer bullying; a Turkish court finds no crime in Pride marching, Poland challenges E.U. legal supremacy over LGBTQ rights, a Russian "child protector" calls feminists and queers “extremist”, and a gay federal judge dissects the horrific Texas abortion ban! Those stories — and more this week — when you choose "This Way Out": the world's audio oasis for queer news and culture.

The Progressive Voice
NEWS 10/11/21: Jon Stewart WARNS Democrats Trump Could Win In 2024! Dems Midterms LOOK BLEAK, Taliban Say They Can Control ISIS, Poland EU

The Progressive Voice

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 12, 2021 22:32


NEWS 10/11/21: Jon Stewart WARNS Democrats Trump Could Win In 2024! Dems Midterms LOOK BLEAK, Taliban Say They Can Control ISIS, Poland EU

PRI's The World
Columbus Day or Indigenous Peoples' Day?

PRI's The World

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 11, 2021 49:55


The US is grappling with its identity today. Is it Columbus Day or Indigenous Peoples' Day? Or neither? Depends on where you live. In Spain, there's little doubt — Columbus Day is a massive celebration, referred to as the National Day of Spain. This year in Madrid, the right-wing government is spending more than $1 million on a two-week long festivity with dozens of events. Also, Poland has ruled that its constitution takes precedence over EU Law. That has raised the possibility of Poland leaving the 27-nation bloc. Or, more likely, a standoff over whose law reigns supreme. And, whether it's called soccer or fútbol, the sport unites immigrant children in the US from diverse backgrounds. Yet, it doesn't always provide equal opportunities for all of the kids.

The Pro America Report with Ed Martin Podcast
Who is Sovereign? We the People. | 10.08.2021 #ProAmericaReport

The Pro America Report with Ed Martin Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 11, 2021 40:37


What You Need to Know is Who's sovereign? We the People are. There is tension in countries like Poland and Hungary where they have different views on the nature of their nation and therefore the impact of sovereignty. In Poland their Supreme Court has said it will be sovereign not the EU — Poland enters minefield over EU order. Same thing in Hungary and other places. In America, we're fighting against intrusions of our sovereignty by the federal government. There are so many examples of government overreach within our healthcare system, education, parental right, etc. We the People will lose our sovereignty to Big Government if we aren't careful. Jim Hanson, President of Security Studies Group, & formerly US Army Special Forces, talks about school boards and how they are pushing parents out and saying they don't have a say in their children's education. Be sure to get a copy of his book — Winning the Second Civil War Without Firing a Shot. & Checkout SecurityStudies.org.  Noah Dingley, host of Across The County & Noah's Ark, talks about the Dodgers winning the wildcard this week. Also, Noah gives an update on the politics of the pandemic.  Wrap up: Jobs numbers are in again! And they are not so good. Unemployment dropped but we didn't add many jobs. Another thing to keep an eye on is the Virginia Governor's race. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

Madlik Podcast – Torah Thoughts on Judaism From a Post-Orthodox Jew

Parshat Noach - Join Geoffrey Stern, Rabbi Adam Mintz and Pastor Dumisani Washington of IBSI - Institute for Black Solidarity with Israel and Christians United For Israel for a live recording of a discussion on Clubhouse Friday October 8th with the Pastor regarding his book Zionism and the Black Church: Why Standing with Israel Will Be a Defining Issue for Christians of Color in the 21st Century. We follow a less traveled path down Noah's family tree. We discover the Biblical Mission of Africa and the bond between the Children of Shem and the Children of Ham. Sefaria Source Sheet: www.sefaria.org/sheets/352058  Transcript: Geoffrey Stern  00:00 [To Reverend Dumisani Washington] Thank you so much for being with us. On on our clubhouse when you come up to the platform, we say first of all that you're coming up to the bimah [the podium or platform in a synagogue from which the Torah and Prophets are read from]. And then second of all, when we make you a presenter, we give you smicha... So that means that you are ordinated. So instead of Reverend, we'll call you Reb. Is that okay? Dumisani Washington  00:20 That sounds good to me. Sounds good, no problem. Geoffrey Stern  00:23 So anyway, welcome to Madlik. Madlik is every week at four o'clock, and we do record it and post it as a podcast on Sunday. And if you listen to it, and you'd like what you hear, feel free to share it and give us a few stars. And what we do is disruptive Torah. And what we mean by disruptive Torah is we look at the ancient text of the Torah, with maybe a new lens, or to see a new angle. And today, I'm delighted to say that we're not only looking at it through a new lens, but we're looking at it through another lens, a lens of a pastor, of a man of God, who we will learn about his mission. I heard about it on clubhouse one evening, I was scrolling, and I stumbled upon you Reverend, and you're on a mission and you see Judaism and you see Zionism from a whole new perspective. So I want to thank you for coming on. And I want to say that, as I told you, in my email that I sent you that you know, every week about Saturday on Shabbat, on Sunday, I start thinking about what I'm going to pick as a subject matter for the coming Madlik session. And I purchased your book maybe two months ago, and it was sitting by the side of my bed, and for some reason, and of course, I'm sure there are no coincidences in this world. I picked it up this Shabbat. And it starts with our portion of Noah, it starts by talking about the line less traveled by us Jews of Shem's son Ham. And I should say that nothing is written for no reason in the Bible. And when it gives you a genealogy, it's because of what comes in the future. And many of us Jews will look at the genealogy in Genesis 10. And focus on Shem... with Semites. And that's where the name comes from. And we go down that path, and your book starts. And of course, I should say that your book is called "Zionism and the Black Church, Why Standing with Israel will be a Defining issue for Christians of color in the 21st Century". And it begins by traveling down this path less taken, of Ham. Welcome to Madlik.  But if you could begin by touching upon our portion of the week, no off and and and discussing what you see in it, and maybe your mission. Dumisani Washington  03:06 Absolutely. And thank you, again, Rabbi for having me on. Yes, there are six chapters in "Zionism in the Black Church". And the first chapter is entitled The African Biblical Tie to Israel. And so we as I say, in the book started the beginning, right, we start at the beginning of the Scriptures, and so as you know, between the two portions of "Bereshi"  I believe whether the towards the end is when Noah was first introduced, but of course in "Noach" there's the explanation of the nations where all the nations of the earth come from, from Noah's three sons Shem, Ham, and Jafet. And so we recognize that in the Scriptures, it is said that Ham has four sons. And there's a couple of unique things as you know, you read the book, that the scriptures that in the law of Moses deals, Psalms and some of the prophets, there's a term that's given several times in the scripture about Ham's descendants harms the sentence differently, then either Jafet or Shem.  The land of Ham is actually something that's in the scriptures. And I don't know what that Hebrew word is ... "Aretz Ham" ... I never looked at that part of it, Rabbi but it talks about that, which is really interesting because there's not, to my knowledge, and I've kind of looked at for a little while, a similar rendering like the Land of Japhet or Land of Shem. Right? We're obviously the genealogy is there, right? But there's not the same thing that deals with the land and the peoples .... interesting and we've come to know that of the four sides of Hem, which are in order Kush, which you know, is where obviously the Hebrew for later on Ethiopia I believe is a Greek word, but from that region Mitzrayim, which is Egypt. Fut or Put which is Libya, and then Canaan, which is Canaan, right? So those four sons who come from him. But interestingly in the scriptures when it says land of Ham, it almost exclusively refers to Egypt and Ethiopia, what we would call today, Africa, right? This region. And again, you're talking about an antiquity these regions were much broader in size. And they are today if you look at the map today, you see Egypt as a small state and go down to the south, west, south east, and you'll see Ethiopia then you see Yemen, you see Kenya, well, obviously all those states weren't there that happened much later in modernity is particularly after the colonial period where those nations were carved up by a few states in Europe, and they were given certain names everything right, but these were regions in the Bible. And so Kush, the land of Kush, and the land of Mitzrayim, they're actually dealt with many, many times. Right? After the words obviously "Israel" and "Jerusalem". You have the word Ethiopia, I believe one of the Ethiopian scholar says some 54 times or something like that the word Ethiopia actually comes up in the Bible, obviously not as many times as Israel or Jerusalem but more than virtually any other nation other than Egypt. Right? So Egypt obviously that we know too. Africa plays a huge role in Israel's story right? The 430 years in slavery is in Africa, right? The Torah was received at Sinai: Africa. All these things happen in Africa. At some point God tells Jeremiah during the time of the impending doom, the exile that will happen at the hand of of Nebuchadnezzar and God says to to the Israelites to the Judeans, and "don't run down into Egypt, Egypt won't be able to save you." Why does he say that? Well, because historically the Israelites would go to Egypt when it until it got safer, right? For those Christians who may be on the call, you'll know that in the New Testament, Jesus, his parents take him down into Egypt because Herod's gonna kill him. Right? So there's this ongoing relationship between Ham and Shem, that's very intertwined. Moses, his wife, or his second wife, depending on how you interpret it....  Some of the sages. She's Ethiopian, right? She's kushite. So you have this interchangeable thing all the time, throughout the scriptures, but actually starts with the genealogy. And I'll say just one last thing, rabbis ..... we're opening up. This is also unfortunately, as I mentioned, the book as you know, the misnomer of the quote unquote, "Curse of Ham", as we know in the text, Ham is never cursed for what happens with Noah it is Canaan that is cursed. And he actually says, a curse that Canaan become a servant of servants shall he be, even though it was Ham who however you interpreted.... I've heard many different interpretations of "uncovered the nakedness he saw his father, naked," but somehow, for whatever reason, Noah cursed Canaan, not Ham.  Who is Canaan...  is one of him so's, his fourth son, as we know those who are listening, you may know that it is The Curse of Ham, quote, unquote, that has been used sadly, unfortunately, among many other things as a justification of the slavery of Africans. Right? That somehow, Africans are quote, unquote, "Cursed of Ham", therefore, the transatlantic slave trade, the trans Saharan slave trade, those things are somehow...  God prescribed these things in the Bible, the curse was making him black. That's why he's like all those things that are nowhere in the text whatsoever, right? skin color is not in the text. slavery as a descendant of Ham. None of those things are in the text. What's in the text? Is that Canaan is cursed for that? And so we start there, Rabbi, and from there trying to walk out this whole Israel Africa thing. Adam Mintz  08:47 First of all WOW... thank you so much. I just want to clarify in terms of color, I think that's a very interesting thing. It's very possible that in the biblical period, everybody was dark. Dumisani Washington  09:00 Yes, sir. I mentioned that in the book as well. But yes, sir. Yes, yeah. All right. Sorry, Adam Mintz  09:04 I didn't see that in your book. But that's important, you know, because a lot of people are caught up in this color thing. Did you know that there's a distinction, we don't know it for sure but it makes sense that everybody was dark in those periods. So that the difference in color was not significant. So when, when Moses marries goes to Ethiopia, maybe is king of Ethiopia, and marries an Ethiopian. And the idea is that he marries a foreigner. The fact that she's darker may or may not have been true.   Dumisani Washington  09:39 Yes, absolutely. No, thank you Rabbi. And I do touch on that, as well. We say in the terms in this modern term, even in my book, I use the term Christians of color and I don't usually use those terms just in when I'm speaking. I did it that way in the title so that it would be presented in a way that is going to deal with some provocative things but hopefully the people that they read it they'll see what I mean by that and if you're talking about the Israelite people, the Hebrew people they are what I call an afro Asiatic people. Israel is still at that at the point of where those two continents meet right Southwest Asia northeast Africa is landlocked with Egypt I tell people God opened up the Red Sea because he wanted to right ... He's big and bad and he can do what he wants to do but you can literally; I wouldn't recommend it obviously, but you could literally walk from Egypt to Israel and you always have been able to for 1000s of years that has always been the case and so you have a people that in terms of skin tone or whatever... Yes, absolutely, they would be what we would call today quote unquote people of color right and so unfortunately particularly in our country we all know race and colorism is such a huge topic and it's often so divisive and it's used in so many different ways and we know much of that goes back to whether slavery, Jim Crow, people being assigned work obviously based on how dark or light they are all of those things but the problem as you all know is that those things aren't in the Bible right? There's no God likes this person doesn't like this person, this person's dark this person's like, that type of thing. But again, that's what men do, we are fallen creatures, we read what we want to read into the text, and then we use it unfortunately, in a way that's not helpful. Let me just say and pause here, I can tell you that as a Christian pastor, over the years of my just delving into what we often call the Jewish roots of our faith, by studying Torah with rabbis and with other Jewish scholars, my faith has been more important to me than ever in that it helps me understand even more so right, what is the Hebrew in this word here? What do the sages say about that, that's been a fascinating journey for me, over the last 30 some odd years since I've been doing this particular work. Geoffrey Stern  11:58 So I just want to jump in, you said so many things. But there is in this verse that we are reading today, the word "ashkenaz", he was one of the children of of Shem, and you quote, an Ethiopian Rabbi named Ephraim Isaac, and this is a sample of some of the humor in your book or the sense of discovery. And somebody said to him, You don't look Jewish. And he said:, "Ethiopia is mentioned the Bible over 50 times, but Poland not once." And I feel like that was, that was a great line. And what it really talks to is our preconceptions, and your book, and your vision, and your mission breaks preconceptions of what it is to be a Jew, what the mission of a Jew is, but most importantly, what the relationship is between the Jewish people and the African people. And one of the things that you touched upon was the sense of Mitzraim and Kush , and in your book, you really talk about how many times they're interchangeable, because really, it is the same area and those of us who think about Mitzrayim, or Egypt, we focus on the Exodus story, we focus on the pharaoh story. But as you mentioned, the prophets later on, we're having to talk to the Jews about not going back, because ultimately, the experience in Egypt was always favorable, it was our neighbor, and it was our place of refuge. Abraham goes down there with Sarah twice, Jacob sends his kids down there during a time of famine. The relationship and the reference to a Ham and to Mitzrayim  and to Kush is a very positive one. And yes, it does say in our week's parsha of all of the children, it says, "b'artzetam v'goyehem" , that they have a special language, and they have a family and they have a land. So the fact that we are neighbors is so important in the biblical context. So I said if we were going to walk down this wonderful path, and I would love for a second to talk about your mission about reuniting our two peoples and some of the challenges that you have. Clearly you don't speak to groups like us very much, although I think that I'm going to have an opportunity later to say that I think you should, because there's so much that we can learn. But what is your mission? How did you discover it? And what are your challenges? Dumisani Washington  14:40 Well, I'll do it concise, just because I don't want to take up too much time to firstly touch as much as we can. I am the founder and CEO of an organization called The Institute for Black Solidarity with Israel. I started it in 2013 but for about nearly seven years, I was not as active I started it. I did a lot of touring and a lot of speaking throughout the United States, churches, sometimes synagogues as well. And with this mission, it was a mission that was really placed in my heart. Actually in 2012, my first trip to Israel, I went as a guest of Christians United for Israel, I would come later on to join the staff with CUFA. But I was a guest pastor, I knew some friends who were part of the organization. And the short version of that story was my first tip ever, I'm in Israel, I'm at the Western Wall of the kotel. And I have a very intense experience in which I feel although Africa and Israel were passions of mine already, but the fusing of those two things together and a real work in which we continue to strengthen the alliance between Israel and Africa. And then obviously, in the States in the black and Jewish community. And there and finished the first edition of the book now, what you have there Rabbi is the second edition. And we started this organization for that very purpose to do both of those things continue to strengthen the black Jewish relationship, and also the Israel Africa Alliance. And so the challenges have been probably more than any other thing disinformation, right? There's a lot of false information that's there, when it comes to those things that would seek to divide and separate when you're talking about whether Africa Israel, now we're talking about the modern state of Israel, obviously, the rebirth of Israel in 1948. Israel's close ties with African nations throughout the continent, starting especially with Golda Meir, the foreign minister, all the way up into the 70s, where you have, as I mentioned in the book, Israel has more embassies throughout Africa than any other nation other than the United States, African economy, some of them are thriving, a great deal. You have a lot of synergy between the African nations and Israel. And after the Yom Kippur War in 1973, like never before Israel's enemies target that relationship between Israel and its African neighbors for different reasons. One of those is voting in the United Nations, right? And that became very much of a challenge. So one of the greatest challenges is, is information. What we share in the book and when we do our organization, we teach what we call an organization "Authentic History” is really simply telling what happened, how did something [happen]. Whether we're talking about biblically, whether we're discussing the parsha or we're talking about historically, right? We're talking about what the relationship was, and is. Why those connections there? And I'll just give one quick example if you're talking about black Jewish synergy in the United States, not just Dr. King's relationship with Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel in the civil rights community, not that it happened, right? But why, what was that synergy about? Right? So we've delve into that. We share from the documents from the Rabbinical Assembly; Dr. King's most famous words regarding Israel that were recorded 10 days before he was killed, right, why? And as a pastor, what we call a prophetic moment. Why 10 days before he's taken from us, is he telling the black community in the world to stand with Israel with all of our mind and protect its right to exist? Why is he saying these things? What's so important about it. And even the generation before? Why was it a black and Jewish man who changed the trajectory of this nation, Booker T. Washington, and Julius Rosenwald; millions of now first and second generation, slave; free slaves, right? but who had no access to education, not in a broader sense, and why that synergy saw some 5400 Rosenwald schools built throughout the segregated south. We touch on those historical points, and we delve into why that black Jewish synergy has been so powerful for so many people for so long. So that is our mission to strengthen those ties, because we believe that there's a great future ahead. Geoffrey Stern  19:05 You did such amazing research. I mean, I can tell you I never knew that Herzl said about Africa, "that once I have witnessed the redemption of Israel, my people, I wish to assist in the redemption of the Africans." And that is taking a small quote out of a full paragraph where the histories of the two people are so similar. I mean, it comes to us as a pleasant surprise, these synergies but it shouldn't because both our peoples have really traversed and continue to reverse the same pathway. And you quote Marcus Garvey and even Malcolm X and William Dubois. Malcolm X says "Pan Africanism will do for the people of African descent all over the world, the same that Zionism has done for Jews. All over the world." there was a sincere admiration for this miracle of a people returning to its land, we were talking before you came on about this whole kind of image of an ark. And it reminds you of Odesyuss... and it reminds you of all of these stories of man going on this heroic journey to find their their roots to come back, gain, experience and come back to their homeland, to their Aretz.. On the one hand, your job should be very simple. I guess, like any other fights, the closer you are, the bigger the friction can be. And there's nothing bigger than the friction between brothers. But it's such a challenge to address, as you say the misinformation. Dumisani Washington  20:51 Absolutely. And this is, again, why that's our primary goal. And then as part of what our mission is, we have launched here just recently, an initiative called The PEACE initiative. And PEACE is an acronym for Plan for Education, Advocacy, and Community Engagement, and the short version of that, again: We recruit young, black American and African young people from certain cities throughout the United States, a group of them, they go to a 16 week study course having some of the same conversations we're having now, including the modern state of Israel, ancient Israel, the United Nations, all these things that intersect when it comes to the black Jewish relations, then they will travel to Israel for about 10 days, and returned to the cities from where they've been recruited, and be the hub of black Jewish synergy in their communities. We believe with our organization that one of the reasons for the synergy that we've seen in the past, whether it was at the turn of the century with Booker T Washington, and Julius Rosenwald, or the mid part of the century with Dr. King and Rabbi Heschel, right now we are in different challenges, there are challenges that face particularly the more vulnerable black communities. And we see that that synergy could really address so many issues, whether it's education, whether it's jobs, those types of things, they can be really be addressed in a very holistic way. And really harnessing that synergy between the black and the Jewish community. And this is what we are doing. An Israel advocacy that is also rooted in these communities. And it's amazing. We see already rabbis and black pastors are working together all over the country. So that continues to happen. But we want to highlight those things even more and go even further in meeting some of the challenges what we call MC ambassadors will be leading that in different cities across the country. Geoffrey Stern  22:02 That's amazing. I want to come back to this sense of self-discovery and pride. And we always talk about it from our own perspective. So if you're African American, you want to make sure that your children believe that black is beautiful, that they come from an amazing heritage to be proud of who they are. And if you're Jewish, you want the same thing. But it seems to me, and you kind of cage the question in this way, "Why standing with Israel will be a defining issue for Christians of color", when we as Jews can see ourselves in the black community as we did during the civil rights movement that redeems us. And that empowers us. And I think what you're saying, and I don't want to put words into your mouth, but the same thing works in reverse. That in a sense, when the African community can recognize in Israel, its own story. It also can find a part of itself. Is there any truth there? Dumisani Washington  23:50 I believe so Rabbi. I believe that that's exactly as a matter of fact, what we saw was the synergy. So let me use the example and go back to the early 1900s with Booker T. Washington, Julius Rosenwald. The way that story happens, as you may know is that Booker T Washington writes his seminal book "Up From Slavery". Julius Rosenwald, who lives in Chicago at the time, is very active in his community. As a matter of fact, he was active, using his wealth; of those of you who don't know of Sears Roebuck fame, he is the one who took his company to this whole different level, economically and everything. And so with his wealth as a businessman, he's helping the Jews who are being persecuted in Russia. And one of his own testimony, I don't say this part of the book, but I kind of alluded to it, that here he is driving to work from the suburbs to where his factory is where his store is, and he's passing by throngs of black people who've left the South, right? looking for a better life, but they're living in very, very bad conditions, a lot of poverty and everything. And he says to himself, basically, if I'm going to do all of this to help Russian Jews right, way over the other side of the world, and I have this human crisis right here, where I live, I want to be able to do that and his, his Rabbi was Emile Hirsch, one of the founding members of the NAACP. Right? So his Rabbi encourages him. And we see this with our Jewish brothers and sisters all the time, see yourself, do help, do use your wealth, use your ability, right? To help. And so he reads Booker T. Washington's book he's taken with him, they begin to correspond. And Booker T. Washington says, Here's how you can help me I'm trying to build schools for my people who don't have access. And Rabbi to your point. Here is this man, this Jewish man who is very well aware of his history, he knows his People's History of persecution and struggle and triumph, right? Very much sees himself in that black story, and then he uses his ability. It's amazing even what he does; there's a Rosenwald film about Rosenwald schools, I believe his children were the ones who produced it. And they were saying that what he actually did was pretty ingenious, he put up a third of the money, the black community raised a third of the money, and then he challenged the broader white community to partner with them and bring the last third and that is how those Rosenwald Schools began.  Because what he wanted to do, he wanted to see people come together, he wanted to see them all work together. Even though Booker T. Washington passes away only three years into that, right, that venture continues on Julius Rosenwald goes and sits on the board of the Tuskegee college, Tuskegee University, right? There's this long connection that's there. So in that struggle, the black American community, and he connected with this black American leader, the one of the most prominent of the time, Booker T, Washington, and they, like I tell people, changed the world. Like, can we imagine what the United States would have been if you had those millions of now freed slaves, right? with no access, and particularly those who are living in the Jim Crow South, no access whatsoever to education, Would the Harlem Renaissance have become what it become, with the black Wall Street, whether it was in Tulsa, whether in Philadelphia, these things that explode because of the access to education to now these first and second generations of people coming out of slavery, right? So I believe that that's the case and which is why I'll say again, here today, some of those challenges are there, some of the challenges are different than they were, obviously 50, 60, 70, 80 years ago, but we believe in organization that those challenges can be met with that same amazing synergy between the black and the Jewish community. Geoffrey Stern  27:26 A lot of people would argue that the rift or the change of the relationship between the African American community and the Jewish community was when the Jews or Israel stopped being looked at as the David in the Goliath story and we won the Six Day War. And how do you ensure that the facts are told, but also as you climb out of the pit, and as you achieve your goals, you shouldn't be necessarily punished for being successful. Success is not a sin. It's an inspiration. But it seems to me that's one of the challenges that we have, especially in the Jewish community for our next generation of children, who really do see ourselves not as the minority and don't see ourselves anymore mirrored in the African American community. Dumisani Washington  28:25 But one of my favorite things about the Jewish tradition of the Seder, is that you all lean and recline in the Seder today, and you tell your children, when we had the first one, we sat with our sandals on, our staff, in our hand, our belts ....because we were slaves leaving slavery, but now we are no longer. And that whole ethos of telling children, right? There's a strong parallel in the black American community, right? The whole point of going from struggle to a place where you can live in peace or at the very least, you recognize and realize the sacrifice of the people who came before you right? And I won't step into the controversial for lots of different reasons, we'll be able to unpack it, but let me just say this, for the black American experience when you're talking I often teach this in our sermons and other things that arc .... and let me say again, no, people are monolith. Obviously we just kind of put that on the table, all the Jews arent' alike all black Americans aren't alike..... Having said that, there is an overarching story when you talk about black Americans, who, from slavery to Jim Crow, segregation, black codes, all of those types of things to the modern era. And that story cannot accurately be told without talking about God and His people. In other words, when you're talking about the spirituals "Go Down Moses". "Joshua Fit the Battle of Jericho" and I talked about that in the book, these songs that are rooted in the scriptures, most of the time in, in the Tanakh, our Jewish brothers and sisters' side of the Bible. I mean, sometimes in the New Testament, most of the time, these songs are being sung in hope. And that hope was realized, right? It's not an Negro spiritual song technically, but I put it in that category, part of the greatest one ever. I mean, how it culminates would be "Lift Every Voice and Sing" us a song that today has all these political things connected to it for lots of different unfortunate reasons. But when James Weldon Johnson wrote that song, wrote it as a poem? Those stanzas and anybody listening to this, I want to tell Google that Google Lift Every Voice and Sing"; just read the words. And this was a very powerful, very, very much God and God's love, and our hope and our faith and our trust, and our honoring the people who came before us; all of those things. And he talked about being free. Now, it's written in 1899. Right? You still have questions. I mean, there are no laws against lynching there going on, it's still crushing racism. However, he as a father in the black community is not only acknowledging what God has done, there's amazing things that are happening. One of the economist's that I quote, in my book, Thomas Sol said that the black community after slavery, and less than 50 years after slavery went from 0% literacy to almost 50% literacy, in that half a century, something economic historians say has never happened before. And now you're later on, you're talking about the black Wall Street, you're talking about black oil barons and landowners and factory owners, right? You're talking about this black middle class emerging. There's been no civil rights bill, right? There's been no Pell grants for school. These things don't even exist yet. We're talking about the 19 teens and the 1920s. You're talking about black people who had previously been slaves for hundreds of years. Why am I saying all that we as a people know full well; if we know our history, know full well what it is to come from all of those dire situations into a place of blessing, even though there may be struggles just like our Jewish brothers and sisters. We are convinced an organization that as we know, as a black community, particularly younger people that we are talking with, and teaching, as we know and appreciate our history, not the history that's regurgitated in terms of media and, and for political purposes. But truly our history, there is a great deal to be proud of about that. And to see, as I said in the sermon a couple of months ago, not only does it not a victim narrative, I descended from superheroes, my people went through slavery, Jim Crow, and still build on Wall Street still built the Tuskegee Institute. Still, we're soldiers who fighting for their own freedom in the Civil War. I mean, you're talking on and on and on things that they should have never been able to accomplish. When I consider what they accomplished with not very much help often. I recognize the greatness of the heritage that I come from, then that allows me to see an Israel rise like a phoenix from the ashes and not spurn that but recognize that our Jewish brothers and sisters have gone through millennia of this and Israel then to be celebrated, not denigrated. Adam Mintz  33:12 Thank you. We want to thank you. Your passion, and your insight is really brought a kind of a new insight to our discussion here. We really want to thank you, you know, we at Madlik we start on time and we end on time, Shabbat is about to begin in just a little while. Hopefully we'll be able to invite you back in the future as we continue this conversation. But I know I join Geoffrey and everybody on the call and everybody who's gonna listen to the podcast. Thank you for joining us and for really your insight and your passion. You really leave us with so much to think about as we begin the Shabbat. Dumisani Washington  33:51 Thank you. Thank you for having me. Adam Mintz  33:53 Thank you Geoffrey, Shabbat Shalom, everybody, Geoffrey Stern  33:55 Shabbat Shalom. And Reb Dumisani, you mentioned the songs. There's a whole chapter in your book about Negro spirituals. And as the rabbi said, w are approaching the Shabbat. And as you observe the Sunday we observed Saturday, but you know that the secret of living without a land or being on a difficult mission is that Sabbath, the strength of the Sabbath, and the connection between Noah and the word Menucha which is "rest" is obvious. And there was a great poet named Yehuda halevi. And he wrote a poem about the Yona; the dove that Noah sent out of the ark to see if there was dry land. And he he said that on Shabbat. Yom Shabbaton Eyn L'shkoach, "the day of Shabbat you cannot forget"  Zechru l'reach Hanichoach"  He also uses Reach Nichoach which is a pleasing scent,Yonah Matzah Bominoach, the yonah, the dove found on it rest v'shom ynuchu yegiah koach  and there in the Shabbat , in that ark of rest on that ark of Sunday or Saturday is where we all gain strength. So I wish you continued success in all that you do. And that this Shabbat and this Sunday we all gather the strength to continue our mission. But I really do hope that we get another chance to study Torah together. And I really hope that all of the listeners go out and buy your book, Zionism in the Black Church because it is an absolute thrill. And I understand you're coming out with a new book that's going to talk more about the Jewish people and the various colors and flavors that we come in. Dumisani Washington  35:55 Hopefully to put that out next year sometime. Absolutely. Geoffrey Stern  35:59 Fantastic. Well thank you so much so Shabbat Shalom and we are we are in your debt. Dumisani Washington  36:05 Thank you. Shabbat Shalom and looking forward to bye bye   Music: Lift Every Voice and Sing - Melinda Dulittle https://youtu.be/6Dtk9h1gZOI 

Kings and Generals: History for our Future
2.59. History of the Mongols: Franco-Mongol Alliance

Kings and Generals: History for our Future

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 11, 2021 23:37


    The Mongols were famous for their ultimatums of destruction and submission. No shortage of thirteenth century states received demands for their unconditional surrender to the Great Khan granted divine mandate to rule by Eternal Blue Heaven. Initially, the Mongol imperial ideology was extremely black and white: you could submit to Mongol rule, or face total annihilation. There was no room for other relationships, for the Great Khan had no allies, only subjects. But as the thirteenth century went on and the dream of Chinggisid world hegemony slipped away as the divisions of the Mongol Empire went their separate ways, the Mongol Khans in the west began to seek not the capitulation, but the cooperation of western Europe to aid in their wars against Mamluks. For the Ilkhanate's sixty-year struggle against the Mamluk Sultanate, the Il-Khans sought to bring the Popes and Monarchs of Europe to a new crusade to assist in the defeat of the Mamluks, an ultimately fruitless endeavour, and the topic of today's episode. I'm your host David, and this is Kings and Generals: Ages of Conquest.       The first Mongol messages to the Kings of Europe came in the late 1230s and 40s, accompanying Batu and Sube'edei's western invasion, asking the Hungarians how they possibly could hope to flee the grasp of the Mongols. We know the Mongols sent a number of envoys to European monarchs and dukes, and employed a variety of peoples in this enterprise, including at least one Englishman. Over the 1240s and 50s, European envoys like John de Plano Carpini or William of Rubrucks to the Mongol Empire returned from Karakorum with orders for the Kings and Popes to come to Mongolia and submit in person.While Rus' and Armenian lords and kings did do so, there is little indication that European rulers even responded to these demands. For the Mongols, who seemed poised to dominate everything under the Eternal Blue Sky, there was little reason to adopt more conciliatory language. From their point of view, the Europeans were only stalling the inevitable: soon Mongol hoofbeats would certainly be heard in Paris and Rome. The Mongols treated the European states as their diplomatic inferiors, subjects basically in a state of rebellion by fact that they had not already submitted. Cruel, threatening and demanding letters were the norm, and it's safe to say any future efforts at alliance were greatly hampered by this opening salvo. The rare diplomatic exception was an embassy sent to King Louis IX of France during his stay in Cyprus in 1248 just before the 7th Crusade. There, messengers came from the Mongol commander in the west, Eljigidei, an ally to the reigning Great Khan, Guyuk. Headed by two Christians in Eljigidei's service, the embassy bore letters from Eljigidei. These letters called Louis ‘son,' and had no demand of submission, but mentioned Mongol favouritism to Christians, urged the French King not to discriminate between Latin and non-Latin Christians as all were equal under Mongol law, and wished him well in his crusade. The two Christian representatives of Eljigidei asserted that he was a Christian and that Guyuk himself had already been baptised. The urged Louis to attack Egypt, and prevent its Ayyubid prince from sending forces to aid the Caliph in Baghdad, who the Mongols were soon to attack.     Louis, is should be noted, almost certainly had not been anticipating any cooperation from the Mongols; he had  been well aware of their attacks on Hungary only a few years before, learned of Mongol demands and treatment of foreign powers from travellers like Carpini, and apparently received Mongol ultimatums for his submission in 1247. Further, a devout Christian, it is unlikely he would have gone looking for allies among “pagans,” even for fighting against Muslims. Still, he reacted well to Eljigidei's messengers and sent a return embassy with gifts with them back to Eljigidei which were to be sent on to Guyuk, while the initial letter was forwarded back to France and ultimately to King Henry III of England. Ultimately, it was for naught. Guyuk was dead even before Louis received Eljigidei's letter, and  Eljigidei himself was soon put to death in the following political turmoil. Little is known of the embassy Louis sent back with Eljigdei's representatives, but from the little heard of it through William of Rubruck a few years later, it seems to have achieved nothing beyond meeting Guyuk's widow and the regent, Oghul Qaimish, who portrayed Louis' gifts as tokens of the French King's submission.  Following the meeting on Cypress, Louis IX suffered a humiliating defeat in Egypt at Mansura, captured and was ransomed by the newly emerging Mamluks. By the time he returned to France and received Oghul Qaimish's reply, not only was she dead, but the responding letter was essentially another demand for his surrender. This first non-threatening Mongol embassy succeeded only in making the King of France feel like he had been tricked, especially since the new Great Khan, Mongke, sent a letter back with William of  Rubruck that disavowed Eljigidei's embassy. It has been speculated that Eljigidei was using the embassy to spy on Louis, as he was wary of the sudden arrival of Louis' army in Cyprus, and a desire to find out his military intentions, rather than any genuine interest in cooperation at this point.  His hope may have been to ensure that this new army attacked Mongol enemies, rather than get in the way of the Mongols.       The halting of the Mongol advance at Ayn Jalut by the Mamluks, and fracturing of the Empire into independent Khanates after Great Khan Mongke's death left the new Ilkhanate in a precarious position. Surrounded by enemies on all sides, the only direction they could expand not at the expense of fellow Mongols was against the Mamluks, who fortified their shared border with the Ilkhans. Even a small raid could trigger the arrival of the full Mamluk army, a dangerous prospect against such deadly warriors. Yet the Ilkhans could not bring their full might to bear on the shared border with the Mamluks in Syria, as it would leave their other borders open to attacks from the Golden Horde, Chagatais or Neguderis, in addition to the trouble of provisioning an army in the tough, hot and dry conditions of the Levantine coastline, a route the Mamluks secured and fortified. Opening a new front against the Mamluks was necessary, and there were already convenient beachheads established  in the form of the remaining Crusader States.   A shadow of their former selves, the Crusader states were represented by a few major coastal holdings like Antioch, Tripoli, and Acre, and inland fortifications like Krak de Chevaliers and Montfort, as well as the Kingdom of Cyprus, whose ruler, Hugh III of Cyprus, took the title King of Jerusalem in 1268. The Crusader States had shown neutrality to the Mongols, or even joined them such as the County of Tripoli did in 1260 after the Mongols entered Syria. In early 1260, the papal legate at Acre sent an embassy to Hulegu, most likely to discourage him from attacking the Crusader holdings. Along with information from the Kings of Armenian Cilicia, their most important regional vassals, the Mongols would have had a vague knowledge of western Europe and their crusading history. The Ilkhanate's founder, Hulegu, sent the first letter to the west in 1262, intended once more for King Louis IX, though this embassy was turned back in Sicily. This letter was friendlier terms than most Mongol missives, but still contained threats, if rather subdued. Pope Urban IV may have learned of the attempt, and the next year sent a letter to Hulegu, apparently having been told that the Il-Khan had become a Christian.  Delighted at the idea, the Pope informed Hulegu that if he was baptised, he would receive aid from the west. In reality, Hulegu never converted to Christianity, and died in 1265 without sending any more letters.       His son and successor, Abaqa, was the Il-Khan most dedicated to establishing a Franco-Mongol alliance and came the closest to doing so. Due to conflict on his distant  borders with the Golden Horde and Chagatayids, as well as the troubles of consolidating power as new monarch in a new realm, for the 1260s he was unable to commit forces to the Mamluk frontier. As a good Mongol, Abaqa was unwilling to allow the enemy total respite, and made it his mission to encourage an attack from the west on the Mamluks. His first embassy was sent in 1266, shortly after becoming Il-Khan, contacting the Byzantines, Pope Clement IV and King James I of Aragon, hoping for a united Christian front to combine efforts with the Mongols against the Mamluks, inquiring which route into Palestine the Christian forces would take. The responses were generally positive, Pope Clement replying that as soon as he knew which route, he would inform Abaqa.       Abaqa sent a message again in 1268, inquiring about this progress. James of Aragon found himself the most motivated by the Il-Khans requests, encouraged by the promises of Abaqa's logistical and military support once they reached the mainland. James made his preparations, and launched a fleet in September 1269. An unexpected storm scattered the fleet, and only two of James' bastard children made it to Acre, who stayed only briefly, accomplishing little there.        Not long after, King Louis IX set out for Crusade once more, making the inexplicable choice to land in Tunis in 1270. Despite his well planned efforts, the Crusade was an utter disaster, and Louis died of dysentery outside the walls of Tunis in August 1270. Prince Edward of England with his army landed in Tunis shortly before the evacuation of the crusaders, and disgusted by what he saw, set his fleet for the Holy Land, landing at Acre in May 1271, joined by Hugh of Lusignan, King of Cyprus.  Edward's timing was good, as Abaqa had returned from a great victory over the Chagatai Khan Baraq at Herat in July 1270, though had suffered a major hunting accident that November.       The Mamluk Sultan Baybars was campaigning in Syria in spring 1271, the famous Krak des Chevaliers falling to him that April. Tripoli would have fallen next, had Baybars not retreated back to Damascus hearing of the sudden arrival of a Crusader fleet, and was wary of being caught between European heavy cavalry and Mongol horse archers. Soon after landing Edward made his preparations for an offensive, and reached out to Abaqa. Abaqa was delighted, and sent a reply and orders for Samaghar, the Mongol commander in Anatolia, to head to Syria. Edward did not wait for Abaqa's reply, and there is no indication he ever responded to Abaqa's letter. He set out in mid-July, ensuring his army suffered the most from the summer heat, while missing the Mongols who preferred to campaign in the winter. Suffering high casualties and accomplishing little, he withdrew back to Acre. In mid-October Samaghar arrived with his army, raiding as far as to the west of Aleppo while an elite force of Mongols scouted ahead, routing a large group of Turkmen between Antioch and Harim, but was soon forced to retreat with the advance of the Mamluk army under Baybars.       Missing Samagahr by only a few weeks, in November Edward marched south from Acre at the head of a column of men from England, Acre, Cyprus, with Templars, Hospitallers and Teutonic Knights. They ambushed some Turkmen on the Sharon plain, forced the local Mamluk governor to withdraw, but with the arrival of large Mamluk reinforcements the Crusaders fled, losing their prisoners and booty.  That was the closest the Mongols and the Franks came to proper coordination. Edward helped oversee a peace treaty between the Mamluks and the Kingdom of Jersualem, but the heat, difficulties campaigning, political infighting and an assassination attempt on his life permanently turned him off of crusading. By September 1272, Edward set sail for England. A  few weeks after his departure the Mongols again invaded, besieging al-Bira but were defeated by the Mamluks in December.        Edward's brief effort in Syria demonstrated the difficulties prefacing any Mongol-Frankish cooperation. The Mamluks were a cohesive, unified force, well accustomed to the environment and working from a well supplied logistic system and intelligence network, while the Franks and Mongols were unable to ever develop a proper timetable for operations together. The European arrivals generally had unrealistic goals for their campaigns, bringing neither the men, resources or experience to make an impact.       Abaqa continued  to organize further efforts, and found many willing ears at the Second Council of Lyons in France in 1274, a meeting of the great powers of Christendom intended to settle doctrinal issues, the division of the Catholic and Orthodox Churches, and plan the reconquest of the Holy land. Abaqa's delegation informed the Council that the Il-Khan had secured his borders, that peace had been achieved between all the Mongols Khanates, and he could now bring his full might against the Mamluks, and urged the Christian powers to do likewise. The current Pope, Gregory X, fully supported this and made efforts to set things in motion, but his death in 1276 killed whatever momentum this process had had. Abaqa sent another round of envoys, who reached the King of France and the new King of England, Edward. The envoys brought the Il-khan's apologies for failing to cooperate properly during Edward's crusade, and asked him to return. Edward politely declined. This was the final set of envoys Abaqa sent west. Perhaps frustrated, he finally organized a proper invasion of Syria, only an army under his brother Mongke-Temur to be defeated by the Mamluks at Homs, and Abaqa himself dying soon after in 1282. His successors were to find no more luck that he had.        The most interesting envoy to bring the tidings of the Il-Khan to Europe did not originate in the Ilkhanate, but in China: Rabban Bar Sawma, born in 1220 in what is now modern day Beijing, was a Turkic Nestorian priest who had set out on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem before being conscripted to act as a messenger for the Il-Khan, in a journey which is a fascinating contrast to that of his contemporary Marco Polo. Even given him his own dedicated episode in this podcast series, but we'll give here a brief recount of his journey. Writing his accounts down upon his return to Baghdad later in life, he described how he brought messages and gifts to the Byzantine Emperor Andronicos II Palaiologus, marvelled at the Hagia Sophia, then landed in Sicily and made his way to Rome, having just missed the death of Pope Honorius IV. Travelling on to France, he was warmly welcomed by King Phillip IV, and then on to Gascony where he met the campaigning King Edward of England, who again responded kindly to the Il-khan's envoy.  On his return journey, he met the new Pope Nicholas IV in 1288 before returning to the Ilkhanate.    Despite the generous receptions Rabban Sauma was given by the heads of Europe, and despite the Il-khan's promises to return Jerusalem to Christian hands, the reality was there was no ruler in the west interested, or capable of, going on Crusade. By now, the act of Crusading in the Holy land had lost its lustre, the final crusades almost all disasters, and costly ones at that. With the final Crusader strongholds falling to the Mamluks in the early 1290s, there was no longer even a proper beachhead on the coast for a Crusading army. The sheer distance and cost of going on Crusade, especially with numerous ongoing issues in their own Kingdoms at hand, outweighed whatever perceived benefit there might have been in doing so. Further, while Rabban Sauma personally could be well received, the Mongols themselves remained uncertain allies. From 1285 through to 1288, Golden Horde attacks on eastern Europe had recommenced in force. Even the new Khan of the Golden Horde, Tele-Buqa, had led an army into Poland. For the Europeans, the distinctions between the Mongol Khanates were hard to register; how could messages of peace from some Mongols be matched with the open war other Mongols were undertaking? All evidence seems to suggest that the western Franks did not understand that the Golden Horde and Ilkhanate were separate political entities. Recall earlier the conflicting letters Louis IX had received in the 1240s, where one Mongol general offered friendship, only to be tricked in seemingly submitting to the Mongols and then receive letters in the 1250s telling him to discount the previous envoys. Together these encouraged unease over perceiving the Mongols as allies, and served to further dampen interest to pursue these alliances.       In contrast, the Mamluks had somewhat greater success in their own overseas diplomacy: in the 1260s Baybars initiated contact with the Golden Horde, ruled by the Muslim Berke Khan, encouraging him to keep up his warfare with his Ilkhanid cousins. Sultan Baybars also kept good relations with the Byzantine Empire and the Genoese, allowing him to keep the flow of Turkic slave soldiers from the steppes of the Golden Horde open, the keystone of the Mamluk military. There is also evidence they undertook some limited diplomacy with Qaidu Khan during the height of his rule over Central Asia and the Chagatayids. While the Mamluks and Golden Horde never undertook any true military cooperation, the continuation of their talks kept the Ilkhanate wary of enemies on all borders, never truly able to bring the entirety of its considerable might against one foe least another strike the Il-Khan's exposed frontiers. But, did the Golden Horde, in the 1260s, perceive this as an alliance? We only have Mamluk accounts of the relationship, but scholarship often supposes that the Golden Horde Khans perceived this as the submission of the Mamluks, and any cooperation was the cooperation between overlord and subject. As many of the Mamluk ruling class were Qipchaqs, so the Mongols had come to see as their natural slaves, it may well be that Berke saw the submission of the Mamluks as a natural part of their relationship, especially since he already ruled the Qipchaq homeland. This alliance, alongside never resulting in direct cooperation, was also never always amicable. When the Jochid Khans grew annoyed with the Mamluks, they would halt the trade of Qipchaq slaves and threaten to deprive the Mamluks of their greatest source of warriors. During the long reign of Mamluk Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad, a daughter of the Golden Horde Khan Ozbeg was wed to him, in an effort to cement the relationship after a rocky start to the 1300s. Al-Nasir soon accused her of not actually being a Chinggisid, insulting her and infuriating Ozbeg. Yet the relationship survived until the invasions of Emir Temur at the close of the fourteenth century, when the Mamluks and Golden Horde once again took part in a doomed west-Asian effort to ally against Temur.       Ilkhanid-European contacts continued into the 14th century, but with somewhat less regularity after Rabban bar Sawma's journey. An archbishopric was even founded in the new Ilkhanid capital of Sultaniyya in 1318, and Papal envoys would travel through the Ilkhanate to the Yuan Dynasty in China until the 1330s. A few envoys came from the Il-Khans still hoping to achieve military cooperation; Ghazan Il-Khan continued to send them before his invasions, including the only one that actually defeated the Mamluk army and led to a brief Mongol advance down the coast, occupying Damascus. News of Ghazan's successes did spread rapidly, for the Spanish Franciscan Ramon Llull learned of it and promptly sailed all the way across the Mediterranean, hoping to be among the first missionaries to land in the newly reclaimed Holy Land. But upon arriving in Cypress, Llull learned of Ghazan's equally quick withdrawal. The combined news of a Mongol victory followed by sudden Mongol withdrawal must have only affirmed the opinion of many of the futility of taking part in any more crusades with the Mongols.  Military operations against the Mamluks mostly ceased after Ghazan's death, until a formal peace was achieved between them and the Ilkhanate at the start of the 1320s. Naturally, no further messages for alliances with the powers of Europe were forth coming, and consequently putting an almost total end to European interest and contacts with the Middle East for the next five centuries. European-Mongol relations would continue for some time longer in the territory of the Golden Horde, where the attention of our podcast moves next, so be sure to subscribe to the Kings and Generals podcast for more. If you enjoyed this and would like to help us continue bringing you great content, then consider supporting us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals. This episode was researched and written by our series historian, Jack Wilson. I'm your host David, and we'll catch you on the next one.   

New Books Network
Smith Yewell: Founder and CEO of Welocalize, One of the World's Largest Translation Businesses

New Books Network

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 11, 2021 63:56


In this episode Smith Yewell share's his route into translation and we hear how Smith's personal life intertwined with his need to communicate in other languages. We learn how his ROTC Military Scholarship was an entrepreneurial decision, and how the experience of combat helped harden him for coping with the pressures of the entrepreneurial journey. The impact of his military service on his awareness of leadership, leading him to conclude that everyone is a leader, which he defines as the ability to inspire others to achieve what they previously thought was impossible. He shares stories of a highly entrepreneurial childhood, cleaning out the yard, mowing lawns, selling goods at the side of the road, and the strong competitive ethic that stays with him even through the 2020/21 pandemic. He takes us through the “Welocalize” story, how is first client just wanted one word translated, and how his early insight into the potential of the internet, led him to set up an online marketplace which he was able to sell just before the first bubble burst, giving him to capital to make the first of many acquisitions. Thanks to translation memory technology he was able to be faster and lower cost than competitors, winning big contracts. The four pillars of the company are and were innovation, global teamwork, quality and customer service. Final advice was to always aim to work yourself out of a job, and at some stage, just “do it”, or as Smith puts it, at some stage you have to “Jump in the pool”. About Smith Yewell Smith Yewell is CEO of Welocalize, which he co-founded with Julia Yewell in 1997. Prior to establishing the company, Smith served as a Field Artillery Officer in the US Army and received a Bronze Star for service in Operation Desert Storm. Smith serves on the board of The Aslan Foundation and Color Me A Cure Foundation. He's also the lead guitarist in a band called Fuzzy Match, a nod to the industry The NBN Entrepreneurship and Leadership podcast aims to educate and entertain, sharing insights based on the personal story of our carefully selected guests aiming for the atmosphere of an informal conversation in a bar or over a cup of coffee. About Kimon Fountoukidis Twitter Linkedin Kimon is the founder of both Argos Multilingual and PMR. Both companies were founded in the mid 90s with zero capital and both have gone on to become market leaders in their respective sectors. Kimon was born in New York and moved to Krakow, Poland in 1993. Listen to his story here, About Richard Lucas Twitter Linkedin Richard is a business and social entrepreneur who founded or invested in more than 30 businesses, including investments in Argos Multilingual, PMR and, in 2020, the New Books Network. Richard has been a TEDx event organiser, supports the pro-entrepreneurship ecosystem, and leads entrepreneurship workshops at all levels: from pre- to business schools. Richard was born in Oxford and moved to Poland in 1991. Read more here. Listen to his story in an autobiographical TEDx talk here. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/new-books-network

Side Hustle City
S2 - Ep 41 - Robert Towle, author of “Don't Be Dumb” joins us to discuss limiting beliefs and how to stop self-sabotage

Side Hustle City

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 10, 2021 49:34


Meet Robert Towle. As an entrepreneur & author of an upcoming book “Don't Be Dumb”, he debunks little-known limiting beliefs today's entrepreneurs face on their journey to success.Robert Towle is the CEO and Founder of 636 Advisors and the author of a new book Don't Be Dumb.Robert grew up living around the world. Although the majority of his career has been in Finance and Consulting, he has been consulting since 2013. His work has taken him to Singapore, India, Colombia, Brazil, Hong Kong, Macau, Sri Lanka, Italy, France, the UK, and Poland, as well as to 48 of the 50 United States.He has over 20 years of experience and has managed multiple shared services transformation projects and has held multiple roles managing shared services operations in the U.S., U.K. and in multiple locations in India. Prior to consulting, he was most recently the Vice President of Finance for Pinkerton Consulting.After his surgery to remove a brain tumor in 2018, he discovered his passion of helping young entrepreneurs through sharing his work experiences. Recently, he has turned these adventures and observations into Don't Be Dumb, a unique “playbook” for entrepreneurs striving to build something meaningful.A Leadership Playbook To Help You Be Smarter, Overcome Obstacles, And Rise Rapidly In Challenging Times.The collection of unique life stories is aimed to be used as a playbook for both the entrepreneur and other professionals. The stories and lessons serve both as a warning and lesson to be applied in driving business to the next level.Through Robert's distinctive leadership and experience, Don't Be Dumb offers practical insights to identify and overcome challenging obstacles, recover and rise quickly from mistakes, and live with integrity and trust in your own decisions, no matter what the consequences.Release date: October 2021Support the show (https://paypal.me/sidehustlecity)

Jewish History Matters
73: Polish Jewish Refugees in the Wartime Soviet Union with Eliyana Adler

Jewish History Matters

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 10, 2021


Eliana Adler joins us to talk about Polish Jews who fled to the Soviet Union in 1939, and who subsequently survived the Second World War and the Holocaust in Siberia and Central Asia. Listen in as we discuss her book Survival on the Margins: Polish Jewish Refugees in the Wartime Soviet Union, and the big picture issues it raises about how we understand the Holocaust, what it means to be a survivor, and the paradoxes of history: those Jews who were deported by the Soviet Union found themselves far away from the Nazi genocide. Survival on the Margins is a phenomenal book, which tells us about those Polish Jews who fled to the east when war broke out in September 1939; after the Molotov-RIppentrop treaty re-partitioned Poland between the Soviet Union and Germany, in the chaos of war about 200,000 Jews escaped from the Nazis into the Soviet Union—where they were subsequently deported further east, in many cases to Siberia and other locations in central Asia. After the war, they were allowed to return to Poland, where they discovered the full extent of the Holocaust's destruction. In the war's aftermath, they actually made up a large portion of the total group of Holocaust survivors—but in the years since, for various reasons their story has been subsumed into the main Holocaust narratives. Eliyana Adler is an Associate professor of History and Jewish Studies at Pennsylvania State University. She is an historian of the modern Jewish experience in Eastern Europe, and her most recent book, Survival on the Margins: Polish Jewish Refugees in the Wartime Soviet Union, is the basis for our conversation today.

SBS Polish - SBS po polsku
Week in Poland - Tydzień w Polsce

SBS Polish - SBS po polsku

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 10, 2021 8:19


Summary of the most important events of last week in Poland. Report by Przemek Przybylski. - Podsumowanie ważniejszych wydarzeń ubiegłego tygodnia w Polsce, w korespondencji Przemka Przybylskiego.

The CyberWire
Taking a closer look at UNC1151. [Research Saturday]

The CyberWire

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 9, 2021 18:11


Matt Stafford, Senior Threat Intelligence Researcher, from Prevailion joins Dave to talk about their work on "Diving Deep into UNC1151's Infrastructure: Ghostwriter and beyond." Prevailion's Adversarial Counterintelligence Team (PACT) used advanced infrastructure hunting techniques and Prevailion's visibility into threat actor infrastructure creation to uncover previously unknown domains associated with UNC1151 and the “Ghostwriter” influence campaign. UNC1151 is likely a state-backed threat actor waging an ongoing and far-reaching influence campaign that has targeted numerous countries across Europe. Their operations typically display messaging in general alignment with the security interests of the Russian Federation; their hallmarks include anti-NATO messaging, intimate knowledge of regional culture and politics, and strategic influence operations (such as hack-and-leak operations used in conjunction with fabricated messaging and/or forged documents). PACT assesses with varying degrees of confidence that there are 81 additional, unreported domains clustered with the activity that FireEye and ThreatConnect detailed in their respective reports. PACT also assesses with High Confidence that UNC1151 has targeted additional European entities outside of the Baltics, Poland, Ukraine and Germany, for which no previous public reporting exists. The research can be found here: Diving Deep into UNC1151's Infrastructure: Ghostwriter and beyond

Fireside Chat with Dennis Prager
Fireside Chat Ep. 207 — Who Would Hide a Jew?

Fireside Chat with Dennis Prager

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 8, 2021 28:12


This question runs through Dennis's mind regularly: What kind of person would risk their lives to hide someone they don't know? Dennis once asked a Jewish couple who had been hidden in Poland during the Holocaust—if they had hoped to be rescued/hidden, whose door would they knock on: a lawyer, a doctor, an artist, or a priest? The answer reveals something incredibly important about the future of this country. Donate today to help keep PragerU videos and podcast free! PragerU.com/donate