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Christ, the true and better MosesCalled to lead a people homeStanding bold to earthly powersGod's great glory to be knownWith his arms stretched wide to heavenSee the waters part in twoSee the veil is torn foreverCleansed with blood we pass now through-Gettys, Boswell, and PapaDoes the gospel of John show that Jesus did the same miracles Moses did? Would that mean that John is comparing the two? Maybe we're all just making it up. Back by popular demand, Brian Janssen joins your hosts for another interview. This time Pastor Brian speaks on the topic of Jesus and Moses. Listen in and make the call. Are we making this up or does John record Christ as the true and better Moses?Check out Dr. Janssen's lecture series on June 20th, 27th, and July 11th only at http://hosperspca.org/27.htmlCheck out our Bi-weekly Topical Episodes, Monthly Interviews, and Quarterly Debates!Support the show
Dr. John Sweetenham and Dr. Neeraj Agarwal discuss advances across the spectrum of malignancies, including key studies in precision oncology and disparities in cancer care in advance of the 2023 ASCO Annual Meeting. TRANSCRIPT Dr. John Sweetenham: Hello, I'm Dr. John Sweetenham, now the associate director for cancer network clinical affairs at UT Southwestern's Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, and host of the ASCO Daily News Podcast. I'm delighted to welcome Dr. Neeraj Agarwal, director of the Genitourinary Oncology Program and a professor of medicine at the University of Utah Huntsman Cancer Institute, who is editor-in-chief of the ASCO Daily News. Today we'll be discussing some key advances across the spectrum of malignancies, as well as novel approaches in precision medicine and cancer disparities that will be featured at the 2023 ASCO Annual Meeting. Our full disclosures are available in the transcript of this episode, and disclosures of all guests on the podcast can be found on our transcripts at asco.org/DNpod. Neeraj, it's great to have you back on the podcast today. Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Thank you so much, John, for having me. Dr. John Sweetenham: Neeraj, let's begin by discussing some practice-changing phase 3 trials, starting with Abstract 5500, the KEYNOTE-826 study. This study reports the final overall survival results from a randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study of pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy versus placebo plus chemotherapy for first-line treatment of persistent, recurrent, or metastatic cervical cancer, which will be presented by Dr. Bradley Monk. Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: I'd be happy to. The initial analysis of the KEYNOTE-826 study revealed that first-line pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy provided significant improvements in the overall survival and progression-free survival compared to placebo plus chemotherapy in patients with metastatic, persistent, or recurrent cervical cancer who had not previously received systemic chemotherapy and were not candidates for curative treatments such as surgery or radiation. In this study, patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive pembrolizumab or placebo at 200 milligrams every three weeks for up to 35 cycles, along with chemotherapy with paclitaxel, plus a platinum therapy with or without bevacizumab. From November 2018 to January 2020, 617 patients were enrolled with 308 receiving pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy and 309 patients receiving placebo plus chemotherapy. At the data cutoff of October 3, 2022, the median follow-up was 39 months. At this protocol-specified final overall survival analysis, pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy treatment continues to show a significant improvement in overall survival and progression-free survival, regardless of whether patients receive bevacizumab or not. The incidence of grade 3 or more adverse events was higher in the pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy arm than the placebo plus chemotherapy arm, with the most common adverse event being anemia, neutropenia, and hypertension. Dr. John Sweetenham: These are exciting data, Neeraj. So the main message from this trial is that pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy, with or without bevacizumab, can now be considered as standard of care for first-line treatment of persistent, recurrent, or metastatic cervical cancer. Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Yes, I agree, John. Now, moving on to a different common type of cancer, let's discuss Abstract 1001, titled “Second-Line Endocrine Therapy with or without Palbociclib Maintenance in Patients with Hormone Receptor-Positive/HER2-Negative Advanced Breast Cancer: Results from the PALMIRA Trial,” which will be discussed by Dr. Antonio Llombart-Cussac. So, John, based on this abstract, can you please tell us about the role of palbociclib after prior progression on this drug? Dr. John Sweetenham: Yes. In this study, the authors aimed to determine if palbociclib maintenance with an alternative endocrine therapy improves the anti-tumor activity of second-line treatment in patients with endocrine-sensitive hormone receptor-positive and HER2-negative advanced breast cancer who had disease progression to first-line treatment with palbociclib in combination with endocrine therapy. After including 198 patients in the trial with a 2:1 randomization, 136 patients received palbociclib with endocrine therapy and 62 patients received endocrine therapy alone. And at a median follow-up of 8.7 months, the primary endpoint of progression-free survival was not met with a median progression-free survival of 4.2 months in the palbociclib-containing combination versus 3.6 months in the control arm. Also, higher grade 3 to 4 adverse events were reported in patients treated in the palbociclib arm. Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Thanks, John. So you are saying that continuing the CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib after prior disease progression on palbociclib, even when the primary endocrine therapy has been changed, doesn't seem to be beneficial, therefore, this practice may be discouraged in the clinical setting? Dr. John Sweetenham: Yes, that's correct. Neeraj, I think that's the conclusion from this study. Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: So, John, now let's switch gears and highlight some precision oncology studies. Dr. John Sweetenham: Well, Abstract 3602, titled “Real World Rates of FDA-Approved Targeted Therapy and Immunotherapy Prescriptions for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients in the VA's National Precision Oncology Program” will be presented by Dr. Alice Nono Djosta. Can you tell us more about this abstract, Neeraj? Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Well, comprehensive genomic profiling has the potential to guide the administration of FDA-approved biomarker-directed therapies and improve outcomes among patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. So, in this study, Abstract 3602, investigators sought to determine the rates of actionable biomarkers and prescription of associated FDA-approved therapies among veterans in the National Precision Oncology Program. Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who had undergone comprehensive genomic profiling via tissue or liquid biopsy were included between 2019 and 2022 and had 1 of the following 5 actionable biomarker profiles including: NRAS, KRAS, BRAF wild-type, BRAF V600E mutation, MSI-high, TMB-high, NTRK fusion or rearrangements. Prescription data for seven FDA-approved biomarker-directed therapies were extracted and rates of comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP)-directed therapy prescriptions were assessed by the investigators. A total of 908 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer underwent comprehensive genomic profiling, with 80% patients having colon adenocarcinoma and 20% with rectal adenocarcinoma. The combined rates of any actionable variants were 47% in patients with colon adenocarcinoma and 45% in patients with rectal adenocarcinoma. After including 424 eligible patients for FDA-approved biomarker therapy, only 70% patients with MSI-high, 48% patients with TMB-high, 38% patients with NRAS, KRAS, and BRAF wild-type, and only 17% of patients with BRAF V600E mutation received FDA-approved CGP-directed therapies. Dr. John Sweetenham: Very important data, Neeraj. What's the main conclusion of this study? Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: So, in conclusion, this study found that almost 30% of patients with MSI-high metastatic colorectal cancer did not receive effective immune checkpoint inhibitors. And overall, a significant number of eligible patients did not receive FDA-approved biomarker-directed therapies. So, it is crucial that we evaluate the barriers to prescribing comprehensive genomic profiling-directed therapies in our patients with metastatic colorectal cancers. So, John, let's move on to lung cancer, where the use of single-gene testing is still common in the community practice. Can you please tell us about Abstract 6506, titled “The Impact of Single-Gene Testing on Subsequent Comprehensive Genomic Profiling Success in Community Oncology Practice for Advanced Non–small Cell Lung Cancer”? These are results from a prospective observational reference laboratory testing program and these results will be presented by Dr. Mary Nesline. Dr. John Sweetenham: Yes, definitely. In this study, researchers aim to investigate the impact of prior single-gene testing on comprehensive genomic profiling success and therapeutic opportunities for patients with non–small cell lung cancer in community settings. They included patients who underwent at least 1 single gene testing for guideline recommending genomic variants in non–small cell lung cancer such as BRAF, EGFR, KRAS, MET exon 14 skipping mutations, ALK, RET, and ROS1 rearrangements as well as PD-L1 immunohistochemistry. And they offered comprehensive genomic profiling either before or after receipt of a negative single gene test. Of 580 patients with non–small cell lung cancer with the comprehensive genomic profiling ordered between 2021 and 2022, around 30% of the patients had at least 1 single-gene testing ordered prior to the comprehensive testing, with a median of 5 prior single-gene tests. Compared to CGP-only cases. CGP per cases with prior negative single gene testing was canceled twice as often at tissue review, had a higher DNA extraction failure, and a lower DNA sequencing success. CGP also identified guideline-recommended variants in genes with no single-gene testing offered during the study period, such as ERBB2 mutations, or NTRK2/3 fusions, as well as variants targeted in ongoing clinical trials in 28% of patients. Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Very interesting. So John, what is your key takeaway message from this? Dr. John Sweetenham: The main message is that in a community oncology setting, the practice of ordering single gene testing prior to comprehensive genomic profiling for patients with non–small cell lung cancer is common. Prior negative single-gene testing led to a higher rate of CGP test cancellation due to tissue insufficiency and increased CGP DNA extraction failures. The practice of single-gene testing does not align with practice guideline recommendations and may negatively impact the potential benefits of CGP testing for patients with non–small cell lung cancer. Now, let's move on to another important abstract that our fellow clinicians should hear about. This is Abstract 1534 titled “Real-World Experience of an In-House Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Genotype Test to Guide Fluoropyrimidine Dosing at a Multi-Site Cancer Hospital” that will be presented by Dr. Jai Patel. Can you tell us more about this abstract, Neeraj? Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Sure. Fluoropyrimidines, such as 5-fluorouracil and capecitabine, are commonly used to treat solid tumor cancers such as gastrointestinal and breast cancers. We know that severe toxicity occurs in one-third of patients, which delays the timely completion of treatments and result in prolonged hospitalization of these patients. These toxicities may be due in part to genetic variation in the DPYD gene. Five variants are known to have moderate to strong evidence according to the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium. So, in this observational study, the authors describe the implementation of an in-house DPYD test and its impact on the dosing of these fluoropyrimidines, which include capecitabine and 5-fluorouracil. From March 2020 to December 2022, 491 patients received DPYD genotyping testing, and 90% of them had gastrointestinal cancers. The median lab turnaround time was only 3 days. Pre-treatment testing was ordered in 80% of patients, and 93% of patients had results before starting cycle 1. Overall, 6% of patients were heterozygous carriers. Fluoropyrimidine dose was reduced, avoided, or discontinued in 90% of these patients. Moreover, in pre-treatment carriers, 90% of patients received an upfront dose reduction, avoidance, or they even declined chemotherapy. Dr. John Sweetenham: Thanks, Neeraj. So what do you think is the key takeaway message here? Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: So, DPYD genotype-guided dosing of fluoropyrimidine, including 5-fluorouracil and capecitabine, is logistically feasible with a rapid turnaround time and can result in treatment dose modifications for most carriers, potentially avoiding or mitigating severe toxicities, especially in those patients who received pre-treatment testing. Dr. John Sweetenham: Thanks again. Now let's transition to studies that focus on disparities in cancer care. Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Definitely. Let's discuss Abstract 6530, titled “Impact of Free Hospital-Provided Rideshare Service on Radiation Therapy Completion Rates: A Matched Cohort Analysis.” In this study, Dr. Eric Chen and colleagues assess the potential of rideshare services in facilitating timely radiation therapy for patients facing barriers, such as limited transportation, financial constraints, and lack of adequate social support. So the authors analyzed data from about 2,900 patients who underwent radiation therapy and found that 58 of them utilized a free hospital-provided rideshare service. These free hospital-provided rideshare service utilizers had a lower median age and were more likely to identify as Black or African American compared to those who did not utilize these services. They also had higher socioeconomic disadvantages and traveled shorter distances for treatment. Interestingly, more rideshare utilizers underwent radiation therapy with curative intent, had longer treatment course duration, and a higher number of fractions prescribed. In the matched-cohort analysis, the study found that radiation therapy completion rates were significantly higher for rideshare utilizers compared to non-rideshare utilizers, especially for patients who were undergoing radiation therapy with curative intent. Dr. John Sweetenham: So what's the key take-home message from this abstract? Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: This study highlights the potential benefit of utilizing hospital-provided free ride-share services, particularly for patients facing barriers to timely treatment. So, using these services were associated with higher radiation therapy completion rates, especially in the curative setting. So, John, there is another study, Abstract 1606, titled “Trends and Disparities in Oncology Telehealth after the Initial Pandemic Era” that will be presented by Dr. Michael Lee and colleagues. They evaluated whether telehealth utilization continued after the pandemic and if demographic differences in its users persist. So John, please tell us more about this abstract. Dr. John Sweetenham: Yes, the authors conducted a retrospective cohort study in 22 Kaiser Permanente Northern California hematology and oncology clinics between October 1, 2020, and June 1, 2022. The study investigated the use of office, video, and telephone visits, analyzing more than 340,000 hematology oncology visits with MD or DO providers. Of these visits, 25% were in-office, 37% were video visits, and 39% were telephone visits. Monthly telehealth visits peaked in January 2021, representing around 86% of total visits, and decreased to 69% of the total visits by June 2022. Video visits were more common for new appointments, whereas telephone visits were more common for return appointments. Moving to the post-pandemic period, telehealth visits remained popular, with video visits being the most commonly utilized. However, telehealth use varied among demographic populations. Video visits were a significantly higher proportion of all visits among individuals less than 45 years old, primary English speakers, patients with commercial insurance, non-Hispanic Whites and Asians, compared with Hispanic, Whites, and Blacks, and patients living in the deprived neighborhoods. Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Interesting data, John. So what is the key takeaway message from this abstract? Dr. John Sweetenham: Well, overall, it's encouraging to see that even after the pandemic, telehealth continued to be widely used. However, the concerning issue is that telehealth is less utilized in patients who may need it most. The next step, in my view, will be to work on barriers to access telehealth by underprivileged populations. And that brings our discussion to a close today. Before we wrap up the podcast, Neeraj, do you have any final thoughts to share? Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Yes, thanks, John. I would urge our listeners to come and join us at the ASCO Annual Meeting, not only to celebrate these successes but also to help disseminate these cutting-edge data to practitioners and patients across the world. Dr. John Sweetenham: Absolutely. I'd like to thank our listeners for joining us today, and thank you, Neeraj, for sharing your insights with us as well. You will find links to the abstracts discussed today on the transcripts of this episode. Finally, if you value the insights that you hear on ASCO Daily News Podcast, please take a moment to rate, review, and subscribe wherever you get your podcasts. Disclaimer: The purpose of this podcast is to educate and to inform. This is not a substitute for professional medical care and is not intended for use in the diagnosis or treatment of individual conditions. Guests on this podcast express their own opinions, experience, and conclusions. Guest statements on the podcast do not express the opinions of ASCO. The mention of any product, service, organization, activity, or therapy should not be construed as an ASCO endorsement. Find out more about today's speakers: Dr. John Sweetenham Dr. Neeraj Agarwal @neerajaiims Follow ASCO on social media: @ASCO on Twitter ASCO on Facebook ASCO on LinkedIn Disclosures: Dr. John Sweetenham: Consulting or Advisory Role: EMA Wellness Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Consulting or Advisory Role: Pfizer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, AstraZeneca, Nektar, Lilly, Bayer, Pharmacyclics, Foundation Medicine, Astellas Pharma, Lilly, Exelixis, AstraZeneca, Pfizer, Merck, Novartis, Eisai, Seattle Genetics, EMD Serono, Janssen Oncology, AVEO, Calithera Biosciences, MEI Pharma, Genentech, Astellas Pharma, Foundation Medicine, and Gilead Sciences Research Funding (Institution): Bayer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Takeda, Pfizer, Exelixis, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Calithera Biosciences, Celldex, Eisai, Genentech, Immunomedics, Janssen, Merck, Lilly, Nektar, ORIC Pharmaceuticals, Crispr Therapeutics, Arvinas
Dr. Neeraj Agarwal and Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching discuss the CLEAR study in renal cell carcinoma, a new exploratory analysis combining the TheraP and VISION trials in metastatic urothelial cancer, and compelling advances in prostate cancer and across GU oncology in advance of the 2023 ASCO Annual Meeting. TRANSCRIPT Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Hello and welcome to the ASCO Daily News Podcast. I'm Dr. Neeraj Agarwal, your guest host for the ASCO Daily News Podcast today. I'm the director of the Genitourinary Oncology Program and a professor of medicine at the University of Utah Huntsman Cancer Institute, and editor-in-chief of the ASCO Daily News. I'm delighted to welcome Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching, a GU medical oncologist and the clinical director of the Genitourinary Cancers Program at the Inova Schar Cancer Institute in Virginia. Today, we'll be discussing some key abstracts in GU oncology that will be featured at the 2023 ASCO Annual Meeting. Our full disclosures are available in the show notes and disclosures of all guests on the podcast can be found on our transcript at asco.orgDNpod. Jeanny, it's great to have you on the podcast today. Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: Thank you so much, Dr. Agarwal, for having me. Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Jeanny, let's begin with Abstract 4502 regarding long-term updated results on the CLEAR study. The abstract reports the final, prespecified overall survival analysis of the CLEAR trial, a four-year follow-up of lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab versus sunitinib in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: Yes, I would be happy to. So, just as a reminder, the combination of lenvatinib and pembrolizumab was initially approved by the FDA in August 2021 for first-line treatment of adult patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. So, this was based on significant benefits that were seen in progression-free survival, which was a primary endpoint, but also showed improvement in the overall response rates compared with sunitinib in first-line advanced renal cell carcinoma. So this abstract reports on longer-term follow-up now at a median of 49.8 months, and PFS favored the combination lenvatinib and pembrolizumab compared to sunitinib across all MSKCC risk groups, and PFS benefit versus lenvatinib and pembro compared to sunitinib was maintained with a hazard ratio of 0.47. And even overall survival was also maintained with the combination with a hazard ratio of 0.79, and the overall survival favored the combination across all risk groups. If we look at the CR rate, it was 18.3% for the combination compared to 4.8% with sunitinib, unless patients in the combination arm received subsequent anticancer therapies, and that's intuitive. And the PFS2 was also longer with the combination at 43 months compared to 26 months. Now, it is important to note that grade III or more treatment-related adverse events did occur in about 74% of the patients in the combination of lenvatinib and pembro, compared to 60.3% in patients with sunitinib. Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Jeanny, this is good news. So the main message from the abstract is that sustained results from this combination of lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab are being seen even after a longer follow-up of more than four years. Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: Yes, I agree. So now, moving on, Neeraj, to a different setting in the RCC space, let's look at Abstract 4519, which is titled “Efficacy of First-line Immunotherapy-based Regimens in Patients with Sarcomatoid and/or Rhabdoid Metastatic Non-Clear Cell RCC: Results from the IMDC,” which will be discussed by Dr. Chris Labaki. So, Neeraj, based on this abstract, can you tell us a little bit more about the impact of these adverse pathologic risk features in non-clear cell RCC? Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Of course. So, using real-world patient data, the IMDC investigators compared the outcomes of patients with metastatic non-clear cell RCC who were treated with immunotherapy-based combination regimens versus those who were treated with VEGF-TKIs alone. They also assessed the impact of sarcomatoid and rhabdoid features on response to IO-based combinations versus VEGF-TKIs. Of 103 patients with metastatic non-clear cell RCC who had rhabdoid or sarcomatoid features, 32% of patients were treated with immunotherapy-based combinations. After adjusting for confounding factors, the authors show that those treated with a combination of two immune checkpoint inhibitors or an immune checkpoint inhibitor with a VEGF-TKI combination had significantly improved overall survival, which was not reached in the immunotherapy combination group versus seven months within the VEGF-TKI group. Time to treatment failure and objective responses were also prolonged, significantly higher, and better in the immunotherapy groups compared with patients who were treated with VEGF-TKIs alone. Interestingly, if you look at those 430 patients with metastatic non-clear cell RCC who did not have sarcomatoid or rhabdoid features, they didn't seem to benefit with immunotherapy-based combinations. Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: This is an exciting update, Neeraj. What are the key takeaways from this abstract? Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: So the main takeaway is if you see a patient with advanced non-clear cell RCC who has sarcomatoid and rhabdoid features, there appears to be a rather substantial and selective benefit with IO-based combinations. And in this context, I would like to highlight the ongoing SWOG 2200 trial also known as PAPMET2 trial, which is comparing the combination of cabozantinib plus atezolizumab. So immuno-therapy-based combinations versus cabozantinib alone in advanced papillary renal cell carcinoma setting. So this trial is being led by Dr. Benjamin Maughan and Dr. Monty Pal. And I like to encourage our listeners to consider referring their patients for involvement in this federally funded trial so that we can validate the data from this retrospective study in a prospective way. So, Jeanny, let's now move on to another important disease type which is urothelial carcinoma. There is a very recent accelerated FDA approval of the drug combination of enfortumab vedotin and pembrolizumab for cisplatin-ineligible metastatic urothelial carcinoma patients. This is Abstract 4505, which is being presented by Dr. Shilpa Gupta and colleagues. Can you please tell us more about this update? Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: Yeah, absolutely. So, as you mentioned, Neeraj, the FDA just granted accelerated approval in April 2023 for this combination of enfortumab vedotin or EV, which is and ADC, antibody drug conjugate against nectin-4 and the PD-1 inhibitor pembroluzimab. So it's a combination for patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma who are considered cisplatin ineligible. So this is nearly a four-year follow-up. So as a reminder, this was a phase 1b/2 trial that included 45 patients and it had a primary endpoint of safety and tolerability although the key secondary endpoints included confirmed overall responses, duration of response, progression-free survival, and the resist criteria was investigated via investigator and BICRs which is in a blinded independent central review. Even overall survival was a key secondary endpoint. So, the bottom line was the confirmed overall response by BICR was 73.3%, the disease control rate was about 84%, and the CR rate was 15.6% with a PFS of close to 13 months, and a 12-month overall survival rate of 83%. However, it is important to cite that there were treatment-related adverse events including skin reactions in 66%, neuropathy occurred in 62%, and ocular disorders in 40%. And there was a little bit of pneumonitis in close to 9%, colitis, and hypothyroidism, so there are side effects to watch out for. Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: So, Jeanny this is great. What is the key takeaway from this trial? Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: So I think the most important thing is we now have a new combination of EV and pembro which shows very promising responses and survival in part which led to the FDA accelerated approval in the cisplatin-ineligible population of patients. However, we must note that the phase 3 trial of EV302 will ultimately establish which approach is really beneficial for all of our cisplatin-ineligible patients, either a carboplatin-based chemotherapy regimen or a non-platinum-based regimen such as EV and pembro. Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Thanks Jeanny, would you like to discuss any other study in the bladder cancer space? Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: Absolutely. I think Abstract 4508 from Dr. Seth Lerner and colleagues will be very relevant to our colleagues. This abstract is SWOG S1011, which is a phase 3 surgical trial to evaluate the benefit of a standard versus an extended lymphadenectomy performed at the time of radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Yes. So this trial, as you said, is an important trial which randomized in a one-on-one fashion 618 patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy, and these patients were randomized to either standard lymph node dissection or an extended lymph node dissection. And standard lymph node dissection included, as we know, external and internal iliac and operative lymph node. The extended lymph node dissection included lymph nodes up to aortic bifurcation which included common iliac, presciatic, and presacral lymph nodes. At a median follow-up of approximately 6 years, there was no disease-free survival or overall survival benefit in patients undergoing an extended lymph node dissection compared to standard lymph node dissection. And extended lymph node dissection was also associated with greater morbidity and preoperative mortality. Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: Very interesting data, Neeraj. So these results, I think, will be very useful for a lot of our surgical colleagues in both academia and the community who may still be inclined to perform extended lymphadenectomy during cystectomy. This study shows that it's actually not necessary. Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Absolutely. So now let's move on to another disease type, which is very important - prostate cancer. There are several practice-informing abstracts that are worthwhile discussing. The first of these involves Abstract 5002, which looks at the impact of the PSA nadir as a prognostic factor after radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer, which will be presented by Dr. Praful Ravi and colleagues. Jeannie, can you please tell us more about this abstract? Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: Yeah, definitely. So this abstract, as you mentioned, Neeraj, is a prognostic impact of PSA nadir of more than or equal to 0.1 nanogram per ml within six months after completion of radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer - an individual patient data analysis of randomized trials from the ICECaP Collaborative. Basically, it refers to an attempt to evaluate early surrogate measures to predict for long term outcomes such as prostate cancer-specific survival, metastases-free survival, and overall survival. So they looked at a big registry from the ICECaP collaboration that included 10,415 patients across 16 randomized controlled trials. And those men underwent treatment for intermediate risk and high risk prostate cancer treated with either radiation therapy alone in about a quarter of patients, or they got RT with short-term ADT in about 58% of patients, and 17% of them got RT with long-term ADT. So, after a median follow-up of ten years, what they found was, if you had a PSA nadir that is over or equal to 0.1 nanogram per ml within six months after completion of radiation therapy, it was associated with worse prostate cancer-specific survival, metastases-free survival, and overall survival. For instance, the five-year metastases-free survival for those who achieved a PSA nadir of less than 0.1 was 91% compared to those who did not, which was 79%. Therefore, they concluded that if you achieve a bad PSA of 0.1 or above within six months after you completed radiation, you had worse outcomes. Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Jeanny, what is the key takeaway message from this study? Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: The key takeaway from this ICECaP analysis is that this information would be very important to augment a signal-seeking endpoint, especially for clinical trial development, so that we can develop further strategies to de-escalate for those who don't need systemic intensification or therapy intensification versus escalation for those who really do. Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: So, my radiation oncology colleagues need to watch out for those patients who do not achieve a PSA of less than 0.1 nanogram per ml within the first six months of finishing radiation therapy. Very interesting data. Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: Yes, absolutely. So. Neeraj another important abstract for our fellow clinicians, switching gears a little bit now, is Abstract 5011, which is titled “Do Bone Scans Overstage Disease Compared to PSMA PET?” This was an international, multicenter retrospective study with blinded, independent readers. Can you tell us more about this abstract? Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Yes, a relatively small retrospective study, but still pertinent to our practice. So I'll summarize it. This study by Dr. Wolfgang Fendler and colleagues evaluated the ability of bone scans to detect osseous metastasis using PSMA PET scan as a reference standard. So in this multicenter retrospective study, 167 patients were included, of which 77 patients were at the initial staging of prostate cancer, 60 had biochemical recurrence after definitive therapy, and 30 patients had CRPC or castor-resistant disease. These patients had been imaged with a bone scan and a PSMA PET scan within 100 days. And in all patients, the positive predictive value, negative predictive value and specificity for bone scan were evaluated at different time points. They had bone scan and PSMA PET scan and both were compared. And what they found was interesting. All these three values - positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and specificity for bone scan were 0.73, 0.82 and 0.82 in all patients, and in initial staging, it was even lower at 0.43 and 0.94 and 0.80. So, without getting into too much detail regarding these numbers, I want to highlight the most important part of the study, that at the initial staging, 57% patients who had a positive bone scan had false positive bone scans. The interreader agreement for bone disease was actually moderate for bone scans and quite substantial for the PSMA PET scan. Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: So, Neeraj, what do you think is the key takeaway message here for our audience? Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: The key takeaway message is that positive predictive value of bone scan was low in prostate cancer patients at initial staging, with the majority of positive bone scans being false positive. This suggests that a large proportion of patients which we consider to have low-volume metastatic disease by bone scan actually have localized disease. So in the newly diagnosed patients with prostate cancer, patients should ideally have a PSMA PET scan to rule out metastatic disease. So, let's move on to another abstract I would like to discuss, which has important implications in treatment, especially now that lutetium 177 is approved, but frankly not available widely. Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: Yeah, that's actually very timely. So the abstract you're referring to is 5045, which is being presented by Dr. Yu Yang Sun and colleagues entitled “Effects of Lutetium PSMA 617 on Overall Survival in TheraP Versus VISION Randomized Trials: An Exploratory Analysis.” So, Neeraj, can you tell us more about the relevance of this exploratory analysis? Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Definitely. In this abstract, Dr. Yang Sun and colleagues assess the effect of lutetium PSMA on overall survival in two different trials, TheraP and VISION trials. So, just for our listeners' recollection, the phase 2 TheraP trial compared lutetium PSMA and cabazitaxel in patients with mCRPC who had progression on docetaxel and had significant PSMA avidity on gallium PSMA pet scan, which was defined as a minimum uptake of SUV max of 20 at least one site of disease and SUV max of more than 10 at all sites of measurable disease. In this trial, 20 of 101 patients in the cabazitaxel arm crossed over to lutetium PSMA, and 32 of 99 patients in the lutetium PSMA arm crossed over to cabazitaxel. In the VISION trial, patients with mCRPC who previously progressed on at least one ARPI and one taxane-based therapy and had a positive gallium PSMA scan, and here, positivity was not stringently pre-specified as it was done in the context of TheraP trial. So, positive gallium pet scans were randomly assigned in two to one fashion to receive either lutetium PSMA plus best supportive care or standard of care versus standard of care. And I'd like to highlight that the standard of care comprised ARPIs and bone protecting agents and these patients were not allowed to have cytotoxic chemotherapy such as cabazitaxel in the standard of care arm. Now, overall survival was similar in the lutetium PSMA group regardless of whether they got lutetium PSMA in the VISION trial or TheraP trial. There was no difference in overall survival with lutetium in the lutetium arms of VISION and TheraP trial with a hazard ratio of 0.92. And there was no difference in the overall survival between the lutetium PSMA and the cabazitaxel group in the TheraP trial if you use counterfactual analysis, assuming crossover had not occurred. So, quite interesting in my view. Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: Yeah, thanks Neeraj for that wonderful synopsis and discussion. So, what is the key take home message then? Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: The main message in this new exploratory analysis, which combined both the TheraP and VISION trials, is that lutetium PSMA and cabazitaxel seem to be associated with similar overall survival benefit in these highly selected patients with PSMA positivity. Additionally, the difference in the observed effect of lutetium PSMA and overall survival in the TheraP and VISION trials may be actually better explained by the use of different treatments in the respective control arms of these trials. And these results, in my view, are quite pertinent for those patients and providers who do not have access to lutetium-177 therapy. Let's go to another abstract that is currently relevant to our practice, given many patients with advanced prostate cancer who have concurrent diabetes; I'm talking about Abstract 5066. Jeanny, can you please tell us more about this abstract? Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: Certainly, Neeraj. So this abstract will be presented by Dr. Amy Shaver and colleagues. So it's also very relevant, since many men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer frequently also have a concomitant diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. So, this was a SEER-Medicare population database analysis that looked at men who were treated with either abiraterone or enzalutamide and also had concomitant diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). And they were identified using ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes and they were all tied in to acute care utilization. So they looked at CMS research data codes and ER hospitalization visits six months after treatment initiation was recorded. So all in all, they took a sample of 11,163 men, of whom close to 62% were treated with abiraterone and about 38% were treated with enzalutamide. So, of these, about 27% of them had type 2 DM, of whom 59% received abiraterone and about 41% had enzalutamide. So, the bottom line is, compared to those without diabetes mellitus, those who had type 2 diabetes had worse acute care utilization, which was 43% higher than those who got abiraterone compared to enzalutamide, and also had higher overall mortality. Therefore, the bottom line is, having type 2 diabetes mellitus, unfortunately, portends worse outcomes in men with prostate cancer, so careful attention needs to be paid to those who are starting out already with such comorbidities. So Neeraj, any final thoughts you have regarding this abstract and overall before we wrap up on the podcast today? Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Absolutely. So it looks like, based on this very important pertinent Abstract 5066, which talks about the impact of diabetes on our patients, I think we need to be very watchful regarding the impact of diabetes on our patients who are being treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide, especially drugs which are known to make the metabolic syndrome and diabetes worse. I think close monitoring and close attention to control of diabetes is very important. So with that, I would urge the listeners to come and join us at the Annual Meeting, not only to celebrate these successes but also to help disseminate this cutting-edge data to practitioners and maximize the benefit to our patients across the globe. And thank you to our listeners for joining us today. You will find links to the abstracts we discussed today on the transcript of this episode. Finally, if you value the insights that you hear on our ASCO Daily News Podcast, please take a moment to rate, review and subscribe wherever you get your podcast. Disclaimer: The purpose of this podcast is to educate and to inform. This is not a substitute for professional medical care and is not intended for use in the diagnosis or treatment of individual conditions. Guests on this podcast express their own opinions, experience, and conclusions. Guest statements on the podcast do not express the opinions of ASCO. The mention of any product, service, organization, activity, or therapy should not be construed as an ASCO endorsement. Find out more about today's speakers: Dr. Neeraj Agarwal @neerajaiims Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching Follow ASCO on social media: @ASCO on Twitter ASCO on Facebook ASCO on LinkedIn Disclosures: Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Consulting or Advisory Role: Pfizer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, AstraZeneca, Nektar, Lilly, Bayer, Pharmacyclics, Foundation Medicine, Astellas Pharma, Lilly, Exelixis, AstraZeneca, Pfizer, Merck, Novartis, Eisai, Seattle Genetics, EMD Serono, Janssen Oncology, AVEO, Calithera Biosciences, MEI Pharma, Genentech, Astellas Pharma, Foundation Medicine, and Gilead Sciences Research Funding (Institution): Bayer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Takeda, Pfizer, Exelixis, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Calithera Biosciences, Celldex, Eisai, Genentech, Immunomedics, Janssen, Merck, Lilly, Nektar, ORIC Pharmaceuticals, Crispr Therapeutics, Arvinas Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: Honoraria: Bristol-Myers Squibb, EMD Serono, Astellas Scientific and Medical Affairs Inc., Pfizer/EMD Serono Consulting or Advisory Role: Algeta/Bayer, Dendreon, AstraZeneca, Janssen Biotech, Sanofi, EMD Serono, MedImmune, Bayer, Merck, Seattle Genetics, Pfizer, Immunomedics, Amgen, AVEO, Pfizer/Myovant, Exelixis, Speakers' Bureau: Astellas Pharma, Janssen-Ortho, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Astellas/Seattle Genetics.
Dr. Diwakar Davar and Dr. Jason Luke discuss advances in melanoma, including targeted therapy and the addition of LAG-3 inhibitors to checkpoint therapy, as well as promising checkpoint inhibitors in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and Merkel cell carcinoma in advance of the 2023 ASCO Annual Meeting. TRANSCRIPT Dr. Diwakar Davar: Hello, and welcome to the ASCO Daily News Podcast. I'm your guest host, Dr. Diwakar Davar, and I'm an associate professor of medicine and the clinical director of the Melanoma and Skin Cancer Program at the University of Pittsburgh's Hillman Cancer Center. I'm delighted to welcome my colleague and friend, Dr. Jason Luke. Dr. Luke is an associate professor of medicine and the director of the Cancer Immunotherapeutic Center at the University of Pittsburgh's Hillman Cancer Center. He is a very, very well-renowned physician-scientist who has done fundamental work in developmental therapeutics and also in melanoma. Today, we'll be discussing some key oral abstracts highlighting advances in immunotherapy in the cutaneous malignancy space that will be featured at the 2023 ASCO Annual Meeting. You will find our full disclosures in the transcript of this episode and the disclosures of all guests on the ASCO Daily News Podcast are available in our transcripts at asco.org/DNpod. Jason, thank you for coming on the podcast today. Dr. Jason Luke: Well, thanks so much for the opportunity. Dr. Diwakar Davar: So, we will go right ahead into the abstracts and the first one we thought we'd discuss is Abstract 9502, which is the RELATIVITY-047 study, specifically the 2-year results. This is the update. This has also been concurrently published at the New England Journal of Medicine Evidence online. And so in this publication and oral presentation, Hussein Tawbi, Georgina Long, and colleagues are talking about the nivo-rela data in the context of metastatic melanoma. So what is your take on this? What is your take on the data both presented and published and how would you contextualize this for the audience? Dr. Jason Luke: Right, so the RELATIVITY-047 study, as people will remember, randomized treatment-naive patients with metastatic melanoma to either receive nivolumab as standard treatment as a monotherapy or the combination of nivolumab and the anti-LAG-3 antibody relatlimab. And that study reported out a couple of years ago showing the improvement in progression-free survival as the primary endpoint. And at the time we saw that difference was approximately a 6-month absolute difference. And eventually, we saw there was an increase in the overall response rate also, again, approximately on the order of about a 10% change. What was interesting was that the overall survival initially was immature and that was an interesting follow-up point that we wanted to see. So I think what's important in seeing now this 2-year update of these data are the maintenance of the benefit for nivolumab plus relatlimab as compared to nivolumab alone across those measurements of progression-free survival and overall response rate. Interestingly, the overall survival in the clinical trial actually did not meet the pre-specified threshold for statistical significance. That being said, when you look at the data presented in the Kaplan-Meier plots and you think about the difference, it really does appear that there's a clinically meaningful difference between these 2 groups. And the statistical cut point only missed by about .01. And so this is one of those areas where one wonders whether or not subsequent therapies may have impacted on the overall survival calculation because obviously, patients in this trial had not received ipilimumab or a PD-1 CTLA-4 combination. So the take-home message from me in this data set was that the benefit of nivolumab and relatlimab was sustained over time and there was no suggestion of any late toxicities that might make us concerned. One advantage of this combination of nivolumab and relatlimab is the dramatically improved side effect profile relative to nivolumab and ipilimumab. So whereas immune-related adverse events that were serious, grade 3-4 is approximately 50% for nivolumab and ipilimumab, in the RELATIVITY-047 study, we see that the incidence of grade 3-4 toxicities for nivolumab and relatlimab is 17.2%, so that's less than half. So that's pretty attractive. And when we think about frontline management of patients, I think these data really support that nivolumab plus relatlimab is a reasonable consideration for some patients. And now I think the future question is really going to be, okay, well then who should get nivolumab and relatlimab versus who should still get nivolumab plus ipilimumab? Obviously, these data do not address that, and I think that that's probably the most important question for metastatic disease that's probably on the horizon. Dr. Diwakar Davar: Thank you, Jason, those are all fantastic points. It is interesting to note that as a result of the data, or really the lack thereof, the combination is actually not being launched in certain countries. So, for example, the German Health Authority, GBA, the Federal Joint Committee in Germany has decided against the acceptance of this agent because it does not accept event-free survival (EFS) as a patient-relevant endpoint. So it's interesting that we have an agent that is now going to be FDA-approved. It's already FDA-approved and available in the United States, but it will not be at least available in Germany and there may be other countries that decide favorably or unfavorably depending on how this OS data is viewed. So pivoting to another LAG-3 inhibitor in this case fianlimab, we're going to discuss Abstract 9501. So Abstract 9501 essentially is describing a phase II trial that evaluated the LAG-3 inhibitor, fianlimab, along with the anti-PD-1 inhibitor, cemiplimab from Regeneron. The data is slightly different from what we have seen with RELATIVITY-047, the Opdualag combination. So Jason, how would you contextualize the fian-cemi combination in advanced melanoma in the context of what we've seen with RELATIVITY-047? If you could help us with that, please. Dr. Jason Luke: Yeah, absolutely. So before we dive into this specific abstract, it's, like you mentioned, probably useful to just put all of this in context. Targeting LAG-3 as an immunomodulatory approach has actually been in clinic for a decade approximately. And so the relatlimab phase 1 started quite a long time ago. And there was data for nivolumab and relatlimab in PD-1 refractory patients with melanoma that showed not a tremendously obvious level of activity. And so it was thought there that the only place they would see that activity was to go to a frontline randomized phase 2 and then phase 3 trial, as we just discussed. In contrast to that, given all the data that had come forward about LAG-3 targeting with relatlimab, the group developing fianlimab took a different approach and rather treated a cohort of patients with treatment-naive melanoma to try to get an initial assessment right away of the activity as read out by overall response rate for this PD-1 plus LAG-3 combination, which is cemiplamab plus fianlimab. And these authors have previously presented data about this combination from cohorts of patients who are treatment-naive who received this combination and described approximately a 64% overall response rate. And that's an impressive number in the treatment-naive setting. There's sort of a tension there to sort of say, well, wait a minute, the response rate in this single-arm study is 64%, but in RELATIVITY-047, the response rate was lower for the LAG-3 combination and I think that's not a fair comparison. We have to realize this is a much smaller group of patients that has the potential to have been somewhat biased towards a better cohort just because of where and when they were recruited to participate in this trial. All the same, I think that number does look impressive and suggest that this combination is active in the frontline. Specific to this abstract, though, what the authors presented here was to update those previous data and then specifically also to focus on a cohort of patients who are allowed to have had previous treatment in the perioperative setting. So either neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapies. And in a subgroup of patients, they observed that even in the patients that had received adjuvant anti-PD-1 who went on to then progress later, they got actually a similar overall response rate at approximately 60% even in that group. And so I think that that seems like an exciting number as well. One would on first principles think that if patients got an adjuvant anti-PD-1, then a PD-1 LAG-3 combo could be less active. When and how the patients progressed or did not on that adjuvant therapy, however, I think makes a big difference. And given the relatively small sample size of patients that were included in this report, which is on the order of 20-ish patients who were in the previous PD-1 treated adjuvant cohort, I don't know that we can make super broad analyses trying to compare across the development programs. What I would take from this abstract, however, is that it does appear that this other PD-1 LAG-3 combination cemiplamab plus fianlimab is also very active and certainly deserves to be investigated in similar clinical trial contexts as the nivolumab plus relatlimab combination that we previously discussed. And while it's not specifically stated here, that is happening, there is a frontline phase 3 trial for this combination of fianlimab and cemiplamab as well as adjuvant considerations, also ongoing. Dr. Diwakar Davar: So, thank you. We've seen a lot of LAG-3 data this last 2 months, the phase 2/3a RELATIVITY-020 trial has just been published in the JCO, I encourage people to read that. And so that was the evaluation of nivolumab and relatlimabin the post-PD-1 patient population that Jason alluded to, where the response rate that was observed was 12%. So we've seen a lot of interesting data, a lot of interesting survival data, and now a new potential combination with LAG-3 with fianlimab and cemiplamab from Regeneron. So it'll be a very interesting next couple of years as we see whether or not this new combination, how it shakes up against the established nivu-rela combination, again, albeit with the limitations of cross-trial comparisons and also how it performs against cemiplamab in this ongoing, as you alluded to, ongoing global phase 3 trial. So, pivoting away from melanoma, now addressing the context of another cutaneous malignancy, a very high-risk one, Merkel cell carcinoma. So, Merkel cell carcinoma for those who are not necessarily treating a lot of this is a very rare and very aggressive cutaneous tumor. It's a neuroendocrine tumor of the skin. It's a cancer that's typically associated more than about 60% of the time with a cancer-causing virus, an oncogenic virus known as a Merkel Cell Polyomavirus. And in this setting, checkpoint inhibitor therapy has been approved for the last couple of years, initially with a PDL-1 inhibitor, avelumab, and then more recently with a PD-1 inhibitor, pembrolizumab. And, at this point in time, there are three FDA-approved agents that are checkpoint inhibitors that are available for the treatment of this disease. And CheckMate-358 was essentially a trial of nivolumab plus/minus ipilimumab in the setting of this Merkel cell carcinoma. So, Jason, what are your thoughts on how the addition of ipi did in this setting [in Abstract 9506]? Dr. Jason Luke: Yeah, so I think this is a really interesting abstract because there's a slightly more context even than what you alluded to there. This study is an open-label, multi-cohort, but single-arm investigation where one cohort of patients received nivolumab alone and the other cohort received ipilimumab. It needs to be buttressed by a previous publication in The Lancet last year by the group at the Moffitt Cancer Center who also did a prospective study looking at nivolumab and ipilimumab. In that previous study that the Moffit group did, they got a response rate of 100%. All patients responded to the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab in their study and that was quite provocative, suggesting that while anti-PD-1 alone has about a 50% response rate, adding ipi in that scenario then took it to 100. So these data were very much of interest because this could be a confirmatory data set to suggest for this rare tumor that perhaps a combination regimen should be preferred. Of course, one has to remember that adding ipilimumab to anti-PD-1 substantially enhances the toxicity profile. And these patients tend to be elderly that develop this kind of cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma. So that's a rather important caveat. Just to get to the crux of what happened in this trial. As opposed to the previous Moffit trial, there actually did not appear to be a major increase in the benefit of adding ipilimumab, at least in this trial. Because again, in parallel cohorts, the NIVO monotherapy arm had a 60% response rate, which is roughly a little bit higher, but roughly in line with what we've seen previously. And the response rate to nivolumab plus ipilimumab was 58%. So, I mean basically the same. So, how can it be then, that we have this previous very high-profile publication that says 100% response? Now, we have a second publication that says adding ipi doesn't do anything - that's confusing, and I think it'll be really important to try to look at what were the differences between these two cohorts of patients. Did one of them have higher risk features, greater disease burden, et cetera? We don't really know that just yet, but trying to tease that out will be important. This data also emphasized, though, the complexity around the dosing of ipilimumab. And in melanoma, we never really figured out what the best dose of ipilimumab was to give either alone or even in combination with a PD-1. And we don't really have time to get into all of it right away here, but there are multiple studies in melanoma that would suggest that giving ipi on an every 3-week dosing schedule is superior to giving it on a 6-week dosing schedule. In this study, they did use the 6-week dosing schedule. So, whether or not that could have made a difference, I guess, is unknown. But I would notice that in the previous Moffitt trial, they also used that six-week dosing schedule. This one's a head-scratcher for why did these data not confirm a previous data set? But for the time being, I think this emphasizes that PD-1 monotherapy really is the standard approach that should be considered for patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma. Dr. Diwakar Davar: That's great, Jason. And so, again, it's a very tough patient population. These are very rare patients. The Moffitt trial that Jason alluded to essentially was a trial that had in each arm, there were approximately 25 patients, of which 13, or between 11 to 13 patients were actually checkpoint inhibitor naive, wherein the dramatic 100% response rate was seen. And this is a trial where at least in this update, we've got about 25 patients in nivo monotherapy, I mean in 43 patients. And so, in a disease that is thought to be extraordinarily sensitive to checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy because of the role of the virus and the high TMB that it's associated with, it is very interesting that the addition of an additional checkpoint inhibitor did not appear to improve outcomes. But as you alluded to multiple reasons, but we don't know how it's going to shake out. Next, Abstract 9507 and this is a very interesting trial known as the MATISSE trial. So, in the context of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is a relatively not uncommon cancer, primarily seen in older cancer patients, particularly a little bit more common in men. And in this setting, we've got checkpoint inhibitor therapy that is FDA-approved, at least two of which are FDA-approved right now, pembrolizumab and cemiplamab both were approved in the advanced cancer setting. And we do know that because of the extraordinarily high tumor mutation burden associated with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, checkpoint inhibitor therapy has got a very dramatic effect. Response rates are between 35% to 42% with pembrolizumab and 40% to 50% with cemiplamab, depending on whether or not one looks at the relapsed metastatic or the locally advanced patient populations. And interestingly, much like we've seen with melanoma, we have migrated the use of this therapy early in the lines of patients, particularly in the setting of perioperative therapy. So, Jason, how would you contextualize the results of the MATISSE trial in relation to the existing and known data from several of our colleagues regarding the role of what checkpoint inhibitor therapy is doing in terms of organ preservation? Dr. Jason Luke: Yeah, and I think this is an area of tremendous excitement. And as you were alluding to, the activity of anti-PD-1 really was transformative in this disease, which really can be a disfiguring and locally destructive disease. And with that activity for unresectable disease, last year, near the end of the year, there was a first report of a large neo-adjuvant clinical trial in cutaneous squamous which showed really outstanding results in terms of improving surgery and pathologic complete response using anti-PD-1 in that setting. And for this trial, this was a trial done in Europe; they took a similar tact of trying to think about giving anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-1 with anti-CTLA-4 with ipilimumab in that neoadjuvant period to see whether or not they could reduce the use of extensive surgery and/or radiation therapy. The short version is they were able to do that. And so they described 40% of patients with single-agent anti-PD-1 and 53% of patients who received a combination having major pathologic response to treatment. And this was so much so that 10 of the patients who had pathologic responses actually withdrew their consent to go on to have surgery because they decided that they had had such a good effect of the immunotherapy, they weren't willing to put themselves through what was going to be a very difficult surgery. And I think that speaks to the upside potential of these checkpoint immunotherapy approaches in certain settings, specifically here in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, they describe clinical response in neoadjuvant setting as 50% for PD-1 monotherapy and 61% for the combination and I really think that this is really ready for prime time. With the study published in the New England Journal last year and these data now, I really think the field needs to start moving towards the use of perioperative anti-PD-1 with or without ipilimumab as a standard approach. And I think it's the case that even the NCCN and ASCO and various guideline societies are going to start acknowledging that this ought to be considered for most patients who are facing difficult surgical operations for continuous squamous cell carcinoma. Dr. Diwakar Davar: So, Jason, you bring up a fascinating point, which is the appearance of this in guidelines. So this is undoubtedly extraordinarily good data. It's confirmatory, the pathologic response rates in many ways paradoxically low. You'd expect something about 50% or so. But the reason it's low is because 10% of patients who actually benefited didn't undergo surgery. So really the degree of benefit is tremendous. It's about 50% to 60%. So the fascinating thing in the setting that we'd have is if one is going to try to get the drug FDA-approved, what we now have is the conventional setting in which one needs a definitive endpoint. And at least we know that pathological response rate is not a definitive endpoint in the context of melanoma or, for that matter, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. The only setting in which it is a regulatory endpoint is a non-small cell lung cancer or triple-negative breast cancer. But recently there's been some very exciting data from another PD-1 inhibitor called dostarlimab in a trial done by your former colleague Dr. Luis Diaz when he demonstrated a dramatic result of dostarlimab in the context of perioperative rectal cancer where it is micro-satellite high wherein the standard of care is typically very disfiguring abdominal perineal resection. So in the context of some of our listeners who might be thinking a little bit about how this pertains to regulatory approval, what are your thoughts about the paradigm of avoiding highly disfiguring surgery relating to what was seen in the rectal cancer discussion to what we're now seeing with perioperative therapy in the context of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma? Dr. Jason Luke: I think it's a very important question. And the easy out for diseases that have a pattern of progression that is metastasis is to use event-free survival which can include both the pre-surgical and the post-surgical period in terms of looking for whether or not the cancer comes back. And that works for diseases potentially like lung cancer, like you said, maybe melanoma. In cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, however, that's not probably going to work because this tends to be a locally invasive and less of a metastatic disease. So here then, we really need to have sort of organization across patient advocacy, dermatology, medical oncology to come up with what the most appropriate considerations are going to be for evaluating that long-term benefit because I think we need a tangible result that we can show the FDA. Everyone is really impressed by these results, and I think that next step is to craft this into a way that we have a measurable output that we can then go to them with and say bless this so that all of our patients can get this kind of treatment. Dr. Diwakar Davar: Really great discussion, Jason. And I think this is going to be an area of particular interest going forward, given both the number of trials that have been conducted in this space and also the role of the very interesting regulatory paradigm that has now been set initially at least with the rectal cancer that is microsatellite high and now potentially we will see with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. And so the final abstract that we have selected for you is Abstract 9511. And this is a trial that was conducted by a mutual colleague, Dr. Ryan Sullivan, and his colleagues. And it's essentially a trial of looking at targeted therapy with or without navitoclax in BRAF mutant melanoma patients. And part of the reason to highlight this, it's very interesting preclinical data supporting the addition of navitoclax, b but also a great example of an early trial that came through the CTEP portfolio. And so Jason, can you tell us about why this is exciting and how we might contextualize the addition of navitoclax to the targeted therapy backbone? Dr. Jason Luke: Sure. So listeners will be quite aware of targeting mutant BRAF as a therapeutic strategy across oncology that was really initially pioneered in melanoma with the development of vemurafenib as the first selective BRAF inhibitor. But the field, of course, moved eventually to BRAF and MEK combinations across essentially all settings. We know that dabrafenib and trametinib are now approved pan-cancer for anywhere we find a BRAF V600e mutation. In the context of melanoma, looking at mechanisms of resistance, we observed that they were quite heterogeneous with reactivation of elements of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, the MAPK pathway. But also there were metabolic changes in the cancer cells themselves which could drive resistance and were downstream of some of those reactivation signaling points. So one of those is the induction of anti-apoptotic machinery in the cell. So activation of BCL-2 or Bcl-xL to try to save those melanoma cells when they were under stress by blockade with BRAF and MEK inhibitors. And that observation was made now about a decade ago or more. And that raised the possibility that repurposing a drug that was being used actually in the chemo malignancy space might be useful in augmenting targeted therapy. And that's where we come in with the navitoclax as a BH3-mimetic that can actually knock down those antiapoptotic proteins, BCL-2 Bcl-xL. And so that was the context for this initially phase I clinical trial of combining navitoclax with the dabrafenib and trametinib. And those data supported the safety of doing that and moved to this study, which was a randomized phase 2 study of that triplet regiment versus the dabrafenib and trametinib alone. And so this study started quite a long time ago, before the sort of initiation or widespread use of anti-PD-1 antibodies. And so it had to kind of undergo some various iterations throughout its course but eventually has now read out. And it had two primary endpoints, with one being focused on improving the complete response rate for targeted therapy because that's been associated with long-term outcomes as well as to look at the maximum tumor shrinkage of patients within this trial and of course to look at other endpoints like response rate, progression-free survival, et cetera. About half the patients who participated in the trial had prior immune checkpoint blockade and they were actually distributed evenly across the two arms. So we think that probably won't impact on the outcomes. And what was observed in the clinical trial was that in fact, the triplet did improve the complete response rate for targeted therapy. So navitoclax plus dabrafenib and trametinib had a complete response rate of 20% versus dabrafenib and trametinib alone being at 15%. Both of them had an overall response rate in the 80% range, with slightly higher for the triplet at 84% versus 80% for the double-edged standard therapy. There was also a suggestion that there may be a disproportionate benefit for the triplet actually in patients with smaller baseline tumors. And we know that the efficacy of targeted therapy is more pronounced in the lower-volume disease state. And so overall, when we look at this without really adding much toxicity, I think this is an intriguing place to look at further drug development. BRAF and MEK inhibition has been a backbone therapy in Melanoma for a long time, but we really haven't been able to move past it or augment it in any real way because of the heterogeneity of treatment resistance. And here, by going after metabolic changes, we perhaps might have the opportunity to enhance our targeted therapy somewhat further. And so we'll look forward to further results investigating this regimen in subsequent clinical trials. Dr. Diwakar Davar: Fantastic discussion, Jason. So these are all great insights. As you've heard, we've now discussed a couple of key abstracts covering major topics that will be presented, major themes of the malignancy space at ASCO 2023, including the addition of a lactate inhibitor to checkpoint in both a randomized large phase 3 trial and a smaller phase 2 trial, the context of targeted-therapy in melanoma making another forerun in the post-3c setting. And two very interesting studies I have looked at, checkpoint inhibitor therapy in the context of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and Merkel cell carcinoma, addressing themes that are of huge importance going forward, including the role of perioperative therapy in squam and the addition of a CTLA-4 inhibitor in Merkel. These oral abstracts are all going to be presented at the 2023 ASCO Annual Meeting. We look forward to seeing you there. So, thank you Jason for taking the time to join us and for highlighting these important advances in immunotherapy. And thank you to our listeners for your time today. You will find links to the abstracts discussed today in the transcript of this episode. And finally, if you value the insights that you hear on the ASCO Daily News Podcast, please take a moment to rate, review, and subscribe wherever you get your podcast. Thank you for your attention. Disclaimer: The purpose of this podcast is to educate and to inform. This is not a substitute for professional medical care and is not intended for use in the diagnosis or treatment of individual conditions. Guests on this podcast express their own opinions, experience, and conclusions. Guest statements on the podcast do not express the opinions of ASCO. The mention of any product, service, organization, activity, or therapy should not be construed as an ASCO endorsement. Follow today's speakers: Dr. Diwakar Davar @diwakardavar Dr. Jason Luke @jasonlukemd Follow ASCO on social media: @ASCO on Twitter ASCO on Facebook ASCO on LinkedIn Disclosures: Dr. Diwakar Davar: Honoraria: Merck, Tesaro, Array BioPharma, Immunocore, Instil Bio, Vedanta Biosciences Consulting or Advisory Role: Instil Bio, Vedanta Biosciences Consulting or Advisory Role (Immediate family member): Shionogi Research Funding: Merck, Checkmate Pharmaceuticals, CellSight Technologies, GSK, Merck, Arvus Biosciences, Arcus Biosciences Research Funding (Inst.): Zucero Therapeutics Patents, Royalties, Other Intellectual Property: Application No.: 63/124,231 Title: COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR TREATING CANCER Applicant: University of Pittsburgh–Of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education Inventors: Diwakar Davar Filing Date: December 11, 2020 Country: United States MCC Reference: 10504-059PV1 Your Reference: 05545; and Application No.: 63/208,719 Enteric Microbiotype Signatures of Immune-related Adverse Events and Response in Relation to Anti-PD-1 Immunotherapy Dr. Jason Luke: Stock and Other Ownership Interests: Actym Therapeutics, Mavu Pharmaceutical , Pyxis, Alphamab Oncology, Tempest Therapeutics, Kanaph Therapeutics, Onc.AI, Arch Oncology, Stipe, NeoTX Consulting or Advisory Role: Bristol-Myers Squibb, Merck, EMD Serono, Novartis, 7 Hills Pharma, Janssen, Reflexion Medical, Tempest Therapeutics, Alphamab Oncology, Spring Bank, Abbvie, Astellas Pharma, Bayer, Incyte, Mersana, Partner Therapeutics, Synlogic, Eisai, Werewolf, Ribon Therapeutics, Checkmate Pharmaceuticals, CStone Pharmaceuticals, Nektar, Regeneron, Rubius, Tesaro, Xilio, Xencor, Alnylam, Crown Bioscience, Flame Biosciences, Genentech, Kadmon, KSQ Therapeutics, Immunocore, Inzen, Pfizer, Silicon Therapeutics, TRex Bio, Bright Peak, Onc.AI, STipe, Codiak Biosciences, Day One Therapeutics, Endeavor, Gilead Sciences, Hotspot Therapeutics, SERVIER, STINGthera, Synthekine Research Funding (Inst.): Merck , Bristol-Myers Squibb, Incyte, Corvus Pharmaceuticals, Abbvie, Macrogenics, Xencor, Array BioPharma, Agios, Astellas Pharma , EMD Serono, Immatics, Kadmon, Moderna Therapeutics, Nektar, Spring bank, Trishula, KAHR Medical, Fstar, Genmab, Ikena Oncology, Numab, Replimmune, Rubius Therapeutics, Synlogic, Takeda, Tizona Therapeutics, Inc., BioNTech AG, Scholar Rock, Next Cure Patents, Royalties, Other Intellectual Property: Serial #15/612,657 (Cancer Immunotherapy), and Serial #PCT/US18/36052 (Microbiome Biomarkers for Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 Responsiveness: Diagnostic, Prognostic and Therapeutic Uses Thereof) Travel, Accommodations, Expenses: Bristol-Myers Squibb, Array BioPharma, EMD Serono, Janssen, Merck, Novartis, Reflexion Medical, Mersana, Pyxis, Xilio
There are many ways to be physically active if you experience chronic pain. Hear Dr. Connor Hurley, Co-Director of Physical Therapy, Therapeutic Associates Bethany in Portland, OR, offer tips for starting an exercise program, types of low impact activities, cautions, and how to integrate activity into everyday life. This Psoriatic Arthritis Action Month episode is provided with support from AbbVie, Bristol Myers Squibb, Janssen, and UCB.
In this episode of the Epigenetics Podcast, we caught up with Jop Kind from Hubrecht Institute to talk about his work on single cell DamID, EpiDamID, and Lamina Associated Domains (LADs). Jop Kind started out developing single cell DamID (scDamID), based on the DamID technique. First, this technique was adapted to a microscopic readout which enabled them to follow the localisation of chromatin domains after cell division. Next, the lab expanded this technique into the NGS space and created genome-wide maps of nuclear lamina Interactions in single human cells. Since LADs are in a heterochromatic chromatin context, the lab expanded scDamID into the epigenetic space. They first combined it with a transcriptional readout. Later-on they developed EpiDamID, a method to target a diverse set of chromatin types by taking advantage of the binding specificities of single-chain variable fragment antibodies, engineered chromatin reader domains, and endogenous chromatin-binding proteins. References Kind, J., Pagie, L., Ortabozkoyun, H., Boyle, S., de Vries, S. S., Janssen, H., Amendola, M., Nolen, L. D., Bickmore, W. A., & van Steensel, B. (2013). Single-Cell Dynamics of Genome-Nuclear Lamina Interactions. Cell, 153(1), 178–192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2013.02.028 Kind, J., Pagie, L., de Vries, S. S., Nahidiazar, L., Dey, S. S., Bienko, M., Zhan, Y., Lajoie, B., de Graaf, C. A., Amendola, M., Fudenberg, G., Imakaev, M., Mirny, L. A., Jalink, K., Dekker, J., van Oudenaarden, A., & van Steensel, B. (2015). Genome-wide Maps of Nuclear Lamina Interactions in Single Human Cells. Cell, 163(1), 134–147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.08.040 Borsos, M., Perricone, S.M., Schauer, T. et al. Genome–lamina interactions are established de novo in the early mouse embryo. Nature 569, 729–733 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1233-0 Markodimitraki, C. M., Rang, F. J., Rooijers, K., de Vries, S. S., Chialastri, A., de Luca, K. L., Lochs, S. J. A., Mooijman, D., Dey, S. S., & Kind, J. (2020). Simultaneous quantification of protein–DNA interactions and transcriptomes in single cells with scDam&T-seq. Nature Protocols, 15(6), 1922–1953. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41596-020-0314-8 Rang, F. J., de Luca, K. L., de Vries, S. S., Valdes-Quezada, C., Boele, E., Nguyen, P. D., Guerreiro, I., Sato, Y., Kimura, H., Bakkers, J., & Kind, J. (2022). Single-cell profiling of transcriptome and histone modifications with EpiDamID. Molecular Cell, 82(10), 1956-1970.e14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2022.03.009 Related Episodes Dosage Compensation in Drosophila (Asifa Akhtar) Chromatin Profiling: From ChIP to CUT&RUN, CUT&Tag and CUTAC (Steven Henikoff) Single Cell Epigenomics in Neuronal Development (Tim Petros) Contact Epigenetics Podcast on Twitter Epigenetics Podcast on Instagram Epigenetics Podcast on Mastodon Active Motif on Twitter Active Motif on LinkedIn Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
In this episode, Dan Janssen from Lincoln Design Co. shares insights about the Into The Woods Conference, the significance of networking, and the importance of honesty and transparency in building enduring relationships with clients. He also sheds light on the challenges of managing clients and creatives, as opposed to focusing solely on design work. Join Mark Brickey and Lincoln Design Co At Into The Woods Creative Conference: https://intothewoodscon.com/ Save 15% Using Coupon Code AID at checkout! Join us Tuesdays and Thursdays for new episodes of Adventures In Design, where we'll help you turn your daydreams into your day job! Subscribe To Adventures In Design Today! Are you tired of missing out on the full conversations and valuable insights shared on Adventures In Design? Upgrade to our Circle of Trust and gain access to over 1600 podcasts and workshops. As a member, you'll be able to hear the entire conversation and get more in-depth information to help manage your freelance, small business, or career. Plus, you'll have access to exclusive bonus content and get to enjoy even more good times and laughs with the AID community. Don't wait. Sign up for the Circle of Trust today and take your listening experience to the next level! https://aid.network/
ASCO eLearning Weekly Podcasts
In this episode of ASCO Educational podcasts, we'll explore how we interpret and integrate recently reported clinical research into practice. The first scenario involves a 72-year old man with high-risk, localized prostate cancer progressing to hormone-sensitive metastatic disease. Our guests are Dr. Kriti Mittal (UMass Chan Medical School) and Dr. Jorge Garcia (Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine). Together they present the patient scenario (1:12), review research evidence regarding systemic and radiation therapy for high-risk localized disease (5:45), and reflect on the importance of genetic testing and (10:57) and considerations for treatment approaches at progression to metastatic disease (16:13). Speaker Disclosures Dr. Kriti Mittal: Honoraria – IntrinsiQ; Targeted Oncology; Medpage; Aptitude Health; Cardinal Health Consulting or Advisory Role – Bayer; Aveo; Dendreon; Myovant; Fletcher; Curio Science; AVEO; Janssen; Dedham Group Research Funding - Pfizer Dr. Jorge Garcia: Honoraria - MJH Associates: Aptitude Health; Janssen Consulting or Advisor – Eisai; Targeted Oncology Research Funding – Merck; Pfizer; Orion Pharma GmbH; Janssen Oncology; Genentech/Roche; Lilly Other Relationship - FDA Resources ASCO Article: Implementation of Germline Testing for Prostate Cancer: Philadelphia Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference 2019 ASCO Course: How Do I Integrate Metastasis-directed Therapy in Patients with Oligometastatic Prostate Cancer? (Free to Full and Allied ASCO Members) If you liked this episode, please follow the show. To explore other educational content, including courses, visit education.asco.org. Contact us at email@example.com. TRANSCRIPT Dr. Kriti Mittal: Hello and welcome to this episode of the ASCO Education Podcast. Today we'll explore how we interpret and integrate recently reported clinical research into practice, focusing on two clinical scenarios: localized prostate cancer progressing to hormone-sensitive metastatic disease; and a case of de novo metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer progressing to castration-resistant disease. My name is Kriti Mittal and I am the Medical Director of GU Oncology at the University of Massachusetts. I am delighted to co-host today's discussion with my colleague, Dr. Jorge Garcia. Dr. Garcia is a Professor of Medicine and Urology at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. He is also the George and Edith Richmond Distinguished Scientist chair and the current chair of the Solid Tumor Oncology Division at University Hospital's Seidman Cancer Center. Let me begin by presenting the first patient scenario. Case 1: A 72-year-old male was referred to urology for evaluation of hematuria. A rectal exam revealed an enlarged prostate without any nodules. A CT urogram was performed that revealed an enlarged prostate with bladder trabeculations. A cystoscopy revealed no stones or tumors in the bladder, but the prostatic urethra appeared to be abnormal looking. Transurethral resection of the prostate was performed. The pathology revealed Gleason score 4+5=9 prostate cancer, involving 90% of the submitted tissue. PSA was performed one week later and was elevated at 50. Patient declined the option of radical prostatectomy and was referred to radiation and medical oncology. So I guess the question at this point is, Dr. Garcia, in 2023, how do you stage patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer and how would you approach this case? Dr. Jorge Garcia: That's a great question and a great case, by the way, sort of what you and I in our practice will call ‘bread and butter'. Patients like this type of case that you just presented come from different places to our practice. So either they come through urology or oftentimes they may come through radiation oncology. And certainly, it depends where you practice in the United States, at ‘X', US, they may come through medical oncology. So I think that the first question that I have is in whatever role I'm playing in this case, where the patient has seen a urologist or a rad onc or me first, I think it's important for us in medical oncology, at least in the prostate cancer space, to talk about how do we think of their case and put those comments into context for the patient. It's very simple for you to tell a patient you can probably have surgery, radiation therapy, but at the end of the day, how do you counsel that patient as to the implications of the features of his disease is going to be really important. I use very simple examples that I relate to my patients, but really this patient is a patient that has very high-risk prostate cancer based upon the NCCN guidelines and how we actually stratify patients into what we call low-risk, intermediate-, and high-risk, and between those very low and very high risk. So his PSA is high, very high, I would argue. His Gleason score, now, what we call group grading is high. He has high-volume disease. So the first question that I would have is, what are the choices for treatment for a patient like this? But even before you and I may talk about treatment options, we really want to understand the volume of their disease and whether or not they have localized prostate cancer with high-risk features or whether or not they have locally advanced or hopefully not metastatic disease. So back in the days prior to the FDA approval for PSMA PET imaging, we probably will have a Technetium-99 whole-body bone scan, and/or we probably will actually use CT scanning. Most people in the past, we used to do just a CT of the abdomen and pelvic region. As you know, with the movement of oral agents in the advanced setting, I think most of us will do a chest CT, abdomen and pelvic region, and certainly we also probably will have a Technetium-99 bone scan. Now, with the utility and the use of PET imaging, I think most people like him will probably undergo PET PSMA, where you use F-18 PSMA or Gallium-68 PSMA. I think the importance depends on how you look at the approval of these two technologies. I think that PET PSMA imaging is here to stay. It's probably what most of us will use. And based upon that, we will define yet the truest stage of this patient. So right now, what we know is he has high-risk features. Hopefully, their disease is localized. We'll probably put the patient through an imaging technology. If you don't have access to a PET, then obviously CT and a bone scan will do. But if you do, the PET will actually help us define if the patient has disease outside of the prostate region, in the pelvic area, or even if they have distant metastases. Dr. Kriti Mittal: I would agree with that approach, Dr. Garcia. I think in the United States, we've been late adopters of PSMA scans. I think this patient with high-risk localized disease, if insurance allows at our institution, would get a PSMA for staging. There are still some patients where insurance companies, despite peer-to-peer evaluations, are not approving PSMAs. And in those situations, the patient would benefit from conventional CTs and a bone scan. So let's say this patient had a PSMA and was found not to have any regional or distant metastases. He decided against surgery, and he is seeing you as his medical oncologist together with radiation. What would your recommendations be? Dr. Jorge Garcia: I think the bigger question is, do we have any data to suggest or to demonstrate that if in the absence of metastatic disease with conventional imaging or with emerging technologies such as PSMA PET, there is no evidence of distant disease, which I think you probably agree with me, that would be sort of unlikely with a patient with these features not to have some form of PSMA uptake somewhere in their body. But let's assume that indeed then the PSMA PET was negative, so we're really talking about high-risk localized prostate cancer. So I don't think we can tell a patient that radical prostatectomy would not be a standard of care. We never had a randomized trial comparing surgery against radiation therapy. This patient has already made that decision and surgery is not an option for him. If he, indeed, had elected radiotherapy, the three bigger questions that I ask myself are where are you going to aim the beam of that radiation therapy? What technology, dose, and fractionation are you going to use? And lastly, what sort of systemic therapy do you need, if any, for that matter? Where we do have some data maybe less controversial today in 2023 compared to the past? But I think the question is, do we do radiation to the prostate only or do we expand the field of that radiation to include the pelvic nodes? Secondly, do we use IMRT? Do you use proton beam or not? Again, that's a big question that I think that opens up significant discussions. But more important, in my opinion, is the term of hypofractionation. I think the field of radiation oncology has shifted away from the old standard, five, seven weeks of radiation therapy to more hypofractionation, which in simple terms means a higher dose over a short period of time. And there was a concern in the past that when you give more radiation on a short period of time, toxicities or side effects would increase. And I think that there is plenty of data right now, very elegant data, demonstrated that hypofractionation is not worse with regards to side effects. I think most of us will be doing or supporting hypofractionation. And perhaps even to stretch that, the question now is of SBRT. Can we offer SBRT to a selected group of patients with high-risk prostate cancer? And again, those are discussions that we will naturally, I assume, in your practice, in your group, you probably also have along with radiation oncology. Now, the bigger question, which in my mind is really not debatable today in the United States, is the need for systemic therapy. And I think we all will go back to the old data from the European EORTC data looking at the duration of androgen deprivation therapy. And I think most of us would suggest that at the very least, 24 months of androgen deprivation therapy is the standard of care for men with high-risk prostate cancer who elect to have local definitive radiation therapy as their modality of treatment. I think that whether or not it's 24 or 36, I think that the Canadian data looking at 18 months didn't hit the mark. But I think the radiation oncology community in the prostate cancer space probably has agreed that 24 months clinically is the right sort of the sweetest spot. What I think is a bit different right now is whether or not these patients need treatment intensification. And we have now very elegant data from the British group and also from the French group, suggesting, in fact, that patients with very high-risk prostate cancer who don't have evidence of objective metastasis may, in fact, benefit from ADT plus one of the novel hormonal agents, in this case, the use of an adrenal biosynthesis inhibitor such as abiraterone acetate. So I think in my practice, what I would counsel this patient is to probably embark on radiotherapy as local definitive therapy and also to consider 24 months of androgen deprivation therapy. But I would, based upon his Gleason score of group grading, his high-volume disease in the prostate gland, and his PSA, to probably consider the use of the addition of abiraterone in that context. Dr. Kriti Mittal: That is in fact how this patient was offered treatment. The patient decided to proceed with radiation therapy with two years of androgen deprivation. And based on data from the multi-arm STAMPEDE platform, the patient met two of the following three high-risk features Gleason score >8, PSA >40, and clinical >T3 disease. He was offered two years of abiraterone therapy. Unfortunately, the patient chose to decline upfront intensification of therapy. In addition, given the diagnosis of high-risk localized prostate cancer, the patient was also referred to genetic counseling based on the current Philadelphia Consensus Conference guidelines. Germline testing should be considered in patients with high-risk localized node-positive or metastatic prostate cancer, regardless of their family history. In addition, patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who have cribriform histology should also consider germline genetic testing. Access to genetic counseling remains a challenge at several sites across the US, including ours. There is a growing need to educate urologists and medical oncologists to make them feel comfortable administering pretest counseling themselves and potentially ordering the test while waiting for the results and then referring patients who are found to have abnormalities for a formal genetics evaluation. In fact, the Philadelphia Consensus Conference Guideline offers a very elegant framework to help implement this workflow paradigm in clinical practice. And at our site, one of our fellows is actually using this as a research project so that patients don't have to wait months to be seen by genetics. This will have implications, as we will see later in this podcast, not only for this individual patient as we talk about the role of PARP inhibitors but also has implications for cascade testing and preventative cancer screening in the next of kin. Dr. Jorge Garcia: Dr. Mittal, I think that we cannot stress enough the importance of genetic testing for these patients. Oftentimes I think one of the challenges that our patients are facing is how they come into the system. If you come through urology, especially in the community side, what I have heard is that there are challenges trying to get to that genetic counsel. Not so much because you cannot do the test, but rather the interpretation of the testing and the downstream effect as you're describing the consequences of having a positive test and how you're going to counsel that patient. If you disregard the potential of you having an active agent based upon your genomic alteration, is the downstream of how your family may be impacted by a finding such as the DNA repair deficiency or something of that nature. So for us at major academic institutions because the flow how those patients come through us, and certainly the bigger utilization of multi-disciplinary clinics where we actually have more proximity with radiation oncology urology, and we actually maybe finesse those cases through the three teams more often than not, at least discuss them, then I think that's less likely to occur. But I think the bigger question is the timing of when we do testing and how we do it. So there are two ways -- and I'd love to hear how you do it at your institution -- because there are two ways that I can think one can do that. The low-hanging fruit is you have tissue material from the biopsy specimen. So what you do, you actually use any of the commercial platforms to do genomic or next-generation sequencing or you can do in-house sequencing if your facility has an in-house lab that can do testing. And that only gets you to what we call ‘somatic testing', which is really epigenetic changes over time that are only found in abnormal cells. It may not tell you the entire story of that patient because you may be missing the potential of identifying a germline finding. So when you do that, did you do germline testing at the same time that you do somatic testing or did you start with one and then you send to genetic counseling and then they define who gets germline testing? Dr. Kriti Mittal: So at our site, we start with germline genetic testing. We use either blood testing or a cheek swab assay and we send the full 84-gene multigene panel. Dr. Jorge Garcia: Yeah, and I think for our audience, Dr. Mittal, that's great. I don't think you and I will be too draconian deciding which platform one uses. It's just that we want to make sure that at least you test those patients. And I think the importance of this is if you look at the New England Journal paper from many years ago, from the Pritchard data looking at the incidence of DNA repair deficiency in men with prostate cancer in North America, that was about what, around 10% or so, take it or leave it. So if you were to look only for germline testing, you only will, in theory, capture around 10% of patients. But if you add somatic changes that are also impacting the DNA pathway, then you may add around 23%, 25% of patients. So we really are talking that if we only do one type of testing, we may be missing a significant proportion of patients who still may be candidates, maybe not for family counseling if you had a somatic change, rather than germline testing, the positivity, but if you do have somatic, then you can add into that equation the potential for that patient to embark on PARP inhibitors down the road as you stated earlier. It may not change how we think of the patient today, or the treatment for that matter. But you may allow to counsel that patient differently and may allow to sequence your treatments in a different way based upon the findings that you have. So I could not stress the importance of the NCCN guidelines and the importance of doing genetic testing for pretty much the vast majority of our patients with prostate cancer. Dr. Kriti Mittal: Going back to our patient, three years after completion of his therapy, the patient was noted to have a rising PSA. On surveillance testing, his PSA rose from 0.05 a few months prior to 12.2 at the time of his medical oncology appointment. He was also noted to have worsening low back pain. A PSMA scan was performed that was noteworthy for innumerable intensely PSMA avid osseous lesions throughout his axial and appendicular skeleton. The largest lesion involved the right acetabulum and the right ischium. Multiple additional sizable lesions were seen throughout the pelvis and spine without any evidence of pathologic fractures. So the question is, what do we do next? Dr. Jorge Garcia: The first question that I would have is, the patient completed ADT, right? So the patient did not have treatment intensification, but at the very least he got at least systemic therapy based upon the EORTC data. And therefore, one would predict that his outcome will have been improved compared to those patients who receive either no ADT or less time on ADT. But what I'm interested in understanding is his nadir PSA matters to me while he was on radiation and ADT. I would like to know if his nadir PSA was undetectable, that's one thing. If he was unable to achieve an undetectable PSA nadir, that would be a different thought process for me. And secondly, before I can comment, I would like to know if you have access to his testosterone level. Because notably, what happens to patients like this maybe is that you will drive down testosterone while you get ADT, PSAs become undetectable. Any of us could assume that the undetectability is the result of the radiation therapy. But the true benefit of the combination of radiation and ADT in that context really comes to be seen when the patient has got off the ADT, has recovered testosterone, and only when your testosterone has normalized or is not castrated, then we'll know what happens with your serologic changes. If you rise your PSA while you recover testosterone, that is one makeup of patient. But if you rise your PSA while you have a testosterone at the castrated level, that would be a different makeup of a patient. So do we have a sense as to when the patient recovered testosterone and whether or not if his PSA rose after recovery? Dr. Kriti Mittal: At the time his PSA rose to 12, his testosterone was 275. Dr. Jorge Garcia: Okay, perfect. You and I would call this patient castration-naive or castration-sensitive. I know that it's semantics. A lot of people struggle with the castration-naive and castration-sensitive state. What that means really to me, castration-naive is not necessarily that you have not seen ADT before. It's just that your cancer progression is dependent on the primary fuel that is feeding prostate cancer, in this case, testosterone or dihydrotestosterone, which is the active metabolite of testosterone. So in this case, recognizing the patient had a testosterone recovery and his biochemical recurrence, which is the rising of his PSA occur when you have recovery of testosterone, makes this patient castration-sensitive. Now the PET scan demonstrates now progression of his disease. So clearly he has a serologic progression, he has radiographic progression. I assume that the patient may have no symptoms, right, from his disease? Dr. Kriti Mittal: This patient had some low back pain at the time of this visit. So I think we can conclude he has clinical progression as well. Dr. Jorge Garcia: Okay, so he had the triple progression, serologic, clinical, and radiographic progression. The first order of business for me would be to understand the volume of his disease and whether we use the US CHAARTED definition of high volume or low volume, or whether we use the French definition for high volume from Latitude, or whether we use STAMPEDE variation for definition, it does appear to me that this patient does have high-volume disease. Why? If you follow the French, it's a Gleason score of >8, more than three bone metastases, and the presence of visceral disease, and you need to have two out of the three. If you follow CHAARTED definition, we did not use Gleason scoring, the US definition. We only use either the presence of visceral metastases or the presence of more than four bone lesions, two of which had to be outside the appendicular skeleton. So if we were to follow either/or, this patient would be high-volume in nature. So the standard of care for someone with metastatic disease, regardless of volume, is treatment intensification, is you suppress testosterone with androgen deprivation therapy. And in this case, I'd love to hear how you do it in Massachusetts, but here, for the most part, I would actually use a GnRH agonist-based approach, any of the agents that we have. Having said that, I think there is a role to do GnRH antagonist-based therapy. In this case, degarelix, or the oral GnRH antagonist, relugolix, is easier to get patients on a three-month injection or six-month injection with GnRH agonist than what it is on a monthly basis. But I think it's also fair for our audience to realize that there is data suggesting that perhaps degarelix can render testosterone at a lower level, meaning that you can castrate even further or have very low levels of testosterone contrary to GnRH agonist-based approaches. And also for patients maybe like this patient that you're describing, you can minimize the flare that possibly you could get with a GnRH agonist by transiently raising the DHT before the hypothalamic-pituitary axis would shut it down. So either/or would be fine with me. Relugolix, as you know, the attraction of relugolix for us right now, based upon the HERO data, is that you may have possibly less cardiovascular side effects. My rationale not to use a lot of relugolix when I need treatment intensification is quite simple. I'm not aware, I don't know if you can mitigate or minimize that potential cardiovascular benefit by adding abiraterone or adding one of the ARIs, because ARIs and abiraterone by themselves also have cardiovascular side effects. But either/or would be fine with me. The goal of the game is to suppress your male hormone. But very important is that regardless of volume, high or low, every patient with metastatic disease requires treatment intensification. You can do an adrenal biosynthesis inhibitor such as abiraterone acetate. You can pick an androgen receptor inhibitor such as apalutamide or enzalutamide if that's the case. The subtleties in how people feel comfortable using these agents, I think, none of us – as you know, Dr. Mittal - can comment that one oral agent is better than the other one. Independently, each of these three oral agents have randomized level 1, phase III data demonstrating survival improvement when you do treatment intensification with each respective agent. But we don't have, obviously, head-to-head data looking at this. What I think is different right now, as you know, is the data with the ARASENS data, which was a randomized phase III trial, an international effort looking at triple therapy, and that is male hormone suppression plus docetaxel-based chemotherapy against testosterone suppression plus docetaxel-based chemotherapy plus the novel androgen receptor inhibitor known as darolutamide. This trial demonstrated an outcome survival improvement when you do triple therapy for those high-volume patients. And therefore, what I can tell you in my personal opinion and when I define a patient of mine who is in need of chemotherapy, then the standard of care in my practice will be triple therapy. So if I know you are a candidate for chemotherapy, however, I make that decision that I want you to get on docetaxel upfront. If you have high-volume features, then the standard of care would not be ADT and chemo alone, it would be ADT, chemo, and darolutamide. What I don't know, and what we don't know, as you know, is whether or not triple therapy for a high-volume patient is better, the same, equivalent, or less than giving someone ADT plus a novel hormonal agent. That is the data that we don't have. There are some meta-analyses looking at the data, but I can tell you that at the very least, if you prefer chemo, it should be triple therapy. If you prefer an oral agent, it certainly should be either apalutamide, abiraterone acetate, and/or enzalutamide. But either/or, patients do need treatment intensification, and what is perplexing to me, and I know for you as well, is that a significant proportion of our patients in North America are still not getting treatment intensification, which is really sub-optimal and sub-standard for our practice. Dr. Kriti Mittal: Thank you, Dr. Garcia, for a terrific discussion on the application of recent advances in prostate cancer to clinical practice. In an upcoming podcast, we will continue that discussion exploring management of de novo metastatic prostate cancer. The ASCO Education Podcast is where we explore topics ranging from implementing new cancer treatments and improving patient care to oncologists' well-being and professional development. If you have an idea for a topic or a guest you'd like to see on the ASCO Education Podcast, please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. To stay up to date with the latest episodes and explore other educational content, please visit education.asco.org. The purpose of this podcast is to educate and to inform. This is not a substitute for professional medical care and is not intended for use in the diagnosis or treatment of individual conditions. Guests on this podcast express their own opinions, experience, and conclusions. Guest statements on the podcast do not express the opinions of ASCO. The mention of any product, service, organization, activity, or therapy should not be construed as an ASCO endorsement.
Hear the answer to this question and more about the synovio-entheseal complex in PsA, and how it can be a biomarker for more severe disease from rheumatologist Dr. Lihi Eder, Associate Professor of Medicine and the Canada Research Chair, Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases Tier 2 at the Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto. This Psound Bytes episode is provided with support from AbbVie, Bristol Myers Squibb, Janssen, and UCB.
Let us raise our voices in worship and praise to our God.
In this episode Bill talks with the cofounder of the Inkcarceration Music and Tattoo Festival, Dan Janssen. We catch up for our annual talk about Inkcarceration Festival, some insight into how some of the bands came together for this years event, a sneak peak into 2024, the reasoning behind the stage set up changes, exclusive information in regarding the camp site stages and Karaoke, the leadership of Danny Wimmer, what fans can expect with Ink going forward, will this host get to live out his dream in the media tent, plus so much more. Today's Boondoggle fans can receive 10% off their orders at dreemnutrition.com by using the promo code BOONDOG10 at checkout. So kick back with your headphones and cold one for this latest episode. Enjoy our additional segments featuring music from the Flo White Show and Stories from the VFW Hall. Remember Boondoggle Listeners Matter, so e-mail us at email@example.com and let us know your thoughts so we can read them on air. Tweet us @2daysBoondoggle and Follow us on Instagram @todaysboondoggle as well as on Facebook. Please subscribe and give 5 stars and review. Every review we receive on either Apple Podcast or Google Music we will mention you on a future episode and our Social Media pages. Follow Today's Boondoggle also on our Social Media as well as DomainCle.com and on Anchor.fm Today's Boondoggle logo designed by Stacy Candow. Additional music by Evan Crouse Also please consider financially supporting us at Todays Boondoggle using Venmo, our GoFundMe, or sponsoring us on our Anchor.fm page, so we can continue to provide you with quality entertainment. --- Send in a voice message: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/cmspn/message
USS JANSSEN (DE-396) encountered three different submarines during WWII, rescued sailors from one of them, including a spy! Hear the whole story on this episode of DE Classified. Follow along with our transcript and check out the photos on our website. If you like what you hear and are able to help us out by leaving a donation, we appreciate every dollar we are given! Donations are used to restore, preserve, and educate the public about USS SLATER and Destroyer Escorts. USS SLATER is a private not-for-profit museum that receives no regular support from New York State, the federal government, or the US Navy. We are funded by private donations, ticket, and merchandise sales. Thanks for listening and lending your support!Support the showSupport the show
Are topicals not enough to treat your psoriasis? Are you considering systemic treatments? Listen as Dr. Ahmad Shatil Amin, Medical Practice Director, Northwestern Medicine Dermatology Department in Chicago, discusses what oral and injectable systemic treatments are available, how they work, potential side effects, use in combination therapy, and more! This Psound Bytes episode is provided with support from Bristol Myers Squibb, Janssen and UCB.
Join us as we discuss life with psoriatic disease and how those experiences shaped the lives of two amazing NPF volunteers, Melissa Leeolou and Max Green, who now pursue a career in medicine. Hear how they came to volunteer with the National Psoriasis Foundation and why they dedicate their lives to helping others through life's challenges. This Psound Bytes episode is provided with support from Bristol Myers Squibb, Janssen, and UCB.
4-18 Segment 3 - #stlcards catcher Andrew Knizner joins the show - Plus, a stunning admission from Cam Janssen
Life is not always rainbows and butterflies. Sometimes it's tough and having psoriasis or PsA can make it harder. You are not alone. Hear words of wisdom from One to One Program mentors Alan Simmons and Renee Joyce as they share experiences and tips on how to move past fears and every day stressors to enjoy life. Don't miss this amazing episode! This Psound Bytes episode is provided with support from Bristol Myers Squibb, Janssen and UCB.
Today Ted speaks with Shari Brownfield of Shari Brownfield Fine Art. Shari got her start in Vancouver before moving stateside and landing in Jackson, Wyoming. Always business-minded, she transitioned from being an artist to procuring and selling art.Shari specializes in helping discerning clients acquire and build a collection that brings them joy, but can also tell a story in their home. She has a particular expertise in acquiring art before the value of the artist is at its peak – allowing her clients to sell for a hefty profit. Join us to hear how she got her start, the story behind the value of art, and how hard work pays off.TOPICS DISCUSSED[1:45] From Canada to the US[4:50] Being a recovering artist[6:40] What makes art valuable[16:40] Why under-representation matters in art[21:30] How it all began[31:00] Most artists are poor[34:00] How to mix styles of art in different styles of homes[40:10] Generational changes in art taste[43:30] The Jackson Hole art scene[47:40] The arts in Israel[53:30] Art on yachts[54:15] Did you imagine you'd make it this far?CONNECT WITH GUESTWebsiteFacebookInstagramKEY QUOTES FROM EPISODE Value is a very tricky word in the art world. Value can mean it's valuable to you emotionally. Perhaps you connect with the artwork in some way. It could be a dollar at the thrift store, right? Then there's value all the way into the multi-multimillions. And those values have been established over a long period of time.Art is a language, right? And the art history books, the most famous art history book, Janssen's art history book is about a 700 page tome, and the first edition featured one female artist in it only. And the lens that a female artist brings to something, say a nude of a female, might be very different than the lens male artist brings, or a portrait of a family, an LGBTQ family, a black family. So the lens that the artist brings, it's not just purely about the aesthetics at the end of the day, which of course is the first thing that draws us in. But one group of artists may not have been able to create what another group of artists can create. So that's why it's really important that all the voices are heard. I remember that first job I told you about that I got where I was a salesperson. I heard a client say something, oh, this would be for my, I was in Vancouver and they said, this would be for our home in California or something. And the concept of having two houses to me was completely foreign. I did not understand. What do you mean you have a house also there and here? Like, it made no sense to me. That type of wealth was so foreign.
EPISODE 214Well, that was entertaining, to say the least! The 2023 Masters had it all, slow play, weather delays, a PGA/LIV showdown, and the strangest accumulation of no animosity between the players from both leagues. I'm sure there were a lot of people, present company included, that believed there would be some fireworks. But we're starting to think the drama is more media-driven than anything else. The players were casual, non-combatant, and pretty damn nice regarding their time on TV and radio when addressing the opposing leagues. Rahm got the win, Brooks got some much-needed TV Time, and Phil made a run for the ages, literally. Tiger had to WD, Freddy broke Leatherface's record, and Rory decided two days was plenty in Georgia.We had Cyrus Janssen join us for this recap, and it was a pleasure, as always, to have him on the show.We did have some Vegas Golf Network chat as we're gearing up for our first Major of the season, and Matt Gontarek gave us the weekend FOREcast for this important tourney out at Paiute!---------------------------------------------------If you haven't checked out our NEW YouTube channel, please do and hit that Subscribe Button for us! More content is coming to that channel as Matt learns the ins and outs of making better videos. Each week we're posting the show on there as well.Please check out one of our show supporters FN3P Golf. You can save some money using our code "CDPODCAST" at checkout.If you're starting a new podcast or have one and want to make some changes to better your show, we highly recommend RIVERSIDE.FM. Use our affiliate link below to check out the software and do your part to make a better product for your listeners.If you like how the show looks and sounds lately, check out RIVERSIDE.FM, their software is legit!The Las Vegas Golf Superstore The premier retail destination for golfers in the Las Vegas Valley! If you're looking for a home in the Las Vegas area or want to list your current home, look no further than real estate expert and golfing professional Bob West.The Las Vegas Golf Superstore The premier retail destination for golfers in the Las Vegas Valley!Bob West - The Golfing Real Estate Agent Former professional golfer turned Real Estate agent servicing the Las Vegas ValleyWe hope you enjoy this week's episode, and if you do, please consider leaving us a review on either Spotify or iTunes. Thank You!
Hear what this means from long-standing NPF volunteer Dr. Meyer Horn, Medical Director, Dermatology and Aesthetics in Chicago and Julia Hamel, NPF Midwest Regional Development Manager as they share ideas from volunteers about new ways communities can take action, connect with each other, and support NPF's mission critical programs. This Psound Bytes episode is provided with support from Bristol Myers Squibb, Janssen, and UCB.
Clay Sayre joins Jim for a rollicking discussion of a classic 1972 TV Movie, "Moon Of The Wolf," starring David Janssen, Bradford Dillman, Barbara Rush, John Bernadino, Geoffrey Lewis and Royal Dano. A series of murders baffles a small Louisiana town sheriff (Janssen) and everyone seems to be suspect. But is the murderer a man or beast? Find out on thi8s episode of MONSTER ATTACK!, The Podcast Dedicated To Old Monster Movies.
Clay Sayre joins Jim for a rollicking discussion of a classic 1972 TV Movie, “Moon Of The Wolf,” starring David Janssen, Bradford Dillman, Barbara Rush, John Bernadino, Geoffrey Lewis and Royal Dano. A series of murders baffles a small Louisiana town sheriff (Janssen) and everyone seems to be suspect. But is the murderer a man … Moon Of The Wolf | Episode 353 Read More » The post Moon Of The Wolf | Episode 353 appeared first on The ESO Network.
The formative years of childhood are a period of rapid cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development of a child. Because of this, one of the most important decisions you'll make as a parent is where you decide to send your kid for childcare. Mary Janssen is the Regional Director of Child Care Resource and Referral in Northeast Iowa. Her mission is to assist families in selecting childcare providers who best meet the needs of the child and family. She leads a team of early-childcare professionals who provide resources, education, and advocacy to support quality childcare providers. Listen in as we discuss where Mary's love of early childcare began, how amazing mentorship played a role, why she continues to find passion in her work, and how she's bringing more quality childcare options to the Cedar Valley.
“One of Us” is a brief snapshot of people who support the Catholic church in various ways in the Diocese of Wilmington. We regularly feature people who may be recognizable within their parish communities.
Former St Louis Blues and New Jersey Devils fighter Cam Janssen from The Cam & Strick Podcast joined us this week! Cam talked about what it was like fighting when he played, the state of todays NHL, playing for Lou Lamoriello and the NJ Devils, playing for his hometown STL Blues, the problem with pain killers and a ton more!Riley and Derek also discussed the Flyers not having a captain next season, John Carlson coming back from injury, Florida Panthers collapse, Dave Scott and Steve Coates retiring, running into Max Talbot and more!Nasty Knuckles is an original show created by co-hosts, Riley Cote and Derek "Nasty" Settlemyre. The show will feature a mix of interviews, never before heard story-telling, hockey-talk, and maybe some pranks... The guys will bring in some of the biggest names in the hockey world all for your enjoyment! Make sure to check back every week as the guys release a new episode weekly!► Follow the show on Twitter: https://twitter.com/NastyKnuckles► Follow Riley Cote on Twitter: https://twitter.com/rileycote32► Follow Riley Cote on Instagram: https://instagram.com/rileycote32► Follow Derek Settlemyre on Twitter: https://twitter.com/dnastyworld► Follow Derek Settlemyre on Instagram: https://instagram.com/dnastyworld Hosted on Acast. See acast.com/privacy for more information.
1992 wird in Frankfurt am Main die jüdische Holocaustüberlebende Blanka Zmigrod auf ihrem Nachhauseweg auf offener Straße erschossen. Der Täter ist ein schwedischer Rechtsterrorist. Erst 26 Jahre später wird er verurteilt. Ein politisches Motiv erkennt das Gericht nicht.Schulz, Marina;Janssen, Fabianwww.deutschlandfunkkultur.de, Mikrokosmos – Die KulturreportageDirekter Link zur Audiodatei
May we be ushered into His comforting presence as we worship God this morning.
3-21 Segment 3 - Cam Janssen calls in live from Florida... where the conditions are less than ideal - Recaps from Nashville trip - #stlblues playing better hockey, welcome back David Perron & Ville Husso tonight vs. Detroit
Dr. Mohamed Salem, Dr. Myriam Chalabi, and Dr. Andrea Cercek discuss pivotal neoadjuvant immunotherapy clinical trials for patients with MSI-H/dMMR colorectal cancer, focusing on the development of active therapies in the neoadjuvant setting—where patients are treated without surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy—and the importance of patient selection in finding the right target and treatment to improve outcomes. TRANSCRIPT Dr. Mohamed Salem: Hello, and welcome to the ASCO Daily News Podcast. I'm your guest host today, Dr. Mohamed Salem. I'm a GI oncologist at the Levine Cancer Institute at Atrium Health. Today, we will be discussing very promising advancements in the neoadjuvant immunotherapy for patients with MSI-H/dMMR colorectal cancer. And I'm very delighted to welcome two world-renowned oncologists whose research has tremendously helped shape the treatment landscape of colorectal cancer. Dr. Myriam Chalabi is a GI medical oncologist at the Netherlands Cancer Institute, and Dr. Andrea Cercek is a medical oncologist at Memorial Sloan Kettering in the United States. Our full disclosures are available in the transcript of this episode, and disclosures relating to all episodes of the podcast are available on our transcripts at asco.org/DNpod. Dr. Chalabi and Dr. Cercek, welcome to the ASCO Daily News Podcast. Dr. Myriam Chalabi: Thank you for having me. Dr. Andrea Cercek: Thank you very much for having me. Dr. Mohamed Salem: It's a pleasure to have two world-renowned stars like you. Thank you for taking the time. So, before we start going deep into the topic, obviously, now we are seeing emerging data in CRC using immunotherapy as the neoadjuvant approach, which actually can reduce or even eliminate some of the other treatment modalities and potentially save patients from toxicities. Both of you led what I think are landmark studies in this field. I wanted to give you the chance to tell our audience about your studies and why you think they're important. Dr. Cercek? Dr. Andrea Cercek: Sure. Thank you so much. So, our study was a neoadjuvant study in early-stage, locally advanced rectal cancer with tumors that were mismatch repair-deficient or MSI-H. And rectal cancer normally is treated with chemotherapy, chemoradiation, and surgery. And the goal of the trial was to utilize PD-1 blockade alone in this subpopulation and evaluate the response. Patients received six months of dostarlimab, which is a PD-1 blocking agent, and then were evaluated for response. If there was no residual disease, they were able to avoid radiation and surgery. And what we've seen thus far in the presentation at GI ASCO in 2022 was that all patients who received six months of dostarlimab had a clinical complete response, so no residual tumor, and were able to avoid chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery and are on observation. And the study is ongoing and actively accruing patients. Dr. Mohamed Salem: All of us were very excited seeing that presentation at ASCO. And when we came back to the clinic everyone was talking about it, including patients, obviously. Thank you for this, Dr. Cercek. Dr. Chalabi, you also led a similar study that was actually presented in ESMO in 2022. Can you please give us, like, a brief description of that trial? Dr. Myriam Chalabi: Yeah, sure. So, this is the NICHE trial, and actually the NICHE trial has been ongoing for quite some time now. We recently presented a larger NICHE-2 study, but basically– so what we started out by doing in NICHE is giving patients what we considered back then a window of opportunity study. We treated patients with MMR-deficient tumors, which I'll be focusing on for now, with two cycles of nivolumab and one single cycle of low-dose ipilimumab. And patients all undergo surgery within six weeks of registration within the study. And back in 2020, we published the first data of NICHE-1 showing 100% pathologic responses with 60% pathologic complete responses and decided that this should definitely be a treatment that we need to explore in a larger group of patients. And that's where NICHE-2 was born, which we presented at ESMO last year, where we treated over 100 patients with this neoadjuvant approach of two cycles nivolumab, one single cycle ipilimumab, showing 99% pathologic responses, including 95% major pathologic responses and 67% pathologic complete responses. And this was all within five and a half weeks of the first treatment with immunotherapy, so a very short treatment duration with dual checkpoint blockade. Dr. Mohamed Salem: Amazing results, too. And I know you had a standing ovation when you presented the outcome of the study. And again, congratulations to you, your investigator, and also all the patients participated. Dr. Myriam Chalabi: Thank you so much. Dr. Mohamed Salem: I guess the first question that comes to my mind - we have two trials, obviously, now we're moving from one size fits all to precision therapy, like getting actually the right treatment for the right patient. But in the NICHE study, it was a checkpoint inhibitor, and the rectal study was a single agent. I want to start with you, Dr. Chalabi. In your opinion, when should we use single agent or double blockade immunotherapy? Dr. Myriam Chalabi: That is a great question. I'm going to start off by saying that I don't know the exact answer. I don't think we know that answer. And Dr. Cercek is going to share also her thoughts on this because we're seeing, of course, fantastic responses with monotherapy as well in Dr. Cercek's study. And we've also seen that in a study by Dr. Overman with monotherapy. So that may suffice in some patients, although what we're seeing is that you need to treat patients longer, probably to achieve that response, at least clinically. And I think that is the difference with dual checkpoint blockade, that we're giving in NICHE where we're seeing these very deep responses in just under six weeks' time. So, I think it may be more of a question of how long we want to treat patients for to achieve the endpoint that we're aiming for. And, of course, there may be, at some point, patients that need dual checkpoint blockade, but so far, we're seeing great responses in both of our studies. So I think we need more patients, more data to see whether we're going to see non-responders. And hopefully, the studies that are ongoing in the metastatic disease setting will give us at least a little bit of insight into what the differences are in response to mono and dual checkpoint blockade and whether we can tell which patients might benefit more from the combination. But I think there's still a lot of work to be done in that field. Dr. Mohamed Salem: I totally agree. Dr. Cercek, same question to you. What do you think? Dr. Andrea Cercek: Dr. Chalabi answered beautifully and very comprehensively. I agree completely with what she said. It's hard to argue with the responses that we're seeing with PD-1 blockade alone. But then again, dual checkpoint inhibitors in the NICHE study with just one month of therapy had phenomenal responses as well. So I think it's a question of duration of therapy and, really importantly, what we're trying to achieve. If our goal is organ preservation, then perhaps longer duration is better. The question then becomes, can we do, should we do longer duration with dual checkpoint inhibitors versus single agent? So I think, as she concluded, I couldn't agree more that we just need more information, we need more work to do, basically to answer this question for our patients. Dr. Mohamed Salem: More to come and more studies, which is fascinating. So, Dr. Chalabi, you created actually a new term on Twitter called ‘Chalabi Plot'. It was amazing to see such a response. But we're curious, among those patients who achieved complete response so far, did you see any relapse? Dr. Myriam Chalabi: Short answer, no. we're waiting, of course on the disease-free survival data, the three-year DFS data for NICHE-2, and we hope to have that by the end of this year, beginning of next year. But as of now, we showed that data, and so far, we haven't seen any recurrences in, actually, any of the patients treated in NICHE-2. Dr. Mohamed Salem: Fantastic. Dr. Cercek. So I think your slide -- I remember clearly from the ASCO presentation -- was all complete response, every single patient. Same question, did you see any relapse so far? Dr. Andrea Cercek: So far, no, we have not. Dr. Mohamed Salem: Amazing. So, Dr. Cercek, as you know, and obviously, this is metastatic disease, but in KEYNOTE-177, as you know, about 30% of patients with MSI-high tumors did not respond to checkpoint inhibitors. So that makes some of us feel nervous about using checkpoint inhibitors alone in colorectal cancer, even with MSI-high status. I was curious if you can comment on this and if there is a way we can perhaps sort out who actually is likely to respond and who is likely not going to respond. Dr. Andrea Cercek: I think that's a really important question and an excellent point. And we believe that the difference lies in the fact that in KEYNOTE-177, the patients had metastatic disease, whereas in our neoadjuvant studies that we're discussing, they have early-stage disease. And whether that has to do with the tumor differences, young tumors versus older tumors once they become metastatic, or the microenvironment, remains to be determined. But certainly, there is this pattern of incredible responses with checkpoint inhibitors in early-stage dMMR tumors. And in KEYNOTE-177, as you mentioned, about 30% of patients progressed. And I think we don't know why that is. We are seeing this, about a third of progressors repeatedly in the metastatic setting with checkpoint inhibitors. And so perhaps there is a population. But whether this is driven by genomics or something else, we don't know. Dr. Mohamed Salem: Great. So, along the same lines, especially rectal cancer, obviously, because surgical resection is a key component in the treatment paradigm, do you feel patients who achieve pathological complete response should still go under surgical resection or should go under the ‘watch and wait' approach? Dr. Andrea Cercek: In general, I'm a fan of organ preservation. I think in rectal cancer, the reasons are obvious. It's a challenging surgery. It's very toxic to the patients. It changes their lives forever. In survivorship, 30% of them require a permanent colostomy because of the location of the tumor. So there, the field of rectal cancer, in general, is moving towards non-operative management, even in the MSI-proficient patients, by trying to optimize therapy to increase clinical complete responses and therefore omit surgery. So that's the difference with rectal cancer. In colon cancer, it's a different discussion. I think for many patients, surgery is very straightforward. It's a hemicolectomy. It doesn't alter lifestyle in survivorship, so it's not as morbid as it is in rectal cancer. Of course, I think if a patient is older with MSI-deficient tumor perhaps can undergo surgery, then clinical complete responses become critical because then we can monitor them after just checkpoint blockade, and they don't need surgery. The challenge there, and I would love to hear Dr. Chalabi's comments on this, too, is just that imaging is challenging. We have a hard time in colon cancer determining whether someone has a clinical complete response or not. It seems to be very different than in rectal cancer, where with endoscopy and with the rectal MRI, we really can't tell whether the tumor is still present or not. This remains a challenge in colon cancer. Dr. Mohamed Salem: Dr. Chalabi, I would like to hear your thoughts and also how you practice in Europe. I don't know if it's the same like here in US or different. Dr. Myriam Chalabi: I completely agree with Dr. Cercek. Well, if we look at the rectal cancer patients, I think this is fantastic. That even though this is a small population achieving this high clinical complete response rate, not having to operate or even give any chemotherapy or radiation therapy to these patients, it is extremely important both in the short term but also in terms of long-term complications and morbidity. When it comes to the colon cancer responses that we're seeing in NICHE, those are all pathologic responses, of course. And we have been evaluating also preoperatively using scans to see whether we can assess these complete responses based on imaging. That doesn't seem to be the case. We do see responses in all patients, so we see these are all very large bulky tumors that we're treating in NICHE-2. And we do see responses in almost all of these patients, but it's not close to complete responses, definitely not in all of the complete responders that we're seeing. So that makes it difficult. And the question is, what if we would be waiting or treating longer because these bulky tumors need more time to disappear or to be cleared before you're going to see it on the imaging? So that is a question that I don't have an answer to just yet. We may be getting some more data on that with the currently ongoing trials. And as Dr. Cercek pointed out, the endoscopies when you have a right-sided colon tumor are different than doing just a sigmoidoscopy for a rectal tumor. So, we actually do have one patient who hasn't undergone surgery, and that is actually a patient with an MMR-proficient tumor within the NICHE trial who had a complete response. And that patient has a sigmoidal tumor, and he actually had toxicities which prevented him from undergoing timely surgery and now has a complete response after two years, both endoscopically and on imaging. So, he hasn't undergone surgery, and that is a great example of how we may be doing this in the future. It's an interesting case within the trial to follow and see how we can do it in the future. Dr. Mohamed Salem: That's fascinating news. So, was it MMR-proficient? Dr. Myriam Chalabi: Yes, this is an MMR-proficient tumor. Dr. Mohamed Salem Wow. Any particular biomarkers that you think he or she had to predict that? Dr. Myriam Chalabi: We have treated more patients with MMR-proficient tumors. We have 31 patients, and we have seen actually responses in 9 out of 31 patients in the MMR-proficient tumors with the same combination of two doses of nivolumab and one of ipilimumab. We previously published on half of the cohort approximately on what the possible predictive biomarkers of response could be, and that was a costimulation for CD8 and PD-1. So PD-1 positive CD8 T cells. And we're currently doing the same work for the rest of the cohort. So hopefully, we'll be able to show that soon and see whether this still stands for the completed MMR-proficient cohort. But definitely also very exciting data for the MMR-proficient. Dr. Mohamed Salem: So, this is actually a very good segue to my next question because I know all of us are looking for this. Like, obviously, we're seeing a fascinating response in those patients with MSI-high tumors, but majority of colorectal cancer, as you know, they actually have MSS-proficient tumors. Any thoughts about how we can overcome the primary resistance for this tumor to checkpoint inhibitors? So let me start with you, Dr. Cercek. Dr. Andrea Cercek: I'm very much looking forward to Dr. Chalabi's data on this because, honestly, we have not seen such amazing responses to immunotherapy in MSS tumors. The initial studies were complete flatline, no responses at all. And here, she just described a patient that had a complete response to just a month of checkpoint inhibitors. So that's phenomenal, and hopefully, we'll learn from the responders. We believe that there is a subpopulation of MSS colorectal cancer that is more immune sensitive, immune hot, whichever term you like to use. And it's just a matter of appropriately identifying those patients. And personally, I think the answer lies in the neoadjuvant setting in early tumors where they're treatment-naive, not exposed to chemo, not exposed to radiation, younger, have their innate microenvironment. And so, I think it's likely a combination of the above. But obviously, the ultimate goal is to find out who those patients are and then potentially treat them just like this with immunotherapy. And that would be another nice chunk of the pie where we could utilize immunotherapy for our patients. Dr. Mohamed Salem: Very true. Dr. Chalabi, especially with your experience and just showing there is a chance for those people to respond, what are your thoughts about how we can overcome this primary resistance? Dr. Myriam Chalabi: It's great to be here with Dr. Cercek because, obviously, we have very similar interests but it's also good to see that we think the same way because I completely agree with what she just said in terms of neoadjuvant. I think that was one of the most important things that we did here, giving this neoadjuvant treatment in non-metastatic tumors. It's probably a very important driver in the responses that we're seeing. So, we've been seeing data now a bit more in the metastatic disease setting where MSS tumors seem to be responding to new generations of checkpoint blockade. And the question is how those would do in the neoadjuvant setting that would be even different than what we're seeing now. But there's definitely some proof of MSS tumors that can respond to immunotherapy. The question on how to overcome the primary resistance, I think that question is for us: Who are the patients with primary resistant tumors and why are they primarily resistant? And then we can think about how to change that and how to change them into the tumors that are responding. I think these types of data will be key to understand more and know; hopefully, even you said, in the metastatic disease setting, to make these tumors more pliable in response to immunotherapy. Dr. Mohamed Salem: I agree. So, both of you are leading us toward how to choose the right patient with the right target for the right treatment. That's an amazing journey you're taking all of us on. So, Dr. Cercek, I have to admit that with your data, it created some problems for us in the clinic because all patients the following day came in asking for immunotherapy. We had a hard time trying to explain that maybe this is not the right treatment for them or, like, not the right platform. But I wanted to ask you, if we'll have a patient tomorrow in the clinic with localized rectal cancer and happen to have an MSI-high tumor, what would be your recommendation in terms of how to approach that patient? Dr. Andrea Cercek: I think, ideally, you would discuss clinical trials with the patient. We have opened the study now to not just rectal cancer but colon cancer and, in fact, all solid tumors that are mismatch repair-deficient. So I think at this time, the patients really should be treated on a clinical trial. As we learn more, in particular, until we are more comfortable assessing for a clinical complete response and follow-up. I think the surveillance piece will be critically important. In rectal cancer, it's well established, but it's not in the other tumor types. So my recommendation would be to enroll the patient on a trial. Dr. Mohamed Salem: Just to add to that too, obviously, as you know, there is now the cooperative group trial that's looking at that option and we obviously encourage all centers to participate and open that study to have this option for our patients. Dr. Chalabi, so what do you guys do in Europe for these patients? Dr. Myriam Chalabi: In Europe, it's a very different situation. I would have answered this question differently by saying, well, we don't have that option of treating patients outside of clinical trials. So basically, we have to make sure that we have clinical trials for these patients. And that's something that we've had for colon cancer patients. That is still the case. And we're getting rectal cancer trials also for patients with MMR deficient tumors and have those also for MMR proficient tumors. For us and I agree completely that we should be treating patients within clinical trials, we don't have another option. But still, even if we did, I think it's important to create data within clinical trials to be able to ultimately also show why this should be standard of care and how we can make it standard of care. Because if you're not accumulating that data, then it's going to become very difficult if accrual is lacking. Now, we treat patients either with standard-of-care treatments, but usually, we try to find something within clinical trials. Dr. Mohamed Salem: I totally agree. And as we always say, the standard of care should be a clinical trial participation. So, I must say, both of you, Dr. Cercek and Dr. Chalabi, you made 2022 a very exciting year for us in GI cancers. You really changed the way we look at how to treat these patients and give them a huge chance of, I would say, actually cure and obviously organ preservation. So, I'm very curious to know what you are both are working on now and what we should expect in 2023 and 2024. Dr. Andrea Cercek: So, for me, the study is ongoing, as I mentioned, and we've expanded to all mismatch repair-deficient solid tumors with the same approach of six months of dostarlimab and then the option of nonoperative management. And I think that it'll be important for us to learn in terms of responses on the luminal versus some of the other tumor types, like, for example, pancreas cancer, where we don't see these robust responses in the metastatic setting, that will be important to do. We're doing some correlative analysis, as Dr. Chalabi described as well in our patients. And then, I'm interested in optimizing neoadjuvant approaches to minimize therapy in rectal cancer specifically. So, we have a study now for HER-2 amplified RAS wild-type patients with locally advanced rectal cancer with a similar approach of utilizing HER-2 targeted therapy first and then in combination with chemotherapy. In our case, it's a combination of trastuzumab and tucatinib and then chemotherapy with CAPOX and assessing for response and potential omission of radiation and surgery depending on responders. So, I'm very excited that study is open and actively accruing, and hopefully, we can get similar responses that we did in the MSI population with PD-1 blockade. Dr. Mohamed Salem: Is that only available at MSK? Dr. Andrea Cercek: It is at this time. However, we will likely be expanding, so if there's any interest, let me know. Dr. Mohamed Salem: Great. I'm sure many centers will be. Great. What about you, Dr. Chalabi? Any sneak peek in the future? Dr. Myriam Chalabi: So many sneak peeks, where to begin? I think it's very exciting to be working in this space at this time, and we're very lucky to be in it. So, for NICHE, we're actually accruing now in new cohorts for both MMR-deficient and MMR-proficient tumors. For the patients with MMR-deficient tumors, we're actually testing a new combination of nivolumab plus relatlimab, so anti-LAG-3 plus anti-PD1. And we're testing the same co-formulation in patients with pMMR tumors. In addition to another cohort for the pMMR tumors with nivolumab, all within this window of opportunity, as we did previously in NICHE, and to see if we're going to see more responses if these are going to be different tumors than the ones responding to nivolumab and ipilimumab. And for the MMR deficient tumors, we're treating longer with this combination now. So, we're operating after eight weeks instead of six weeks. We're giving two cycles, four weekly cycles, to see whether we can even improve the PCR rates, even though this is, of course, a different combination treatment. So, very exciting times for NICHE, and we'll have the readout for the DFS at the end of this year, so that's also very exciting. And then, well, it's similar to Dr. Cercek. So again, we're on the same page when it comes to these neoadjuvant treatments. We have actually an ongoing trial for neoadjuvant treatment of patients with MMR proficient rectal cancers, and that is using a combination of radiation therapy followed by a combination of atezolizumab or anti-PDL1 with Bevacizumab with the aim of organ sparing approach in these patients. And we actually presented stage 1 of this trial as a poster at ASCO GI, showing that we achieved 56% complete or near complete responses clinically at 12 weeks. And after at least a year of follow-up for all patients, we have 50% organ preservation. So those are very exciting data as well. Also, in the MMR proficient tumors, I'm very excited to hear about the HER-2-positive tumors and Dr. Cercek's study. So there's definitely a lot going on that we hope to share as soon as the data are available. Dr. Mohamed Salem: We'll be looking forward to your next presentation and seeing that. So again, most of your work showed us that we really have to choose the right patient with the right target for the right treatment to achieve the best possible outcome. So we're getting short on time here. But before we conclude, ASCO Daily News Podcast has a huge audience of oncologists, I wanted to give you the chance to share anything you'd like to share with our audience today before we finish. Dr. Cercek? Dr. Andrea Cercek: I believe this is an incredibly exciting time in colorectal cancer. I think it's finally our turn, which feels really nice, and obviously, we have a lot more work that needs to be done. But my personal belief is to keep trying to chip away at the pie and identify responders and keep working to have better-targeted drugs and better treatment options that will improve responses and improve outcomes for our patients. But I certainly believe that we are well on our way there, and it's very exciting. Dr. Mohamed Salem: I totally agree. Dr. Chalabi, any thoughts? Dr. Myriam Chalabi: I think after 2022 and the data that we've been showing, I think it's important to– and I think by now, maybe it's not even necessary anymore to say it– but I think it's important to really look at the tumors and look at these MMR proteins or MSI, and to make sure that you're treating the patient in the right way, and to consider that. Before, it wasn't as important in the neoadjuvant setting or these localized tumors, but now it's becoming essential. And I think if you would have looked five years ago and you would say, yeah, these MSI tumors are important to find, it's a very small proportion of patients, in rectal cancer even lower than in colon cancer. But still, it has such a huge impact on what you're doing in these patients and your chances of cure. So I think that would be my most important giveaway to test for MMR deficiency before deciding on a treatment for your patients. And we're working on trials with neoadjuvant immunotherapy. Also in other tumor types, Dr. Cercek is also doing the same. I think those will be very important also outside of the GI field to see whether this approach works for a much larger patient population, despite the low incidence. Dr. Andrea Cercek: Dr. Chalabi just made a critical point that that is most important is to remember that we do have biomarkers in colorectal cancer that, in the neoadjuvant setting and in the metastatic setting, especially MSI, that we need to test for. And then, just to add from a clinical perspective, in rectal cancer, the large majority of patients that have mismatch-repair deficient or MSI tumors actually have Lynch syndrome. So really, if you identify a patient that's mismatch-repair deficient or MSI-high anywhere, but especially in the rectum, they absolutely should get germline testing. Dr. Mohamed Salem: I echo that and second that. And Dr. Cercek, thank you, and I know you did a lot of work in colorectal cancer in the younger adult population, too, so I think you've had a huge impact on that area too. I would like to thank both of you again for being here today, but more for the great work you and your teams are doing to advance the field. It's really a very exciting time in GI cancers now, and thank you so much for your work and for sharing your insights with us today on the ASCO Daily News Podcast. Dr. Myriam Chalabi: Thank you so much for having me. It's been great. Dr. Andrea Cercek: Thank you for having me. Dr. Mohamed Salem: Of course, and thanks to our listeners for your time today. If you value the insights that you hear on the ASCO Daily News Podcast, please take a moment to rate, review, and subscribe wherever you get your podcasts. Thank you very much. Disclaimer: The purpose of this podcast is to educate and to inform. This is not a substitute for professional medical care and is not intended for use in the diagnosis or treatment of individual conditions. Guests on this podcast express their own opinions, experience, and conclusions. Guest statements on the podcast do not express the opinions of ASCO. The mention of any product, service, organization, activity, or therapy should not be construed as an ASCO endorsement. Find out more about today's speakers: Dr. Mohamed Salem @SalemGIOncDoc Dr. Myriam Chalabi @MyriamChalabi Dr. Andrea Cercek @AndreaCercek Learn about other key advances in GI Oncology: SWOG 1815, PARADIGM, and Other Advances at GI23 Follow ASCO on social media: @ASCO on Twitter ASCO on Facebook ASCO on LinkedIn Disclosures: Dr. Mohamed Salem: Consulting or Advisory Role: Taiho Pharmaceutical, Exelixis, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Exelixis, QED Therapeutics, Novartis, Pfizer, Daiichi Sankyo/Astra Zeneca Speakers' Bureau: Genentech/Roche, Taiho Pharmaceutical, Daiichi Sankyo/Astra Zeneca, BMS, Merck Dr. Myriam Chalabi: Consulting or Advisory Role: MSD, Bristol-Myers Squibb/Celegne, Numab Research Funding (Institution): Bristol-Myers Squibb, Roche/Genentech, MSD Travel, Accommodations, Expenses: Roche/Genentech, Bristol-Myers Squibb Dr. Andrea Cercek: Consulting or Advisory Role: Bayer, GSK, Incyte, Merck, Janssen, Seattle Genetics, G1 Therapeutics Research Funding (Institution): Seattle Genetics, GSK, Rgenix
If you have psoriasis you could be at risk for infections. Hear Katie Chambers share her experience with infections with dermatologist Dr. Seth Forman at ForCare Dermatology, Tampa, FL, who presents types of bacterial infections and viruses that trigger or make psoriasis worse, signs of sepsis, complications and treatments that impact risk of infection. This Psound Bytes episode is provided with support from Bristol Myers Squibb, Janssen and UCB.
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Guest host Dr. Neeraj Agarwal and Dr. Christian Kollmannsberger discuss practice-changing abstracts that were presented at the 2023 ASCO Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, including results from the TALAPRO-2, PROpel, TRITON3, ARASENS, KEYNOTE-057, CheckMate 274, and CheckMate 9ER studies. TRANSCRIPT Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Hello and welcome to the ASCO Daily News Podcast. I'm Dr. Neeraj Agarwal, the director of the Genitourinary Oncology Program, and professor of Medicine at the Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, and editor-in-chief of the ASCO Daily News. Today, we will be discussing practice-changing abstracts and other key advances in GU Oncology featured at the 2023 ASCO Genitourinary Cancers Symposium. Joining me for this discussion is Dr. Christian Kollmannsberger, the chair of this year's ASCO GU. Dr. Kollmannsberger is a GU medical oncologist at the BC Cancer Vancouver Cancer Center and a clinical professor at the University of British Columbia. Our full disclosures are available in the transcript of this episode, and the disclosures of all guests on the podcast can be found on our transcripts at asco.org/DNpod. Christian, thank you for joining us on the podcast today. Dr. Christian Kollmannsberger: Thank you very much, Neeraj. It's a real pleasure to be here and have this discussion. Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Thank you. So, Christian, the GU meeting featured remarkable progress in various GU malignancies. Could you please share some of the prominent topics that made the headlines this year and give us an overall feel of ASCO GU this year? Dr. Christian Kollmannsberger: Absolutely. I think it was a great meeting with over 5,800 attendees from more than 70 countries. And most of the attendees were in person, so it was a great event. ASCO GU is truly the premier global event to feature the very best of GU cancer research and treatment. The theme of this year's meeting was "Today's Science, Tomorrow's Treatment," and that was reflected in the novel scientific and clinical findings that were presented and will potentially lead to changes in our daily clinical practice. It also reminds us how quickly the development today is and how quickly novel scientific progress is immediately translated into clinical practice, particularly oncology. I was very impressed by the meeting's emphasis on diversity, interactivity, networking, multidisciplinary collaboration, and evidence-based care. We introduced several new features such as a “Meet the Professor session, a women's networking event, etc. And the first day really kicked off with a very rich focus on prostate cancer and much attention given to PARP inhibitors in our first session. As an example, LBA 17 was the first late-breaking abstract presented. And congratulations to you, Neeraj, on delivering this exciting data on the TALAPRO-2 trial, which were eagerly awaited. Let's start with that. Can you tell us about this trial? Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Yes, of course. So the TALAPRO-2 trial was a phase 3 randomized trial where patients in newly diagnosed metastatic CRPC settings were randomized to standard of care enzalutamide plus placebo versus enzalutamide plus talazoparib PARP inhibitor. And as we know, Christian, the rationale has been that dual inhibition of PARP and AR may enhance the efficacy of each. And there's a laboratory preclinical rationale and based on which other studies have been done in the past. So, without getting into too much detail into the rationale for the trial, I'll come right to the results of the trial. So, this was the first-line mCRPC setting where rPFS was the primary endpoint as assessed by the independent radiology assessment. And in this trial, patients were recruited regardless of the homologous recombination repair gene alterations. So, patients were recruited and they were prospectively tested for whether they had these HRR gene alterations or not, but all comer population was included in this trial. And after a median follow-up of approximately 23 months, the trial read out, and we found that trial made the primary endpoint was improved radiographic progression-free survival with the rPFS being about 22 months in the enzalutamide arm and not reached in the combination arm with a 37% reduction in risk of progression or death. If you look at the subgroup analysis of patients who were HRR+, there was a 54% reduction risk of progression or death. If you look at patients who were stratified in HRR- or unknown group, there was a 30% reduction risk of progression or death. If you specifically look at an exploratory analysis we did to look for patients who were HRR- by prospective tumor tissue testing; there was a 34% reduction in risk of death with a hazard ratio of 0.66 favoring the combination arm. So overall, the rPFS primary endpoint was met in all groups. We also see significant delay in PSA progression in the combination arm by more than nine months. We also see delays in the time to cytotoxic chemotherapy. We saw delay in progression or death on subsequent neoplastic therapy after the protocol treatment. We saw delays in deterioration of quality of life and global health status. All these were significant and happened on the talazoparib plus enzalutamide arm. So overall, if you look at the totality of the data, these all favored the combination of talazoparib plus enzalutamide compared to enzalutamide alone. I want to highlight that overall survival is immature at 31% maturity with a hazard issue of 0.89, currently favoring enzalutamide plus talazoparib. But we'll have to look at more mature data as time passes. Dr. Christian Kollmannsberger: Wow. Thank you, Neeraj. So, it sounds like that was a very positive trial, and it's potentially practice-changing. One of the concerns is always safety and toxicity. So can you tell us whether there were any new safety signals, and can you tell us more about the common adverse events that were noticed in TALAPRO-2? Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: No discussion is complete without talking about safety results, so I'm glad you asked me, Christian. The most common dose-affecting toxicity, if you will - so toxicities which led to dose modification and dose discontinuation of talazoparib were cytopenias, as we expect from this class of agents. So anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, these were the common toxicities. In fact, rate with anemia was 46.5%. Neutropenia and cytopenia were much less common. I would like to highlight one fact which also came up during the discussion section after our oral presentation. The qualifying criteria for entry in this trial was a hemoglobin of 9-gram percent. And 49% of patients had grade 1 to 2 anemia at baseline, that is before starting treatment with talazoparib. So, we knew that if you mandate dose reduction, a lot of patients will not get adequate dosing of talazoparib. So, we waited for grade 3 anemia and then instituted dose reduction. And that I thought personally was a good strategy because the grade 3 anemia happened after a median duration of three months, 3.3 months to be more precise. And then, these patients underwent protocol-mandated dose reduction, following which the dose discontinuations were quite low actually. Only 8.3% patients discontinued talazoparib because of anemia, and the median dose intensity or median relative dose intensity of talazoparib in the talazoparib arm remained quite high at more than 80%, which translates to a talazoparib dose of 0.4 milligram daily when the starting dose was 0.5 milligram. So those were the hallmark of toxicities. I do like to mention that those grade 3, 4 toxicities which are more known to affect the quality of life of our patients, such as grade 3, 4 anorexia, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, they were quite rare, happening in 1 to 4% patients who were on talazoparib. So overall, regarding the side effects, they were manageable, there were no new safety signals, and we could maintain adequate talazoparib dosing with dose reduction, which happened quite early during the protocol treatment. Dr. Christian Kollmannsberger: Thank you, Neeraj. Very impressive results indeed. The patient population included in TALAPRO-2 was very similar to those included in the PROpel phase 3 trial, which tested the combination of abiraterone and olaparib in the first-line mCRPC setting. So, I'd like to just mention that we also saw LBA16 on the PROpel study, which was the final overall survival in PROpel, which was presented by Noel Clarke. So PROpel, as you know, was a randomized phase 3 trial evaluating efficacy and safety of olaparib plus abiraterone versus placebo plus abiraterone as first-line therapy for mCRPC in the first-line metastatic castration resistance setting. The enrollment in that study was independent of known defects in the homologous recombination repair gene pathway in contrast to other studies, such as MAGNITUDE, which tested the biomarker upfront. A total of 796 patients were randomly assigned to either olaparib plus abiraterone or placebo plus abiraterone. And we saw similar results, significant radiographic progression-free survival with olaparib plus abiraterone in PROpel, which was the primary endpoint similar to TALAPRO-2, and that was published last year in the New England Journal of Medicine Evidence. Now, this abstract presented here at ASCO GU reported on overall survival with an overall survival majority of 47.9% and showed that with the addition of the PARP inhibitor olaparib to abiraterone, a statistically non-significant but clinically meaningful improvement in overall survival of about seven months were achieved compared to standard of care in abiraterone alone. The numbers were 42.1 versus 34.7 months in the all-comers population of patients in the first-line mCRPC setting. Importantly, I think the median overall survival of more than 42 months really represents the longest reported median overall survival thus far in a phase III trial for first-line metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Although the median overall survival for the non-HRR group remains not statistically significant, with a hazard ratio of 0.89. Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Such a great synopsis of the PROpel result data. Thank you, Christian, for highlighting these results. As we know, the combination is already approved by the EMA, the European Medical Agency, for patients in the first-line mCRPC setting who are not candidates for docetaxel chemotherapy. If this combination is approved by the FDA, we may have one more therapeutic option for our patients in first-line mCRPC. So, just continuing on the PARP inhibitors, there was one more oral presentation with PARP inhibitor rucaparib by Dr. Alan Bryce from the Mayo Clinic, Arizona. This was Abstract 18 on the primary result of the TRITON3 trial. So to complete our PARP inhibitor section, I would like to summarize the result of the TRITON3 trial, which was a randomized phase III trial evaluating rucaparib versus physician choice, which notably included docetaxel in addition to abiraterone or enzalutamide in patients with chemotherapy-naive mCRPC with BRCA1, BRCA2 or ATM alterations. These patients had disease progression after having one novel hormonal therapy, or we call them second-generation androgen pathway inhibitors in any setting. So these patients had to have disease progression on a novel hormonal therapy. In the BRCA subgroup and the subsequent intention to treat the population, the primary endpoint tested first was radiographic progression-free survival, and overall survival was the key secondary endpoint. The subgroup of patients with BRCA-altered disease had a median rPFS of 11.2 months with rucaparib compared to 6.4 months with physician choice of treatment - looks like almost doubling of the rPFS with the rucaparib. In the overall ITT population, median rPFS was 10.2 months with rucaparib and 6.4 months with the physician's choice of treatment. Although the overall survival data are immature, we still see a trend for improved overall survival with rucaparib. Regardless, the study clearly demonstrates the value of rucaparib for treating BRCA1 and BRCA2-altered mCRPC after disease progression on an androgen receptor pathway inhibitor. So these were the impressive results from the TRITON3 trial. But before we switch to non-prostate abstract, I would like to complete the prostate cancer discussion by talking about the Abstract 15, which was based on the results of the ARASENS trial presented by Dr. Maha Hussain. As we know, ARASENS is a randomized phase 3 trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of darolutamide plus androgen deprivation therapy plus docetaxel versus androgen deprivation therapy or ADT plus docetaxel. So the triplet of ADT plus darolutamide plus docetaxel being compared to ADT plus docetaxel chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer. A total of 1,300 patients were randomly assigned to the doublet versus triplet. As presented in the last ASCO GU meeting exactly one year ago, the primary endpoint of the study was met with a significant improvement in overall survival and a 32% reduction in risk of death for patients on the triplet therapy with ADT plus docetaxel plus darolutamide versus ADT plus docetaxel chemotherapy. So triplet therapy was already approved based on these data. The abstract presented by Dr. Hussain this year is a post-talk analysis where Dr. Hussain and colleagues investigated the impact of triplet therapy across patients with high volume versus low volume per chartered criteria and higher risk versus low risk using latitude trial criteria. And investigators knew that these results would be highly attractive to practicing oncologists who are now choosing treatment based on volume of disease or risk of disease, more commonly, volume of disease. So, let's come to what was presented this ASCO GU. So, after 1,305 patients in ARASENS, the majority had high-volume disease and high-risk disease. Among patients with high-volume disease, the addition of darolutamide reduced the risk of death by 30% compared with ADT and docetaxel, with a hazard ratio of 0.69. In the risk groups, the addition of darolutamide seems to favor both high-risk and low-risk groups. Among patients with low-volume disease, there was a trend towards improvement in overall survival with the addition of darolutamide, but it did not reach statistical significance. The great news was that there was no new safety signal. So, to summarize these data, the triplet of darolutamide plus ADT plus docetaxel showed superior overall survival compared to doublet of ADT plus docetaxel, with an important caveat that triplet was not compared with any of the modern doublets of ADT plus a second generation androgen receptor pathways inhibitor such as abiraterone, apalutamide, or enzalutamide, or even darolutamide. So, I wish there was a third arm of ADT plus darolutamide. Having said that, triplet can be considered a standard of care now based on these data for patients with metastatic hormone sensory prostate cancer, where we would be using ADT plus docetaxel chemotherapy. And from this meeting data, this efficacy of triplet can be applied to high-volume disease and all risk disease. And we just need more time to see how the data pans out in low-volume patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. Dr. Christian Kollmannsberger: Yes, I completely agree, Neeraj. I think all the data presented in these abstracts are really impressive and will impact our daily clinical practice and our patients more or less immediately. I think the use of PARP inhibitors, whether as a monotherapy or in combination with androgen receptor pathway inhibitors, as well as now the option of triplet therapy in the metastatic castration sensitive setting really offer patients with metastatic prostate cancer new treatment strategies and most importantly, improved survival outcomes. And it is impressive to see how we have pushed the prognosis and the outcomes for our patients with prostate cancer, I would say, in the last five to ten years. And similar to last year, I think the entire Prostate Cancer Day at ASCO GU 2023 was full with impressive data and featured dynamic content throughout the day. Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Indeed. So, let's move on to bladder cancer. Christian, what are your key takeaways from the bladder cancer studies presented at the meeting? Dr. Christian Kollmannsberger: I think there were interesting abstracts in both the non-muscle-invasive and the muscle-invasive setting and the metastatic setting. So, for example, Abstract 442 was presented by Dr. Andrea Necchi on the cohort B of the phase 2 KEYNOTE-057 trial. As a background here, the standard treatment for high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer involves transurethral resection of the bladder tumor, a TURBT, followed by intravesical BCG therapy to eradicate any residual disease. And patients who fail to adequately respond to BCG are usually recommended to undergo radical cystectomy. So in the cohort B of the phase 2 KEYNOTE-057 trial that investigated the safety and efficacy of pembrolizumab as a single agent for patients with BCG-unresponsive, high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer who were ineligible or declined to undergo radical cystectomy, enrolled patients received standard-dose pembrolizumab of 200 milligrams every three weeks for up to 35 cycles. So very common as we do it with other disease sites. And at a median follow-up of 45.4 months, the primary endpoints of disease-free survival at twelve months was 43.5%. The median disease-free survival duration was 7.7 months. These are encouraging results, and we should keep in mind that a radical cystectomy has immense impact on our patients' quality of life. So I think it is important that we do these trials. Now in order to address potential biases in this phase II trial, such as the underlying heterogeneity of transurethral resection of bladder tumor quality, and to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of pembrolizumab's efficacy relative to a particular control group, we need further evaluation of pembrolizumab in a randomized trial before we can really go for regulatory approval. But overall, I think for the first time in a long time that we seem to be able to move the needle in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Thank you, Christian, for this great overview. Could you please also share the findings presented by Dr. Matt Galsky on Abstract 443? Dr. Christian Kollmannsberger: Of course, Neeraj. Abstract 443, presented by Matt Galsky, reported the extended follow-up results from the CheckMate 274 trial, which looked at another very important field where we haven't made that much progress, which is the adjuvant setting. And CheckMate 274 examined adjuvant nivolumab compared to placebo for patients with high-risk resected muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma. In this trial, nivolumab was given at 240 milligrams every two weeks or placebo every two weeks for up to one year of treatment. After following up with patients for a median of 36.1 months, the study found that those who received nivolumab had a median DFS of 22 months compared to only 10.9 months for those who received placebo among the ITT patients. So basically, a doubling of the DFS with the addition of adjuvant nivolumab. The results were particularly notable for patients with high PD-L1 expressions or PD-L1 expression of 1% or more, as those who are treated with nivolumab had a median DFS of 52.6 months, which was six times higher than the DFS in the control group where patients received placebo, which was only 8.4 months. And I think that is truly impressive. One year of adjuvant therapy with nivolumab continues to show a sustained disease-free survival benefit over a period of three years in both the ITT and the PD-L1-high patient population. In my view, these results reinforce the utility of nivolumab in the adjuvant urothelial carcinoma setting after surgery. And it will be interesting to see how the overall survival pans out in this study. So, Neeraj, moving on to kidney cancer, what were your key takeaways from these studies on kidney cancer presented in this meeting? Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: So, there were exciting results presented from multiple studies in this area as well. For example, Abstract 603 presented by Dr. Mauricio Burotto, senior author was, Dr. Toni Choueiri on the three-year follow-up from the phase 2 CheckMate-9ER trial. So, in this trial, patients were randomized one-to-one to nivolumab 240 milligrams every two weeks, plus cabozantinib 40 milligrams daily versus sunitinib 50 milligrams daily for four weeks, and it was a six-week cycle for sunitinib until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. So this was the design of the phase 3 CheckMate-9ER trial. And after a median follow-up of three years, the benefit of nivolumab plus cabozantinib remained consistent with previous follow-ups. So, as we know, these data have been presented in the past, also published in the New England Journal of Medicine. But this meeting was a clear follow-up of these data. Notably, the median overall survival of patients treated with cabozantinib plus nivolumab in the ITT population, which included all favorable intermediate and poor IMDC score patients, was significantly improved at 49.5 months compared to 35.5 months in the sunitinib arm. It is so heartening to see that median overall survival breaching the four-year mark in our patients with metastatic RCC in a consistent fashion. We saw similar data with the combination of ipilimumab plus nivolumab recently. And as these trials are maturing, we are probably going to see more combinations breaching this four-year mark. So importantly, no new safety signals emerged with the additional follow-up in either arm. And I think these results provide further support for the use of cabozantinib plus nivolumab as a first-line treatment option for patients with metastatic or advanced renal cell carcinoma. Dr. Christian Kollmannsberger: Indeed, I think it is extremely impressive what we've seen over the last 15 years in metastatic kidney cancer, going from a median overall survival of about a year to now more than four years. I think that is a great achievement, and we can see it on a daily basis in our clinical practice. Now, before we wrap up, I would like to highlight another potentially practice-changing trial, LBA602, which titled, “Results from Phase 3 Study of 89Zr-DFO-Girentuximab for PET/CT Imaging of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: The ZIRCON Trial” presented by Dr. Brian Shuch. The background of this is that the detection of renal masses poses a challenge due to the limitations of diagnostic options such as imaging and biopsy. And we often, in clinical practice, are confronted with "What exactly is this?" And what's even more importantly, “What's the histology of this?” And a non-invasive, accurate method is needed for pre-treatment risk stratification. Girentuximab, a monoclonal antibody that targets carbonic anhydrase IX expressed on clear cell renal cell carcinoma, can obviously now aid in the differentiation between clear cell renal cell carcinomas and other renal lesions when radiolabeled with this new agent. The ZIRCON trial was open-label and designed to include patients with renal masses up to 7 cm in size or clear tumor stage cT1 who were scheduled for partial nephrectomy within 90 days of planned TLX250-CDx administration. The enrolled patients received a single intravenous dose of girentuximab on day 0 and underwent FDG PET/CT imaging on day 5 before their scheduled surgery. And the co-primary endpoints were to assess the sensitivity and specificity of girentuximab PET/CT imaging for detecting clear cell renal cell carcinoma in patients with indeterminate renal masses, with histology as the reference standard, which I think is a great way to test these agents because you get 100% validation. In the primary analysis of 284 patients, the average sensitivity and specificity across all three central readers were 86% and 87%, respectively, exceeding the prespecified thresholds. The positive and negative predictive values were 93.4% and 78%, respectively. And with very few related adverse events reported, the study affirms that girentuximab PET/CT is safe and effective in identifying clear cell renal cell carcinoma in patients with indeterminate renal masses. And the findings hold potential for developing optimal management strategies for patients with indeterminate renal masses. I think this is important that we add a non-invasive method to this because we are confronted on a regular basis with patients who either cannot tolerate a biopsy or where the biopsy is indeterminate. And this could potentially be a great tool to help us with our pre-treatment planning of our treatment strategy. Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Wow. So, it looks like a new PET scan using a unique tracer and antibody to detect the clear cell renal cell carcinoma with high specificity and sensitivity. It reminds me of drawing a crude analogy from the PSMA PET scan in prostate cancer. And hopefully, we will be able to use these newer scans that we call TLX250-CDx PET/CT scan. I hope they have a simpler name for this very soon. Or maybe follow up for patients who had kidney cancer, localized kidney cancer taken out by radical surgery, and then we are following them. And sometimes, we don't know if a small lung nodule is metastatic or not. And these kinds of imaging studies may help us down the line in monitoring those patients as well. So indeed, very exciting progress not only in the therapeutic area now but also in diagnostic fields at this GU ASCO. So with that, we have seen multiple abstracts on prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer with real impact on how we practice medicine. Thank you, Christian, for sharing your insight with us today. It is an exciting time in GU Oncology, and we appreciate you taking the time to contribute to the discussion. Thank you so much. Dr. Christian Kollmannsberger: Thank you, Neeraj, thank you for having me. And I completely agree it remains an exciting time in GU oncology. Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: And thank you to our listeners for joining us today. You will find links to the abstracts discussed today on the transcripts of this episode. Finally, if you value the insights that you hear on the ASCO Daily News Podcast, please take a moment to rate, review, and subscribe wherever you get your podcasts. Disclaimer: The purpose of this podcast is to educate and to inform. This is not a substitute for professional medical care and is not intended for use in the diagnosis or treatment of individual conditions. Guests on this podcast express their own opinions, experience, and conclusions. Guest statements on the podcast do not express the opinions of ASCO. The mention of any product, service, organization, activity, or therapy should not be construed as an ASCO endorsement. Find out more about today's speakers: Dr. Neeraj Agarwal @neerajaiims Dr. Christian Kollmannsberger Follow ASCO on social media: @ASCO on Twitter ASCO on Facebook ASCO on LinkedIn Disclosures: Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Consulting or Advisory Role: Pfizer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, AstraZeneca, Nektar, Lilly, Bayer, Pharmacyclics, Foundation Medicine, Astellas Pharma, Lilly, Exelixis, AstraZeneca, Pfizer, Merck, Novartis, Eisai, Seattle Genetics, EMD Serono, Janssen Oncology, AVEO, Calithera Biosciences, MEI Pharma, Genentech, Astellas Pharma, Foundation Medicine, and Gilead Sciences Research Funding (Institution): Bayer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Takeda, Pfizer, Exelixis, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Calithera Biosciences, Celldex, Eisai, Genentech, Immunomedics, Janssen, Merck, Lilly, Nektar, ORIC Pharmaceuticals, crispr therapeutics, Arvinas Dr. Christian Kollmannsberger: None disclosed
Mighty Blue On The Appalachian Trail: The Ultimate Mid-Life Crisis
When Charlie Janssen was just ten miles into his Appalachian Trail thru-hike in 2012, he wondered what it would be like to complete a Calendar Year Triple Crown. He found out in 2022, and shares his story with us. Charlie's thoughts eventually solidified and the planning began. His pragmatic approach and never-give-up attitude are clear in our conversation, yet this is still an epic adventure and one that so few people have managed to complete. Charlie is only the thirteenth to complete it. He has so many links to follow if you'd like to dive further into his remarkable achievement. Here's the list: Backpacker Magazine-https://www.backpacker.com/news-and-events/meet-the-high-school-teacher-who-finished-the-entire-triple-crown-in-a-calendar-year/ Kansas City NPR-https://www.kcur.org/podcast/up-to-date/2022-11-25/a-kansas-city-native-conquered-the-countrys-longest-trails-and-earned-hikings-triple-crown Action News Now-https://www.actionnewsnow.com/news/chico-hiker-conquers-7-500-mile-calendar-year-triple-crown/article_fa2a0d60-96d3-11ed-866d-db2e785a2b17.html John Freakin' Muir Podcast-https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bgeyJhACgpY Vail Daily-https://www.vaildaily.com/sports/janssens-journey-eagle-valley-cross-country-coach-is-attempting-trail-triple-crown/ Vail Daily-https://www.vaildaily.com/sports/janssen-hits-snow-on-appalachian-trail/ Vail Daily-https://www.vaildaily.com/sports/janssen-completes-pacific-crest-trail/ Vail Daily-https://www.vaildaily.com/news/charlie-janssen-completes-7412-mile-calendar-year-trail-triple-crown/ Vail Daily-https://www.vaildaily.com/sports/the-top-5-local-sports-stories-of-2022/ County 10 News, Lander, WY-https://county10.com/distance-hiker-who-passed-through-lander-completes-calendar-year-triple-crown-hiked-appalachian-pacific-crest-continental-divide-trails/ Active NorCal-https://www.activenorcal.com/chico-hiker-completes-coveted-7500-mile-triple-crown-in-one-calendar-year/ Pitt State Magazine-https://www.pittstate.edu/gorillaconnection/2022/01/grads-goal-hike-nations-three-longest-trails-in-365-days.html Pitt State Magazine-https://www.pittstate.edu/gorillaconnection/2022/11/grad-completes-calendar-year-triple-crown.html Black Hills Pioneer-https://www.bhpioneer.com/local_news/former-bhsu-athlete-completes-calendar-year-triple-crown/article_a8eecf5a-7d9a-11ed-ac0f-07d33e6519f7.html Hays Post-https://www.hdnews.net/2022/02/05/blazing-a-trail/ Four States Homepage-https://www.fourstateshomepage.com/local-news/psu-alum-attempts-to-hike-the-triple-crown-in-one-calendar-year/ Our Mighty Blue Class of 2023 is now fully fleshed out. It's only the hike that needs to be completed now!! This week, we catch up with Mark Carpenter, who begins next week, while Carl Bergquist will be on the trail, at Amicalola Falls, while many of you are listening to the show on Thursday morning. Doctor Lynne gives us chapter and verse on dealing with the dreaded blister when you're out there. Don't forget, you can download a short document on any of the topics that Lynne has discussed in this series on the show by clicking on the link below. https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1CJ5llgK7FUnbKnbtbWlsP6v_4dNentVa?usp=sharing Two reminders this week. First, you can join me LIVE tonight (March 2) on Jester's Section Hiker podcast for an exciting announcement. Just click on the link below as we go on air. https://youtube.com/live/Q88Nmojeo_w Second, if any of you are in the vicinity of Amicalola Falls State Park this coming weekend, March 5, you can see me present at the AT Kick Off at 10:30 Sunday morning. My subject is “The Adventure of a Lifetime.” If you'd like to find out more about "Then The Hail Came," check out George's website at https://georgesteffanos.webador.com/. You can also find George's book on Amazon at this link. https://www.amazon.com/dp/B09QFG4ZR6. If you like what we're doing on the Hiking Radio Network, and want to see our shows continue, please consider supporting us with either a one-off or monthly donation. You'll find the donate button on each Hiking Radio Network page at https://www.hikingradionetwork.com. If you prefer NOT to use PayPal, you can now support us via check by mailing it to Mighty Blue Publishing, PO Box 6161, Sun City Center, FL 35751. Any support is gratefully received. You can also support our shows by visiting our online "Merch" store. Check it out at https://hrntradingpost.com/, or click on the store button on our network website at https://www.hikingradionetwork.com. If you'd like to take advantage of my book offer (all three of my printed hiking books–with a personal message and signed by me–for $31, including postage to the United States) send a check payable to Mighty Blue Publishing at the address just above.