Podcasts about Gilead Sciences

American pharmaceutical company

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Best podcasts about Gilead Sciences

Latest podcast episodes about Gilead Sciences

Surfing the Nash Tsunami
S3-E43.1 - Combination Agents for Fibrotic Regression

Surfing the Nash Tsunami

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 3, 2022 14:13


This discussion begins with Naim offering an in-depth look into the mechanics of the recently published combination study. He explains that “semaglutide hits every point” in terms of effects on metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular outcomes, obesity and liver fat, but it has not yet been proven in monotherapy to regress fibrosis. Gilead Sciences had three agents whose potential anti-fibrotic effects the company wanted to explore fully, so Gilead and Novo Nordisk, which owns semaglutide, formed a partnership to develop these drugs.One agent, selonsertib, turned out to be ineffective, but the other two, the FXR agonist cilofexor and the ACC agent firsocostat proved efficacious in combination with semaglutide. Naim goes on to describe the mechanics of the study and presents results demonstrating that even in a six-month trial, the triple therapy proved efficacious with a favorable side effect profile.Jörn notes one very important aspect of combination agents: by requiring lower levels of each individual agent, they have the potential to exhibit superior safety and side effect profiles that a higher-dose monotherapy might.The rest of this conversation features additional comments by Mazen, namely addressing the short duration of the study. He suggests that if extended, the study quite possibly had more positive results to be shown, namely, through further weight loss. Mazen also raises an intriguing prospect with an interesting acknowledgment: this is an open-label study with neither biopsies nor a placebo arm. However, he suggests, this kind of design will become far more prevalent in a future when one agent in the study has already been approved and is widely used with patients.

Surfing the Nash Tsunami
S3-E43 - Combination Agents: a Cornerstone Of Future NASH Therapy?

Surfing the Nash Tsunami

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 1, 2022 63:21


This episode explores the future of combination agents in NASH Therapy. First author Naim Alkhouri and last author Mazen Noureddin join the Surfers to discuss their recently published article, Safety and efficacy of combination therapy with semaglutide, cilofexor and firsocostat in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: A randomised, open-label phase II trial (JHEP, 2022). While the conversation starts by focusing on this article, the discussion itself takes a far broader look at the strategies behind developing combination agents, the likely role these combination therapies will play in treating patients, and, more generally, what Mazen Noureddin describes as the coming “combo-combo” world.At the outset, Naim notes that while this study was published in 2020, it was first presented at AASLD in 2020. The rationale? As he explains, “semaglutide hits every point” in terms of effects on metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular outcomes, obesity and liver fat, but has not yet been proven in monotherapy to regress fibrosis. Novo Nordisk and Gilead Sciences had formed a partnership to develop NASH drugs, and Gilead had two agents with anti-fibrotic effects, the FXR-agonist cilafexor and the ACC agent firsocostat, that might regress fibrosis.This conversation is dense with excellent questions and important observations. Here are some of them:Jörn notes one very important aspect of combination agents: by requiring lower levels of each individual agent, they have the potential to exhibit superior safety and side effect profiles that a higher-dose monotherapy might. In agreeing, NAIM notes with particular enthusiasm how many patients achieved greater than 30% relative fat reduction in such a short study.Mazen raises an intriguing prospect by starting with an interesting acknowledgment: this is an open-label study with neither biopsies nor a placebo arm. However, he suggests, this kind of design will become far more prevalent in a future when one agent in the study has already been approved and is widely used with patients.Louise notes that the ability to show patients “real-world results” quickly will motivate them to maintain therapy and lifestyle modification.Naim proposes a 6-month “futility” standard: if the drug does not provide results in 6 months, discontinue.Roger notes the importance of combination therapy in a disease that has so many theoretical target points and pathways within the liver.Mazen calls on the “larger companies” to work with the smaller ones to make these studies more common, noting that the economics and risk profiles of smaller companies require them to focus on getting a single drug to market as quickly as possible.A debate emerges when Naim describes LEGEND, a trial combining the promising PPAR agonist with the SGLT-2 agent, empagliflozin. Naim describes empa as an excellent agent to counteract potential weight gain with lani. Mazen shares his believe that the trial should have combined lani with a drug that provides greater weight loss, possibly an GLP-1 agonist or dual agonist. Roger suggests it depends on the target: liver and metabolic disease targeting might lead to a PPAR/GLP-1 combination, while a more holistic look at metabolic outcomes might prefer SGLT-2s for their proven beneficial effects on kidney and cardiovascular diseases. The group agrees that 2 or 3 agents are the most they can see in a combination therapy at this time. They all agree that some patients will require combination therapies while others will succeed with monotherapies. This will be linked with disease severity.There are more observations here and a raft of supporting data points and arguments. We lack sufficient space to cover all these in this summary, so read and enjoy yourself!

CCO Infectious Disease Podcast
Ending the HIV Epidemic: Keys to Successful Treatment Initiation

CCO Infectious Disease Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 24, 2022 15:38


In this episode, Chloe Orkin, MBChB, FRCP, MD​, discusses strategies for successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Her overview includes:Recommendations for rapid ARTFirst-line ART regimens for treatment-naive people with HIVIMEA 055 FAST studySTAT studyDIAMOND studyAntiretroviral resistance mutationsPatient perspectives on the importance of rapid ART initiationPresenter:Chloe Orkin, MBChB, FRCP, MDProfessor of HIVQueen Mary, University of London​Consultant Physician​Lead for HIV ResearchBarts Health NHS Trust​The Royal London Hospital​London, United Kingdom​Panelists:Linda-Gail Bekker, MBChB, DTM&H, DCH, FCP(SA), PhD​DirectorDesmond Tutu HIV Centre​Past PresidentInternational AIDS Society​Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of Cape TownCape Town, South Africa​Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, MBBS, FRCP, PhD​Chief and DirectorVHS Infectious Diseases Medical Centre​Director, Chennai Antiviral Research and Treatment (CART) Clinical Research Site​Voluntary Health Services​Chennai, IndiaBabafemi Taiwo, MBBS​Gene Stollerman Professor of Medicine​Chief, Division of Infectious Diseases​Northwestern UniversityFeinberg School of Medicine​Chicago, IllinoisContent based on an online CME program supported by an independent educational grant from Gilead Sciences.Follow along with the slides: https://bit.ly/3dSNoumLink to full program:https://bit.ly/3AE2AV1

CCO Infectious Disease Podcast
Ending the HIV Epidemic: Care Pathways After HIV Testing

CCO Infectious Disease Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 24, 2022 12:10


In this episode, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, MBBS, FRCP, PhD, discusses the importance of linking people to care after a positive HIV diagnosis. His overview includes:HIV care continuumFactors that delay linkage to careOrganized strategies to improve linkage to care for people with HIVInterventions that may improve linkage to care for people with HIVPatient perspective on how to engage patients in their HIV care Presenter:Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, MBBS, FRCP, PhD​Chief and DirectorVHS Infectious Diseases Medical Centre​Director, Chennai Antiviral Research and Treatment (CART) Clinical Research Site​Voluntary Health Services​Chennai, IndiaPanelists:Linda-Gail Bekker, MBChB, DTM&H, DCH, FCP(SA), PhD​Director​Desmond Tutu HIV Centre​Past President​International AIDS Society​Faculty of Health Sciences​University of Cape TownCape Town, South Africa​Chloe Orkin, MBChB, FRCP, MD​Professor of HIVQueen Mary, University of London​Consultant Physician​Lead for HIV ResearchBarts Health NHS Trust​The Royal London Hospital​London, United Kingdom​Content based on an online CME program supported by an independent educational grant from Gilead Sciences.Follow along with the slides: https://bit.ly/3PJ4iJ8Link to full program:https://bit.ly/3AE2AV1

CCO Infectious Disease Podcast
Ending the HIV Epidemic: Reaching the Undiagnosed

CCO Infectious Disease Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 24, 2022 15:17


In this episode, Babafemi Taiwo, MBBS, discusses strategies for reaching people with HIV who are not yet diagnosed. His overview includes:HIV diagnosis by global regionDisparities in serostatus awarenessPatient perspective on importance of HIV testingBarriers to HIV diagnosisComplications from late HIV diagnosisStrategies to improve rates of HIV testingPresenter:Babafemi Taiwo, MBBS​Gene Stollerman Professor of Medicine​Chief, Division of Infectious Diseases​Northwestern UniversityFeinberg School of Medicine​Chicago, IllinoisPanelists:Linda-Gail Bekker, MBChB, DTM&H, DCH, FCP(SA), PhDDirectorDesmond Tutu HIV Centre​Past PresidentInternational AIDS Society​Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of Cape TownCape Town, South Africa​Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, MBBS, FRCP, PhD​Chief and DirectorVHS Infectious Diseases Medical Centre​Director, Chennai Antiviral Research and Treatment (CART) Clinical Research Site​Voluntary Health Services​Chennai, IndiaChloe Orkin, MBChB, FRCP, MDProfessor of HIVQueen Mary, University of London​Consultant Physician​Lead for HIV ResearchBarts Health NHS Trust​The Royal London Hospital​London, United Kingdom​Content based on an online CME program supported by an independent educational grant from Gilead Sciences.Follow along with the slides: https://bit.ly/3PJRthDLink to full program:https://bit.ly/3AE2AV1

AKTIONÄR TV-Expertensendung
Opening Bell: Walmart, Gilead, GEO Group, Disney, BHP, SIGA, PepsiCo, Coca-Cola, Waste Management

AKTIONÄR TV-Expertensendung

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 16, 2022 15:36


Zu Wochenbeginn kletterte der Dow Jones auf den höchsten Stand seit Mai. Gestern legte er um 0,5 Prozent zu. Schwache Konjunkturdaten aus China und den USA konnten die Stimmung nicht trüben.

The Hep-cast
S2 #3 Inside Prisons: The hepatitis care pathway for incarcerated people

The Hep-cast

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 12, 2022 44:08


“We have these little conversations privately, as discreetly as possible, because there is a lot of stigma in prison settings… these guys know that we've been to prison so when we're speaking to some of these people, it really makes a difference” says Clive Williams, a peer support lead for The Hepatitis C Trust, who previously lived with hepatitis C and was treated and cured while in prison. In this episode, Clive Williams joins Dr. John May, President of Health Through Walls, and Dr. Sanjay Sarin, Vice President, Access at FIND to explore viral hepatitis within prison settings and interventions and experiences of people living with viral hepatitis in prison.The Hep-cast is a collaboration between the World Hepatitis Alliance and Gilead Sciences. The Hep-cast is fully funded by Gilead Sciences Europe Limited.Job bag number: IHQ-UNB-2268Date of preparation: July 2022 Our GDPR privacy policy was updated on August 8, 2022. Visit acast.com/privacy for more information.

The Sourcing Industry Landscape
Part 1: A Journey of Transformation, with Gilead Sciences

The Sourcing Industry Landscape

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 10, 2022 16:43


Listen in to part one of this multi-part series as Dawn speaks with Jennifer Sieber, Head of Global Procurement Systems at Gilead Sciences, Inc. – a research-based biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery, development, and commercialization of innovative medicines. Throughout this series, we will learn about Gilead's incredible transformation journey. On this episode, Jennifer paints us a picture of the past. We get an in-depth glimpse of where Gilead's Procurement practice was two years ago and what prompted them to embark on this innovative journey. Tune in for part two coming soon!

Opera Uprising
The Business of Opera with Elizabeth Bachman

Opera Uprising

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 4, 2022 43:25


Elizabeth Bachman is THE go-to person for advanced level training in Speaking, Presentation Skills, Sales and Leadership. With a lifetime spent perfecting the art of presenting, she helps high-level clients master a message that brings * the Funding they need, * the Allies they want and * the Recognition they deserve. A sought-after speaker and strategist in Silicon Valley – as well as nationally and internationally – Elizabeth works with leaders and influencers who need to become concise and compelling presenters. She helps them present as smart, down-to-earth, loose, friendly—even funny—and still be taken seriously. Elizabeth has directed such luminaries as Luciano Pavarotti & Placido Domingo in more than 50 operas around the world, giving her a wealth of tools to help business professionals become respected presenters. Fluent in 5 languages, she is adept at working with presenters from many countries, bringing her global experience to her clients. Host of the award-winning international podcast: Speakers Who Get Results, Elizabeth interviews experts from around the world on presentation skills, leadership & visibility as well as communication challenges that range from presenting internationally to gender misunderstandings. Elizabeth is an award-winning contributing author to the international best-seller “Messages That Matter,” as well as the creator of “How to Get Booked as a Speaker: Taking Your Show on the Road” – the ultimate guide to filling your calendar with lucrative speaking gigs. Elizabeth has been featured in numerous media interviews alongside – among others – business greats Dr. Ivan Meisner, Dan Kennedy & Steve Forbes. She presents regularly at such corporations as Bank of America, Gilead Sciences, FEMA, McKesson and Turner Construction as well as many groups for women in tech, science and law. In more than 50 operas around the world, Elizabeth has directed such luminaries as Luciano Pavarotti & Placido Domingo, giving her a wealth of tools to help business professionals become respected presenters. Fluent in 5 languages, she is adept at working with presenters from many countries, bringing her global experience to her clients. Founder and Artistic Director of TOP Opera, a summer opera training program in the Austrian Alps, she continues to give back to the opera community.

Earnings Season
Gilead Sciences, Inc., Q2 2022 Earnings Call, Aug 02, 2022

Earnings Season

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 3, 2022 65:24


Gilead Sciences, Inc., Q2 2022 Earnings Call, Aug 02, 2022

Trader's Breakfast
Leichte Rücksetzer an den Börsen

Trader's Breakfast

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 2, 2022 6:33


Die Märkte auf dem chinesischen Festland führten am Dienstag die Verluste in Asien an, da die geopolitischen Spannungen wegen des Besuchs der Sprecherin des US-Repräsentantenhauses Nancy Pelosi in Taiwan zunahmen.Der Dow Jones Industrial verlor nach einigem Hin und Herr 0,1 Prozent auf 32 798 Punkte. Der marktbreite S&P 500 rutschte um 0,28 Prozent auf 4119 Zähler ab. Der überwiegend mit Technologieaktien bestückte Nasdaq 100 gab um 0,1 Prozent auf 12 941 Punkte nach. Der deutsche Leitindex Dax ging 0,1 Prozent tiefer bei 13 480 Punkten aus dem Handel. Der MDax gewann am Montag 0,2 Prozent auf 27 428 Zähler. Der Dax wird auch heute im Minus bei 13 411 Punkten erwartet.Heute stehen in Europa keine wichtigen Konjunkturdaten an.In den USA werden das Redbook und die Fahrzeugverkäufe für den Monat Juli bekannt gegeben.Geschäftszahlen kommen von Covestro, Fresenius Medical Care, Symrise, Krones, Pfeiffer Vacuum, BP, Generali, AMD, Caterpillar, DuPont, Electronic Arts, Gilead Sciences, Idexx Laboratories, Incyte, Match Group, Occidental Petroleum, Paypal, S&P Global, Starbucks, Zebra Technologies und Zimmer Biomet.Support the show

Self-Care for Extremely Busy Women
Learn Your Personality Type and Make Life Easier

Self-Care for Extremely Busy Women

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 26, 2022 29:39


Suzanne chats about the Enneagram with Leadership coach Robert Weinberg. Learn why the Enneagram matters, how to find your type, and resources online for more info. Today's show begins with some fun thoughts about raising your vibe—how is it anyway? Heavy and somber? Light and energized? Your own personal vibration has a lot to do with how you roll throughout your day. Do you know what your Enneagram type is? Are you an Enthusiast? A Leader? A Reformer? My chat with executive and business team coach Robert Weinberg helps us understand more about this unique form of personality analysis—and why it matters. Among other things, you'll learn: Where the Enneagram began How it can help you get along with others Why it helps us understand how others react The unique role Enneagram typing plays in group dynamics How to find your own Enneagram type It's a fun show—and an interesting one I've wanted to do for years! And here we are…. Namaste, Suzanne RESOURCES AG1— Get a FREE 1 year supply of immune-supporting Vitamin D AND 5 FREE travel packs with your first purchase. Suzanne's blog, How's Your Vibe? A free Enneagram test online The Enneagram Institute diagnostic test Suzanne's favorite Ennegram book: Discovering Your Personality Type/Riso and Hudson Robert Weinberg's Website OUR GUEST Robert Weinberg is the principal of Weinberg Consulting and provides Executive Coaching and Leadership Development Consulting for leaders and teams committed to producing extraordinary results. Robert partners with executives and their teams to enhance leadership capabilities and produce: Enhanced communication and collaboration   Alignment around vision, mission, values and results   Increases in performance, beyond the predictable   Cultures of innovation and strategic thinking. He is an Accredited Professional of the International Enneagram Association and an Integrative Enneagram™ certified practitioner. Robert's clients are primarily leaders of Fortune 100 companies, including Nvidia, Gilead Sciences, HP, JNJ, Twitch (Amazon), and PayPal, among others.  

CCO Infectious Disease Podcast
Defining and Striving for HBV Cure: What's in the Pipeline

CCO Infectious Disease Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 30, 2022 14:37


In this episode,  Carla S. Coffin, MD, MSc, shares her thoughts on the different investigational approaches under evaluation for their potential to achieve HBV cure, including entry inhibitors, capsid inhibitors, siRNAs, immune modulators, TLR agonists, therapeutic vaccines, and checkpoint inhibitors.Presenter:Carla S. Coffin, MD, MScProfessor of MedicineDivision of Gastroenterology and HepatologyDepartment of MedicineUniversity of CalgaryMedical Director of Calgary Liver UnitDivision of Gastroenterology and HepatologyDepartment of MedicineFoothills Medical CentreCalgary, Alberta, CanadaContent based on an online CME program supported by independent educational grants from AbbVie and Gilead Sciences, Inc. and developed in collaboration with the American Liver Foundation. Link to full program:https://bit.ly/3OGHvOv

ASCO Daily News
Spotlight on Immunotherapy at ASCO22

ASCO Daily News

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 23, 2022 27:22


Dr. Diwakar Davar and Dr. Jason Luke, both of the University of Pittsburgh's Hillman Cancer Center, highlight key advances in early phase therapeutics and immunotherapy that were featured at the 2022 ASCO Annual Meeting and also address toxicities, including immune checkpoint inhibitor-associated myocarditis. TRANSCRIPT Dr. Diwakar Davar: Hello, and welcome to the ASCO Daily News Podcast. My name is Dr. Diwakar Davar, and I'm an assistant professor of Medical Oncology, specializing in melanoma and phase 1 therapeutics at the University of Pittsburgh's Hillman Cancer Center. I am the guest host of today's podcast. My guest today is Dr. Jason Luke, a colleague and the director of the Cancer Immunotherapeutics Center at the UPMC Hillman Cancer Center here.  Today, we'll be discussing advances in early-phase therapeutics and immunotherapy that were featured at the 2022 ASCO Annual Meeting.   You'll find our full disclosures in the show notes, and the disclosures of all guests on the podcast are available on our transcripts at asco.org/podcasts.  Jason, thank you for coming on the podcast today.  Dr. Jason Luke: Thanks so much for the invitation. It was a great ASCO, and I hope everyone had a good time.  Dr. Diwakar Davar: So, onto our abstracts. So, the first one that we'll be discussing, and Jason as you know we've done this before. We'll be rapidly transitioning between phase 1 therapeutics, melanoma, and advanced phase 2 and 3 trials, but you know this is something you do very well. So Abstract 2504, it's a phase 1 trial of TIM-3 inhibitor cobomilab immunotherapy and in combination with PD-1 inhibitors nivolumab and dostarlimab. The AMBER Trial that was presented recently, and in full disclosure, both you and I actually are on this abstract. So, what do you think of this abstract? What do you think of the data that is discussed, and how do we contextualize this in relation to what needs to be done in this space?  Dr. Jason Luke: So, I think this is an exciting abstract because it brings forward what may be the next high-priority immune checkpoint to try to target in clinical oncology. To level-set, I think everybody listening will know about PD-1 and CTLA-4 as immune checkpoints. In the last year, we've had LAG-3 come forward as now a standard of care element of armamentarium in melanoma, and we look forward to further studies of LAG-3 and other tumor types as we think it should be a good partner where PD-1 is otherwise approved.  So here now, we hear about TIM-3, which is another negative regulatory checkpoint on a number of different immune subsets. And in this abstract, the antibody targeting TIM-3 was cobolimab. So, TIM-3 is a very interesting molecule. It has, what you might call, pleiotropic effects in the immune system. So, while in the context of this abstract, it was being targeted as another immune checkpoint on T cells, it's important to point out that TIM-3 has other regulatory roles in other immune subsets such as myeloid cells and very particularly dendritic cells, and that's important because it might bring in another element of the innate immune system to try to drive anti-tumor responses. So, it's an exciting target because it might be able to expand the groups of patients who could benefit from immune checkpoint blockade.  So, in this abstract, we see initially the phase 1 data of combining cobolimab, anti-TIM-3 with anti-PD-1 of a couple of different flavors. And what you could take from this abstract is that in the phase 1 setting, the drug was well-tolerated and combined well, and had pharmacokinetic properties that would be consistent with what we'd expect for this kind of a monoclonal antibody. I think we have to marry this abstract, which is really the phase 1 data about safety in pharmacokinetic (PK) to another abstract presented in the melanoma session, which showed an expansion cohort of patients who got cobolimab plus nivolumab or dostarlimab.  And there we did see a 50% response rate, albeit that there was heterogeneity of patients being treatment naïve versus treatment-experienced. So, what I would say to this on a high level is that I think these data are preliminarily exciting, suggesting that further investigation into TIM-3 may be valuable in terms of expanding the population of patients initially in melanoma, but there will data coming soon in lung cancer and in other tumor types with another novel checkpoint. And I think if we think ahead into the future, the question is probably going to end up being, which combinations of checkpoints for which patients. That's pretty exciting to think about. We've seen a lot of data of PD-1 plus other molecules, and I think some future biomarker stratification really will be necessary to know which patient would benefit the most from which of these combos, but for the time being, this is exciting data to see where the field is going to go over the next couple of years.  Dr. Diwakar Davar: Great. And I guess, to your point, one important thing to highlight from the abstract is your point about the role of the different compartments. There was actually a very interesting dose-response relationship with the highest dose of the drug not necessarily being the most effective dose, suggesting that yes, as you escalate, you may have different effects in different compartments, and maybe therefore a broad selection of doses might be required to ensure that you have optimal engagement of the optimal target.  So, the next abstract is Abstract 3007. This is the tumor-agnostic efficacy and safety of erdafitinib. So, we now know that FGFR pathway aberrations are found from 77% of all malignancies, FGFR targets are now U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved in cholangiocarcinoma with pemigatinib, infigratinib, and as well with erdafitinib metastatic urothelial cancer. We know that these agents are not necessarily effective tests in 1 tumor type because these alterations have risen in multiple tumor types. So, the RAGNAR trial, looking at this across multiple tumor types, what do you make of the interim analysis result presented by Dr. Loriot?  Dr. Jason Luke: So, I'd say that this is probably the future of targeted therapy. And so, I think that where we have activity in 1 disease, it's very likely we would have activity in others. So, the author has described this as the largest basket trial of a molecularly defined subset that's been pursued to date. There are upwards of more than 200 patients in the study. I think it's really important, as we think about the data, to realize, though, that all FGFR alterations are not exactly the same thing. And so, in this study, they gave erdafitinib to patients with solid tumors of any FGFR altered status. And so that's FGFR1, 2, 3, 4 mutations or gene fusions. And that's a lot of heterogeneity in there actually.  And in this study, there were two-thirds fusions and one-third mutations, mostly in FGFR2 and 3. That will become relevant as we start to think about the results. On a high level, I have to say that it is impressive in pan-cancer fashion, just selecting by FGFR alteration, there's about a 30% response rate observed. I think that no matter what, that's going to be valuable considering these were patients with refractory tumors with 3 lines of prior therapy on median. I think what we need to know more is the breakdown of which specific molecular alteration and FGFR in which tumor types drove most of the benefit.  So, for example, in bladder cancer where erdafitinib is already approved, that's almost entirely an FGFR3 fusion setting. So we know the drug is effective there. And so I think there will be a further breakdown of the data. As it matures more, you really start to tease out, is it really the case that any FGFR alteration can be treated or there are some that really ought to be the high priorities that we really ought to be going after. I think it would be remiss not to also note, however, that while there's excitement about this sort of pan-cancer approach, the current generation of FGFR inhibitors are not exactly the easiest drugs to take.  And so, the in-class, hypophosphatemia and stomatitis really does lead to dose reductions in a lot of the patients. And I think that that's probably really important to emphasize is that despite the pan-tumor activity, there's still a lot of potential in this field to refine further because it's almost certainly the case that if we had less off-target toxicity, so to say, we could improve the efficacy beyond that 30% that we saw here.  All the same, I think this is exciting for the concept of a pan-cancer tumor agnostic sort of approach, and we'll really look forward to more data to come from this study over the next, hopefully, few months.  Dr. Diwakar Davar: And I guess 1 corollary to that is that we now need to start looking for FGFR alterations in multiple tumor types. So, tests, tests, tests. All right, Abstract 3004, phase 1a/1b dose escalation and expansion study of the MDM2-p53 antagonist BI 907828 in patients with multiple solid tumors including advanced, metastatic, liposarcoma. So, we've recently had data of the previously undruggable KRAS, and now we've got previously undruggable p53, for which we now have targets. So, Jason, what do you make of the p53 targeting approach, in this case, using MDM2 and this particular drug from Boehringer Ingelheim?  Dr. Jason Luke: So, I think that this is an exciting abstract exactly for the reason that you mentioned, which is that p53 has been, and unfortunately, to some degree, still remains, one of those holy grails but undruggable targets in oncology. So MDM2, for those who are listening but might not be aware, is a negative regulator of p53. So, the concept here then is if you drug it, you might release p53 to reactivate activity in that pathway, and then p53 being the guardian of the genome, so to say, potentially leading to apoptosis of cancer cells.  And so, this drug binds MDM2 and MDM2 can be amplified as a resistance mechanism in p53 and several tumor types. And so here, they showed data for the early part of a clinical trial investigating the small molecule, BI 907828, but then they focus specifically in liposarcoma, which is a disease known to be an MDM2 amplified. And so, the results were pretty interesting. The toxicity of this kind of an approach, just to note, is really in class. It leads to some gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities as well as hematologic problems, and this goes again for most regulators of the cell cycle will have these effects, whether they're CDK inhibitors or MDM2 or p53 modulators.  But I think what was very interesting, this is a disease liposarcoma where chemotherapy, functionally speaking, has no role. We, unfortunately, give it to some patients sometimes, but it has almost no activity, and they observe that in poorly differentiated liposarcomas, the response rate was about 12%, but the stable disease was quite durable. And so, I think that really is potentially a big deal because this is an orphan disease. It really lacks any other treatment. But as you zoom out from that, if you start to think about targeting amplified MDM2 in other settings, I think the activity that we see here is intriguing, and potentially suggests that we may be coming to a future where we'll have multiple, sort of, orthogonal approaches after reactivating p53. There were actually other abstracts at ASCO Annual Meeting of other molecules that were less mature also along this line.  So, I think, very exciting to take away from this, one, a potential treatment for liposarcoma for all of those patients that anybody listening actually sees, but secondarily this concept of targeting p53, which I think we'll see a lot more of over the next couple of years.  Dr. Diwakar Davar: Excellent. Moving on to the Abstract 3002, this is a phase 1, two-part multicenter, first-in-human study of DS-6000a of an antibody-drug conjugate comprising the anti-CDH6 IgG1 monoclonal antibody that is attached to a topoisomerase I inhibitor payload via a cleavable linker. And so basically, a way in which you can give topoisomerase: (1) TOP1 inhibitor, (2) CDH6-expressing cells. This was studied in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and advanced ovarian cancer in this abstract presented by Dr. Hamilton. Jason, what do you think of the results and what do you think of this approach in general, this antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) approach using novel targets as well as novel payloads?  Dr. Jason Luke: I think this is one of those that you can't help but be pretty excited about, and I think in the context of the data shown at the plenary session in breast cancer for antibody-drug conjugates (LBA3), I think this is really where the field is going to start to go. So, you mentioned that this is an antibody-drug conjugate that targets cadherin 6 or CDH6, which people will remember from biochemistry class and medical school, or something is a cell-cell adhesion molecule, really a basement membrane protein. So, the concept of targeting it really is just to go after a latch mechanism to get the molecule into the tumor where you want. And CDH expression is very high in renal cell carcinoma, upwards of 80% of samples, also high in ovarian cancer, which is why they chose those 2 tumors to go after.  So, the ADCC, and you described its structure just a little bit, but it's essentially the same backbone as trastuzumab deruxtecan, which we saw this outstanding activity for HER2 and breast cancer on the plenary, with these 8 chemotherapies moieties attached to it, but here now, targeting it instead to HER2, with this molecule now to CDH6. And I think, again, you can't help but be impressed. There were treatment responses on almost every dose level of the dose escalation in this study. There's in fact only 1 patient whose tumor was not, at least, stable disease or a PR, and I think that that just goes to show the power of truly bringing the chemotherapy in a targeted manner into the tumor microenvironment. Responses were heterogeneous. They were not super deep responses per se, but the stable disease was quite durable in the study, and the patients were going out more than 7 months. And again, realizing this is at the lower dose levels as we're increasing the dose and move this in their earlier lives of therapy is likely to be even more effective.  They did show a waterfall plot of the reduction in CA 125 for the patients with ovarian cancer that really looked quite impressive. And given that that's our clinical biomarker that we commonly follow, it may actually even more indicative of the benefit we would see as opposed to resist.  Now, again, there is some toxicity. It is a chemotherapy moiety that's conjugated to the ADCs. So, the most common toxicities were nausea, vomiting, and low platelet counts, but these are kind of toxicities that we're quite accustomed to with chemotherapy. Just to summarize, I think there's a lot of promise for this kind of antibody-drug conjugate targeting, and I think it can only be impressive that they had this amount of activity in the dose escalation of the study. [I] very much look forward to the expansion cohorts in renal and ovarian, which we'll presumably expect to see later this year, early in the next year.  Dr. Diwakar Davar: And as you alluded to, this really was parallel that ASCO, by the standing ovation given to Dr. Modi when she presented the DESTINY04 data of trastuzumab deruxtecan in HER2-low breast cancer, basically now redefining breast cancer from 4 camps, now we have to think of not just HER2 amplified or HER2-high, but also HER2-low. So yes, really have to now rethink how we classify these diseases (LBA3).  So Abstract 2509, the efficacy of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy in non–small cell lung cancer dependent based on CD8 and PD-L1 status. So really Dr. Galon taking us into what he has now described as the immunoscore—really a way of characterizing tumors. A way of thinking about tumors that you've also championed, Jason, in terms of this T cell-inflamed and uninflamed hypothesis. So, tell us a little bit about how these jives with your work and how you would think about lung cancer patients responding and not responding to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) therapy in this context?  Dr. Jason Luke: Yeah. I think the focus quickly here on the immunoscore, so the people are aware of that, I think is really important for diving into these specific results. You have to realize our fundamental underlying predicate for immune checkpoint blockade inhibitor response is that patients have mounted an adaptive immune response. So, CD8 T-cells have gone into the tumor where they elaborate chemokines and cytokines like interferon gamma, which upregulates the expression of PD-L1 in the tumor but also in the surrounding immune cells.  So, you realize that even though antibodies are targeting PD-1, it's really that we're targeting that tumor microenvironment. So, the more robustly we can measure that, and we understand it, the more likely we are to know whether or not the patient is going to benefit. So, this is where the immunoscore comes in. The immunoscore is actually a fairly simple test. It's one slide, immunohistochemistry slide where they can stain jointly for CD8 and PD-L1 on the same slide. And that allows them to do a number of different things beyond just testing the total level of PD-L1. They can test the CD8 density, the PD-L1 expression, but then also the interaction between CD8 T-cells, their distance from each other, from PD-L1 expressing cells, and so on and so forth.  And so really [this] can give us a much more robust analysis of what all is going on in the tumor microenvironment again, off of a single slide. So here then, in this abstract, for patients with non–small cell lung cancer receiving anti-PD-1, they then compared the utility of only PD-L1 testing versus doing the immunoscore. And so, it was actually quite a large set. They had about 250 patients in their analytical set and then split about 150 or 180 or something into the training and validation sets, and they compared the immunoscore against 2 different standard PD-L1 antibodies, the 22C3 as well as the SP263. And what they saw was a high concordance for expression between PD-L1 and the immunoscore.  That's good, because, again, they're measuring PD-L1 in both of those. And so that was a good, sort of, level set. The immunoscore, however, allows them to look to 7 different parameters, again, beyond just PD-L1, as I mentioned. So, CD8 density, interaction, distance, and this kind of thing. Then in these test and training cohorts, they were able to actually split out patients who are PD-L1 positive into further groups, those that were immunoscore low and that were high. And in so doing, they were actually able to sort of dramatically predict the likely progression-free survival on PD-1 checkpoint blockade in those different non–small cell lung cancer groups.  So why is this important? Selection of patients by PD-1 has been very useful in the field of non–small cell lung cancer, but it's hardly a panacea. You're not at all assured your patient is going to do well just because they're PD-L1. And here comes a second assay that can be done in a standard of care setting. So, the immunoscore is a test. You could just order it, and that really does give you much more predictive power about who's likely to do well and who isn't. And I think this test and more broadly multi-spectral imaging is really going to become a core component to how we risk stratify and predict outcomes to checkpoint blockade and lung cancer, but broadly in other tumor types over the next couple of years.  Dr. Diwakar Davar: Okay. Now, moving on from a biomarker for PD-L1 and PD-1 to a setting in which PD-1 was just recently U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved, so I'll give a brief background to the trial that you've actually developed and led. And so, this is KEYNOTE-716, the abstract in question is LBA9500 (late-breaking abstract) 9500, but this is the distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) data readout. The DMFS, distant metastasis-free survival with pembrolizumab versus placebo in the adjuvant setting for patients with stage IIB or IIC, that is high-risk node-negative melanoma and the data from the phase 3 KEYNOTE-716 study.  So, this data, at least the recurrence-free survival (RFS) data was actually earlier published, you had presented it earlier last year and also more recently this year, but it was published recently in Lancet. And we know that 716 is a study in which, for the first time ever, we have an immune checkpoint inhibitor PD-1 that was studied against placebo with the high-risk node-negative setting in stage IIB and C melanoma, demonstrated a significant RFS benefit in the setting against placebo. And now we have the DMFS readout.  Maybe you could tell us a little bit about both the RFS and the DMFS data, and why this is such an important advance for these patients.  Dr. Jason Luke: Thanks. And I agree this really is a sea change in how we thought about stratification of patients with melanoma, but I think this broadly has implications for other tumor types as well. So, in melanoma, we've historically thought of its involvement of the lymph nodes—stage III as being the high-risk disease, but we also, if you look at the outcomes from the AJCC, we see the patients with stage IIB and IIC, so deep primary lesions, actually have similar bad outcomes as those patients with stage IIIA and IIIB. And so anti-PD1 and adjuvant therapy and melanoma were originally proved for stage III, but having understood that about 5 years ago actually, started to think, well, why not also treat the patients with stage II if they're at similar risk.  And we pursued KEYNOTE-716 as you mentioned, and it read out last year as a positive trial for recurrence-free survival. And the abstract here then was to look at the impact on distant metastasis-free survival. So, while the regulatory consideration for approval, and it is approved and it's available for patients now, was based on relapse, what we really want to be preventing is the development of metastatic disease because presumably that would correlate with the eventual death of the patient from cancer.  So, in the abstract here, we see the first update for DMFS, which also was positive on its first analysis, the hazard ratio at 0.64. And so, again, very similar to the RFS benefit, showing about a 35-36% reduction in distant metastasis-free survival. And this is a theme that we've seen across adjuvant studies in melanoma, all the adjuvant studies in fact, is that the RFS improvement, the relapse-free survival hazard ratio mirrors very closely the distant metastasis-free survival ratio. We saw that again here. I think it just emphasizes that anti-PD-1 immunotherapy is highly effective in melanoma no matter what stage it's in, but rather related to the risk of death for melanoma.  And so this really has a practice changing in the field of melanoma oncology. Patients need to be referred to medical oncology early for discussion around risk stratification and consideration of adjuvant therapy—I think even at the same time that they're having resection of their primary lesion, and it even calls into  question of whether or not we should even fully be doing procedures like sentinel lymph node biopsies any longer, considering we can make the decision to give adjuvant therapy now based on the primary—albeit that's a controversial area of discussion.  And I would just love for this to start to penetrate into other disease settings. We've seen more recently, approval for neoadjuvant therapy in lung cancer and we see in kidney cancer, bladder cancer. We see adjuvant therapy in—I think we're going to see immunotherapy starting to become an important part of the armamentarium in these hard-to-treat cancers, even at the time that perioperatively before or after surgery.  So definitely a major change in the way we're thinking about stratifying patients and emphasizes that you need to get those patients with melanoma in to have that discussion around adjuvant therapy probably at the time of the primary lesion resection.  Dr. Diwakar Davar: And finally, Abstract 2507, single-cell profiling of human heart and blood in patients with checkpoint inhibitor-associated myocarditis. So, this is data from the NGH Group, Dr. Villani and colleagues are presented by Dr. Blum. We know that myocarditis is an uncommon but very serious immune related adverse event (irAE), and here in this particular dataset, this group which has done a lot of underlying work to really uncover the role of certain key phenotypes, cellular phenotypes, in the development of myocarditis it's presenting the data in the context of ICI-related myocarditis. So, what do you think of this data, what do you think of the use of checkpoint inhibitors are now, as you've said, migrated linear in the lifecycle of the patient, what do we need to be thinking about and how does this improve our understanding of both the use of the drug and what we need to be worried about?  Dr. Jason Luke: I think the toxicities of immunotherapy, while, less frequent than, say, chemotherapy, can actually be more disastrous. In the rare patients, we have extreme immune-related adverse events, there is an incidence of actually life-threatening and fatal events. And so, myocarditis, associated with checkpoint blockade, is one of those things that could be seen, and here at ASCO Annual Meeting, we saw a couple of abstracts summarizing the experience from the National Cancer Institute following myocarditis events, and then this abstract in a translational level trying to better understand what is actually going on in terms of the immune response in those myocarditis cases.  And so, I thought this was actually a very interesting abstract. There was only a small number of patients. They had 13 samples from patients who had had endomyocardial biopsies in the context of immune-related myocarditis, and you might say, well, only 13 samples, but fortunately, this is quite a rare event, less than 1% of patients who get immune checkpoint inhibitors. And what they saw was relatively unsurprising, which is that in patients who were having myocarditis, they saw an increase in T cells and in K-cells, as well as activated CD8 and CD4 T-cells.  I think what was very interesting was when they started to dig into what were the phenotypes of the cells and what were the pathways that were turned on. Again, it was not especially surprising to see that they saw increased levels of interferon signaling and immune-receptor signaling as well as motility and adhesion, but this really, I think emphasizes that there are potentially interventions beyond just the general immune-suppression approaches that we give. They could be more nuanced but perhaps more efficacious because sadly, patients do pass away when they develop this. And in their cohort of 13 patients, 3 of those patients died. And specifically, in looking in those 3 patients, they actually saw that all 3 patients had a shared T cell cluster. And they can't exactly say what it is exactly yet, but I think it's very interesting to see that because it suggests that there's probably something about the T cell response in those patients that disproportionately triggered a fatal event.  And if we can understand that better, we then may be able to really tailor our interventions in a way that is more useful. Because, frankly, the way these patients usually present is they show up in the emergency room (ER), and they're seen by an ER doctor who thinks they're having acute coronary. They ship them off to the catheterization (cath) lab. They open him up, and then they get in there, and there's nothing going on. There's no plaque. And so now, all of a sudden, everyone is quite confused. And so, if we had better ways to search for that ahead of time to be aware of it, we might have better interventions because usually what happens right at that moment is everybody gets very confused and starts calling the oncologist, and we start slapping on steroids and other immunomodulatory agents, but sometimes it's late.  So, I think this is a great abstract. It's really starting to preliminary give us an idea of what is the actual biology that underpins these terrible events, and we can hope that we can build off that over time hopefully to eventually come up with better predictors and then obviously better interventions to try to avoid these outcomes in a small but real number of patients.  Dr. Diwakar Davar: Excellent. One other point is you and I are both involved in drug development, and as we start thinking of side effects. Side effects are really on the flip side of responses in drug development. So really 1 point to make of this is that when people start developing side effects rather than, as you say, putting your hands up in the air and waving them around, 1 of the things that we should be doing in drug development is possibly biopsying these patients because we could get new PD insights into how these drugs work, why they work, and particularly which sub-populations themselves they work on, particularly in the early-drug development setting when you oftentimes don't have that many responses.  With that, thank you, Jason, for sharing your insights with us today.  Dr. Jason Luke: Thank you.  Dr. Diwakar Davar: And thank you to our listeners for your time today. If you value the insights that you hear on the ASCO Daily News Podcast, please take a moment to rate, review, and subscribe wherever you get your podcasts. So, thank you for your attention, and we will sign out.      Disclosures:  Dr. Diwakar Davar:   Honoraria: Merck, Tesaro, Array BioPharma, Immunocore, Instil Bio, Vedanta Biosciences  Consulting or Advisory Role: Instil Bio, Vedanta Biosciences  Consulting or Advisory Role (Immediate family member): Shionogi  Research Funding: Merck, Checkmate Pharmaceuticals, CellSight Technologies, GSK, Merck, Arvus Biosciences, Arcus Biosciences  Research Funding (Inst.): Zucero Therapeutics  Patents, Royalties, Other Intellectual Property: Application No.: 63/124,231 Title: COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR TREATING CANCER Applicant: University of Pittsburgh–Of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education Inventors: Diwakar Davar Filing Date: December 11, 2020 Country: United States MCC Reference: 10504-059PV1 Your Reference: 05545; and Application No.: 63/208,719 Enteric Microbiotype Signatures of Immune-related Adverse Events and Response in Relation to Anti-PD-1 Immunotherapy  Dr. Jason Luke:   Stock and Other Ownership Interests: Actym Therapeutics, Mavu Pharmaceutical , Pyxis, Alphamab Oncology, Tempest Therapeutics, Kanaph Therapeutics, Onc.AI, Arch Oncology, Stipe, NeoTX  Consulting or Advisory Role: Bristol-Myers Squibb, Merck, EMD Serono, Novartis, 7 Hills Pharma, Janssen, Reflexion Medical, Tempest Therapeutics, Alphamab Oncology, Spring Bank, Abbvie, Astellas Pharma, Bayer, Incyte, Mersana, Partner Therapeutics, Synlogic, Eisai, Werewolf, Ribon Therapeutics, Checkmate Pharmaceuticals, CStone Pharmaceuticals, Nektar, Regeneron, Rubius, Tesaro, Xilio, Xencor, Alnylam, Crown Bioscience, Flame Biosciences, Genentech, Kadmon, KSQ Therapeutics, Immunocore, Inzen, Pfizer, Silicon Therapeutics, TRex Bio, Bright Peak, Onc.AI, STipe, Codiak Biosciences, Day One Therapeutics, Endeavor, Gilead Sciences, Hotspot Therapeutics, SERVIER, STINGthera, Synthekine  Research Funding (Inst.): Merck , Bristol-Myers Squibb, Incyte, Corvus Pharmaceuticals, Abbvie, Macrogenics, Xencor, Array BioPharma, Agios, Astellas Pharma , EMD Serono, Immatics, Kadmon, Moderna Therapeutics, Nektar, Spring bank, Trishula, KAHR Medical, Fstar, Genmab, Ikena Oncology, Numab, Replimmune, Rubius Therapeutics, Synlogic, Takeda, Tizona Therapeutics, Inc., BioNTech AG, Scholar Rock, Next Cure  Patents, Royalties, Other Intellectual Property: Serial #15/612,657 (Cancer Immunotherapy), and Serial #PCT/US18/36052 (Microbiome Biomarkers for Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 Responsiveness: Diagnostic, Prognostic and Therapeutic Uses Thereof)  Travel, Accommodations, Expenses: Bristol-Myers Squibb, Array BioPharma, EMD Serono, Janssen, Merck, Novartis, Reflexion Medical, Mersana, Pyxis, Xilio  Disclaimer: The purpose of this podcast is to educate and to inform. This is not a substitute for professional medical care and is not intended for use in the diagnosis or treatment of individual conditions.  Guests on this podcast express their own opinions, experience, and conclusions. Guest statements on the podcast do not express the opinions of ASCO. The mention of any product, service, organization, activity, or therapy should not be construed as an ASCO endorsement.     

CCO Infectious Disease Podcast
My Perspective: Living With HIV Is Life Changing but Not Life Limiting

CCO Infectious Disease Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 21, 2022 11:48


In this episode, Yvette Raphael provides her perspectives and advice as an individual living with HIV in South Africa for more than 20 years. She shares her experiences and ideas for how to improve processes related to HIV diagnosis, care linkage, and treatment.Presenter:Yvette RaphaelContent based on an online CME program supported by an independent educational grant from Gilead Sciences, Inc.Link to full program: https://bit.ly/3tmgozy

ASCO Daily News
DESTINY-Breast04 and Other Key Breast Cancer Studies at ASCO22

ASCO Daily News

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 21, 2022 31:01


Dr. Allison Zibelli, of the Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center – Jefferson Health, and Dr. Hope Rugo, of the Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of California, San Francisco, discuss the practice-changing DESTINY-Breast04 trial as well as novel therapies in metastatic HR+/HER2- breast cancer from the TROPiCS-02 and MAINTAIN studies, all of which were featured at the 2022 ASCO Annual Meeting.   TRANSCRIPT Dr. Allison Zibelli: Hello. I'm Dr. Allison Zibelli, your host for the ASCO Daily News Podcast today. I'm a vice-chair and breast medical oncologist at the Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Health in Philadelphia. My guest today is Dr. Hope Rugo, a professor of medicine and the director of Breast Oncology and Clinical Trials Education at the Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of California, San Francisco. We'll be discussing key advances in breast cancer that were featured at the 2022 ASCO Annual Meeting. Our full disclosures are available in the show notes, and disclosures of all guests on the podcasts can be found on our transcripts at asco.org/podcasts. Hope, it's great to talk to you today. Dr. Hope Rugo: Nice to talk to you, too. Dr. Allison Zibelli: Let's begin with perhaps the most exciting abstract at ASCO this year, which was the DESTINY-Breast04 study, that's LBA3, a randomized phase 3 study of trastuzumab deruxtecan versus treatment of physician's choice in patients with HER2-low, unresectable and/or metastatic breast cancer. What are your thoughts about this study? Dr. Hope Rugo: Well, of course, this is a hugely practice-changing study as was noted in the second-to-last slide by the discussant [Dr.] Pat LoRusso. So, antibody-drug conjugates are really the next step in delivering chemotherapy to cancer cells. The antibody-drug conjugates allow targeted delivery of a toxin to the cancer cell. I think we didn't understand how important this was going to be. These second, sort of, verging on third-generation antibody-drug conjugates use an antibody approach and to then have a new generation of linkers, which allow the drug to be released locally, but to then have drugs which pack a big bang for the buck. So, the way antibody-drug conjugates are constructed, you need to have a drug that actually can't be given as a naked drug because it's too toxic because you're giving just very small amounts of this drug that are delivered directly to the cancer cell. And the other really critical part of this is that the drug-to-antibody ratio of at least the successful and new antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) is quite high in the 7.5 to 8 toxins per antibody. Now, what that's resulted in is really interesting, is that there's a bystander effect. So, the toxin itself can leak out of the cancer cell that it's targeted and kill neighboring cells, but also because of the construct of these antibody-drug conjugates, what's likely happening is even if the cancer cell's a very low expression of the target, really low, you're able to actually get that ADC into the cancer cell to kill the cancer cell. So that may be a big part of the so-called bystander effect. So trastuzumab deruxtecan is biosimilar trastuzumab linked to a topoisomerase inhibitor deruxtecan, and what happened here was that of course, we saw remarkable data in HER2+ disease, unbelievable p-values in DESTINY-Breast03 compared to T-DM1, a first-generation ADC. But in DESTINY-Breast04, we targeted a population of patients largely with hormone receptor-positive disease who had a little expression of HER2, 1 plus or 2 plus by immunohistochemistry and no gene amplification. And this trial, which randomly assigned patients 2:1 and included just 58 patients with triple-negative disease. So in this trial, 480 had hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, a median of 1 line of prior chemotherapy. They were only allowed up to 2. They were refractory to endocrine therapy, a median of 3 lines of endocrine therapy. In the overall patients and in the hormone receptor-positive patients, there was actually a doubling in progression-free survival (PFS). It started very early, and it continued throughout, and at every landmark analysis, T-DXd was better than the treatment of physician choice that patients were randomly assigned to. It's also important when you're thinking about trials like this to think about what the treatment of physician choice was, and it was all chemotherapy regimens we would use. Paclitaxel, nab-paclitaxel, capecitabine, eribulin, or gemcitabine. And, so, I think that that doesn't bring up any questions. When they looked at the hormone receptor-positive group, they saw, if anything, even a bigger benefit overall. Now, the other endpoint of this trial was overall survival, and at this first analysis, they saw an improvement in overall survival that was quite dramatic. The absolute difference was 6.4 months, which is pretty amazing for an overall survival difference. And then they looked at this exploratory endpoint at the 58 patients who were valuable at triple-negative breast cancer, and then that group of patients, also saw an improvement in PFS of 5.6 months, an improvement in overall survival of 9.9 months, very small group, but amazing data. The forest plots are exactly what you want to see, all the dots line up to the left of 1, and overall responses improved. One of the concerns with this drug has been toxicity. The toxicity showed no new toxicity signals, which is really important. Nausea is the biggest issue that we deal with. It's mostly grade 1 and 2, but still something that's important to manage. A little bit of hair loss, not much in the way of bone marrow suppression, which is interesting. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) or pneumonitis continues to be an important issue to follow. 12% of patients had ILD of any grade. Most of it was grade 1 and 2, but 3 patients died, representing 0.8%. So, this really highlights the importance of monitoring and managing pneumonitis. Regardless of that, few patients had a reduced ejection fraction, but again, very, in general, low grade. This is really a new standard of care, and the standing ovation was really due to the fact that all we do is dedicate ourselves to trying to help patients live longer and better with their cancers, and in this trial, we have a huge win that has no qualifications. We can help patients not only control their disease longer but live longer with T-Dxd compared to standard chemotherapy. Dr. Allison Zibelli: So, Hope, I know as a practicing medical oncologist, I find that our metastatic triple-negative patients are often the biggest therapeutic challenges for us. Will they be doing larger studies with these patients that are HER2-low? Dr. Hope Rugo: It's a really good point. About 65% of patients with hormone receptor-positive disease or so-called HER2-low, centrally confirmed in the study. So, a fair number of people, about a quarter, did not have HER2-low disease when they were tested centrally. In the triple-negative population, who really are ER, PR, HER2- by standard definitions, about a third of the patients might have HER2-low disease. So, there's a lot of interest in further exploring that and looking at the patients who have ultra-HER2-low disease, so between and 1 plus a little bit of expression. That's been studied in the hormone receptor-positive population in DESTINY-Breast06. But there's a lot of interesting further defining that triple-negative population, so to speak, they're going to be triple-negative plus now and understanding what the benefit is in that population. So definitely will be looked at more now moving forward. Dr. Allison Zibelli: Thank you. So, let's move on to Abstract 1002. And the results from the phase 1, 2 study of patritumab deruxtecan, a HER3-directed antibody-drug conjugate, and patients with HER3 expressing metastatic breast cancer. What are your thoughts about this study? Dr. Hope Rugo: That's a really interesting, another one of these second- to third-generation antibody-drug conjugates. It's just the antibody, instead of being the usual, sort of, HER2 or TROP2 that we're used to thinking about is directed to HER3, 1 of the HER family of proteins. This is interesting. There's actually been a lot of work trying to target HER3 with naked antibodies with disappointing results, although I have to say most of the studies really didn't push it too far. So, with this antibody drug construct, deruxtecan, which is the same as in T-DXd and another TROP2 ADC Dato-DXd is used. So, I will say they do need to change the toxin in the next generation of ADCs. But they looked at, at first did a dose-finding study which has previously been presented, and then a dose expansion in both hormone receptor-positive HER2-negative disease and triple-negative disease. All the triple-negative patients had HER3 high disease by immunohistochemistry, and the hormone-receptor-positive patients were enrolled in 2 cohorts, HER3 high and HER3 low. And the median number of prior treatment regimens that patients had received in the hormone-receptor-positive group was 6 and 2 for the triple-negative group, but there was a huge range, up to 13 lines of treatment. They only had 14 patients with HER2+ disease. So, it's a little bit hard to know what to do with that patient group, but they were heavily pretreated 5.5 prior lines of therapy. The confirmed overall response rate in the 113 patients with combined HER3 high and low was 30%, very impressive, heavily pretreated patients. For triple-negative disease all HER3 high, it was 23%. Again, very nice. And there were 14 patients with HER2+ disease that also were HER3 high. It was about 43%. So those are nice responses, but we always want to know how durable is that. The duration of response ranged from 6 to over 8 months in those 3 different groups. So, these were quite durable. It wasn't any 2- to 3-month duration of response. So very impressive. And then when they looked to see, did it matter whether you had HER3 expression that was high or low in the hormone-receptor positive group, they actually did see responses in the HER3-low group, some very good responses. Overall, there were less patients in that group, but it does suggest that maybe you would still see responses in the HER3-low group, very impressive. And then 1 really interesting correlative study they did was they looked to see what happened to the HER3 expression on the tumor cell over time, and it went down. So, you treated the HER3 expression in most of the patients just dropped off completely, which is really interesting. It didn't have any association with clinical activity, but it's sort of an interesting correlative endpoint. This is a drug that overall was pretty well tolerated. They saw a similar toxicity to T-DXd with a lot of nauseous, a little bit of alopecia, a little bit more bone marrow suppression than we're used to seeing with T-DXd. So, neutropenia was seen in about 10% of patients at the lower dose and about a quarter of the patients at the higher dose. Overall, pretty well tolerated. Now, interstitial lung disease is a toxicity with this construct, and they saw ILD of 7% but most cases were grade 1 and 2. The other interesting toxicity that's unique to this agent is thrombocytopenia. So, they saw a grade 3 or greater rate of thrombocytopenia of 27% in the lower dose group, and in the larger group that received the higher dose, 39% of grade 3 or greater thrombocytopenia, so platelets less than 100,000. Turns out that when you stop the drug, the platelets do come back, so that's a good thing. Sometimes we saw long-term thrombocytopenia with T-DM1. They didn't see bad toxicity like bleeding, but it is something that needs to be managed with this drug because we're not great at managing thrombocytopenia. In any case, it has fast-track designation for another solid tumor, not breast cancer, and we'll have to see where this fits into our dizzying array of very effective ADCs now. Dr. Allison Zibelli: The practicing medical oncologist is not used to testing for HER3 in our patients with breast cancer. How common is it? Dr. Hope Rugo: HER3 expression is quite common in hormone receptor-positive disease, a little less common in triple-negative breast cancer. So, I think that we would see expression if we were going to be treating patients with this particular approach. Dr. Allison Zibelli: All right. Let's move on to Abstract 507, which reported long-term outcomes of adjuvant denosumab in breast cancer, specifically fracture reduction and survival results from 3,425 patients in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled ABCSG-18 trial. What are your thoughts about this study? Dr. Hope Rugo: Well, this trial, this is an update of a study that previously has been presented and published, most recent publication was in Lancet Oncology in 2019, and these patients were randomly assigned to receive denosumab at 60 milligrams, important to note the dose, subcutaneously every 6 months versus placebo every 6 months, and they did get placebo subcutaneous injections. And this treatment continued through their endocrine therapy. They showed a dramatic reduction in fracture rate, and that has been maintained over time. We were really surprised enough to suggest that maybe Austrian people didn't go into the sun, so they got more Vitamin D deficiency, hard to know, but the hazard ratio is 0.5. It's unbelievable the number of fractures, 92 for denosumab but 176 for placebo, a P value of less than .0001. So, this is a real endpoint, treating patients who are receiving endocrine therapy that, in this case, non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor therapy that can increase bone loss, have a reduced fracture rate when they received denosumab. So that is the big take-home message, and a medium follow-up of 8 years. But the secondary endpoints included disease-free survival. They had about 20% disease-free survival events and 8% deaths, and what they saw was really interesting. So, the caveat is that 16% of patients were unblinded at the first analysis and half of them got denosumab, so it messed up their results a little bit, but the disease-free survival was significantly better in patients who received denosumab, and the hazard ratio of 0.83 and the hazard ratio does not cross 1. So that's very interesting, and even overall survival, they looked at 2 other endpoints, bone metastasis-free survival, and overall survival. They also trend towards an improvement with a hazard ratio of 0.8 for both of them. And they didn't actually see toxicity. So, patients' brittle bone fractures and osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) are all concerning, but they really just did not see any risks in this patient population. I think there was 1 patient that had what they thought was a brittle bone fracture. Obviously, they watched the mouth very carefully as well. Really dramatic, and I think it's kind of disappointing that we never had any registration approach in this, and also not well-understood why the D-CARE study did not show a benefit, but I think D-CARE was designed differently. This is a better design to focus on our patients and the specific issues, and I think it's intriguing and should be considered as part of our treatment regimen for patients who are at risk for bone loss and have early-stage breast cancer on an aromatase inhibitor. Dr. Allison Zibelli: I've been using DEXA scans and offering denosumab to my patients on AIs that have osteopenia or osteoporosis. Should we be considering it in women with normal bone mass? Dr. Hope Rugo: I think not yet. Unfortunately, this trial was not immediately powered for cancer outcome, although the data are very encouraging. We don't know what the relationship is to bone loss, and providing an environment that's friendlier for cancer cells. So, do you have to have bone loss in order to have the risk that you're reducing with these agents? Certainly, that's what we've seen with zoledronate. So, I think that we don't have sufficient data to use this simply to treat cancer, but I do think that we should be considering this as an agent to give patients who have bone loss, either when you're starting an aromatase inhibitor or during the course of therapy. I think it's well tolerated, and a subcutaneous injection is not difficult. One of the questions that's come up for people is do you get bone loss that increases your risk of fracture after you stop therapy. But clearly from these updated data, these patients were off therapy. They did not have an increase of fractures and the patients treated with denosumab fared much better, I mean the hazard ratio of 0.5. Dr. Allison Zibelli: Let's move on to TROPiCS-02. That's LBA1001. This is a randomized phase 3 study of sacituzumab govitecan versus treatment of physician's choice in patients with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer. How do you think this study will impact practice? Dr. Hope Rugo: That's a great question. I presented this data, and I think I presented it on a Saturday, and on Sunday we saw the plenary talk of DESTINY-Breast04. These patients enrolled in TROPiCs-02 had a median number of lines of prior chemo 3 with a range of up to 8 actually, compared to a median number of lines as 1 in the DESTINY-Breast04 population. We included all hormone receptor-positive HER2 negative-advanced breast cancer, not centrally confirmed. They included just the HER2 low subset that was centrally confirmed. Everybody in our study had received prior CDK4/6 inhibitors compared to about 70% in DB04. And then 95% of patients in this trial had visceral mets. So, we did really treat a patient population who had very advanced high risk hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. As you know, we saw an improvement and progression-free survival with a hazard ratio of 0.66 meeting the endpoint. We needed a hazard ratio of 0.7, highly statistically significant P value .0003, but the median difference in PFS was only 1.5 months, and overall survival data is not yet mature. So that's brought up the question about how this drug should be used because there was a big fall off in the first 2 months where patients had rapid disease progression with heavily pretreated chemotherapy-resistant disease. We did landmark analyses and there were big separations in PFS at 6, 9, and 12 months, and 12 months, it was 21% patients free of progression and death at 1 year versus 7% for the TPC arm. So, it was a tripling of patients who were free of progression at one year. I think that's clinically relevant. This drug is associated with more neutropenia. That's the primary issue to manage, and probably half of the patients need growth factors at some point. When we looked at other endpoints response to ratio response, etc., we're better with Sacituzumab. So where does this all fit into our treatment paradigm. I think there's the HER2-low patients who will now receive T-DXd up in the, I hope, second line and not in lieu of endocrine therapy, when they're ready for chemo. But there are patients who don't have HER2-low disease and then there are patients who are going to be in the later line setting. So, I do think it still has a place in the treatment department, receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer. The results show that it was better than chemotherapy, physician choice based on our national and international guidelines, and that's better for our patients to have that option. Overall survival data obviously is looked for with great interest and that will help us put this into the right paradigm. And then I also hope that real world data will help us understand how sequential treatment with these different ADCs will benefit our patients. Dr. Allison Zibelli: This is really exciting. Do you think that we're maybe coming toward the end of conventional chemotherapy, especially for women with HER2-positive disease? Dr. Hope Rugo: I wonder if we are. I think we were interested in T-DM1 for HER2-positive disease early on. We've seen some really nice pathologic complete response data as well as adjuvant data in the attempt trial in patients who had stage I disease. Now that we have these second-, third-generation ADCs, T-DXd, I think this could potentially completely replace our chemotherapy. We still have to deal with alopecia. And I will point out ADCs are still chemotherapy. They're just a much more efficient and effective way of delivering treatment, and we need to be very careful to manage the toxicity. Dr. Allison Zibelli: Next, we're going to talk about the main pain trial that's LBA1004, which is a randomized phase 2 trial of fulvestrant or exemestane with or without ribociclib after progression on anti-estrogen therapy plus cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibition in patients with unresectable or hormone receptor-positive HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer, in other words CDK4/6 after CDK4/6. What are your takeaways here? Dr. Hope Rugo: First, just amazing that an investigator-initiated trial could do this well and be placebo-controlled. So, kudos to the principal investigator (PI) [Dr.] Kevin Kalinsky. This trial is a small phase 2 trial. A reasonable number, 119 patients were randomly assigned and evaluable patients could have received up to 1 line of prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease. If you had received prior exemestane, you received fulvestrant, if you received prior fulvestrant, you received exemestane, and actually if you looked at the number of patients who had received fulvestrant, it was 99 versus only 20 with exemestane. So important to keep in mind. If you looked at the overall population where the primary endpoint was progression-free survival, the hazard ratio is 0.57, just median PFS of 2.8 months in patients receiving endocrine therapy and placebo and 5.3 months for patients receiving endocrine therapy and ribociclib. So was this ribociclib after ribociclib or ribociclib after something else. 86% of patients had received palbociclib as their prior CDK4/6 inhibitor, and only about 10% to 14% had received prior ribociclib. So, there's a predominance of palbociclib followed by ribociclib. The other thing that's important to keep in mind is how sick this patient population was. Very few had received prior chemotherapy in the less than 10% range, visceral metastases in about 60%. So that's helpful. Only 19% or so had received 2 or more endocrine therapies from metastases. So, most people did this as their second line treatment. The PFS, when you looked at fulvestrant or exemestane, looked like the benefit was relatively similar, but you know you got 20 patients in the exemestane arm. The hazard ratios, looking at the subgroup analyses, all looked pretty similar, and the overall response and clinical benefit rate were better with continuing the cyclin dependent kinases (CDK) inhibitor. There was interesting sub-analysis looking at mutations and how that affected things. And they looked at patients who had ESR1 mutations or had wild-type ESR1. 42% had ESR1 mutations at study entry, very similar to what we've seen. In that group of patients, remember it's only 33 where they had this analysis, they saw a lot of other mutations. So p53, PIK3CA, FGFR, CCND1—those patients did not benefit. Only 33 patients. No benefit at all, very short PFS, about 3 months. The patients who had ESR1 wild type seemed to benefit a lot, 45 patients going from about 3 months to a little over 8 months. So, this is all hypothesis-generating data. I wouldn't run out and use this as your standard of care now because it is small data. But when the patient doesn't have other good options, I certainly would consider switching the CDK and going on, add that to the next line endocrine therapy. It's important to switch the endocrine therapy. I think we really need to look at the ongoing phase 3 trials to give us better evidence basis and understand the impact of mutations and prior therapy on who might benefit from continued CDK inhibitors after progression on a CDK inhibitor. Dr. Allison Zibelli: I think this is a really exciting trial. We all have a lot of patients on palbociclib and letrozole who've been on for 4, 5 years, and would like to continue with this kind of treatment because the side effects are really manageable. So, I look forward to seeing what's coming in the future with the phase 3 trials. So, let's talk about Abstract 1015, which I thought is a great idea. It looks at the quality of life with ribociclib plus aromatase inhibitor versus abemaciclib plus AI as first-line treatment of hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer, assessed via matching adjusted indirect comparison. Could you tell us what matching adjusted indirect comparison is and why you chose this for the study? Dr. Hope Rugo: It's an interesting question. How do you compare across trials? So, matching this kind of make analysis, we'll call it a make analysis for the purposes of this discussion, allows you to match patients and weight based on their characteristics that might affect patient reported outcomes. And that actually is a way of trying to do a fair cross-trial comparison. So basically, take the study population, you match the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and then you weigh the different criteria so that you can try and make a better association. It's the best way we know of comparing across trials. You know, a lot of people ask why we didn't have PALOMA-2 in here, and that's because they used a different patient reported outcome tool. So, you have to use the same patient reported outcome tool in order to compare. So that's why we did this analysis, and it sort of came on the heels of a survey that Fatima Cardoso presented at San Antonio in 2021, where patients identified diarrhea as a symptom they really didn't like more than everything else. And you can imagine, I think we all have that experience in practice, the unexpected nature of diarrhea and the fact that it does limit your activities and, therefore, quality of life are important. In this analysis, interestingly but not surprisingly, ribociclib favored abemaciclib in diarrhea, and there can be associated appetite loss, so ribociclib also favored abemaciclib for appetite loss. And I thought the last one was interesting—fatigue—because I wouldn't have assumed that fatigue would be different. And maybe it's associated with diarrhea. They have these funny arm symptoms that were better. We don't really know why that was, and it's hard to assess again. We're really not clear based on the differences between the drugs. So, there are limitations to the analysis, but I think that it helps us really in individual patients try and match patients' underlying symptoms with the best treatment to offer them the best quality of life as they're being treated in the metastatic setting. Dr. Allison Zibelli: I thought this study was great because it really centered the experience of the patient and the wishes of the patient. You don't see that designed into many clinical trials, the way this was. So, I thought that was a great feature of this study. Dr. Hope Rugo: I will say that all of the 3 studies that looked at CDK inhibitors, all those 3 studies included patient-reported outcomes. That's an important new approach that is really being focused on. Dr. Allison Zibelli: Do you consider the CDK4/6 inhibitors equivalent in efficacy, and could you substitute them to try to get the side effect profile that you want? Dr. Hope Rugo: Well, I think that we saw in the early stage setting that there are differences. Now, across the different trials, there are big differences in patient populations and inclusions as we saw in the PALOMA-2 results that were presented at ASCO [Annual Meeting], whether the patients had prior chemotherapy like in PALOMA-3, whether they had a short disease-free interval, the higher risk patients in PALOMA-2. The PALOMA trials were more broadly inclusive than the other 2 studies, the MONALEESA and MONARCH series of trials. So, we do have to be a little bit careful about comparing apples to oranges, but we have the early-stage results of MONARCH E showing a clinically important difference in outcome whereas the PALLAS and Penelope-B trials didn't. So that sort of puts us into a little bit of a question period. Are these all patient populations or are there differences between the agents? The PFS and the metastatic setting, all the hazard ratios line up. So, in truth, although I know the activity against cyclin-independent kinases are different between agents, we don't still really understand the clinical differences in efficacy, but I think we all are practicing using evidence-based medicine. I wouldn't, for example, substitute a different CDK4/6 inhibitor for abemaciclib in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. We have to just learn how to manage the diarrhea and use prophylaxis and dose reduce early to manage this and make it tolerable for our patients. And in the metastatic setting, I think we need to follow evidence-based guidelines and use the best data available to decide on the right treatment approach and sequencing for our patients. Dr. Allison Zibelli: Thank you, Hope, for coming on the podcast today. This was a really interesting review of one of the most exciting ASCO [Annual Meetings] I've been to. And thanks for sharing your valuable insights with us and helping us make sense of all this really new exciting data. We really appreciate it. Dr. Hope Rugo: Thank you. And thank you so much for inviting me. Dr. Allison Zibelli: And thank you to our listeners for joining us today. You will find the links to all the abstracts discussed today in the transcript of this episode. Finally, if you value the insights that you hear on the ASCO Daily News Podcast, please take a moment to rate, review, and subscribe wherever you get your podcasts. That really helps other listeners find us. Thank you.   Disclosures: Dr. Allison Zibelli: None disclosed. Dr. Hope Rugo: Honoraria: Puma Biotechnology, Mylan, Samsung Bioepis, Chugai Pharma, Blueprint Medicines Consulting or Advisory Role: Napo Pharmaceuticals Research Funding (Inst.): OBI Pharma, Pfizer, Novartis, Lilly, Genentech, Merck, Odonate Therapeutics, Daiichi Sankyo, Sermonix Pharmaceuticals, AstraZeneca, Gilead Sciences, Ayala Pharmaceuticals, Astellas Pharma, Seattle Genetics, Macrogenics, Boehringer Ingelheim, Polyphor Disclaimer: The purpose of this podcast is to educate and to inform. This is not a substitute for professional medical care and is not intended for use in the diagnosis or treatment of individual conditions. Guests on this podcast express their own opinions, experience, and conclusions. Guest statements on the podcast do not express the opinions of ASCO. The mention of any product, service, organization, activity, or therapy should not be construed as an ASCO endorsement.

The Hep-cast
S2 #2 Youth Can't Wait – Empowering Young People in the Fight against Hepatitis

The Hep-cast

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 14, 2022 45:51


David Urick was born with hepatitis B but was only told when he was teenager. The confusion and stigma that followed had a profound and life changing impact on overcoming drug use, attempted suicide and depression. In this episode, David from the U.S. joins Professor Manal El-Sayed, a professor of paediatrics at Ain Shams University in Egypt, and Arafat Bwambale, Co-founder of the Great Lakes Peace Centre in Uganda to discuss the critical importance of working with young people to achieve elimination of viral hepatitis by 2030. The Hep-cast is a collaboration between the World Hepatitis Alliance and Gilead Sciences. The Hep-cast is fully funded by Gilead Sciences Europe Limited.Job bag number: IHQ-UNB-1416Date of preparation: April 2022 Our GDPR privacy policy was updated on August 8, 2022. Visit acast.com/privacy for more information.

The Answer is Yes
#187 - Pause, Breath, Choose - with Naz Beheshti

The Answer is Yes

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 10, 2022 28:56


Naz Beheshti began her career as the executive assistant to Steve Jobs at Apple. Jobs, her mentor, is the inspiration behind her new book, Pause. Breathe. Choose.: Become the CEO of Your Well-Being. He had an early and profound influence on her belief that the ultimate wealth is well-being.In 2012, Naz founded Prananaz, a corporate wellness company that provides custom, high-touch, high-tech programs improving leadership effectiveness, employee well-being, employee engagement, company culture, and business results. Some of her clients include Google, Facebook, Nike, JPMorgan Chase, Gilead Sciences, Skadden, Fico, Coinbase, UCSF Health, and Columbia University. Prananaz delivers programs, workshops, coaching, consulting, keynotes, and training to teams and organizations of all sizes.Naz's diverse experience includes a decade in the high-stress environments of tech startups, Fortune 500s, and pharmaceutical companies (Apple, Yahoo!, AstraZeneca). She also co-founded Rise 2 Shine, a non-profit organization committed to helping alleviate the suffering of young children in Haiti.Naz's work has been widely featured in the media, including CNBC, BBC, Yahoo, Inc., Fast Company, O: The Oprah Magazine, and many more. She is also a regular Forbes contributor with over 150 published articles on mindful leadership and corporate wellness and writes for Entrepreneur and Thrive Global. She holds a BA in Psychology from the University of California, Santa Cruz. She is a certified Holistic Health Coach, certified Transformational Coach, certified Advanced NLP (neuro-linguistic programming) Practitioner, certified yoga instructor, and lifelong practitioner, and trained TM (transcendental meditation) practitioner.Naz divides her time between New York City and Miami Beach. Visit her online at https://nazbeheshti.comwww.livelifedriven.com

ASCO Daily News
ASCO22 Scientific Program: Dynamic Sessions and Advances Across the Spectrum of Malignancies

ASCO Daily News

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 1, 2022 7:02


Dr. Sonali Smith, of University of Chicago Medicine, highlights dynamic sessions and hot topics that will be featured in the 2022 ASCO Annual Meeting Scientific Program, including practice-changing advances in breast cancer, colorectal cancer, sarcoma, and myeloma.     Transcript  ASCO Daily News: Hello and welcome to the ASCO Daily News podcast. I'm Geraldine Carroll, a reporter for the ASCO Daily News. I'm delighted to welcome Dr. Sonali Smith, professor and chief of the hematology-oncology section at University of Chicago Medicine.  Dr. Smith is also the Chair of the 2022 ASCO Annual Meeting Scientific Program and joins me to discuss the hot topics and must-see sessions that will be featured at the meeting.  Her full disclosures are available in the show notes and disclosures relating to all guests on the podcast can be found on our transcripts at asco.org/podcasts.  Dr. Smith, it's great to have you on the podcast today.  Dr. Sonali Smith: Thank you, Geraldine. It's a pleasure to be here.  ASCO Daily News: Well, thousands of abstracts were submitted for consideration this year and more than 2,900 were selected for presentation. We'll talk about some of the must-see sessions. First, can you tell us about the areas that have shown tremendous advances this year—the practice-changing abstracts that will make the headlines?  Dr. Sonali Smith: Yes, that's right. There were over 6,000 abstracts submitted for consideration this year and more than 2,900 abstracts were selected for presentation with over 250 oral presentations. We had 2,200 that were online publication only. And given the hybrid nature of ASCO [Annual Meeting] this year, we will have 86 sessions that will be livestreamed, including all of our abstracts that are oral.  I'm really excited about the Plenary. In particular, there are going to be some practice-changing abstracts involving breast cancer, colon cancer, sarcoma, and myeloma. We are really thrilled with the quality and the excitement around the data and I do think this is going to be very important for people who are in practice.  When we think about the different abstracts that have been submitted for the Plenary, they will focus on front-line colon cancer, the approach to Ewing sarcoma in pediatric patients, and the use of antibody-drug conjugates for breast cancer in a very specific subset. And then also some discussion about, or presentation about, the use of maintenance therapy in patients with myeloma.  ASCO Daily News: Excellent. Well, the Clinical Science Symposia are quite popular among participants. Can you tell us about some of the topics that will be featured this year?  Dr. Sonali Smith: Yes. So, the Clinical Science Symposia (CSS) were really a lot of fun to pull together. As this audience knows well, this is an opportunity for us to take a look at all of the abstracts submitted and look for cross-cutting themes between all of the different cancers that we take care of. They can focus on new technology. They can focus on new approaches to therapy. And after looking at all of the submitted data, we have 3 really outstanding special Clinical Science Symposia for which I'm really excited.  One is going to focus on circulating tumor DNA, “ctDNA: Dawn of a New Era,” and I really do believe in that title and encourage everybody to come and hear how this could be applied in practice.  The second special CSS will be on Bispecifics. Really asking the investigators as well as the discussants. “Bispecifics: Are Two Better Than One?” And then the third special Clinical Science Symposium will be called, “Is There a Ghost in the Machine? Putting Artificial Intelligence to Work.” And as many of us know, machine learning is finally finding its way into oncology. And I'm just thrilled at the abstracts that have been submitted.  I also just wanted to say that we've had a really outstanding speaker lineup and it's incredibly diverse with international perspectives brought to the table.  ASCO Daily News: Absolutely. And so, what are some of the other sessions that will be on your own list this year?  Dr. Sonali Smith: Well, I'm really excited about the opening session, which will be at 9:30 in the morning on Saturday, June 4th. We will have our president, Dr. Everett Vokes, speaking on his theme, Advancing Equitable Cancer Care Through Innovation.  We also have our FASCO presentations, and we have 2 special speakers. One will be Ned Sharpless, who is the head of the National Cancer Institute. And then we will also have Dr. Andre Ilbawi, who is the lead of cancer programs at the World Health Organization. He has had an incredible impact on improving access for children with cancer on a global level. And I think this series of speakers really fits with our theme this year.  Another session I'm really looking forward to is the [David A.] Karnofsky [Award and] lecture by this year's widely respected speaker, Dr. Jedd Wolchock. This is anticipated to be an incredibly thought-provoking and clinically relevant presentation, and I hope all of you will join us.  ASCO Daily News: In following up then on the theme of the meeting this year, it is, of course, Advancing Equitable Cancer Care Through Innovation, can you comment on how important it is that this theme is represented in as many of these programs, as many of these sessions as possible at meetings such as the [2022] ASCO Annual Meeting and other symposia?  Dr. Sonali Smith: A global approach and a global mentality when we are developing therapies, preventive approaches, are really incredibly important. In the United States, at least, the survival for patients with cancer has doubled, and I think it is really important to remember that we are a global organization and there are many people around the world who can benefit. And if we can put innovation into this, hopefully, it can be done better and faster.  ASCO Daily News: Absolutely! Well, thank you so much, Dr. Smith, for taking the time to be on the podcast today and for sharing some of these highlights. And a big thank you for your efforts to create a really robust scientific program for the 2022 ASCO Annual Meeting.  Dr. Sonali Smith: Thank you so much. It's been a real pleasure.  ASCO Daily News: And thank you to our listeners for your time today. If you're enjoying the content on the ASCO Daily News podcast, please take a moment to rate, review and subscribe wherever you get your podcasts.      Disclosures:   Dr. Sonali Smith has been paid for any consulting or advisory role by ADC Therapeutics , Adaptive Biotechnologies , Gilead Sciences, Bristol Myers Squibb, MorphoSys, Janssen, Bantam Pharmaceutical, and Karyopharm Therapeutics, currently or during the past 2 years. Dr. Smith has received research funding from Portola Pharmaceuticals, Genentech, Acerta Pharma, Pharmacyclics, Celgene, Curis, Bristol Myers Squibb, TGTX, Merck, Forty Seven, and Novartis, currently or within the past 2 years.   Disclaimer:   The purpose of this podcast is to educate and to inform. This is not a substitute for professional medical care and is not intended for use in the diagnosis or treatment of individual conditions.  Guests on this podcast express their own opinions, experience, and conclusions. Guest statements on the podcast do not express the opinions of ASCO. The mention of any product, service, organization, activity, or therapy should not be construed as an ASCO endorsement.   

ASCO Daily News
ASCO22: Key Posters on Advances in Immunotherapy

ASCO Daily News

Play Episode Listen Later May 27, 2022 21:37


Dr. Diwakar Davar and Dr. Jason Luke, both of the University of Pittsburgh's Hillman Cancer Center, share the latest news on immunotherapy trials KEYNOTE-A10, LIBRETTO-001, and other key IO studies across tumor types featured at the 2022 ASCO Annual Meeting.  Transcript Dr. Diwakar Davar: Hello, and welcome to the ASCO Daily News Podcast. I am Dr. Diwakar Davar, and I'm an assistant professor of Medical Oncology in phase 1 therapeutics, at the University of Pittsburgh's Hillman Cancer Center, and the guest host of today's podcast. I'm delighted to welcome Dr. Jason Luke to this podcast. He's the director of the Cancer Immunotherapeutic Center at the Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh, and a great colleague and friend.  Today we'll be discussing some key posters that highlight some advances in immunotherapy that will be featured and the 2022 ASCO Annual Meeting. You will find our collective disclosures in the show notes and the disclosures of all guests on the podcast are available on our transcripts at asco.org/podcasts.  So, Jason, thank you for coming on the podcast today.  Dr. Jason Luke: Well, thanks very much for the invitation. I always love doing these podcasts for ASCO, and never love anything more than hanging out with my friend Diwakar Davar.  Dr. Diwakar Davar: Well, thank you! Below are the abstracts we've selected. We will start with Abstract 2504. This is a phase 1 trial of the TIM-3 inhibitor cobolimab monotherapy, singly and in combination with the PD-1 inhibitors nivolumab or dostarlimab. Phase 1 data from the AMBER trial with the presenting author being Dr. Gerald Falchook. And this is a trial that initially started several years ago. And I know Jason, that you were involved with the inception of this agent, that TIM-3 inhibitor. So, walk us through, TIM-3. It's a third-generation checkpoint, we now have TIGIT LAG coming into the landscape. Definitely a first indication for LAG-3 melanoma with a positive trial, RELATIVITY 047. So, where are we with TIM-3? Why should we be excited about TIM in general, and this data in particular?  Dr. Jason Luke: It is quite exciting, especially building off the recent data that we saw for relatlimab or LAG-3 because it's becoming clearer that a number of these other immune checkpoints that we have been talking about for many years, actually really can be effective when used in the right setting.  So, this drug, this anti-TIM-3 antibody cobolimab monotherapy, as you mentioned, started out in a phase 1 clinical trial dating all the way back to I think about 2015. And that was at the time in immuno-oncology when everybody was so excited, [and] they thought everything was going to work immediately.  Subsequent to that, obviously, we've had some hurdles that we've had to come over. But we're coming back to some of these agents now, which are looking very exciting. So, just in the same way we think about blocking PD-1 or now blocking LAG-3 to reinvigorate T cells in the tumor microenvironment, there's a good chance and a high probability based on preclinical data that blocking TIM-3 could be just as effective as blocking LAG-3, so to say.  Now, one thing that I note in this abstract is really the safety finding and early PK analysis. And so, this is the important work we do early on to understand the drug. It's important to be aware that in a study like this, it's very hard to seek efficacy signals.  So, when you see this poster, really, you probably shouldn't be thinking, ‘Oh, this is a frontline phase 3 trial,' but rather that the efficacy is going to be a secondary consideration. Rather, what's quite important is looking at the properties of the drug and looking at the safety signals around that. And what we can see here is that TIM-3 appears to be quite safe when blocking it in conjunction with anti-PD-1 across several different tumor types. And that really sets the stage then to think about moving this into earlier lines of therapy across many different cancers.  And so, here we see advanced solid tumors but focused on lung cancer and melanoma and kind of the usual tumors we think about, and people can keep their eyes open because there are other posters of this molecule with PD-1 in some of the other sections outside of developmental therapeutics.  Now, one thing I would like to get your opinion on because your group has focused a lot on TIM-3, as I described it as this T cell centric mechanism to reinvigorate exhausted T cells. But it's possible that TIM-3 does other things as well. And I don't know if you want to comment on that or give any other feedback that you've had when thinking about this AMBER Trial.  Dr. Diwakar Davar: That was an excellent summary, Jason, of really what is a truncated 8-year track record of developing this agent all the way from 2015. But you bring up a very interesting point, which is: exactly what does this drug does in the non-T-cell compartment?  Some very interesting data from Brian Ruffell in a paper that was published about 3 years ago now suggested that TIM-3 was actually potentially a myeloid checkpoint, meaning that, in a tumor model in which Dr. Ruffell was studying this in the context of breast cancer, the drug primarily appeared to work on the effect of antigen-presenting cells and augment the presentation of antigen to T cells suggesting that it may be, in addition to being a chronicle T cell exhaustion marker, it may also be reinvigorating antigen-presenting cells. And the question of whether or not the role of TIM-3 on APCs as well as the role of TIM-3 on T cells, and which of these compartments are more important, and how these compartments segregate in any given cancer across many different lines of therapy will hopefully be something that we disengage, and understand a little bit better as we look at biomarkers of this drug across different settings.  And especially to that point, Jason, the biomarker question, you'll notice that very interestingly, that was a signal in which that drug had a certain response rate. Again, as you correctly point out, we cannot read too much into response rates in very small patient numbers. But very interestingly, there was a slightly higher response rate at the 300 milligrams, which is not the top dose level of the drug, and a slightly lower response rate at the ceiling dose of the drug that was tested, 900 milligrams, leading the investigators to conclude that the RP2D, was actually 300 milligrams every 3 weeks and not 900 milligrams.  What are your thoughts on dose in the context of immunotherapy (IO) drug development? And why might it be that 300 is the optimal dose as opposed to 900?  Dr. Jason Luke: That's a complicated question. I mean, when we think about checkpoint blockade, we classically think about it as only blocking on T cells. But to your point, if there are multiple mechanisms in play, sort of modulating other cell compartments actually may start to do different things at different doses that maybe weren't our primary intent as we went into the trial.  That's a little bit of hand waving, immunologic hand waving, but I think the data are the data and once we hit an effective dose level, there's really no need to really push the dose that much further. But that really emphasizes the importance of these kinds of early phase clinical trials.  So, I'm really looking forward to seeing this data. For disclosure, obviously, we have both been investigators on this trial. But we're very excited about the idea that there may be hope for a fourth checkpoint to come forward in the field beyond just PD-1 CTLA-4, and LAG-3, maybe now here with TIM-3.  Dr. Diwakar Davar: So, with that we'll go to the next abstract and that is Abstract 2516, “Phase I trial of adjuvant autogene cevumeran, an individualized mRNA neoantigen vaccine, for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.”  So, this is an mRNA vaccine from our good friend, BioNTech. And that's been essentially evaluated in the context of highly lethal cancer, pancreatic ductal cancer, and specifically in the context of adjuvant vaccines, specifically in the setting of patients who had followed definitive pancreatic cancer surgery.  So, Jason, you know a lot of neoantigen vaccines, you've led some of these trials, really, the neoantigen vaccine is really the primary reason we are actually having an in-person meeting this year, because if not for this company and others like this, really this pandemic would not be behind us.  What are your thoughts on the role of neoantigen vaccines in cancer therapeutics, and also, particularly this particular trial in the data, the immunological data, and the clinical data regarding the development of neoantigen-specific T cells in this setting, and what this means for you?  Dr. Jason Luke: Right. So, the idea of targeting neoantigens as cancer immunotherapy was really all the rage a few years back, and it was thought based on preclinical animal models that this was just going to be the secret sauce, and this would be the new targeted therapy for immunotherapy. And it isn't to say that that's not true, but the first generation of neoantigen, peptide-based vaccines for the most part, unfortunately, just kind of didn't end up moving the needle the way we had hoped.  The question then was raised: is that because targeting neoantigens isn't reasonable, or is that because the setting where we were trying to do it in the refractory disease area was not the optimal way to leverage this?  And so, a couple of different companies and trials now are coming forward looking at targeting neoantigen in a minimal residual disease setting where the idea could be that immunologic responses that you could generate wouldn't be hampered by all the immunosuppression associated with the tumor microenvironment.  And so, here we have this molecule, which you eloquently pronounced, ‘autogene cevumeran.' It's an RNA-lipoplex neoantigen vaccine. So, it's not a peptide. It's more like the COVID-19 vaccines actually. And it's being given after surgery, followed by anti-PD-L1 followed by chemotherapy.  So, it's a complicated regimen, but it's very intriguing these early data, which do show that the patients who got the vaccine seemed to have better and longer-term outcomes. But then as you emphasize, really, I think probably what's at the heart of this that really makes it exciting is their ability to immune monitor the patients, meaning to look for antigen-specific immune cells from the peripheral blood in these patients to be able to identify those immune responses as being specific to cancer. Because this kind of a clinical trial, it's still signal seeking and proof of concept kind of trial.  In order to actually establish that a vaccine approach in a post-surgical setting would have efficacy, we need to do a large randomized trial. And so, this is not that yet. But I think these data really point in the direction that that could be a reasonable thing to try. And when you think about pancreatic cancer, where we've made no success with immunotherapy, really in a meaningful way in terms of checkpoint blockade, at least, that's pretty exciting actually to think about.  I would actually marry this dataset with another that we actually saw at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) meeting that also looked at neoantigen targeting and antigen-specific responses in colorectal cancer, again, and in a similar setting with the minimal residual disease setting.  And so, I think this highlights that we may need to start thinking about using immunotherapy in different ways than we had before. Obviously, everybody knows about using PD-1 blockade in lots of different cancer types that are really for metastatic disease, or maybe even for adjuvant now in melanoma a little bit. But maybe there's this space, which is the minimal residual disease setting where you might be able to detect by ctDNA after surgery, the patients are still positive. And maybe you could treat that before there's visible cancer, and maybe certain immunotherapies could be more valuable in that setting than others. And that's where I think maybe some of these mRNA technologies really might find their sweet spot.  So, coming back to this abstract, I think really, the emphasis point here is the novelty of generating patient-specific neoantigen vaccines, and then being able to track linearly over time the immune response against those vaccines.  I think with that kind of technology and being able to leverage that, I think we're really headed towards a real shift in the way we think about managing cancer in a post-surgical setting, again, thinking about MRD, or minimal residual disease, maybe in a way that our leukemia colleagues have been thinking it about for a long time.  Dr. Diwakar Davar: That's an excellent summary of a very, very complicated, both setting, and in this case, a therapeutic landscape. So, well said, well summarized, and we'll now pivot to Abstract 2514. So, this is ‘Efficacy and safety of NT-I7, long-acting interleukin-7, plus pembrolizumab in patients with advanced solid tumors: Results from the phase 2a study' [and] the presenting author is Dr. Aung Naing from [The University of Texas] MD Anderson [Cancer Center].  So, Jason, you know, with checkpoints, we've got so many thoughts about checkpoints, particularly given the rather unfortunate failure of BEMPEG in the context of melanoma.  So, we've got lots of interesting cytokines that we think of as important in the context of immuno-oncology 2, certainly 12, 15. You've been very involved with IO-15. We've got a lot of clinical trials studying IL-12. And now we've got one studying IL-7. So, tell us what do you think of this IL-7 targeting approach in the context of cytokine-based therapeutics?  Dr. Jason Luke: I think it's really important to emphasize on first principles, for those that are listening, who don't think about immunology all the time that not all cytokines are the same thing.  So, interleukin 2 that many people have heard of is very different actually than interferon. And that's very different from many of the other cytokines, the ILs, and everything, right?  So, IL-7 is a very potent cytokine that's associated with the expansion of immune responses, and that can drive interferon gamma-dependent effects. And you should hear whenever I say interferon-gamma is sort of a link through to PD-1 responsiveness. Because we think the mechanism that underpins anti-PD-1 effectiveness in patients really is interferon gamma biology.  So, IL-7 has been a molecule, it's been of a lot of interest but really was too toxic to try to deliver. But now we have novel drug delivery sorts of approaches that are being developed to try to bring the drug in, in a way that doesn't cause such systemic toxicity.  So, in this clinical trial, this NT-I7 molecule is given intramuscularly, every 6 weeks in conjunction with pembrolizumab, and very interestingly, in a small number of patients, but there were resist responses observed across a series of tumors that you really wouldn't expect should be responsive in any way to pembrolizumab alone. And so, we're talking about microsatellite stable colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and some others as well.  And in conjunction with that, they were able to identify some of the biomarker effects we would think we would see with IL-7, such as expansion of peripheral immune compartments. And the toxicity profile was really consistent with what we've seen with fevers and chills, but manageable in a way that previous approaches really weren't.  So, I think this is really exciting because I think the idea here then is with this IL-7 approach, we might expand the kinds of cancers that we could go after, in conjunction with anti-PD-1 again, pancreas, colorectal cancer. I think that's really where the unmet need lies in oncology.  So, I really applaud these kinds of approaches and several of these cytokine approaches, and what we're going to talk about them, I think, have the potential to do that over the next couple of years.  Dr. Diwakar Davar: Excellent! Pivoting now to a different cytokine, but one that was alluded to before IL-12. So, Abstract 2518 is ‘Phase II evaluation of the combination of PDS0101, M9241, and bintrafusp alfa in patients with HPV 16+ malignancies,' and the presenting author here is Dr. Julius Strauss of the NCI Cancer Center and the Clinical Center of the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health.  So, what do you think, Jason, about the role of the HPV targeting vaccine, in this case, that was added to IL-12 immune-cytokine and bintrafusp alpha contextualizing the recent data that we have of bintra along with what is a very interesting result here?  Dr. Jason Luke: Yes, I think building on the last abstract where we talked about IL-7 as some novel biology now we move to IL-12, which again introduces other biology. So, interleukin-12 is a complicated cytokine, but one that's strongly associated with initial immune responses or immune priming, as well as enhancement of anti-tumor effects in the tumor microenvironment.  So, here we have sort of a 3-legged approach. So, the vaccination approach against HPV really can generate a strong immune response initially, and that can be supported with the IL-12. And then you come in with anti-PD-L1 and to whatever extent the TGF data is relevant here. And so, you have this cocktail where you're generating tumor-specific responses with a vaccine, you're supporting them with IL-12, and then blocking PD-L1.  And as we go back even a couple of abstracts we talked about, now we sort of have a cocktail right of approaches. And so, I think this is very exciting. It's unique in that, in these tumors, obviously, HPV is the driving force of cancer. So, developing a vaccine against that is fairly straightforward. But I really like this concept of bringing forward sort of a multi-dimensional immunotherapy approach. And we'll note they have previously presented data on this trial, I think last year at ASCO, actually. But what they see are pretty strong response rates, almost 30% range in PD-1 refractory tumors.  Again, that's our area of really high unmet need. It's hard to read through how useful a PD-1 naive treated patient here, although the response rates were high. But to me, it's really those patients who had progressed on PD-1 where they're getting these responses that tells me that this really could be something that's useful and potentially could be expanded beyond just say head neck cancer to any HPV relevant malignancy.  Dr. Diwakar Davar: Excellent! Now on to our last abstract. Abstract 2520, ‘Effect of intratumoral INT230-6 on tumor necrosis and promotion of a systemic immune response: Results from a multicenter phase 1/2 study of solid tumors with and without pembrolizumab (PEM) [Intensity IT-01; Merck KEYNOTE-A10].' The first author is Dr. Jacob Thomas.  Jason, we've seen a lot of interesting intratumoral therapies. You and I have both done a lot of studies in looking at intratumoral agents from toll-like receptor agonists, TLR-9, TLR 7-8, and more recently, oncolytic viruses.  So, contextualizing IT230-6 in the spectrum of intratumoral therapies, how do you feel about this drug, which is actually a very interesting novel drug. It's not just a TLR agonist, or for that matter, an OV, very interestingly, it's an intratumoral therapy that has actually got chemotherapy in it. So, how do you feel about this drug? How do you feel about the responses that we've seen? And particularly how do you feel about the setting in neoadjuvant breast cancer?  Dr. Jason Luke: Yeah. I would pick up where you said that this drug INT230-6 is just a really interesting concoction. So, it's cisplatin mixed with vinblastine, in a specific amphiphilic molecule that allows it to diffuse in through the cancer.  And so, if you had said that to me a few years ago, I would have looked at you and been like, ‘What are you talking about?' But I think the data that's been emerging for this is just really interesting because something about this chemotherapy cocktail actually drives immune responses. And really what the focus of this abstract is on is showing that you get an influx of CD foreign CDTa cells into the tumor microenvironment that's associated with a therapeutic benefit.  I think that's just really, really interesting to think about. It sort of makes one wonder when we're doing these intratumoral injections, how much of it is just the injection, and how much of it is the therapeutic agent, but I think it's a really novel therapy, and one that appears to be very well tolerated as well. And that's also the exciting part. When you hear cisplatin and vinblastine, you think, ‘Oh, well, that's not going to work.'  But apparently, it stays right in the tumor and generates these immune effects. I think it's very exciting. I think their approach here—going after what we usually call cold tumors, ones that don't respond to immunotherapy, you mentioned breast cancer—I think it's really interesting. I'm really looking forward to seeing the actual data from this abstract because, on first pass, it wouldn't have been what I thought about in terms of driving immune responses, but maybe it just goes to show that there's a lot more to understand there about immunogenic cell death and some of these other concepts that we bandy about. But I think this will be one of the most interesting abstracts actually to see the data for once it's available.  Dr. Diwakar Davar: Great! Taking a slight pivot from that. You've been involved in the development of novel response endpoints. One of the issues that we have with intratumoral therapies is that you're measuring a lesion that you inject, so now you inject something and it gets a little bigger. Is it getting bigger because it's growing? Is it getting bigger because the drug is working? We don't know. We have now itRECIST, which you have been working on.  What's very interesting is that whether you look at itRECIST, or RECIST, irRECIST, or imRECIST, when you have the monopoly of different response endpoints we have to deal with these days, these patients have monotherapy responses in non-injected tumors. How do you feel about that as a drug developer and somebody who's giving patients drugs like that? What is your impression of having shrinkage in the non-injected tumor?  Dr. Jason Luke: I think it's really exciting about this concept of the abscopal effect that we've bandied about for years. Despite being an investigator in this space, I'm really excited to actually see the data and to understand what these out of field responses are. If it's really true that this is robust, I mean, it could potentially be like a game-changer kind of thing. But I'll reserve judgment until I see the actual scans of the tumors that actually shrank that weren't injected.  Dr. Diwakar Davar: Fantastic insights, Jason. So, thank you for taking the time to join us on this podcast and to highlight these extraordinarily important advances in immunotherapy.  Dr. Jason Luke: I appreciate the opportunity to participate today.  Dr. Diwakar Davar: So, thank you, and thank you to our listeners for your time today, you will find the links to the abstracts that we discussed today in the transcript of the episode.  Finally, if you're enjoying the content on the ASCO Daily News podcast, please take a moment to rate review and subscribe wherever you get your podcasts.  So, thank you, Jason. And thank you to the team for putting this together.      Disclosures:   Dr. Diwakar Davar:   Honoraria: Merck, Tesaro, Array BioPharma, Immunocore, Instil Bio, Vedanta Biosciences  Consulting or Advisory Role: Instil Bio, Shionogi (Immediate Family Member), Vedanta Biosciences  Research Funding: Merck, Checkmate Pharmaceuticals, CellSight Technologies, Zucero Therapeutics (Inst), GSK, Merck, Arcus Biosciences  Patents, Royalties, Other Intellectual Property: Application No.: 63/124,231, and Enteric Microbiotype Signatures of Immune-related Adverse Events and Response in Relation to Anti-PD-1 Immunotherapy  Dr. Jason Luke:  Stock and Other Ownership Interests: Actym Therapeutics, Mavu Pharmaceutical, Pyxis, Alphamab Oncology, Tempest Therapeutics, Kanaph Therapeutics, Onc.AI, Arch Oncology, Stipe, NeoTX   Consulting or Advisory Role: Bristol-Myers Squibb, Merck, EMD Serono, Novartis, 7 Hills Pharma, Janssen, Reflexion Medical, Tempest Therapeutics, Alphamab Oncology, Spring Bank, Abbvie, Astellas Pharma, Bayer, Incyte, Mersana, Partner Therapeutics, Synlogic, Eisai, Werewolf, Ribon Therapeutics, Checkmate Pharmaceuticals, CStone Pharmaceuticals, Nektar, Regeneron, Rubius, Tesaro, Xilio, Xencor, Alnylam, Crown Bioscience, Flame Biosciences, Genentech, Kadmon, KSQ Therapeutics, Immunocore, Inzen, Pfizer, Silicon Therapeutics, TRex Bio, Bright Peak, Onc.AI, Stipe, Codiak Biosciences, Day One Therapeutics, Endeavor, Gilead Sciences , Hotspot Therapeutics, SERVIER , STINGthera, Synthekine  Research Funding (Inst): Merck, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Incyte, Corvus Pharmaceuticals, Abbvie, Macrogenics, Xencor, Array BioPharma, Agios, Astellas Pharma, EMD Serono, Immatics, Kadmon, Moderna Therapeutics, Nektar, Spring bank, Trishula, KAHR Medical, Fstar, Genmab, Ikena Oncology, Numab, Replimmune, Rubius Therapeutics, Synlogic, Takeda, Tizona Therapeutics, Inc., BioNTech AG, Scholar Rock, Next Cure  Patents, Royalties, Other Intellectual Property: Serial #15/612,657 (Cancer Immunotherapy), and Serial #PCT/US18/36052 (Microbiome Biomarkers for Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 Responsiveness: Diagnostic, Prognostic and Therapeutic Uses Thereof)  Travel, Accommodations, Expenses: Bristol-Myers Squibb, Array BioPharma, EMD Serono, Janssen, Merck, Novartis, Reflexion Medical, Mersana, Pyxis, Xilio  Disclaimer:   The purpose of this podcast is to educate and to inform. This is not a substitute for professional medical care and is not intended for use in the diagnosis or treatment of individual conditions.  Guests on this podcast express their own opinions, experience, and conclusions. Guest statements on the podcast do not express the opinions of ASCO. The mention of any product, service, organization, activity, or therapy should not be construed as an ASCO endorsement. 

ASCO Daily News
Key Posters on Advances in GU Cancers at ASCO22

ASCO Daily News

Play Episode Listen Later May 26, 2022 19:50


Guest host Dr. Neeraj Agarwal, of the University of Utah Huntsman Cancer Institute and the ASCO Daily News editor-in-chief, discusses key therapeutic advances in mRCC and mUC, as well as new research that proposes periodic scans to monitor patients with mCSPC for disease progression, with Dr. Jeanny-Aragon-Ching of the Inova Schar Cancer Institute.  Transcript:  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Hello and welcome to the ASCO Daily News podcast. I'm Dr. Neeraj Agarwal, the director of the Genitourinary Oncology Program, a professor of medicine at the University of Utah Huntsman Cancer Institute, and editor-in-chief of the ASCO Daily News.  My guest today is Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching, who is a medical oncologist and the Clinical Program Director of Genitourinary Cancers at the Inova Schar Cancer Institute in Virginia.  Today, we will be discussing key posters in genitourinary (GU) oncology that will be featured at the 2022 ASCO Annual Meeting. Our full disclosures are available in the show notes and disclosures of all guests on the podcast can be found on our transcripts at asco.org/podcast.  Jeanny, it is great to have you on the podcast today.  Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: Thanks, Neeraj. It's a pleasure for me to be here as well.  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Jeanny, let's begin with Abstract 4510. This is a trial that represents a growing interest among researchers worldwide in the microbiome and how it is impacted by antibiotics and how it modulates immune checkpoint inhibitor response. Can you tell us about this study?  Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: Thanks, Neeraj, I would be happy to. So, the title of the abstract is, “Characterization of the Microbial Resistome in a Prospective Trial of CBM 588 in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Offers Mechanism for Interplay Between Antibiotic Use and Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Activity.”  So, this is an interesting abstract that originated likely from the observation that getting antibiotics while on checkpoint inhibitors typically results in worse outcomes, perhaps because antibiotics can clear the normal gut flora and thereby increase these pathogenic antibiotic-resistant bacteria.  Now, on the other hand, there were some retrospective studies using a live microbial product called CBM 588, which seems to improve outcomes in patients on checkpoint inhibitors and getting antibiotics.  So, the idea, therefore, is that shifting the genes encoding antimicrobial resistance could result in a better checkpoint inhibitor response. So, this Abstract 4510 is a small study conducted by Dr. Nazli Dizman and Dr. Sumanta (Monty) Kumar Pal, and colleagues, and enrolled 29 metastatic clear cell RCC patients with intermediate or poorest disease. And they were stratified into receiving either nivolumab or ipilimumab compared to nivo/IPI with CBM 588.  Now stool samples were collected at baseline in week 12. And they did this whole metagenome sequencing to analyze a stool microbiome composition, and they also looked at the antibiotic resistance genes for the most common classes of antibiotics.  The results showed an astounding improvement in objective responses. So, 58%, for instance, in nivo/IPI and the CBM 588 arm compared to only 20% in the nivo/IPI arm. And it seems like also the antibiotics resistance genes were also decreased in those getting the CBM 588 alongside nivo/IPI. Therefore, responses were improved by shifting the gut microbiome alone. So, these findings were published actually recently by these authors in Nature Medicine. So, in case anyone wants to take a deep dive, it would be a good interesting read for this dataset.  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Very interesting, indeed. Jeanny, what is the main message here for our colleagues?  Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: I think, Neeraj, the key takeaway message is that this is a very provocative proof of concept trial that suggests shifting the gut microbiome has the potential to improve responses to checkpoint inhibitors and outcomes. So, this is a very up-and-coming trial and is seen also across the board in other cancers.  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Thanks, Jeanny. Moving on to urothelial cancer, there is a poster that I think is a must-see for our colleagues. This is Abstract 4577 titled, “Defining Platinum Ineligible Patients with Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma.”  Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: So, Neeraj, what can you tell us about this abstract?  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: So, over the past few years, there has been a tremendous evolution in the treatment landscape for patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma. For over 40 years the standard of care for these patients has been cisplatin-based chemotherapy.  However, approximately 50% of patients are cisplatin-ineligible, due to underlying comorbidities, and are offered carboplatin as an alternative. So, although the checkpoint inhibitors pembrolizumab and atezolizumab were approved as first-line therapy for these patients in 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has now restricted the use of first-line pembrolizumab to platinum ineligible patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma.  The challenge we face as oncologists since the FDA restriction is the absence of a formal definition of platinum ineligibility and the inclusion of this definition in the guidelines. So, in Abstract 4577, Drs. Shilpa Gupta and Jonathan Rosenberg, along with the team present an updated consensus definition for platinum ineligibility based on an online survey of 60 genitourinary oncologists in the United States.  Based on the results from this survey, any patient with metastatic urothelial carcinoma, meeting 1 of the following 5 clinical and or laboratory parameters should be considered platinum ineligible, and these are 1 of the following: an ECOG performance status of 3 or more, creatinine clearance of fewer than 30 mils per minute, or peripheral neuropathy of grade 2 or more, or heart failure class of 3 or more—so, this is NYHA heart failure class of 3 or more—and lastly, the combination of performance status of 2 or more, plus a creatinine clearance of less than 30 mils per minute.  Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: Well, this is a timely update, Neeraj. So, what do you think is a key takeaway from this abstract?  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: These criteria based on simple and easily available clinical and or laboratory parameters will now allow us to readily define platinum ineligibility in our patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma, which is a need in busy clinics, both in academic and community settings.  So, I think once published and obviously once endorsed by guidelines, we really would like to be able to use this criterion to quickly define platinum ineligibility in our clinics.  Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: Agree. Yeah.  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: So, Jeanny, let me switch the gears. PSMA testing is a hot topic this year. And there is an abstract that could potentially have an impact on future guidelines, and how we will practice further down the road.  So, I'm referring to the Abstract 5088 titled, “Predictive Value of Extra Prostatic Disease Detection by Preoperative PSMAPET for Biochemical Recurrence-free Survival in Patients with Otherwise Localized Prostate Cancer and Who are Treated with Radical Prostatectomy.”  So, this is a follow-up analysis of a multicenter prospective phase 3 imaging trial. So, could you please tell us more about this abstract where they are using PSMA PET scan in the preoperative localized prostate cancer setting?  Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: Absolutely, Neeraj. So, you may recall that the multicenter prospective phase 3 imaging trial that garnered gallium PSMA approval by the FDA was actually based on this study that looked at the intermediate and high-risk patients with prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy and lymph node dissection, and they underwent prior gallium PSMA PET scanning for pelvic nodal metastases prior to surgery.  So, this was actually previously reported by Dr. Calais and group. Now they are reporting on Abstract 5088 as a post hoc analysis of the same population and group of patients looking for extraprostatic disease. And the final pathology was also correlated to look at nodal disease in these patients in order to predict biochemical recurrence, so they follow these patients for biochemical recurrence occurrence.  So, of the 36% of patients who did undergo radical prostatectomy after they underwent PSMA PET scan, about 41% of them recurred with biochemical recurrence, and 40% of them underwent some kind of salvage therapy or some treatment.  What was very interesting was when they looked at the biochemical recurrence-free survival. It was better in those who were PSMA negative, and that recurrence-free survival was easily about 33 months, compared to only about 7.3 months in those who were PSMA-positive scans.  Furthermore, the ones who had the longest and the highest biochemical recurrence-free survival, intuitively, were those who were node-negative and PSMA PET-negative, so probably not surprisingly. And that rate was about 46 months—close to 4 years. Whereas those who are node-positive on final pathology and their PSMA PET was also positive, they only had about 3 months of biochemical recurrence-free survival.  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Very interesting. So, it looks like the PSMA PET scan is predicting biochemical recurrence-free survival in localized prostate cancer settings. So, Jeanny, what is the key takeaway from this trial?  Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: I think, Neeraj, the bottom line is that patients with extraprostatic disease that is detected by their preoperative PSMA PET scan does predict strongly a high risk of biochemical relapse, and this can really be an additional tool that clinicians can use to help inform and guide future therapy.  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Thanks, Jeanny. The research on preoperative PSMA testing and its implications on future treatment strategies in the setting is going to be really interesting to watch in the very near future.  Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: Yes, absolutely. I really think we should also discuss Abstract 5072, along those lines, the importance really of radiographic monitoring for disease progression in patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Yes, thanks for reminding and this is Abstract 5072. This is a post hoc analysis of the ARCHES trial, titled, “Radiographic Progression in the Absence of PSA Progression in Patients with Metastatic Hormone-sensitive Prostate Cancer.”  During the last several years, we have seen many of these agents typically given for gastric resistant prostate cancer moving upfront to the castration-sensitive prostate cancer setting. This is especially true for androgen receptor access targeting agents such as abiraterone, enzalutamide, and apalutamide, all being now approved for patients with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer.  What is noteworthy from all these trials, and is reported in Abstract 5072, is the use of imaging studies to evaluate disease progression. So, in Abstract 5072, Dr. Andrew Armstrong and Dr. Arun Azad performed a post hoc analysis of the ARCHES trial to investigate the concordance between radiographic progression and the PSA Progression as defined by PCWG2 criteria, or between radiographic progression and any rise in the PSA above nadir, in patients who were being treated with this novel hormonal therapies, in this case, enzalutamide for metastatic castration sensitive prostate cancer.  And as a quick reminder, ARCHES was a phase 3 trial that showed a significant reduction and radiographic progression-free survival and improved overall survival for patients with metastatic castration sensitive prostate cancer treated with enzalutamide plus androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) versus those treated with placebo plus androgen deprivation therapy.  So, very interestingly, the findings from this study indicate that 67% of patients on the enzalutamide plus ADT arm did not have [Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Working Group 2 criteria] PCWG2-defined prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression at the time of radiographic progression. And discordance was present in the ADT-only arm as well, where they found 42% of patients on the ADT-only arm had radiographic progression but did not have PCWG2-defined PSA progression.  Interestingly, this discordance of radiographic disease progression was also seen with any rise in the PSA above nadir. And I personally found this information to be very clinically relevant when we are seeing the majority of patients actually experiencing radiographic disease progression, not experiencing PSA progression at the same time.  Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: Yeah, absolutely. I agree with that, Neeraj. So, very interesting data. So, what do you think is the key takeaway message for the clinicians listening to us?  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: I'll make the message very simple. I think the message is that patients with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer need to be monitored for disease progression with periodic scans, and PSA monitoring alone is not sufficient in the majority of these patients.  Again, we cannot undervalue the role of periodic imaging studies in these patients so that we can timely diagnose them to have disease progression.  Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: I agree with that.  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Jeanny, the last abstract I would like to mention before we wrap up the podcast is Abstract 4509, the results from the phase1 live SPARC 001 study. So, can you please tell us more about this study titled, “Phase-1 Live SPARC 001: The Study of Belzutifan in Advanced Solid Tumors,” which is an update of the renal cell carcinoma cohort with more than 3 years of total follow up?  Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: Thanks, Neeraj. So, while the current therapeutic landscape for patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has changed dramatically over the past several years, with significant improvement in patient outcomes. Most patients unfortunately still experience disease progression on current treatments.  So, in-depth molecular profiling of clear cell RCC has revealed recurrent loss of function mutations in VHL in actually greater than 90% of patients. So, the VHL protein, as you will recall, is part of the oxygen-sensing pathway, regulating levels of HIF which is hypoxia-inducible factor protein, it's a transcriptional activator that mediates the response to hypoxic conditions. So, HIF-2α is a key oncogenic driver in RCC.  So, previous data you may recall from the phase-1 Live SPARC 001 trial was designed to evaluate belzutifan so, this was a novel HIF-2α inhibitor which showed durable anti-tumor activity and acceptable safety profile in patients with metastatic clear cell RCC.  So, in Abstract 4509, Drs. Jonasch and Toni Choueiri presented updated results from this trial after more than 3 years of follow-up. Of the 55 patients enrolled 16% of patients remained in treatment. And 62% of patients had discontinued treatment because of, unfortunately, disease progression.  The median progression-free survival (PFS) for the total cohort was 14.5 months. And the overall disease control rate was 80%. Forty percent of patients experienced grade 3 treatment-related adverse events with the most frequent ones being anemia and hypoxia.  There were no great 4 or 5 treatment-related adverse events. And these results, therefore, show that belzutifan monotherapy continues to show a high rate of disease control and a safety profile in a heavily treated population of patients with metastatic RCC. So, it is great to see that there were no new safety signals.  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Very nice data indeed. So, Jeanny, what is the key takeaway message here for our listeners?  Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: Yeah, I think the message here is that the use of belzutifan monotherapy continues to show efficacy and safety in patients with metastatic clear cell RCC, which have progressed on multiple prior contemporary therapies, and there are phase 3 trials currently underway.  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Jeanny, any final thoughts before we wrap up the podcast today?  Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching: Thanks, Neeraj. I think it's a really exciting time to be in genitourinary (GU) oncology, and I'm truly looking forward to seeing some great sessions at the 2022 ASCO Annual Meeting.  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Thank you, Jeanny, for sharing your insight with us today. It was a great conversation. And thank you to our listeners for joining us today. You will find links to the abstracts discussed today on the transcript of this episode. Finally, if you value the insights that you hear on the ASCO Daily News podcast, please take a moment to rate, review, and subscribe wherever you get your podcast.    Disclosures:   Dr. Neeraj Agarwal:   Consulting or Advisory Role: Pfizer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, AstraZeneca, Nektar, Lilly, Bayer, Pharmacyclics, Foundation Medicine, Astellas Pharma, Lilly, Exelixis, AstraZeneca, Pfizer, Merck, Novartis, Eisai, Seattle Genetics, EMD Serono, Janssen Oncology, AVEO, Calithera Biosciences, MEI Pharma, Genentech, Astellas Pharma, Foundation Medicine, and Gilead Sciences  Research Funding (Institution): Bayer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Takeda, Pfizer, Exelixis, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Calithera Biosciences, Celldex, Eisai, Genentech, Immunomedics, Janssen, Merck, Lilly, Nektar, ORIC Pharmaceuticals, crispr therapeutics, Arvinas  Dr. Jeanny Aragon-Ching:   Honoraria: Bristol-Myers Squibb, EMD Serono, Astellas Scientific and Medical Affairs Inc  Consulting or Advisory Role: Algeta/Bayer, Dendreon, AstraZeneca, Janssen Biotech, Sanofi, EMD Serono, AstraZeneca/MedImmune, Bayer, Merck, Seattle Genetics, Pfizer, Immunomedics, Amgen, AVEO, Pfizer/Myovant, Exelixis  Speakers' Bureau: Astellas Pharma, Janssen-Ortho, Bristol-Myers Squibb , Astellas/Seattle Genetics  Travel, Accommodations, Expenses: Dendreon, Algeta/Bayer, Bristol Myers Squibb, EMD Serono, Astellas Pharma  Disclaimer:   The purpose of this podcast is to educate and to inform. This is not a substitute for professional medical care and is not intended for use in the diagnosis or treatment of individual conditions.  Guests on this podcast expressed their own opinions, experience, and conclusions. Guest statements on the podcast do not express the opinions of ASCO. The mention of any product, service, organization, activity, or therapy should not be construed as an ASCO endorsement.       

ASCO Daily News
ASCO22: Addressing Challenges in Cancer Care With Dr. Neeraj Agarwal

ASCO Daily News

Play Episode Listen Later May 26, 2022 20:11


Dr. Neeraj Agarwal, of the University of Utah Huntsman Cancer Institute, tells host Dr. John Sweetenham, of the UT Southwestern Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, about the first study to examine the quality of diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in sex and gender minority patients and other key studies on disparities associated with access to clinical trials and rising drug costs.  Transcript Dr. John Sweetenham: Hello, I'm John Sweetenham, the associate director for Clinical Affairs at UT Southwestern Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center and host of the ASCO Daily News podcast.  I'm delighted to welcome my friend and colleague Dr. Neeraj Agarwal, the director of the Genitourinary Cancers Program and a professor of medicine at the University of Utah's Huntsman Cancer Institute. Dr. Agarwal also serves as editor-in-chief of the ASCO Daily News.  Today, he'll be sharing his insights on compelling studies that will be featured at the 2022 ASCO Annual Meeting, addressing access to clinical trials, disparities associated with high deductible health plans, rising drug costs, and more.  Our full disclosures are available in the show notes and disclosures of all guests on the podcast can be found on our transcripts at asco.org/podcasts.  Neeraj, it's great to have you back on the podcast.  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Thanks, John.  Dr. John Sweetenham: Neeraj, let's begin with Abstract 6503. This study looks at the impacts of high deductible health plans on delays in metastatic cancer diagnosis. What do you think about this study and why should it be on our radar?  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Well, John, in high deductible health plans, patients are liable for the cost of all cancer-related care, with the exception of screening tests, until their annual deductible is met. Due to increased out-of-pocket costs, patients may postpone seeing a physician for concerning symptoms or diagnostic testing, leading to delayed diagnosis.  So, in this study, Mr. Nicholas Trad and J. Frank Wharam assessed the impact of high deductible health plans on the timing of metastatic cancer detection.  The authors leveraged a nationally representative cohort of more than 340,000 privately insured members whose employers mandated a switch from a low deductible of less than $500 plan to a high deductible plan of more than $1,000.  So, the group consisted of more than 1 million individuals in a contemporary time frame, whose employers offered only low deductible plans. Participants were matched based on multiple baseline characteristics, time to metastatic cancer diagnosis, and the before and after switching to high deductible health plans was investigated using a weighted Cox proportional-hazards model.  After matching, there were no systematic differences between the 2 groups with regards to baseline characteristics, and there were no differences in time to metastatic cancer diagnosis prior to the switch to high deductible health plans.  However, after the employer-mandated switch to the high deductible health plans, these participants had lower odds of metastatic cancer diagnosis, which was significant, statistically speaking, and indicates delayed detection of metastatic cancer diagnosis relative to the control group.  Dr. John Sweetenham: This is certainly concerning data, Neeraj. What's your key takeaway from this study?  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: So, the key takeaway from the study is that compared with conventional health plans, high deductible health plans are associated with delayed detection of metastatic cancer, implying that patients postpone seeking care for concerning symptoms or even defer diagnostic testing when they're exposed to high-cost sharing.  Dr. John Sweetenham: Thanks, Neeraj. So, let's continue with this theme of the financial burden of cancer care for our patients. Of course, we're all aware of the rising costs of targeted oral therapies, and this was addressed in Abstract 6504, where the study looks at the rising costs of targeted oral treatments among Medicare beneficiaries. And the study reported a substantial increase in the total cost and out-of-pocket costs of these medicines. Can you tell us more about this abstract?  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Yes! So, due to the rapidly rising cost of targeted oral anticancer medicines, Drs. Meng Li and Ya-Chen T. Shih examined recent trends and the financial burden of these oral medicines among patients with cancer with Medicare Part D insurance. So, eligible patients in the SEER-Medicare database had to be 65 years and older and had to have one primary cancer diagnosis.  The investigators estimated the trends in the share of patients who used targeted oral anticancer medicines, the percentage of users reaching catastrophic coverage, and the total and patient out-of-pocket spending on these medicines in the catastrophic phase in a year.  So, from 2011 to 2016, the uptake of these oral anti-cancer medicines increased from approximately 4% to 9%. The percentage of those who reached catastrophic coverage increased from 55% to 60%.  Among those who reached the catastrophic phase, the mean total annual gross spending on oral anti-cancer medicine increased 4-fold from approximately $16,000 to $64,000. And the mean out-of-pocket spending for the patients rose from approximately $600 to $2600.  Dr. John Sweetenham: Yes, this is more evidence that the financial toxicity generated from an increase in spending and out-of-pocket costs is going to have serious impacts on our patients. Would you agree with that, Neeraj?  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Yes, John. The key takeaway from this study is that the financial burden of these oral anti-cancer medicines continues to increase. In the relatively short period of time, we see here, 5 years from 2011 to 2016, there was a 4-fold increase in the total cost and out-of-pocket cost of these medicines. And in my view, these findings warrant immediate actions to rein in drug prices and cap out-of-pocket spending for our patients.  Dr. John Sweetenham: Absolutely. It's very difficult to know where this will end unless we see some kind of slowdown in these rising costs. I'm going to change gears just a little bit now to address the access to clinical trials, which is the subject of Abstract 6505.  This study looks at the implementation of the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion, which was associated with an almost threefold increase in the proportion of patients using Medicaid in cancer clinical trials by early 2020. What are your thoughts on this study?  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: As you said, the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion resulted in increased use of this platform across the nation. However, its impact on access to clinical trials has not been examined.  So, in this study, Dr. Joseph Unger and Dr. Dawn Hershman examined the number and proportion of patients insured by Medicaid at enrollment over time using data from the SWOG Cancer Research Network.  In addition, they also examined all patients, 18 to 64 years old, enrolled in treatment trials between 1992 to 2020 using Medicaid versus private insurance.  So, the implementation of the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion was associated with a nearly threefold increase from 7% to 21% in the proportion of patients using Medicaid in cancer clinical trials by early 2020.  The increase per year of Medicaid uses for patients in these treatment trials from states that implemented the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion was 27% compared to 7% for patients from other states who did not implement this platform of Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion.  So, the key takeaway from the study is that better access to clinical trials for more vulnerable patients is critical to improving confidence in how generalizable these trial findings are. In addition, these results suggest that the recently enacted Cancer Treatment Act may continue to improve access to clinical trials for those with Medicaid insurance or those who are vulnerable patients.  Dr. John Sweetenham: Yes, I think this is a really important study which adds to the growing literature on the benefits of the Affordable Care Act and Medicaid expansion on cancer care in general, in this case, specifically related to clinical trials. So, so important, I think.  On that theme of equity, I think the next 2 abstracts we're going to discuss address specific aspects of equity, which I think are both interesting and really important. So, Abstract 6510 has interesting research which conveys an urgent need to ensure equitable patient-reported access and implementation and to address the greater reported symptom burden among minority patients. Why do you think this study is important?  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: The routine collection of patient-reported outcomes for patients with cancer is an evidence-based practice and a critical component of high-quality cancer care, but the real-world adherence and reporting patterns are poorly understood.  In this study, Dr. Samuel Takvorian and Dr. Ravi Parikh examined differences in adherence to the collection of patient-reported outcomes and reported symptoms by race and ethnicity.  This was a retrospective cross-sectional study using de-identified electronic health record data from an National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center. The participants included adults seen in follow-up at 1 of the 2 medical oncology practices—one was in academics and one was in the community—from June 2019 to February 2020. Using ordinary least-squares regression, the authors modeled patient adherence as a function of race or ethnicity, and this was adjusted for age, sex, insurance, median area income, ECOG, performance status, and many other patient-related characteristics.  The results show that adjusted mean PRO adherence and reported symptoms varied by race and ethnicity, with Black and Hispanic patients being less likely to complete PRO questionnaires, but reporting significantly higher symptom burden compared to the White patients.  Dr. John Sweetenham: Right. So, it seems that more work is needed to ensure equitable access and adherence to PRO questionnaires so we can better address the symptom burden of our minority patients.  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Correct, John. In this large cohort reflecting real-world PRO collection patterns, Black and Hispanic patients were less likely than White patients to complete these PRO questionnaires, but more likely to report more severe symptoms. And I think there is an urgent need to ensure equitable PRO access and implementation and to address the greater reported symptom burden among minority patients.  Dr. John Sweetenham: Let's continue the theme of health equity and cancer care equity into the use of telemedicine. Of course, we saw a massive expansion of telemedicine for patients with cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic.  But studies are emerging now to show that there have been substantial disparities among the Black, uninsured, non-urban, and less affluent patients who are less likely to use telemedicine services.  Abstract 6511 reminds us that telemedicine may expand access to specialty care, but the proliferation of these services may widen cancer care disparities if vulnerable populations don't have equitable access. Can you tell us more about this abstract?  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: These are indeed very interesting findings, John. The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with declines in in-person clinical visits, with a concurrent increase in the use of telemedicine.  In this study, Dr. Gregory S. Calip assessed demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with telemedicine use among patients initiating treatment for 21 common cancers at community oncology clinics.  This was a retrospective study and made use of the nationwide Flatiron electronic health record derived de-identified database of patients with cancer. The authors focused on differences in telemedicine use across race and ethnicity, insurance coverage, rural versus urban areas, and socioeconomic status.  They used logistic regression models for this analysis, which was adjusted for clinical characteristics to examine differences in telemedicine use among these different cohorts.  Results indicate Black patients were significantly less likely to use telemedicine services compared to White patients. Telemedicine use was also significantly lower among patients without documented insurance than well-insured patients. It was also lower in patients from rural and suburban areas versus patients who were living in urban areas. Lastly, telemedicine use was significantly lower in patients in the least affluent areas than those in the most affluent areas.  So, during the COVID-19 pandemic, nearly one-fifth of patients initiating cancer treatment using telemedicine services—among these patients, we see substantial disparities. So, Black, uninsured, non-urban, and less affluent patients were less likely to use telemedicine services.  So, the take home message from this study is that while telemedicine may expand access to care, the proliferation of these services may actually widen cancer care disparities if vulnerable populations do not have equitable access to these services.  Dr. John Sweetenham: Thanks, Neeraj. So, the final study that we'll discuss today also looks at another aspect of disparities, and that's Abstract 6517. It's a case-controlled study of health care disparities in sex and gender minority patients with breast cancer. What are the key takeaways from this study?  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Disparities and the quality of diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in sex and gender minority populations are largely undefined. Only 24% of studies funded by the National Cancer Institute capture data on sexual orientation and only 10% capture data on gender identity.  In this case-control study, Drs. Eric Eckhert and Allison W. Kurian matched sex and gender minority patients with breast cancer to cisgender heterosexual controls in the Stanford University health care database. Ninety-two sex and gender minority patients were identified who were then matched by year of diagnosis, age, stage of cancer, presence of estrogen receptor (ER), and HER-2/neu receptor status to cisgender heterosexual controls within this database.  Additional data on demographics, diagnosis, treatment, and relapse were then manually abstracted from the electronic health care records. The sex and gender minority cohort were comprised of 80% lesbians, 13% bisexuals, and 6% transgender men.  One of the most pertinent findings was a significant, almost twice as much delay in time to diagnosis from the onset of symptoms in these minority patients versus control. Although there was no difference in the receipt of surgery or surgical radiation or new adjuvant therapy, sex, and gender minority patients were significantly less likely to undergo chest reconstruction surgery, and if they were estrogen receptor-positive, they were significantly less likely to complete at least 5 years of ER directed therapy.  Please also note that sex and gender minority patients used more alternative medicine, had a higher rate of documented refusal of recommended oncology treatments, and they experienced a higher recurrence rate.  So, the key takeaway from this study is that—this is the first study, I really want to congratulate the investigators who examined the quality of diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in sex and gender minority patients. Several novel potential health care disparities are identified in these patients, which should be further evaluated in population-based studies to inform further interventions.  Dr. John Sweetenham: Neeraj, it's always a pleasure to talk with you and have an opportunity to spend some time with you. Thanks very much for sharing your insights on these compelling studies today. Our listeners will find the links to these abstracts in the transcripts of this episode.  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal: Thanks, John.  Dr. John Sweetenham: And thanks to our listeners for your time today. If you're enjoying the content on the ASCO Daily News podcast, please take a moment to rate, review and subscribe wherever you get your podcasts.    Disclosures:  Dr. John Sweetenham  Consulting or Advisory Role: EMA Wellness  Dr. Neeraj Agarwal:  Consulting or Advisory Role: Pfizer, Medivation/Astellas, Bristol-Myers Squibb, AstraZeneca, Nektar, Lilly, Bayer, Pharmacyclics, Foundation Medicine, Astellas Pharma, Lilly, Exelixis, AstraZeneca, Merck, Novartis, lily, Eisai, Seattle Genetics, EMD Serono, Janssen Oncology, AVEO, Calithera Biosciences, MEI Pharma, Genentech, Astellas Pharma, Foundation Medicine, and Gilead Sciences    Research Funding (Institution): Bayer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Takeda, Pfizer, Exelixis, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Calithera Biosciences, Celldex, Eisai, Genentech, Immunomedics, Janssen, Merck, Lilly, Nektar, ORIC Pharmaceuticals, ORIC Pharmaceuticals, CRISPR therapeutics, and Arvinas     Disclaimer:   The purpose of this podcast is to educate and to inform. This is not a substitute for professional medical care and is not intended for use in the diagnosis or treatment of individual conditions.  Guests on this podcast express their own opinions, experience, and conclusions. Guest statements on the podcast do not express the opinions of ASCO. The mention of any product, service, organization, activity, or therapy should not be construed as an ASCO endorsement. 

CCO Infectious Disease Podcast
When Patients With Chronic HBV Infection Do Not Meet Indications for Immediate Treatment: The Critical Role of Ongoing Monitoring

CCO Infectious Disease Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later May 26, 2022 13:55


In this episode,  Pietro Lampertico, MD, PhD, discusses what to do when treatment for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is not indicated, covering topics such as:The different phases of chronic HBV infectionWhich patients in different phases require immediate HBV treatment and which can be monitored without therapyThe critical importance of ongoing monitoring for patients who do not meet indications for immediate therapyThe tests and frequency that should be used for monitoring patients not receiving HBV treatmentPresenter:Pietro Lampertico, MD, PhDProfessor of GastroenterologyDirector, Division of Gastroenterology and HepatologyIRCCS Ca Granda Policlinico HospitalUniversity of MilanMilan, ItalyContent based on an online CME program supported by independent educational grants from AbbVie and Gilead Sciences, Inc. and developed in collaboration with the American Liver Foundation. Link to full program: https://bit.ly/3OGHvOv

On Illuminating
Research and Ending the HIV Epidemic

On Illuminating

Play Episode Listen Later May 24, 2022 29:53


Dr. Roberto Corales, senior director of Medical Sciences at Gilead Sciences, shares his perspective on HIV/AIDS care and research. Corales discusses the importance of the patient/provider relationship, the path to ending the HIV epidemic, addressing the knowledge gap, the impact of COVID on testing and diagnosis, and the biggest challenges and opportunities to ending the epidemic.See Privacy Policy at https://art19.com/privacy and California Privacy Notice at https://art19.com/privacy#do-not-sell-my-info.

The Hep-cast
S2 #1 Women Leading the Fight to Protect the Next Generation from Hepatitis

The Hep-cast

Play Episode Listen Later May 23, 2022 47:18


“I was nervous being a first-time mum, but also about potentially passing hepatitis B to my child” says Nafisa Yussf, a Hepatitis Community Advocate living with hepatitis B in Australia. In this first episode of series 2, Dr Sarah Jarvis is joined by Nafisa Yussf and two other passionate women: Cynthia Raissa Tamandjou, a Medical Virologist based in France and Bisi Bright, a Clinical Pharmacist and CEO of the LiveWell Initiative in Nigeria. These inspiring women have dedicated their lives to empowering women and mothers living with viral hepatitis, challenging misconceptions and tackling the stigma to improve the lives of others. The Hep-cast is a collaboration between the World Hepatitis Alliance and Gilead Sciences. The Hep-cast is fully funded by Gilead Sciences Europe Limited. Job bag number: IHQ-UNB-1415 Date of preparation: April 2022 Our GDPR privacy policy was updated on August 8, 2022. Visit acast.com/privacy for more information.

The Hep-cast
Series 2 Trailer

The Hep-cast

Play Episode Listen Later May 10, 2022 1:24


In Series Two of the Hep-cast we will focus on the lives of those impacted by viral hepatitis globally, including mothers, young people, people who have been incarcerated, refugees and migrants.The Hep-cast is a collaboration between the World Hepatitis Alliance and Gilead Sciences. The Hep-cast is fully funded by Gilead Sciences Europe Limited.Job bag number: IHQ-UNB-1408Date of preparation: May 2022 Our GDPR privacy policy was updated on August 8, 2022. Visit acast.com/privacy for more information.

The Data Chief
Gilead Sciences' Murali Vridhachalam and ZS Associates' Mahmood Majeed on the Modern Data Stack and Data Mesh

The Data Chief

Play Episode Listen Later May 4, 2022 42:51


The data landscape is evolving in the life sciences and healthcare sectors. Murali Vridhachalam, the Head of Enterprise Data and Analytics at Gilead Sciences, and Mahmood Majeed, Managing Partner at ZS Associates, offer their compelling perspectives on digital transformation in life sciences and healthcare and how data can be used in these areas to improve patient outcomes. Plus, Mahmood and Murali share their takes on how to effectively reskill data professionals and the role of IT in healthcare and life sciences is evolving.Tune in to learn:How has the pandemic driven digital transformation in healthcare and life sciences? (05:34)Why has healthcare and life sciences historically been behind in terms of digital (11:37) transformation?Does data mesh add to confusion? (19:59)How has modern data and analytics delivered better patient outcomes? (25:21) How do you effectively upskill and reskill your people? (30:41)Mentions:Zhamak DehghaniData MeshGet even more insights from data and analytics leaders like Murali and Mahmood on The Data Chief.  Mission.org is a media studio producing content for world-class clients. Learn more at mission.org.

Who Would Have Thought - Digital Health Innovation
Making Clinical Trials More Efficient - Interview with Monica Roy

Who Would Have Thought - Digital Health Innovation

Play Episode Listen Later May 3, 2022 24:30


In this episode of “Who would have thought?” Monica Roy, co-founder and CEO of Seascape Clinical, discusses a cloud-based clinical operations solution to assist clinical trial teams in more successfully managing trial data. Monica has worked in clinical operations for nearly 20 years and feels that by consolidating trial data and automating related workflows, teams can spend more time making data-driven trial decisions and on strategic work. Prior to founding Seascape Clinical, Monica has worked with companies including Bioclinica, Gilead Sciences, and AbbVie, in various therapeutic areas such as liver disease, women's health, and oncology. Monica joins us today to talk about Seascape Clinical's specialty in the clinical research sector as well as her path to launching the company. She discusses existing clinical trial solutions, the data consolidation and automation gap she noticed in the clinical research industry, and how Seascape Clinical addresses this requirement. Monica also emphasizes the unpredictability that might come along with the business path, as well as the significance of accepting unexpected obstacles. About Our Guest: Monica Roy is the CEO and co-founder of Seascape Clinical. Seascape Clinical offers clinical trial management software that is hosted in the cloud.  Monica has extensive execution abilities from her 13+ years of experience in clinical operations. She talks about the data management gap she noticed in the industry and how her company addresses it. Monica emphasizes the importance of accepting unexpected obstacles as part of the business path.Learn more about Seascape Clinical: https://seascapeclinical.com/Connect on LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/seascape-clinicalAbout SmartTab: SmartTab is driving the future of digital health by developing a superior patient-centered drug delivery platform in the form of a wireless ingestible capsule. The patient experience fuels SmartTab's commitment to create novel, effective therapies that improve patient outcomes and compliance.  For more information visit: https://www.smarttab.co/

CCO Infectious Disease Podcast
Why Everyone Should Be Screened for HCV and Treated If They Have It: Conversations Between Patient and Physician

CCO Infectious Disease Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later May 3, 2022 18:16


In this episode, Norah Terrault, MD, MPH, and a patient who has been cured of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection discuss the importance of universal HCV testing for all adults, as well as the ease of curative therapies and the benefits of living with improved liver function post cure. This insightful discussion underscores how perceptions around HCV transmission risks and lack of symptoms serve as barriers to adequate screening and diagnosis, preventing curative treatment for many people with undiagnosed disease. The conversation also highlights the critical role of patient education and self-advocacy related to HCV infection, including what patients need to know and expect following cure.Presenters:Shelley RossellNorah Terrault, MD, MPHProfessor of MedicineChief of Gastrointestinal and Liver DiseasesUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos Angeles, CaliforniaContent is based on an online CME program supported by independent educational grants from AbbVie and Gilead Sciences, Inc. and developed in collaboration with the American Liver Foundation. Link to full program:https://bit.ly/3OGHvOv

CCO Infectious Disease Podcast
Key Decisions in HIV Care: Considering Novel Therapies for HIV

CCO Infectious Disease Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later May 2, 2022 49:18


In this episode from the series “Key Decisions in HIV Care,” Cristina Mussini, MD, and William R. Short, MD, MPH, AAHIVS, discuss novel therapies for HIV prevention and treatment, including: PreventionCabotegravir for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with the latest results from the HPTN 083 and HPTN 084 studiesNovel PrEP therapies in development, including islatravir and lenacapavirInitial therapyLenacapavir for initial therapy with results from the CALIBRATE studySwitch strategiesCabotegravir as a switch strategy with the latest results from the ATLAS-2M study, evaluating Q4W vs Q8W dosing, data on direct-to-inject without the oral lead-in, and data to date in pregnancyHeavily treatment–experienced patientsCurrently available novel therapies for heavily treatment–experienced patients, including fostemsavir and ibalizumabLenacapavir for heavily treatment–experienced patients with results from the CAPELLA studyPresenters:Cristina Mussini, MDHead of Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical MedicineFull Professor of Infectious DiseasesInfectious Diseases Clinics, University HospitalUniversity of Modena and Reggio EmiliaReggio Emilia, Italy William R. Short, MD, MPH, AAHIVSAssociate Professor of MedicineDivision of Infectious DiseasesDepartment of MedicinePerelman School of Medicine at the University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia, Pennsylvania Content based on an online CME program supported by educational grants from Gilead Sciences, Inc.; Janssen Therapeutics, Division of Janssen Products, LP; and ViiV Healthcare.Follow along with the slides at:https://bit.ly/3vWhjHjLink to full program:https://bit.ly/3fOl0XX

Podcasts - ProBoomer
Job Search Success for Older Workers

Podcasts - ProBoomer

Play Episode Listen Later May 2, 2022 34:19


A job search for older workers can be daunting and demoralizing. But you can succeed if you are up-to-date on what you need to do and you're ready for when your search takes you that right job in which their open to older workers and even desire them. Bottom-line: You have to be ready! In this interview, David Cooley will prepare you by sharing the concepts, methods, and tips you will need. David is the Director of Alumni Career Services & Career Coach for UCLA Anderson School of Management and recipient of UCLA Anderson's prestigious Abe Ackerman Award. His private executive and career coaching practice has clients from The Walt Disney Company, E! Entertainment/NBCUniversal, AT&T, and Gilead Sciences. He also works with MBA students and alumni from top universities and business schools including Harvard Business School, MIT Sloan, and Chicago Booth School of Business. He has also coached a large number of C-level executives at a number of top companies throughout the United States. David will provide you with what you need for success in your job search, yes, even if you are an older worker. Contact David at: david.cooley@anderson.ucla.edu  http://www.cooleycareercoaching.com/  https://www.anderson.ucla.edu/alumni/career-services  www.NewWayFWD.com New Way Forward helps people in the second half of their life pivot, transition, and transform to launch themselves to a life that is more fulfilling and right for them. Find your New Way Forward: -Discover possibilities you never imagined -Find new ways to earn an income or find a job over 50 -Overcome ageism -Discover your core passions and purpose -Live a healthier life in mind, body, and spirit -Find better alternatives to traditional retirement -Connect with and learn from experts and people like you -Transition and transform to the life you deserve Subscribe to www.NewWayFWD.com  Subscribe to the New Way Forward YouTube channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCvz1B-Xd-o4JiSJaSn5xGvA?sub_confirmation=1