Podcasts about CFR

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Best podcasts about CFR

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Latest podcast episodes about CFR

The My Future Business™ Show

Interview with CEO Boosh Foods Jim Pakulis Jim Pakulis Connie Marples Boosh Foods #ConnieMarples #BooshFood #JimPakulis STOCK TICKER – CNSX: VEGI Hi, and welcome to the show! On today's show I have the pleasure of welcoming back CEO of Boosh Foods Jim Pakulis to talk about the exciting plant-based industry, how to live a healthier lifestyle with Boosh Foods, and the steps you can to become a part of the Boosh community as a consumer or investor. Putting aside Jim's extensive background with publicly listed companies, he also loves spending time with family and friends relaxing and recharging his batteries. That said, Jim is 100% focused on the job at hand with his role as CEO of Boosh Foods, and on the call, he shares some of the short, medium and long-range goals of the organization. A lot can happen, and has, in a quarter, and after a year as a publicly traded company, Jim has a lot to talk about on the show. This includes several exciting new developments with Boosh's new home delivery service and the introduction of new Boosh products, along with many other interesting developments. Jim's a wonderful individual who knows how to build successful businesses, and with Connie Marples and Jim at the helm, the future for Boosh Foods is a bright one! So, if you're ready to learn more about Boosh Foods, either as a consumer or an investor, then make sure to reach out to Jim and the team at Boosh Foods. To learn more about Boosh Foods, or to contact Jim directly, click the link below. Disclosure of Material Connection: This is a “sponsored post.” My Future Business is disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission's 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.”

The World Next Week
European Parliament's Presidential Election, COVID-19 Case Rates Surge, and More

The World Next Week

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 14, 2022 31:43


The European Parliament elects a new president, COVID-19 case rates surge across the globe, and diplomacy continues over Russian security demands in Europe.   Articles Mentioned in the Podcast   Mary Beth Sheridan, “Mexico has refused to close its borders during the covid-19 pandemic. Does that make sense?” Washington Post, January 12, 2022   Stephen Sestanovich, “The Russia-Ukraine Crisis: A Scorecard on Biden's Response,” CFR.org, December 23, 2021   Adam Tooze, “Chartbook #68 Putin's Challenge to Western hegemony - the 2022 edition,” January 12, 2022

The World Next Week
U.S.-Russia Talks, Capitol Insurrection Anniversary, and More

The World Next Week

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 6, 2022 30:59


Top officials from the United States and Russia meet in Geneva to discuss nuclear arms control and the crisis in Ukraine, Americans mark one year since the insurrection at the U.S. Capitol, and the CES trade show wraps in Las Vegas.   Articles Mentioned on the Podcast   Stephen Sestanovich, “The Russia-Ukraine Crisis: A Scorecard on Biden's Response,” CFR.org, December 23, 2021

The Poco a Poco Podcast with the Franciscan Friars of the Renewal

Series on Conversion by Fr Haggerty (1/8): Introduction, Chapter 1   There's a reason that this book is required reading for all CFR postulants. It's intense, and we're ready to get into it in this series.   Because it's all about Jesus. And conversion is at the heart of the daily experience of saying “yes” to Jesus.    Conversion isn't something that happens “out there”; it's not a personal project or a formation program. There's nothing abstract about it. It's a real encounter with the living person of Jesus Christ, and realizing we must turn away from ourselves and towards Christ. It can be terrifying, but we have to make a decision to allow Jesus in and change our lives.   A life of fidelity starts with the spark of conversion drawing us near to Jesus, and then us choosing to stay near to him, despite any temptation to remain in other things.   Order Conversion by Fr Haggerty: https://www.ignatius.com/Conversion-P341.aspx The Poco a Poco podcast happens because of generous donors like you. Monthly donations are particularly helpful for our future planning. You can give at https://spiritjuice.org/supportpoco. Thank you!

Descargas predicanet
Episode 552: Homilías sobre san Mateo 90 4FIN (San Juan Crisóstomo) y S Gregorio N Hom 38 1

Descargas predicanet

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 31, 2021 11:33


San Juan Crisóstomo es el representante más importante de la Escuela de Antioquía y uno de los cuatro grandes Padres de la Iglesia en Oriente. Su personalidad nos es bien conocida a través de sus biógrafos: enérgico y de gustos sencillos y austeros, estaba dotado de grandes cualidades oratorias. Su producción literaria se puede dividir en tratados, homilías y cartas. El mayor número de homilías conservadas—varios centenares—forman parte de una serie de comentarios a los libros del Antiguo y del Nuevo Testamento. Las noventa Homilías sobre el Evangelio de San Mateo representan el más antiguo comentario completo sobre el texto del primer evangelista. Su exégesis es de carácter moral, de acuerdo con el método propio de la Escuela antioquena. San Juan Crisóstomo mueve decididamente a la conversión a quienes, siendo cristianos de palabra, no lo son con sus obras y no difunden a su alrededor la luz de Cristo  |     |     San Gregorio Nacianzeno (329-390) (Cfr. http://www.mcnbiografias.com)Padre de la iglesia griega, escritor, teólogo y poeta. Nació en Naciano (Capadocia), hacia el año 329. Estudió en Cesarea (Palestina) y en Alejandría (Egipto). Después, pasó a Atenas con San Basilio, su compatriota. Fue primero obispo de Sásima, en Capadocia, y gobernó después como coadjutor la iglesia de Nacianzo, de la que era obispo su padre. Más adelante volvió a Constantinopla e hizo muchas conversiones entre los arrianos, fundando una congregación que profesaba los principios del concilio de Nicea. El emperador Teodosio se declaró su protector: le elevó a la silla arzobispal de Constantinopla y reunió en esta capital un concilio para confirmar su elección. Pero no tardaron los obispos de Egipto en atacar al nuevo arzobispo y Gregorio, abandonado por el mismo emperador, dimitió y volvió a Capadocia, donde vivió en la soledad, dedicándose a escribir muchas obras que han inmortalizado su nombre. Entre ellas se encuentran cincuenta discursos o sermones, ciento sesenta y ocho poemas... En el estudio de la retórica asimiló gran número de nociones de la Stoa, principalmente del neoplatonismo reinante. Gran admirador de Orígenes, compuso junto a San Basilio, la Philocalia, florilegio de las obras del maestro. En su obra Discursos teológicos defendió el dogma de la Trinidad, lo cual le valió tal prestigio que se le conoció con el sobrenombre de El Teólogo. En lo que se refiere a la filosofía, nos ha dejado una exposición detallada de asuntos relacionados con la teología natural. En el tema de las relaciones fe-filosofía, es más bien cauto. El cristiano, para acercarse al cultivo de la filosofía, ha de ejercitarse en la vida de piedad y conocer lo más profundamente que pueda las Sagradas Escrituras. Así preparado, podrá mostrar racionalmente la existencia de Dios, hecha evidente por el orden del mundo

Voices In Validation
Integrate Risk into Change Control

Voices In Validation

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 28, 2021 53:10


This week, Alan Golden hosts a comprehensive discussion on the changes driven by risk and conversely risk updates that are driven by change as well as risk integration. Alan will share his expertise from over 30 years in the medical device industry. Alan Golden: Alan Golden is Principal at Design Quality Consultants, LLC where he works with clients training and advising on topics in the medical device industry including Design Control, Change Control, Risk Management, and process/test method validation. Alan has more than 30 years of experience working in the medical device industry. In addition to his expertise in Design Controls, he is also highly experienced in Good Laboratory Practice (GLP), 21 CFR 820, ISO 13485, ISO 14971, Biotechnology, and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and risk management. He retired from Abbott Molecular in 2018. Voices in Validation brings you the best in validation and compliance topics. Voices in Validation is brought to you by IVT Network, your expert source for life science regulatory knowledge. For more information on IVT Network, check out their website at http://ivtnetwork.com.    This episode is brought to you by IVT Network's Validation Week.

Reason for Hope
How to be Perfect as the Heavenly Father is Perfect

Reason for Hope

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 27, 2021 48:07


Fr. Angelus Montgomery, CFR, a Loras College alumnus ('07) and dynamic preacher, speaker and EWTN show co-host. Fr. Angelus began to sense the call to priesthood in his junior year of college and eventually felt attracted to the Franciscan Friars of the Renewal, a religious order founded by the late Fr. Benedict Groeschel, CFR. After entering the community and given his new name in religious life, now Fr. Angelus was ordained to the priesthood by Cardinal Timothy Dolan of New York in May 2018.Fr. Angelus and his brother have reached out to millennials through their “Icons Spotlight” television program on EWTN and the internet, and a radio show, “Icons Impact” which airs in New Jersey and other states. Together with a Franciscan confrere, they began co-hosting EWTN's “Sunday Night Prime” this past year, succeeding Fr. Groeschel.Host: Mario CostabileCohost: Dr. David Hajduk, Ph.d.

The Fact Hunter
Documentary: The Jesuits Real World History - Exposing the Jesuit Order

The Fact Hunter

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 27, 2021 178:58


Audio starts 15 seconds in…This is one of the greatest expose's of the Jesuit Order ever produced. It details the history of the Jesuit Order from 1534 to the present day. It exposes the Order's “Black Hand” in the course of history including the French Revolution, Napoleonic Wars, the Bolshevik Revolution and subsequent communist and fascist dictatorships of the 20th century. Yes, The Jesuits are behind all the world's problems. There's Jesuits in America. Jesuits in China. Jesuits in the SDA Church. Jesuits in Japan. The Jesuits are behind Islam. The Jesuits are behind the alien agenda. The order of 1534 is the same order of 2017, 2018 and 2019. The Jesuits control the world thru the intelligence communities and secret societies like the Freemasons, knight of Malta and others. They were banned from many countries. Please visit thefacthunter.com

Hablando de Tecnología con Orlando Mergal | Podcast En Español | Discusión inteligente sobre computadoras, Internet, telé

¿Te has puesto a pensar cómo el ciudadano promedio de los Estados Unidos —y por ende de Puerto Rico— vive creyendo que tiene libertad de palabra, cuando en realidad tiene muy poca? ¿Has observado todas las artimañas que usa el sistema gubernamental y las corporaciones para impedir que el ciudadano común levante la voz? En días pasados había una protesta de policías en Puerto Rico exigiendo que se le paguen sus horas extras y cotizar para una pensión digna y el seguro social. Curiosamente, el “mollero” gubernamental estaba ausente en esa protesta. Supongo que se hubiera visto muy mal que la “guardia nacional” limitara su acceso a las escalinatas del capitolio. Tampoco habían líderes sindicales, ni religiosos, ni maestros, ni artistas apoyando la protesta. Supongo que eso es lo que sucede cuando un grupo continuamente coarta el derecho a la libertad de palabra de los demás. El día que son ellos los atropellados se quedan solos. ¡Muy triste! En la Internet sucede algo parecido, pero distinto. La mayoría de la gente siente una especie de “libertad” que los empodera para decir lo que se le antoje, para atropellar la reputación de quien sea y de ofender a mansalva a personas cuyo único pecado es que “piensan de manera distinta”. Pero la cosa es peor. En la mayoría de los medios electrónicos la libertad de palabra es una ilusión. En los medios tradicionales la censura es la oden del día. Basta que un locutor se pase de la raya y lo ponen de patitas en la calle. Todavía, en pleno siglo 21, medios cuya audiencia va en un descenso precipitoso se comportan como “primadonas”. Trata de conseguir audiencia en radio, televisión y prensa y verás lo que te digo. La cantidad de escollos que te ponen es inconmensurable. En la Internet no es muy distinto. Los algoritmos agresivos hacen que colocar contenido en lugares como Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Instagram, YouTube y los demás sea prácticamente inútil. A menos que pagues, tu pieza la ve un puñado de gente. Es como hablar solo. Y todos sabemos que hablar solo es cosa de locos. Entonces, que nos queda. Pues los blogs, los podcasts y los videos en lugares de pago. Y los tres requieren destrezas muy particulares para ser exitosos. También requieren de otra cosa. Requieren de un alimentador RSS, o “rss feed”. Sin RSS lo que tienes es “contenido inconexo” en un cementerio digital. Conocer cómo funciona el RSS y cómo se relaciona con la libertad de palabra es el tema del programa de hoy. No desde el lado técnico, porque eso importa muy poco, sino desde el lado práctico. Eso sí es importante… entender cómo estos tres medios garantizan tu acceso al mundo entero, sin “gate keepers” ni algoritmos que oculten tu mensaje. OTROS EPISODIOS QUE TE PUEDEN INTERESAR: La Importancia De Usar Una Contraseña Fuerte El Verdadero Significado De “Gratis” En La Internet El Modelo De La Comunicación 15 Formas De Hacer Buenas Fotos Con Cualquier Cámara Cómo Protegerte De Las Fallas Eléctricas ©2021, Orlando Mergal, MA _________________ El autor es Experto En Comunicación Corporativa (Lic. R-500), Autor de más de media docena de Publicaciones de Autoayuda y Productor de Contenido Digital Inf. 787-306-1590 • 787-750-0000 Divulgación de Relación Material: Algunos de los enlaces en esta entrada son “enlaces de afiliados”. Eso significa que si le das click al enlace, y compras algo, yo voy a recibir una comisión de afiliado. No obstante, tú vas a pagar exactamente lo mismo que pagarías al visitar al comerciante directamente y de manera independiente.  Además, yo sólo recomiendo productos o servicios que utilizo personalmente y que pienso que añadirán valor a mis oyentes. Al patrocinar los productos o servicios que mencionamos en Hablando De Tecnología contribuyes para que el programa continúe. Hago esta divulgación en cumplimiento con con el "16 CFR, Part 255" de la Comisión Federal De Comercio de los Estados Unidos "Guías Concernientes al uso de Endosos y Testimonios en la Publicidad".

The President's Inbox
The State of Affairs Across the Middle East, With Steven A. Cook

The President's Inbox

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 22, 2021 38:24


Steven A. Cook, Eni Enrico Mattei senior fellow for Middle East and Africa studies and director of the International Affairs Fellowship for Tenured International Relations Scholars at CFR, sits down with James M. Lindsay to discuss what's happening across the Middle East as 2021 comes to a close.   Books Mentioned in the Podcast    Steven A. Cook, False Dawn: Protest, Democracy, and Violence in the New Middle East (2019)    Events Mentioned    “A Conversation with Jake Sullivan,” Council on Foreign Relations, December 17, 2021 

Engaging Franciscan Wisdom
The littleness of a child reveals God and creation as good – Episode 29

Engaging Franciscan Wisdom

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 21, 2021 42:23


Join Franciscan Associate Geri Dietz as she explores the Good News of the Gospel, including God's goodness revealed to us in the vulnerability and humility of Jesus coming as a child.   From Geri's interview: “What I loved when I was learning about the Associates, is that the charism that the Third Order has received, the grace that the Third Order has received, is continual conversion. And for me, when I heard that, that that was the deal maker for me. And then it was modeled by the Sisters and other Associates that we met.  We couldn't help but want to become Associates and be with these people who live the good news of Jesus.”   “The original nativity was inspired by his [Saint Francis'] trip in 1221 to the Holy Land, which included Jesus's traditional birthplace. So that influenced him being there, as well as the Scriptures which would be both in Matthew and Luke. Francis was deeply moved visiting the site where God became fully human. Hoping that others could enjoy that same profound, inspiration and experience, he encouraged believers to make pilgrimages to Bethlehem. ... Francis decided to do the next best thing because not a lot could go to Bethlehem. He thought I'm going to bring Bethlehem to the pilgrims. So on Christmas Eve in 1223, just a few years before he died, Francis created the first Nativity in the Italian city of what's called Greccio. And with the help of a local nobleman named John, Francis celebrated the birth of Jesus in a cave outside the town.”   “We can see how God has bent over the world and comes to us as a small, seemingly insignificant, vulnerable baby. We can be grateful that the Lord came to us in the form of a child instead of the form of a committee, a jury, a dictator, a king with royal pronouncements before him. ... Jesus, this baby, doesn't communicate a series of ideas or scientific principles or algorithms. The baby's not even speaking. The child is there for us to see the love of God in the flesh. And God comes to us in a very humble form, in a form that is poor. And for Francis, the incarnation reveals the presence of God in the world, in the littleness of our lives. In the littleness of a child, born in a place where animals eat and live. The littleness of those who you and I, and everyone listening, who know people who are homeless and vulnerable in those who suffer from disease and mental illness and those who are aged and lonely. Jesus is in those who have no room in anyone else's inn.”   “What [do] people think about God and where do we stand? Is the gospel something that is restrictive, legalistic, who turns its followers into joyless men and women who quote, who don't do anything? Is it possible to live a life joyful while following the gospel? Is the gospel good news for us? We really can't understand the material world, the world of creation unless we see, unless we come to see it, in Christ, as good. That it's a good world and the gospels are called the good news. Everything that God has created is very good. We read it in the book of Wisdom. We hear it from Paul … It has a significant meaning, this good news, for Franciscans. Just reading through Francis's writings, we come across the word good so frequently that it's kind of Franciscan motto is to see the world is good. And I've noticed in the Franciscan Sisters and Brothers who I've met, and Associates, they see the good in others.”   For a full transcript, please include episode number and email: fslfpodcast@fslf.org.   References:   Father Benedict Groeschel, CFR; co-founder of the Community of Franciscan Friars of the Renewal: https://fatherbenedict.com/fr-benedict-groeschel/   Father Richard Rohr, OFM; founder of the Center for Action and Contemplation: https://cac.org/about/richard-rohr/   Spiritual Direction School in Tucson, AZ: Hesychia: http://desertrenewal.org/hesychia-sd-school/   Franciscan Sisters of Little Falls, Minnesota: www.fslf.org. Franciscan Associate relationship: https://www.fslf.org/AssociateRelationship   Early Franciscan Sources: Story of the first live Nativity in Greccio, Italy, 1 Celano 30:84-87: https://www.franciscantradition.org/francis-of-assisi-early-documents/the-saint/the-life-of-saint-francis-by-thomas-of-celano/695-fa-ed-1-page-254 Francis of Assisi, Earlier Rule 23:9-10: https://www.franciscantradition.org/francis-of-assisi-early-documents/the-saint/writings-of-francis/the-earlier-rule/100-fa-ed-1-page-85 Francis of Assisi, Earlier Rule 27:17-18: https://www.franciscantradition.org/francis-of-assisi-early-documents/the-saint/writings-of-francis/the-earlier-rule/91-fa-ed-1-page-76   Jesuit (Ignatian) Spirituality: https://www.jesuits.org/spirituality/   Jay Leno, Jaywalking “Bill of Rights” (Civics Test video): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XpqmQJXdqrM

CFR On the Record
Malcolm and Carolyn Wiener Annual Lecture on Science and Technology With Henry Kissinger and Eric Schmidt

CFR On the Record

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 21, 2021


Henry Kissinger and Eric Schmidt discuss the transformational power of artificial intelligence.  The Malcolm and Carolyn Wiener Annual Lecture on Science and Technology addresses issues at the intersection of science, technology, and foreign policy. It has been endowed in perpetuity through a gift from CFR members Malcolm and Carolyn Wiener.

40 de minute
Actualitatea de luni, 20 decembrie 2021

40 de minute

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 20, 2021


Sindicaliștii din sectorul feroviar au ajuns la un acord cu Ministerul Transporturilor și vor beneficia de o creștere de salarii de circa 10%, de la începutul anului. Astazi o greva spontana a angajatilor CFR  a dat peste cap traficul pe... citiţi mai departe

Why It Matters
Teaser: Nine Questions for the World

Why It Matters

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 20, 2021 2:44


The Why It Matters team is pleased to introduce a new CFR series, Nine Questions for the World.    The world is changing, and its future is forming around high-stakes challenges such as climate change and shifting geopolitical power. In this limited series, Council on Foreign Relations President Richard Haass sits down with nine extraordinary thinkers to explore fundamental questions about the century to come.   To hear more, subscribe on Apple Podcasts, Spotify, Stitcher, Google Podcasts, or where ever you get your audio.   For episodes and more information, visit us at https://www.cfr.org/podcast-series/nine-questions-world.

Divcast
Season 1 Episode 10 Nina Balmaceda

Divcast

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 19, 2021 32:33


Join Rev. Todd Maberry and Dr. Nina Balmaceda, Consulting Faculty and Associate Director for the Center for Reconciliation (CFR) at Duke Divinity School as they talk about her life and work. Dr. Balmaceda has contributed to the legal profession in Peru and she is the current president of Peace and Hope International. She instructs Divinity students through her work with the CFR and also as a professor in and co-director of the Certificate in Faith-based Organizing, Advocacy, and Social Transformation. Find the book she mentions, Forgiveness and Reconciliation: Religion, Public Policy, and Conflict Transformation edited by Helmick and Peterson here https://templetonpress.org/books/forgiveness-and-reconciliation/. Stream The Chair on Netflix. Learn more about the Center for Reconciliation, their programing, and global impact on their website: https://divinity.duke.edu/initiatives/cfr More information on international Field Education opportunities for Residential Master of Divinity students can be found here: https://divinity.duke.edu/formation/field-education/international-field-education

Geopolitics & Empire
Alfred de Zayas: Building a Just International World Order

Geopolitics & Empire

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 17, 2021 72:10


Former UN Independent Expert and Rapporteur Dr. Alfred de Zayas discusses his new book “Building a Just World Order” which outlines 25 principles of international order. We look at the undue influence of the CFR, WEF, Bilderberg, and Trilateral Commission in attempting to promote world government outside the UN context. He examines American exceptionalism, the […]

The World Next Week
The World Next Year: What to Watch in 2022

The World Next Week

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 17, 2021 48:28


In this special year-end episode of The World Next Week, James M. Lindsay and Robert McMahon are joined by Shannon K. O'Neil, CFR vice president, deputy director of studies, and Nelson and David Rockefeller senior fellow for Latin America Studies. They discuss this year's historic elections and the state of democracy in Latin America and beyond, the development and distribution of COVID-19 vaccines around the world, and U.S. President Joe Biden's first year in office.   Articles Mentioned on the Podcast   Lauren Sloss, “The Documents You Need to Travel Abroad Now,” New York Times, December 10, 2021   Christopher Troeger and Thomas J. Bollyky, “Ending the COVID-19 Pandemic Hinges on Trust,” Think Global Health, November 30, 2021   Podcasts Mentioned   Richard Haass, Nine Questions for the World, Council on Foreign Relations   Anne Appelbaum and Richard Haass, “Can Democracy Survive?,” Nine Questions for the World, December 16, 2021   Michelle McMurry-Heath and Richard Haass, “Can Biotech Be Harnessed?,” Nine Questions for the World, December 16, 2021   Fareed Zakaria and Richard Haass, “Does World Order Have a Future?,” Nine Questions for the World, December 16, 2021

Soziologische Perspektiven auf die Corona-Krise
Roland Rau und Saskia Morwinsky: Unterschiede in der Covid-19-Sterblichkeit zwischen den Bundesländern 2020 – Welche Rolle spielt die Altersstruktur?

Soziologische Perspektiven auf die Corona-Krise

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 15, 2021 27:46


In Ihrem Vortrag vom 15. Dezember 2021 zeigten Roland Rau und Saskia Morwinsky mittels einer sog. Dekompositionsanalyse, dass es "die" Altersstruktur bei der Sterblichkeit in Deutschland nicht gibt. Der Ansatz erlaubt ihnen die deutschlandweite CFR mit Blick auf die Altersstruktur zu zerlegen.

The 10 Minute Teacher Podcast
Rebound: How Do Schools Bounce Back after the Pandemic?

The 10 Minute Teacher Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 13, 2021 13:16


Acceleration research can teach us how to accelerate learning. Dr. Douglas Fisher, co-author of the best-selling book Rebound, Grades K-12: A Playbook for Rebuilding Agency, Accelerating Learning Recovery, and Rethinking Schools. Instead of learning loss, Dr. Fisher is advocating how we can accelerate learning. He reflects on what we have learned and how we can move forward together as we work to emerge (hopefully) from the pandemic. Show Notes: https://www.coolcatteacher.com/e768 Today's episode is sponsored by Tract. Tract will empower your students to develop 21st-Century Ready skills through project-based peer-to-peer learning. For a limited time, you can pilot Tract's on-demand project-based classes and clubs free in your classroom. I am a project-based learning classroom and have joined the pilot. Request free access today at teach.tract.app with the access code COOLCATTEACHER. If you have students aged 8 or older, you'll want to bring students into this self-directed project-based platform that will rock your classroom and their world.  See my review, 10 Ways to Personalize Project Based Learning with Tract. Try out Tract today! Related Episodes A 4 Part Distance Learning Framework that Works with Dr. Douglas Fisher Successful Distance Learning for Young Kids with Nancy Frey Dr. Douglas Fisher - Bio as Submitted Doug Fisher is professor of educational leadership at San Diego State University and a teacher leader at Health Sciences High in San Diego, CA. He is the co-author of The Distance Learning Playbook, along with several other books. Blog: www.fisherandfrey.com Twitter: @DFISHERSDSU Youtube Channel: Fisher and Frey - YouTube     Disclosure of Material Connection: This is a “sponsored podcast episode.” The company who sponsored it compensated me via a cash payment, gift, or something else of value to include a reference to their product. Regardless, I only recommend products or services I believe will be good for my readers and are from companies I can recommend. I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission's 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.” This company has no impact on the editorial content of the show.  

From the Friars (Catholic Christian Spirituality)

Joyful Guadete Sunday, Our Lady of Guadalupe's roses, Back to the Future, and Purdue Basketball. How do these connect? Listen to learn more! Podcast by Fr. Luke Fletcher, CFR.

The My Future Business™ Show

Cheap Pricks Matt Bowler Interview with Cheap Pricks Co-Founder Matt Bowler #CheapPricks #KristenDuhr #MattBowler Hi, and welcome to the show! On today's My Future Business Show I have the pleasure of welcoming to the show, co-founder of Cheap Pricks Matt Bowler to talk about what he and his business partner, Kristen Duhr, are doing to change the way you vet your pet and maintain their health and wellbeing without breaking the bank. Prior to co-founding Cheap Pricks, Matt worked in IT as a Linux system administrator, and later on as a consultant to global clients in both the private and public sector. In 2011, Matt and Kristen co-founded Kingdom Canine, and now, they both work full-time on their pet business Cheap Pricks. During this content-rich call, Matt and Kristen share their journey with Cheap Pricks, and along the way, reveal the genesis story behind how Cheap Pricks came about, and how both your pet, and your back pocket can benefit. Their motto is: “The Kind of Prick That Keeps Your Pet from Getting Sick” and they go onto say, that it's not what you think. In fact, they provide pet care that's fast, easy and affordable. Importantly, they note that although your pet's health is super-serious, the process doesn't have to be. So, if you're looking for affordable, basic wellness care for your pets, then the process is simple. You choose your care plan, either a single vaccination or full care service, then you pick your date and time, and finally, bring in your beloved pet, and let Cheap Pricks to take care of the rest. To learn more about Cheap Pricks, or to contact Matt or Kristen directly, click the link below. Disclosure of Material Connection: This is a “sponsored post.” The company who sponsored it compensated My Future Business via a cash payment, gift, or something else of value to produce it. We are disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission's 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.”

Hablando de Tecnología con Orlando Mergal | Podcast En Español | Discusión inteligente sobre computadoras, Internet, telé

¿Eres de esos que piensan que el regreso a la normalidad luego de la pandemia del Covid-19 es posible? Pero, ¿qué es eso de la normalidad? ¿Cuán normales eran nuestras vidas en realidad? ¿Acaso no sufres del síndrome de que “todo tiempo pasado era mejor”? ¿No te has dado cuenta que el Covid-19 llegó para quedarse; que de ahora en adelante vamos a vivir en un mundo de Covid-19 Perenne? Una de las cosas que caracteriza a los virus, a TODOS los virus, es que mutan constantemente. Son la muestra más clara de la adaptabilidad de la naturaleza. De hecho, en el aspecto práctico los seres humanos podríamos aprender de los virus porque cada vez que se les presenta un obstáculo intentan otra cosa. Eso básicamente es lo que es mutar. También es la fórmula para triunfar en la vida. Pero basta de digresiones. La mayoría de los científicos del mundo coinciden que el Covid-19 va a seguir mutando. Y lo peor del caso es que existe una posibilidad real de que mute hacia una cepa que no se detenga con la vacuna actual. Eso sería fatal porque nos obligaría a comenzar el proceso de vacunación de nuevo. Para detener al Covid-19 por completo habría que vacunar a la humanidad completa antes de que surja esa cepa capaz de superar la protección de la vacuna actual. Y eso no va a suceder por causa de consideraciones económicas, raciales y de geopolítica. Por lo tanto, un estado de Covid-19 perenne es inminente. Dichos estado iría de la mano con una serie de cambios, muchos de los cuáles ya se han dado y se convertirían en permanentes. Por eso hoy, sin quererme poner el sombrero de pitoniso, analizo “15 Tendencias Para Un Mundo Con Covid-19 Perenne”. Muchas de ellas las vas a reconocer de inmediato porque ya han comenzado a manifestarse. Otras quizás te cojan por sorpresa. Pero todas, tarde o temprano, van a ser parte de un mundo con Covid-19 perenne. OTROS EPISODIOS QUE TE PUEDEN INTERESAR: Consejos Para Hacer Un Buen Podcast La Atención Es El Producto Autoempleo, Cómo Crear Tu Propia Realidad Los Descuidos Digitales Son Costosos Redacción SEO, Al Centro De Todo En La Internet ©2021, Orlando Mergal, MA _________________ El autor es Experto En Comunicación Corporativa (Lic. R-500), Autor de más de media docena de Publicaciones de Autoayuda y Productor de Contenido Digital Inf. 787-306-1590 • 787-750-0000 Divulgación de Relación Material: Algunos de los enlaces en esta entrada son “enlaces de afiliados”. Eso significa que si le das click al enlace, y compras algo, yo voy a recibir una comisión de afiliado. No obstante, tú vas a pagar exactamente lo mismo que pagarías al visitar al comerciante directamente y de manera independiente.  Además, yo sólo recomiendo productos o servicios que utilizo personalmente y que pienso que añadirán valor a mis oyentes. Al patrocinar los productos o servicios que mencionamos en Hablando De Tecnología contribuyes para que el programa continúe. Hago esta divulgación en cumplimiento con con el "16 CFR, Part 255" de la Comisión Federal De Comercio de los Estados Unidos "Guías Concernientes al uso de Endosos y Testimonios en la Publicidad".

CFR On the Record
Higher Education Webinar: The Role of Joint Venture Universities in China

CFR On the Record

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 7, 2021


Denis F. Simon, senior adviser to the president for China affairs and professor of the practice at Duke University, leads a conversation on the role of joint venture universities in China.   FASKIANOS: Thank you and welcome to CFR's Higher Education Webinar. I am Irina Faskianos, vice president of the National Program and Outreach at CFR. Today's discussion is on the record and the video and transcript will be available on our website, CFR.org/Academic, if you would like to share it with your colleagues. As always, CFR takes no institutional positions on matters of policy. We are delighted to have Denis Simon with us to talk about the role of joint venture universities in China. Dr. Simon is senior advisor to the president for China affairs and professor of the practice at Duke University. From 2015 to 2020, he served as executive vice chancellor at Duke Kunshan University in China. He has more than four decades of experience studying business, competition, innovation, and technology strategy in China, and is fluent in Mandarin Chinese. He served as senior advisor on China and global affairs at Arizona State University, vice provost for international affairs at the University of Oregon, and professor of international affairs at Penn State University. He has extensive leadership experience in management consulting and is the author of several books. Dr. Simon, thanks very much for being with us today. I thought we could begin by having you give us an overview of joint venture universities in China. What has the last two years in U.S.-Sino relations and COVID-19 meant for joint venture universities and their long-term goals? SIMON: Great. Well, thank you, Irina. I really am happy your team was able to arrange this. And I can't think of a more important subject right now. The president of Duke University, Vincent Price, has called our joint venture a beacon of light in the midst of the turbulence in U.S.-China relations. And so, this is a rather appropriate time for us to take stock at where this venture is and where it may be going. So let me just give an overview, talk a little bit about what joint ventures are, how they operate, and some of the challenges of operating them, and some of the effects of the last, as you said, two years, with the tensions growing in U.S.-China relations. Well, I think the first thing to recognize is that while there are over two thousand joint venture projects and initiatives involving foreign schools and universities, there are really only ten joint venture universities. These are campuses authorized to give two degrees—a Chinese degree and a foreign degree. The last one that was approved is Julliard, from the United States. So there are four U.S. joint ventures, two from the U.K., one from Russia, one from Israel involving the Technion, and the rest from Hong Kong. And so they're not growing by leaps and bounds. Everyone is taking stock of how they are working. The one from Duke is a liberal arts or a research-oriented university, and I think the same can be said for NYU Shanghai also in the same category. Joint venture universities are legal Chinese entities. This is very important. So, for example, our campus at Duke is not a branch campus. It is a legal Chinese entity. The chancellor must be a Chinese citizen, because they represent the legal authority of the university within the Chinese law, and also the Chinese education system. We are liberal arts oriented. The one involving Russia and Israel are polytechnic. They're more for engineering. Kean University, which is the State University of New York, has a very big business-oriented program. The U.K. programs also have very big programs. So some are liberal arts, like Duke, but others are also polytechnic. So they span the gamut. And finally, these are in many cases engines for economic development. In the cities in which they occur, these universities are sort of like Stanford in Silicon Valley. They're designed to act as a magnet to attract talent, and also to train young people, some of whom hopefully will stay in the region and act as a kind of entrepreneurial vanguard in the future as they go forward.   Now, the reality is that they've been driven by a number of factors common to both the Chinese side and the foreign side. One is just the whole process of campus internationalization. U.S. universities, for example, over the last five to ten years have wanted to expand their global footprint. And setting up a campus in X country, whether it's been in the Middle East or been in China in this case, has been an important part of the statement about how they build out a global university. A second driver has been government regulation. So in China in 2003, the government set in place a series of regulations that allowed joint venture universities to be established. And I think we need to give kudos to the Ministry of Education in China because they had the vision to allow these kinds of universities to be set up. And I think the impact so far has been very positive. And then finally, they're a vehicle for building out what I would call transnational collaborative research. And that is that they're a vehicle for helping to promote collaboration between, let's say, the United States and China in areas involving science and technology, and their very, very important role in that. That's why I said we're not just a liberal arts university, but we are a research-oriented liberal arts university. And I think that NYU Shanghai, Nigbo and Nottingham, et cetera, they all would claim the same space in that regard. Now, why would a city like Kunshan want to have a joint venture university? After all, Kunshan is rather unique. It's one of the wealthiest cities in China, the largest site of Taiwan foreign investment, but it never has had its own university. So somebody in the leadership did, in fact, read the book about Silicon Valley and Stanford. And they decided, I think it was a McKinsey study that helped them make that decision, that they needed to have a university. And the opportunity to work with Duke was there. And it's a little bit a long, complicated story, but we've ended up where we are today with a university which now will embark on the second phase of having a new campus. But this clearly, for Kunshan, has been a magnet for talent, and an effort to help Kunshan transition from a factory to the world economy to a new knowledge economy, consistent where—with where Xi Jinping and the Chinese leadership wants to take China during the current period, and into the future. It also provides a great bridge for connectivity between the high-tech knowledge communities in North Carolina, and particularly around Research Triangle, and the companies in the Kunshan area. And that bridge at some times or others can be very vibrant, and there are people and activity moving across it. And it's also a place where internationalization of Kunshan gets promoted through the visibility of Duke. Every year during my five years, we had 2,000-plus visitors come to our university, both from abroad and from within China, to understand: What do these universities mean and what's going to happen to them? Now, for Duke, a lot of people think it's about the money. They think that these joint venture campuses make a lot of money. And I can tell you, nothing could be further from the truth. This is not about money. This is about, as I mentioned before, internationalization. But it's also about the opportunity for pedagogical innovation. You can imagine that in existing universities there's a lot of baggage, lots of legacy systems. You don't get virgin territory to do curricular reform and to introduce a lot of edgy ideas. Too many vested interests. But within an opportunity like DKU or NYU Shanghai, you get a white piece of paper and you can develop a very innovative, cutting-edge kind of curriculum. And that's exactly what has been done. And so you get a kind of two-way technology transfer, obviously from Duke to DKU, but also interestingly from DKU back to Duke. And the same thing again happens with these other universities as well. And I think that's important. So there's a great deal of benefit that can accrue to Duke simply by having this campus and watching it go through this kind of evolving development of a new curriculum. Now, we must not forget, these ten joint ventures, and particularly in the context of Sino-U.S. relations, are not all that's there. Starting with Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies and its relationship with Nanjing University, the United States has had projects like this going on in China. There are joint colleges. So, for example, the University of Pittsburgh and Sichuan University have one in engineering. And similarly, Michigan and Jiao Tong University also have similar kinds of ventures. And these all seem to be working very nicely. And then there's a whole array of two-plus-two programs, three-plus-two programs. All of these are part of a broad landscape of educational engagement that exists between the two countries. It is much more extensive than anyone could have imagined in the late 1970s, when the two countries signed the bilateral agreement. Now, what are some of the things that happen when you manage these joint venture universities? First, let me mention the operational issues that come across. So you probably, you know, ask: How do you find your partner? Well, in a joint venture university, you must have an educational partner. So for Duke, it's Wuhan University. For NYU Shanghai, it's East China Normal University. And for Kean University it's Wenzhou University. And you go through these—finding these partners, and the partners hopefully form a collaborative relationship. But I can tell you one of the problems, just like in all joint ventures in China, is the sleeping in the same bed but with two different dreams phenomenon. Duke came to China to bring a liberal arts education and to serve as a platform for knowledge transfer across the Chinese higher education landscape. Kunshan wanted a Stanford that can provide commercializable knowledge that can turn into new products, new services, and hopefully new businesses. And so they kind of exist in parallel with one another, with the hope that somewhere along the future they will—they will come together. Another issue area is the issue of student recruitment. Student recruitment is very complex in China because of the reliance on the gaokao system. And the gaokao system introduces an element of rigidity. And the idea of crafting a class, which is very common in liberal arts colleges, is almost impossible to do because of the rather rigid and almost inflexible approach one must take to evaluating students, scoring them, and dealing with a whole array of provincial quotas that make X numbers of students available to attend your university versus other universities. And don't forget, these joint venture universities exist in the context of over 2,000 Chinese universities, all of whom are trying to recruit the students. So you get intense involvement not only from the officials in the province level, but also Chinese parents. And the idea of Chinese parents make helicopter parents in the U.S. look like amateur hour. They are very, very involved and very, very active. A third area are home campus issues that we have to think about. And that is that a lot of people have always said to me: Wow, you know, the Chinese side must give you a big headache. And with all due respect to all my dear colleagues and friends, I can say also sometimes I got a headache from the Duke side as well. And I think anyone who sits in these kind of leadership positions must figure out how to balance the interests and the perspectives of the home country campus and the host country campus, and their ability to work together. And there are a lot of issues that come up along the way that make it very, very complex. And in particular, the idea of attracting faculty. Seventy-five percent of our faculty are hired locally. That is, they are in tenure or tenure-track jobs by Duke-Kunshan University. Twenty-five percent must be supplied by Duke. The reason is very simple: The Chinese authorities want to make sure that the quality of the education is no different than what's offered at Duke. And because we have to give two degrees, a Chinese degree and a Duke degree, that Duke degree is not a Duke-B degree, or a Duke-lite degree. It is the same degree that you get at Duke University, signed by the head of the board of trustees, the president, the provost, et cetera, et cetera. So this is a real Duke degree. It's not Duke-lite. The fourth thing I want to mention, which I mentioned before slightly, which is money. These are not inexpensive ventures. And they also are a kind of elite education. And the degree to which they can be replicated over and over again in China is something that remains to be—remains to be seen. We've had a lot of people coming from Congress who have looked at these joint venture universities and said, ah, you're selling out American values and academic freedom or religious freedom, in return for a big payday. And as I said, that's simply just not the case. These joint venture universities are very difficult to run. You must pay faculty according to the global faculty prices. And plus, there are lots of expat benefits that you have to pay to them. The tuition rates that you can charge to Chinese students are set by the provincial authorities. And therefore, in our case, they're about 50 percent less than what international students have to pay. And so already you're in a deficit, technically speaking, because Chinese students are getting a, you know, preferential price. Also, the idea of building up a research capability is not inexpensive, particularly if you're looking at developing a capability in science and engineering. These are, again, very expensive propositions. Now, I don't want to make it seem like it's all hardship. There are lots of rewarding moments. I think, as I said, the pedagogical side is one of those. And also the opportunity to really build true cross-cultural understanding among young people has been very important. Now, let me just make a couple of comments about where we are in terms of the last two years in particular. No one—you know, when our joint venture was formed, and similarly for the other ones which were formed before ours—could have envisioned what was going to happen, particularly in terms of the U.S.-China trade war, the onset of the protests in Hong Kong, and the issues—human rights issues that have to do with Xinjiang, Tibet, et cetera. And also, as everyone knows, COVID also presented some amazing challenges to the campus. We had to, by late January/early February 2020, we evacuated the whole campus when COVID came. And for the last two years, all of the international students have been studying either in their home country or if they've been able to come to the United States, they've been able to study at Duke during this period. And the big question is, when are these international students going to be able to go back? Which of course, that raises the big question about what is the campus like without international students? Our campus has somewhere between 35 to 40 percent international students. NYU Shanghai has 50 percent international students. Those make for very interesting pedagogical challenges, particularly given the fact that the high school experiences of these young people from China versus all countries—you know, we have forty-one different countries represented at DKU—make for a very challenging learning environment and teaching environment. Now, a couple of the issues that really have been exacerbated over the last two years, first of all are visa issues. Delays in being able to get visas or sometimes denial of visas. Another one are the uncertainties about the campus. Many people think that as Sino-U.S. tensions have risen, OK, the Chinese side is going to shut the campus. No, no, no, the U.S. side is going to shut the campus. And there's been the lack of clarity. And this also not only hurts student recruitment sometimes, but it also can hurt faculty recruitment as well—who are also wondering, you know, what's going to happen in the future and what kind of security of their jobs. Most recently we've also had—particularly because some of the policies adopted during the Trump administration—national security issues. So we want to build a research capability. Let's say the city of Kunshan says: We'll support the building of a semiconductor research capability. Duke University has to say no. That technology now is a more tightly controlled technology and it's not clear what we can and can't do. And so some of these kind of initiatives get interrupted, can't go forward. And everyone is very vigilant to make sure that nobody crosses the line in terms of U.S. law. And, of course, watching out for Chinese law as well. So where is this all going? I think these difficulties are going to continue. The most obvious one that everyone talks about is academic freedom, the ability to deal with these complex, controversial issues. I can say very proudly that up until this point, and at least until when I left in June of 2020, we had not had any kind of explicit intervention that stopped us from doing something, per se. We've had the national committee for U.S.-China relations, China town halls for several years. They didn't have one this past year, but we've had it for several years. We have courses on China politics. We have courses on U.S.-China relations, et cetera. So we haven't had that. But we've had to be flexible. Instead of having an open forum about Hong Kong, we created a minicourse to talk about Hong Kong. So those issues are out there. Academic freedom is a real issue that is one of those redline issues. And everyone is a little bit nervous all the time about getting into that. The other thing, of course, is the fluidity in the Chinese environment itself. We know that China continues to witness political changes, further economic reforms. And a lot of the commitments that were made, you know, five years ago, ten years ago, the ability to see them through. DKU is covered by a CEA, a cooperative educational accord, that promises academic freedom in the engagement of the university's work on campus. Now, if you go out and throw a brick through the mayor's window, well, all bets are off. But while you're on campus, you should be able to have, you know, academic freedom. And this is not a political issue. This is an accreditation issue. If the pedagogy and the learning environment were to become distinctly different, the Southern States Accreditation, which accredits the Duke degrees, could not accredit the degree that's coming out of DKU. And so there must not be any kind of significant gap or significant differentiation in order to preserve that issue of academic integrity. Now, finally, I would say—you know, looking now retrospectively, looking back at all of this, I think there's no more important kind of initiative than these universities. Getting young people from all around the world to sit in the same classroom, engage with one another, even become uncomfortable. It's great if they can do that when they're eighteen to twenty-four so hopefully when they're forty-five to fifty, they sit down and deal with these real issues, they can have some degree of understanding and some perspective of why the other side is thinking the way it does. This doesn't happen automatically on these campuses. There's a lot of orchestration and a lot of fostering of activity. But I would just say that he ability and the opportunity to do this makes this, and makes all of these joint ventures, really exciting opportunities that have larger impact than just the campus on which they sit. And let me stop here. Thank you. FASKIANOS: Thank you very much. That was really a terrific overview. And you really brought your experience to the table. Thank you. So let's go to all of you now for your questions, comments. You can either raise your hand by clicking on the “raise hand” icon, or you can type your question in the Q&A box. Please include your affiliation so I can read it. And when I call on you, please unmute yourself and also say who you are and your academic affiliation, so to put it in context. I'm going to go first, raised hand, to James Cousins. There we go. Q: Hi. Yeah, this is Morton Holbrook at Kentucky Wesleyan College, along with James Cousins. FASKIANOS: Great. (Laughs.) Q: And thanks very much, Dr. Simon. A great explanation. Happy to hear about academic freedom. Could I hear a little bit more about, for example, textbook choice? Do you have to submit—do professors have to submit textbook choices to the party secretary, for example? I assume there's a party secretary there. Is there self-censorship by professors who would want to skip over Tiananmen massacre or the Taiwan issue or the South China Sea issue? Thank you. SIMON: OK. Great question. So I'm happy to say that each professor creates their own syllabus, as they would in the United States. We have three big required courses, one of which is China in the world. And it is to look at the impact of the West on China, and China's impact on the West. And in that course, which every student has to take, we discuss very, very sensitive issues, including the Taiwan issue, including Chinese security policy, including South China Sea, et cetera, et cetera. There are some limitations on books that can be imported through the Chinese customs, because those will be controlled at the customs port. But because we have unlimited access through the internet right directly into the Duke library, any book that any instructor would like to have on their syllabus, that book is available to the students. So we do not have to report any of these teaching intentions to the party secretary. In the case of DKU, the party secretary is the chancellor. That just happened when we got a new chancellor a couple years ago. And we also have a deputy party secretary. But for the most part, they do not intervene at all in the academic affairs of the university. And the main reason for this is that the university must remain accredited for giving out both the Duke degree and the Chinese degree. FASKIANOS: Great. I'm going to go next to a written question from Michael Raisinghani, who is an associate professor at Texas Women's University. And two parts. What are some things you would have done differently going forward based on your experience over the last five years? And this is also—camps onto what the prior question was—does China censor the minicourse on Hong Kong? SIMON: So let me take the second one first. The minicourse on Hong Kong was a sort of an in-place innovation. We got a directive from the government indicating that we were to have no public forum to discuss the events in Hong Kong. And we had had two students who were in Hong Kong during the summer, witness to the events that were going on. And they came back to the campus after the summer wanting to basically expose everything that went on in Hong Kong. Now, obviously we wanted this to be a learning opportunity. And so we didn't mind, you know, talking about the media, the press, you know, who's vantage point, et cetera. So we felt that that could be best done within a minicourse. And so we literally, in real time, created an eight-hour minicourse. We had four of our faculty put together teaching about the society and the issues in contemporary Hong Kong. And each of those classes, you know, they discussed, you know, ongoing issues. I can tell you that there were lots of PRC students attending at the beginning of the session. There were fewer by the end. And we can, you know, extrapolate why they may have pulled out. But nobody pulled out because somehow someone was holding a gun to their head and said: You ought not to be here. So, you know, there's a lot of peer pressure about academic freedom issues. And there also is some issues about self-censorship that exist. And we try to deal with them. We try to make the academic environment extremely comfortable for everybody. But I can tell you, look, there's parental pressure. We don't know who the parents are of some of these kids. They may be even party officials. And so we basically, you know, let the kids determine. But we let the kids say: Look, in the classroom, all—everything goes. And I instituted a policy which I would not have changed, and that is that no cellphones in the classroom. No cellphones at major events, without explicit permission of the participants. And that means that in the class you cannot record by video or by audio what's going on in the classroom without special permission of the—of the instructor when that's happening. During my five years, you know, that worked very well. It raised the level of engagement by all students. And I would say people felt much more comfortable. A hundred percent comfortable? No. That wasn't the case. There is still some uneasiness. What would I have done differently? That's kind of a very interesting question. It kind of comes up because I'm writing a book about my experiences. I think maybe, you know, I would have tried to build more bridges with Duke earlier on. I think that Duke's involvement in this was really what the Chinese side bought. And I think that we needed to get more Duke involvement in terms of trying to sell the DKU opportunity to the faculty. I would have become a little bit more proactive in getting them to understand the benefits of spending a semester or two semesters at DKU. I think we—that would have helped to build more political support for the DKU project back on the DKU—back on the Duke campus in the United States. FASKIANOS: Thank you. I'm going to go next to raised hand, to Maryalice Mazzara. Q: Hi. Hello to both of you. And, Dr. Simon, great to see you. I'm here at SUNY Office of Global Affairs at SUNY Global Center. And I must say, disclaimer, I had Dr. Simon as a boss, my first boss at SUNY. And he was wonderful. So and I've worked a lot with China, as you know, Denis, from when we started, and continuing on. What would you say you would recommend going forward? So you just had a question about, you know, what would you have done differently in the last five years. For those of us, and all of us on the call, who are interested—very interested in U.S.-China positive relations, what would you recommend that we can do at the academic level? SIMON: So one of the things I think we need to realize is that China's Ministry of Education is extremely committed to not only these joint venture projects, but to international engagement as a whole. During my five years, I had an extensive opportunity to interact with a number of officials from the ministry, not only at the central government level but also at the provincial government level. And despite some of the noise that we hear about China regarding self-reliance and closing the door, I think that understanding that China is open for business. It wants to see more international students come into the country. There are now about close to 500,000 international students. China wants to grow that number. You know, there are about 700,000-plus Chinese students studying abroad, 370,000 of them, or so, in the United States. The ministry is very interested. And I think that we need to basically build bridges that continue to be sustainable over time, so that we continue to engage in the educational sphere with China. And that means that perhaps it's time for the two countries to sit down and revise, update, and reconfigure the education cooperation agreement that was signed back when Deng Xiaoping visited the United States in '78, and then formalized in '79. I think that we need to think about altering the rules of the road going forward so it takes into account that China is no longer a backward, or a higher-education laggard. China how has world-class universities, offering world-class curriculum. Collaboration and research between faculty in the U.S. and faculty in China is extensive. We need to make sure that initiatives, like the China initiative through the Justice Department, doesn't take hold and basically lead to the demise or the decoupling of the two countries. Basically, the bottom line is: Keep going forward. Keep being honest with your Chinese partners and your Chinese colleagues. Let them know some of the challenges that you face. And make them feel committed to playing by the rules of the game. And we have to do the same on our side. And if we can do that, I think that the basis for collaboration is not only there, but the basis for expanded collaboration is very real and can help, hopefully, over the long term overcome some of the difficulties and the tensions that we face because of lack of understanding and lack of trust that currently plagues the relationship. FASKIANOS: Great. The next question is from Emily Weinstein, who is a research fellow at Georgetown University. Curious about issues associated with intellectual property. Since JV universities are Chinese legal entities, in the case of DKU does Duke maintain the IP or is it the independent DKU entity? SIMON: Well, right now let's assume that the faculty member is a permanent member of the DKU faculty. Then that faculty member, in conjunction with the Chinese regulatory environment, would own a piece of that IP. The university doesn't have a technology transfer office, like you would see at Duke in the United States, or Stanford, or NYU, et cetera. And I think that probably no one really can see that there would be, you know, just a lot of new IP coming out of this. But I think that now, given the momentum that's been built up in some of these areas, I think that that is an issue. And I think that that's something that will get decided. But right now, it's a local issue. The only way that would be different is if a faculty member from Duke came over, participated in a research project, and then laid claim. China has a—(inaudible)—kind of law in place. And of course, we know the United States does. That would tend to be the basis for a sharing of the IP. And I think that was the basic notion going forward, that as a joint venture whatever came out of these collaborative research engagements, they would be on a shared IP basis. FASKIANOS: Thank you. I'm going to take the next question from Wenchi Yu, who has raised a raised hand. Q: Hi. Thank you. Hi, Denis, good to see you again. A question about—first of all, just a small comment about China still welcoming collaboration internationally at higher ed. I think that's been the case for a couple years. The question now is not so much about their will, but more how, right? So in order to collaborate in a way that neither side compromises our own values and principles, I think that's more of the key question. So I think moving forward if you can just maybe go deeper on this point. How can we really collaborate without, you know, feeling that we're making too much of a compromise? And the second related is, I think what we're seeing in terms of the change of attitude is not just at higher ed level. You and I have talked about K-12 as well. It's also been extremely difficult for international schools as well as online education to even, you know, try to connect students with anything international, whether it's curriculum or, you know, international foreign tutors, educators. So, I mean, do you think, you know, this will impact higher ed? You know, and what is your interpretation of Ministry of Education's attitude? And, you know, how much is what local officials can actually be flexible when it comes to implementation of those bigger policies? SIMON: So I think one of the—one of the challenges I didn't get to mention, but I'll talk about it now, is this issue of homogenization. I think that the Ministry of Education, because of its general approach to curriculum and things of that sort, would like all universities basically to operate very similarly and that there's not a whole bunch of outliers in the system. The special provisions for these joint venture universities are indeed just that, they're very special, they're very unique. And in fact, just like lots of regulation in China, they couldn't cover the entire waterfront of all the operating, all the administrative, and even all the political issues that might come across. And so many of these, the CEA agreement, or the equivalent of that, was signed, you know, are very unique to those nine or ten joint venture universities. And they—as you know, in China just because you sided with Duke doesn't mean that if you're up next you're going to get the same terms and conditions. And I think that right now because of the tensions in the relationship, it would be difficult to actually replicate exactly what Duke, and NYU, and some of the other universities had, particularly because of the very pronounced way academic freedom issues had been—had been dealt with. But I think that each of our universities is very clear about the red lines that exist regarding issues as sensitive, like academic freedom. In other words, there are very few issues that would invite the kind of deliberation about potential withdrawal, but academic freedom is one of those. Religious freedom, in terms of what goes on on the campus is another issue. Again, the campus is sort of like a protected territory in the way an embassy would be, in many ways. And it's not exactly the same. It doesn't have that legal status. But what I'm suggesting here in terms of the operating environment is sort of like that. So up till now, we've been very fortunate that we haven't felt the full brunt, you know, of some of the political tightening that some Chinese universities have experienced. And so we've been pretty—the situation has been pretty good for all of us. But I think that part of the problem is that we were dealing with China in a very asymmetrical, hierarchical kind of manner in the past. And that is that the gap between the two countries was very large in capability, particularly in education and higher education. And therefore, it was from the haves—Europe, the United States, et cetera—to the have-no country. That's no longer the case. And so therefore, that's why I think that in order to get more accommodation from the Chinese side, we have to bring China much more to the table as a co-equal. And as China sits at that table, then we have to secure commitments to say: Look, we commit to doing this when we're in China. You have to commit to doing this, whether it's regarding IP theft, whether it's regarding the censorship of Chinese students in the United States, whether it's all other kinds of things that we know are problems. And at the same time, as many U.S. university leaders have done, we promised to protect our Chinese students, that they don't become the object of attack because we have a kind of anti-China, you know, fervor going through the country, and somehow these students are going to be, you know, experiencing some problems. This is a very difficult period. But I don't see how we can continue to go forward based on a document, or set of documents, that were signed forty-plus years ago. I think we need to begin to consider, both in education and in science and technology, to sign a new agreement that looks at new rules of the game, reflecting the different status of the countries now versus what it was forty years ago. FASKIANOS: I'm going to ask the next question from Qiang Zha from York University in Toronto, Canada. Two questions: A rise in nationalism and patriotism can be observed among Chinese young generations. How is it going to impact the JVs in China? And whether and now the JVs in China impact the country's innovation capacity and performance. SIMON: So it seems that there's two questions there. Let me respond. Professor Cheng Li, who's at Brookings Institution, has just written a very interesting article about this growing patriotism and even anti-Americanism among young Chinese, that I would recommend. And it's a very important article, because I think we had assumed in the past that young Chinese are very global, they're cosmopolitan, they dress the dress, they walk the talk, they listen to the same music. But I think that what's going on in the country especially over the last ten years is an effort to say, look, you know, stop worshiping Western things and start attaching greater value to things Chinese. And I think that that's sort of had an impact. And I think when you go and look at a classroom discussion at a place like DKU, where you have students from forty different countries talking about a common issue, Chinese students tend to band together and be very protective of China. I think that's just a common reaction that they have. Now, in a—as a semester goes on, a few of them will break away a bit from those kind of—you know, that rigidity, and open their minds to alternative ways to thinking about problems and issues, and particularly in terms of Chinese behavior. And I know that I've advised a number of students on projects, papers, et cetera. And I'm almost in awe of the fact of the degree to which they in fact have broken away from the old molds and old stereotypes that they had when they entered the program back in 2018. So this is part of a process that occurs over time. And I think it's something that we have to have some patience about. But I am worried. And I'll just give you an example. You know, a young Chinese student comes to the United States, has their visa. They get to immigration in the United States, and they're turned back all of a sudden and they're forced to go home. No apparent reason, but somebody thinks they're up to no good, or they don't—they weren't from the right, you know, high school, or whatever is the case. We've got to really be careful that we don't start to alienate not only young Chinese—which I think that's a big problem—but also Chinese American faculty and staff who are at our universities, who now feel that they're not trusted or they're under suspicion for doing something wrong. And I know in conversations that I have had with numerous of these people who have talked about should I go back, should I go to a third country? If I'm not in the U.S., should I be in—you know, in Europe? What's a good place for me to go, because I don't feel good—nor does my family feel good—now in the United States. We have created a big problem that's going to have a very negative effect on our talent needs in the 21st century. And that includes young Chinese who would come to the United States for advanced education and hopefully stay here when they get their doctorates, or whatever degree they came for, and Chinese Americans who are here who have been loyal, who have been hardworking, who now feel that somehow they are not trusted any longer. And we're in a big dilemma right now at this point in time. And I think that my experience at this JV university says, look, as I said, it doesn't happen naturally that there's a kumbaya moment that everyone gets together and hugs and is on the same wavelength. There's a lot of intense discussion among these young people that we must recognize. But hopefully, through the process of being put together and making friends and building trust, they can begin to open their minds for different perspectives and different ideas. And I think that if DKU, or NYU Shanghai, or these other campuses are going to be successful, they must continue to push in that direction. Not to close the door, pull the shades down, and simply hide. But they must be open. And one of the things at DKU, all of our events, open—are open. Our China town halls, we invited officials from Suzhou and Kunshan to come and listen to whether it was Henry Kissinger or somebody else who was—Ray Dalio, who was on, or Fareed Zakaria. They're all the same thing, we invited people to come to listen and to have an open mind to these kind of events. So I think that we are a beacon of light in the midst of a turbulence. I think President Price's comment is very apropos to what this represents. FASKIANOS: Thank you. I'm going to take two written questions. The first is from Peggy Blumenthal, who is senior counselor to the president at the Institute of International Education. Do you see a difference in the kinds of Chinese students who enroll in Duke-Kushan versus those who applied to study in Duke in North Carolina? Are they less from elite political families and less wealthy families? And do you have any students from Taiwan or Hong Kong? And then a second question from GianMario Besana, who's at DePaul University, the associate provost for global engagement. How is faculty governance handled? Are faculty teaching at the JV tenured as Duke faculty? SIMON: OK. So, yes, we have students from Taiwan. And we don't always get students from Hong Kong, but we're open to having students from Hong Kong. So there is no limit. The only thing is, and I'll mention this, that all Chinese students, PRC students, must have a quote/unquote “political” course. And that course has been revised sharply by our partner at Wuhan University to make it much more of a Chinese history and culture course. The students from Taiwan must take that course. Now, they don't want to take it and they reject the idea of taking it, but that's a requirement. And so they do take it. But I can assure you, the one that we have is much softer than some of the things that go on at other Chinese Universities. In terms of the caliber of the students, one thing is very clear. As the reputation of places like DKU and NYU Shanghai, et cetera, have grown, the differentiation between who applies to the U.S. campus and who applies to the DKU campus, that differentiation is getting smaller and smaller. And the reason is very simple: we cannot have a two-track system if we're giving a Duke degree to the students graduating at DKU, and the same thing for NYU Shanghai. We must have near equivalency. And we have a very strong requirement in terms of English language capability. We don't trust, frankly, TOEFL. And we don't trust, you know, some of the other mechanism. We now deploy specialized versions of language testing so we can ensure that the quality of the language is strong enough so at the beginning of the engagement on campus, when they matriculate, they are able to hit the ground running. And that helps a great deal. In terms of faculty governance, the faculty in place, you know, at DKU, as far as I know, are able to—in effect, they meet as a faculty. There's an academic affairs committee. We have a vice chancellor for academic affairs who oversees the faculty engagement, in effect. And the faculty do have a fairly loud voice when there are certain things that they don't like. There's a Chinese tax policy is changing. That's going to have a big impact on their compensation. They've made their concerns well known to the leadership. If they don't like a curriculum that is being, you know, put in place and they want to change it, they will advocate, you know, to redo some of the curriculum that has been done, and also alter the requirements. So their voice is heard loudly and strongly. But it's through the vice chancellor for academic affairs to the executive vice chancellor of the campus. It doesn't necessarily go through the chancellor. And I don't mean to suggest that there's full compartmentation of the Chinese side. But there are certain things in which we closely operate together and joint decision making. And then there are things in which basically, at least up to my time, the engagement was a little lighter on the academic side and more intense on the operational side. And I think that that was the model that we had hoped to sustain from the beginning. FASKIANOS: Great. I'm going to take the next question from David Moore from Broward College in Florida. Do you know of any issues the Chinese have with required courses at Duke in U.S. history or U.S. government/political science? And just to give context, he writes, Florida has recently imposed a new required test in civic literacy, which has questions related to the U.S. Constitution, Bill of Rights, and major Supreme Court cases. Next year students in China will need to take this test in order to graduate. Are you aware of any such requirements imposed by other states? SIMON: So I'm not aware right now that North Carolina, for example, has this kind of requirement. But I can tell you that we do teach courses about American government, American society, American culture. In other words, American studies gets a full, you know, treatment, if that's what your major is or that's something that you choose to study. Now, like many places, even on a U.S. campus, except from what you've just told me, I mean, you could go through an entire university education without doing American studies whatsoever. But I think from what I'm hearing from you, that's not going to be the case in Florida now. (Laughs.) We don't—we haven't had that problem. The only requirement, as I said, is on the Chinese side, that Chinese students must have this one course on Chinese history and culture, and they also must have military service. They do this short-term summer military training that they must go through. And I've gone to the graduation. It's a—it's kind of fascinating to watch it. But, you know, it's something that's for bonding purposes. And, you know, that makes China different. Remember, this is not an island existing, you know, in the middle of in the entire China. In some ways, the campus and the fact that we're in China become part of the same reality. It is not the case—you know, we can't be an island unto ourselves. That's when I think real problems would occur. I think the more that we can integrate and understand what's going on in the larger societal context, it's important for our students, particularly the international students who come. And the international students are such a critical element because they represent an alternative perspective on the world that they bring into the classroom, as does our international faculty bring new ideas into the classroom. And those are what basically can open up the minds of our Chinese students. We're not here to make Chinese students think like Americans. We're here to raise global awareness. That's all we want to do. We want to give them alternatives and options and different perspectives on the world, and then let them make up their mind. Let them decide what's the right, or wrong, or comfortable way to think about an issue, and then feel that on this campus and then, you know, further on in their lives, they have the power and they have the capacity to think for themselves. And that's why—just one point I want to make—critical thinking is such an important part of our pedagogy. How to think critically and independently about issues and express yourself in a lucid fashion are part of what we call seven animating features that we want with each of our graduates. And another one is something called rooted globalism. And that is the ability to understand your own roots, but also the ability to understand the roots of others, and bring that to bear as you begin to look at a problem like: Why do these two countries have different views on climate change? Or why do they think different—so differently about handling pandemics, or handling even things like facial recognition and video surveillance? We have one professor who studies this, and he and I have had many numerous conversations about how to involve Chinese students in these discussions, so they don't feel intimidated, but get exposed to these kinds of debates that are going on. Now issues like what's the future of AI, in which we're looking at moral, ethical issues that face societies—all societies, not just American or Chinese society—and how do these get worked out? These are what the opportunities are that we can accomplish in these kind of joint venture environments. FASKIANOS: A next question from Lauren Sinclair. I'm administrator and faculty at NYU Shanghai. I'm very interested in the notion of pedagogical reciprocity and cross-cultural exchange. Do you see any evidence that this is occurring? Do you have qualitative or quantitative measures through institutional or student-level surveys? SIMON: So this occurs—this kind of what I call knowledge transfer occurs because we do have, as I mentioned, 25 percent of the faculty on the campus at any time are Duke or Duke-affiliated faculty. So when we are doing things on the campus at DKU, there are Duke faculty who are exposed to these experiences, they get to hear the students' presentations, et cetera, et cetera. They're part of the discussions about the curriculum. And I can tell you that the Duke curriculum and the DKU curriculum are different in many respects, ours being much more highly interdisciplinary, for example. And we have a project called Signature Work. When our students do this, they get a chance to spend—under normal situation, not COVID—but a semester at Duke. And during that semester at Duke, that also serves as a vehicle for the students to bring with them the things that they've learned, and the way that they've learned them. And we also have vehicles for our faculty in certain cases to spend time at Duke as well. And one best example I have to give you is the COVID experience. DKU was online by March of 2020. With the help of Duke's educational technology people we started delivering curriculum to our students in March, April, May, so that they could finish their semester. Quickly, by time June rolled around, Duke, as well as all sorts of U.S. universities, were faced with the dilemma of how to go online. The experience of DKU in handling the online delivery to students who were located all over the world, and the Duke need to be prepared to do that, had great benefit to Duke when it tried to implement its own online programs. That experience was very positive. The synergies captured from that were very positive. And I think that this serves as a reminder that knowledge and information can go in both directions. You mentioned cross-cultural. And again, I think the more faculty we can get to come and have an experience in China, and that they bring back with them the learning that's occurred, we've seen that now get transported back to Duke, and delivered in Duke classrooms based on the experience that they've had in China. FASKIANOS: Well, this has been a fantastic hour. Thank you very much. We are at the end of our time. It came, alas, too quickly, and I could not get to all the questions. So my apologies. But we will send around the link to this webinar, the transcript, and other resources that Dr. Simon has mentioned. So, Denis, thank you very much for doing this. We really appreciate it. SIMON: My pleasure. And thank you for having me. FASKIANOS: And we will be having our next Higher Education webinar in January 2022. So this is the last one for this year. And we will send an invitation under separate cover. As always, I encourage you to follow @CFR_Academic on Twitter and visit CFR.org, ForeignAffairs.com, and ThinkGlobalHealth.org for more resources. I'm wishing you all luck with your finals, grading, all of that, wonderful things that you have to do as faulty and as academics. And hope you enjoy the holidays. And of course, stay well and stay safe. And we look forward to reconvening in the new year. (END)

CFR Campus
Higher Education Webinar: The Role of Joint Venture Universities in China

CFR Campus

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 7, 2021


01439f7b-c9da-4901-9613-82ff8318fd75 Tue, 07 Dec 2021 18:00:00 EST Academic Conference Calls podcasts@cfr.org

Hablando de Tecnología con Orlando Mergal | Podcast En Español | Discusión inteligente sobre computadoras, Internet, telé

Este pasado fin de semana fue el Día de Acción de Gracias en los Estados Unidos, sus territorios y hasta en algunos países que —aún no siendo parte de la órbita norteamericana— lo han adoptado como parte de sus tradiciones. Y como suele suceder, fue una fiesta de pavo —muuuuuuuuucho pavo—, golocinas de todo tipo, licores y el ocasional juego de futbol norteamericano. También dio inicio el documental de 6 horas y media “Get Back” de los Beatles, del director neocelandés Peter Jackson. Para mí el futbol norteamericano tiene muy poco de atractivo. Es más, tengo que admitir que ni siquiera lo entiendo bien. Pero lo que sí entiendo bien —o pensaba que la entendía— es la historia de los Beatles. Durante mi juventud tuve una Banda en la que tocamos muchísimas de sus canciones. Además, tengo cada uno de sus CDs, como grupo y como exponentes individuales, y una gran mayoría de sus DVDs. Por lo tanto, el hecho de que pasara el fin de semana pegado al televisor viendo “Get Back” era de esperarse. Mientras veía “Get Back” aprendía cosas sobre los Beatles que creía que conocía. También comencé a pensar cómo la experiencia de esta banda británica se podía extrapolar a la realidad moderna de los proveedores de contenido. En el programa de hoy desmenuzo la obra de Peter Jackson, director de “Get Back” así como de otras conocidísimas obras como “Lord of the Rings” y “The Hobitt”. Y lo hago con el ániimo no de criticarlo, y ni siquiera de reseñarlo, sino de ver lo que podemos aprender los que todos los días nos levantamos a tratar de crear algo. Visto desde afuera el proceso de creación artística parece uno lineal que podemos encender y apagar a nuestro antojo. Sin embargo, cualquiera que haya creado algo sabe que es un proceso fugaz, imposible de embotellar y que va y viene a su antojo. Get Back abre una ventana al proceso creativo de la banda de Rock & Roll más famosa del mundo. Tristemente, lo hace en un momento en el que los 4 chicos de Liverpool pasaban por uno de sus momentos más oscuros. No permite ser testigos de la desintegración de la mayor historia de éxito artístico del siglo XX. Afortunadamente, el “Get Back” de Peter Jackson ilustra el periodo como fue, sí. Pero de seguro dejó en el suelo del cuarto de edición algunas de las garatas que cuenta la historia y que aquí no se ven, como la pelea a puños entre Lennon y Harrison. No hacía falta manchar una historia que fue mayormente armoniosa. O por lo menos eso parece pensar Jackson. Basta con ver lo perdidos que parecían McCartney, Lennon, Harrison y Star luego de la pérdida de su manejador Brian Epstein. Si no has visto “Get Back”, te invito a verlo a la mayor brevedad posible. Aún si no sigues a los Beatles hay mucho que aprender. OTROS EPISODIOS QUE TE PUEDEN INTERESAR: Consejos Para Hacer Un Buen Podcast La Atención Es El Producto Autoempleo, Cómo Crear Tu Propia Realidad Los Descuidos Digitales Son Costosos Redacción SEO, Al Centro De Todo En La Internet ©2021, Orlando Mergal, MA _________________ El autor es Experto En Comunicación Corporativa (Lic. R-500), Autor de más de media docena de Publicaciones de Autoayuda y Productor de Contenido Digital Inf. 787-306-1590 • 787-750-0000 Divulgación de Relación Material: Algunos de los enlaces en esta entrada son “enlaces de afiliados”. Eso significa que si le das click al enlace, y compras algo, yo voy a recibir una comisión de afiliado. No obstante, tú vas a pagar exactamente lo mismo que pagarías al visitar al comerciante directamente y de manera independiente.  Además, yo sólo recomiendo productos o servicios que utilizo personalmente y que pienso que añadirán valor a mis oyentes. Al patrocinar los productos o servicios que mencionamos en Hablando De Tecnología contribuyes para que el programa continúe. Hago esta divulgación en cumplimiento con con el "16 CFR, Part 255" de la Comisión Federal De Comercio de los Estados Unidos "Guías Concernientes al uso de Endosos y Testimonios en la Publicid...

CFR Campus
Academic Webinar: African Politics and Security Issues

CFR Campus

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 1, 2021


bc300fca-613b-4d6b-8777-49fbd93089d2 Wed, 01 Dec 2021 18:00:00 EST Academic Conference Calls podcasts@cfr.org

CFR On the Record
Academic Webinar: African Politics and Security Issues

CFR On the Record

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 1, 2021


Michelle Gavin, CFR's Ralph Bunche senior fellow for Africa policy studies, leads a conversation on African politics and security issues.     FASKIANOS: Welcome to today's session of the CFR fall of 2021 Academic Webinar Series. I'm Irina Faskianos, vice president of the National Program and Outreach at CFR. Today's discussion is on the record and the video and transcript will be available on our website, cfr.org/academic. As always, CFR takes no institutional positions on matters of policy. We're delighted to have Michelle Gavin with us today to talk about African politics and security issues. Ambassador Gavin is CFR's Ralph Bunche senior fellow for Africa policy studies. Previously, she was managing director of the Africa Center, a multidisciplinary institution dedicated to increasing understanding of contemporary Africa. From 2011 to 2014, she served as the U.S. ambassador to Botswana and as the U.S. representative to the Southern African Development Community, and prior to that, she was a special assistant to President Obama and the senior director for Africa at the National Security Council. And before going into the Obama administration, she was an international affairs fellow and adjunct fellow for Africa at CFR. So we are so delighted to have her back in our fold. So, Michelle, thank you very much for being with us. We have just seen that U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken went on a trip to Africa. Maybe you could begin by talking about the strategic framework that he laid out on that trip, and then we have in just recent days—with a new variant of Omicron—seen the travel ban imposed on several African countries and what that means for the strategic vision that he laid out. GAVIN: Sure. Thank you. Well, thank you so much for inviting me to join you today. And I looked at the roster. There's so much amazing expertise and knowledge on this Zoom. I really look forward to the exchange and the questions. I know I'll be learning from all of you. But maybe just to start out to talk a little bit about Secretary Blinken's trip because I think that, in many ways, his efforts to sort of reframe U.S. engagement on the continent, trying to move away from this sort of binary major power rivalry lens that the Trump administration had been using is useful, but also exposes, really, a lot of the challenges that policymakers focused on Africa are dealing with right now. So he tried to reset the relationship in the context of a partnership, of purely acknowledging African priorities and African agency in determining what kind of development partners Africa is interested in, what kind of security partners. I think that's a very useful exercise. Then he kind of ticked through, as every official has to do in making these big framing statements as sort of broad areas of engagement and cooperation, and he talked about increasing trade, which, of course, is interesting right now with AGOA sunsetting soon, working together to combat pandemic diseases, particularly COVID, working together on climate change, where, of course, Africa has borne more consequences than many other regions of the world while contributing far less to the problem, working together on the democratic backsliding and authoritarian sort of surge that we've seen around the world and, finally, working together on peace and security. So this huge agenda, and I think what's interesting and what in many ways his trip made clear is that it's very hard to get to the first four points when the last one, the peace and security element, is in chaos. And, look, obviously, Africa's a big continent. All of us who ever engage in these conversations about Africa are always—are forever trying to provide the disclaimer, right, that there's never one African story. There's never one thing happening in this incredibly diverse continent. But it is the case that the peace and security outlook on the continent is really in bad shape, right. And so the secretary traveled to Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. The headlines from his trip, really, were dominated by the disorder in the Horn of Africa that we're seeing right now. So you have the civil conflict in Ethiopia, which has been incredibly costly to that country in terms of lives, in terms of their economic outlook, has been characterized by atrocities of war crimes. And, I think right now, most observers are very concerned about the integrity of the Ethiopian state, its capacity to persist. Regardless of today, tomorrow, or next week's military developments, it's very hard to see a lasting and sustainable military solution to this conflict and the parties do not appear, really, amenable to a serious political negotiation. But it's not just Ethiopia, of course. It's Sudan, where we saw the tenuous military-civilian transitional government kind of fully hijacked by the military side of that equation in a coup that has been, really, rejected by so many Sudanese citizens who are still on the streets even today trying to push back against the notion of military dominance in their transition and beyond, and they are being met with violence and intimidation. And the outlook there is quite worrying. You've got border clashes between Ethiopia and Sudan. You have electoral crisis in Somalia. So the Horn, you know, is looking like a very, very tough neighborhood. And, of course, everyone is concerned about the impact on Kenya and East Africa itself, given the insurgency in Mozambique, which has more than once affected neighboring Tanzania, these bombings in Uganda and the sense of instability there. The picture is one of multiple crises, none of which come with easy fixes or purely military solutions. And then you have this kind of metastasizing instability throughout the Sahel, right, and the concern that more and more states will fall victim to extremely worrisome instability and the very costly violence. So there's a huge security agenda and we're just—we're all aware of the basic facts that it's very hard to make progress on partnerships to support democratic governance in the midst of conflict. It's very hard to come together on climate change or to fight a pandemic in the midst of these kinds of circumstances. So I think it's a really challenging picture. And just to pull a couple of these threads, on this issue of democratic backsliding the Biden administration's desire to build more solidarity among kind of like-minded countries whose democracies may take different forms but who buy into a basic set of democratic values, it's undeniable that the trend lines in Africa have been worrisome for some time and we do see a lot of these kind of democratic authoritarian states, these states where you get some of the form, some of the theater, of democracy, particularly in the form of elections, but no real capacity for citizens to hold government accountable. It's not really a kind of a demand-driven democratic process, that the fix is often in on these elections, and there is polling, right, that suggests that this is turning people off of democratic governance in general, right. If what you understand democratic governance to be is a sham election, you know, at regular intervals while you continue to be governed by a set of individuals who are not really beholden to the electorate, right, and are protecting a very small set of interests, then it's not surprising to see some waning enthusiasm. It's not that other forms of government are necessarily looking great to African populations, but I think it is notable in some of that Afrobarometer polling in places where you wouldn't expect it, right, like South Africa, where people sacrificed so much for democracy, and you really do see a real decline in enthusiasm for that form of governance. So there's a lot of work to be done there. The last thing, just because you brought it up, on the latest news about this new variant, the Omicron variant—I may be saying that wrong. It may be Omicron. Perhaps someone will correct me. And the kind of quick policy choice to institute a travel ban on a number of southern African countries. So I do think that in the context of this pandemic, right, which has been economically devastating to the continent—where the global economic downturn that occurred for Africans, too, but you had governments with very little fiscal space in which to try to offset the pain for their populations. In addition, you have had the issues of vaccine inequity, right, where it's just taken far too long to get access to vaccines for many African populations—it's still not adequate in many places—and a sort of sense that the deal initially proposed in the form of COVAX wasn't really what happened—you know, a feeling of a bait and switch—that looks like—what it looks like is disregard for African lives. And while I am really sympathetic—I used to work in government and it's crystal clear when you do that your first responsibility is the safety of the American people—these travel bans sort of fit into a narrative, right, about scapegoating, about disregard for African life that, I think, is going to make it awfully hard for this new reframing of respect and partnership, right, to really resonate. And I would just note, as a former U.S. ambassador in Botswana, that the scientists in the lab in Gaborone and the scientists in South Africa who did the sequencing and helped to alert the world to this new variant, right, were doing us all a tremendous favor. It's not at all clear that this variant started in southern Africa, right. We know that it exists on every continent right now except Antarctica. We know that samples taken in Europe before these discoveries were made in southern Africa—just tested later—showed that the variant was already there. And so it is a bit hard to explain why specifically southern Africans are banned from travel. You know, I think it's unfortunate. There are other policies that could be pursued around testing, around quarantine requirements. So I'll leave that there. I'm not a public health expert. But I think it's—I'm glad you brought it up because I think these things do really resonate and they inform how the United States is understood on the continent. They inform how Africans understand global institutions and kind of global governance to reflect or not reflect their concerns and interests. And if what the Biden administration wants is partners in this notion of democratic solidarity and partners in trying to reconstruct kind of international institutions a sense of global order, a norms-based rules-based approach to multilateral challenges, it's going to be hard to get the African buy-in that is absolutely necessary to achieve those goals when these kinds of issues continue to give the impression that Africa is an afterthought. FASKIANOS: Thank you very much, Michelle. That was really a great overview for us. So now we want to go to all of you. You can raise your hand—click on the raised hand icon to ask a question—and when I recognize you please unmute yourself and state your affiliation. Otherwise, you can submit a written question in the Q&A box, and if you do write a question please say what institution you're with so that I can read it and identify you properly and—great. Our first hand raised is from Dr. Sherice Janaye Nelson. And let me just say, the “Zoom user,” can you please rename yourself so we know who you are? So, Dr. Nelson, over to you. Q: Good afternoon, everyone. Dr. Sherice Janaye Nelson from Southern University. I'm a political science professor in the department. And the question, I guess, I have is that we know that the African people have a history of nondemocratic governance, right? And when we look at a place like Tunisia, we know that one of the reasons in the Arab Spring that they were so successful—although often considered an Arab country, they are successful because there had been tenets of democracy that were already broiled in the society. The question I have is that to these places that do not have that institutional understanding or have even—maybe don't even have the values to align with democracy, are we foolhardy to continue to try to support democratic governance as the full-throated support versus trying to look at more of a hybrid of a sovereign situation that allows for, in many ways, a kingdom, a dictator, and et cetera, with then a democratic arm? Thank you so much. GAVIN: Thanks, Dr. Nelson. It's an interesting question, and I agree with you insofar as I think that it's really interesting to think about the kind of governance antecedents in a bunch of African countries, particularly in the pre-colonial era, right, and try to figure out how they find expression afterwards. There's no question that, you know, colonialism doesn't set the table well for democracy. There's no doubt about that. But I would say that, you know, despite the loss of faith in democratic governance that we've seen in some of the polling, you know, very consistently for a long time what you've seen is that African populations do seem to want democratic governance. They want to be able to hold their leaders accountable. They want everyone to have to abide by the law. They want basic protections for their rights. So, you know, I'm not sure that there's any society that's particularly ill-suited to that. But I do think that democracy comes in many forms and it's always particularly powerful when there is, you know, some historical resonance there. I also—you know, if we take a case like one of the world's last absolute monarchies in eSwatini right now what you see is a pretty persistent civic movement demanding more accountability and less power for the monarch, more protection for individual rights. And so, you know, I'm not—I think that people are feeling disillusioned and frustrated in many cases and you see this, too, in the enthusiasm with which several of the recent coups in West Africa have been met—you know, people pouring out into the streets to celebrate because they're frustrated with the status quo. They're interested in change. But very rarely do you see then persistent support for, say, military dictatorships or military-dominated government. So I'm not sure that the frustration means enthusiasm for some of these other governing models. People want democracy to work a lot better. FASKIANOS: Thank you. I'm going to take the next question from Lucy Dunderdale Cate. Q: Hi. Yes. I'm Lucy Dunderdale Cate. I'm with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. I wanted to just ask you about kind of the African Union's role in this, you know, particularly and with the Biden administration, and thinking about, you know, the Horn of Africa security issues that you mentioned. Kind of where do you see that we're going and what do you see kind of for the future there? Thank you. GAVIN: Sure. Thanks for that question. I think the AU, for all of its flaws—and, you know, find me a multilateral organization that isn't flawed—is actually incredibly important. You know, for the Biden administration, which has kind of staked out this position that international institutions matter and multilateral institutions matter, they've got to work better, we can't address the threats we all face without these functioning and they may need to be modernized or updated but we need them, then the AU is a really important piece of that puzzle. And I think, you know, right now, for example, in Ethiopia that the—it's the AU's negotiator, former Nigerian President Obasanjo, who really is in the lead in trying to find some glimmer of space for a political solution, and this was a little bit late in the day in terms of AU activism on this issue and I think it's been a particularly difficult crisis for the AU to address in part because of being headquartered in Addis and sort of operating within a media and information environment in Ethiopia that is one that does not create a lot of space for divergence from the federal government's position. So I think that, in the end, right, the prospect of the collapse of a 110-million-strong country, a place that used to be an exporter of security, a major diplomatic player in the region, right, spurred AU action. But it's been a little bit—more than a little bit slow. But you have seen some pretty forward-leaning stance at the AU as well. Their response to the military coup in Sudan this fall was pretty robust and clear. Now this sort of new transitional arrangement that appears to be more palatable to much of the international community than to many Sudanese citizens is a—we're wading into murkier waters there. But I think the AU, you know, it's the only game in town. It's essential, and particularly in the Horn where the subregional organization EGAD is so incredibly weak that the AU, as a vehicle for an African expression of rules-based norms-based order, is—you know, actually its success is incredibly important to the success of this major U.S. foreign policy plank. FASKIANOS: Thank you. I'm going to take the next written question from Rami Jackson. How much of the democratic backsliding is supported by outside powers? For example, there was a chance for a democratic movement in Chad but the French threw their weight behind Déby's son after he was shot. GAVIN: That's a great question. I think that it's, certainly, not the case that external partners or actors are always positive forces, right, for democratic governance on the continent. There's no doubt about that, and it can be France and Chad. It can be, you know, Russian machinations in Central African Republic. There's a lot. It can be some of the Gulf states in Sudan, right, who—or Egypt, who seem very comfortable with the idea of military dominance and maybe some civilian window dressing for this transition. So you're right that external actors are kind of an important piece of the puzzle. You know, I don't think that there are many situations where there is a single external actor who is capable of entirely influencing the direction of government. But there are, certainly, situations where one external actor is tremendously powerful. Chad is a great example, again. And it is something that, I think, you know, again, an administration that has staked so much of its credibility on the notion that this is something very important to them, you know, is going to have to deal with. And it's thorny, right. Foreign policy always is where you have competing priorities. You need to get important work done sometimes with actors who do not share your norms and values, and it's the messiness of trying to articulate and integrate values in a foreign policy portfolio that runs the gamut, right, from counterterrorism concerns to economic interests. But I think that those are tensions that the administration will continue to have to deal with probably a little more publicly than an administration who didn't spend much time talking about the importance of democratic governance. FASKIANOS: Great. And I just want to mention that Rami is a graduate student at Syracuse University. So I'm going to go next to a raised hand from Mojúbàolú Olufúnké Okome. I know you wrote your question, too. Q: Good afternoon. Thank you very much. Yes. FASKIANOS: Yes. Q: I wrote my question because I couldn't figure out how to name myself on the phone. You know, thank you for your presentation. When I look at democracy in Africa—I mean, this is not the first go-round—and the response by people, by citizens, to the backsliding by governments is not—it looks familiar to me because, you know, in the 1960s—from the 1960s, there were similar responses. People were dissatisfied. They welcomed authoritarian governments again and again because the government they voted for rigged elections, were also authoritarian, and they were kleptocratic. So what's different now and where's the continuity and what has changed, really, with democracy? The other thing is about this COVID—the management of the COVID situation. I also kind of see the—I think I agree with you. The way Africa is being treated looks very familiar—you know, with disdain, with disrespect, as if the lives of the people there don't matter as much. And what is it going to take, really, to change the—because, you know, if a pandemic that cannot be stopped by walls and borders is not instigating change what is it going to take to change the way in which world politics is—world politics and its governance is done? GAVIN: Fantastic questions and ones that, I think we could talk about for, you know, a week-long conference. But so I'll start from the beginning and just take a stab. I think you're absolutely right. There have been these interesting cycles when it comes to governance on the continent and I think—when I think about sort of what's different from what we were seeing in, say, toward the end of the '60s, I think it's a couple things. One is geopolitical context, right. So my hope is that what we're not doing is kind of doing a reprise of this bipolar world where we're subbing in China's authoritarian development model for a Soviet Communist model and sitting here on the other side and, you know, trying to manipulate other countries into one camp or another. I don't think we're quite there yet and I think the Biden administration is trying very hard not to wade into those waters. So I do think the geopolitical context is a bit different. I also think, you know, that where so many African states are is at—in terms of kind of the scope of their existence as independent entities is an important difference, right. So I think that in the immediate kind of post-colonial era, for an awful lot of governments the fundamental basis for their legitimacy was having—is not being a colonial administrator, not being a puppet of some external power and so the, you know, legitimacy came from liberation, from independence. In places that had terrible conflict sometimes legitimacy came from, you know, delivering some degree of security from a long-standing insecure situation. So, you know, you look at—I think that's where sort of President Museveni derived a lot of legitimacy in the late '80s and through the '90s. And I think that, you know, now, as you have these very significant young populations whose lived experience is not one of ever knowing a time pre-independence, you know, they're looking for service delivery, right. They're looking for opportunity. They're looking for job creation, and I think legitimacy is increasingly going to be derived from the ability to deliver on these priorities. And so I do think that that makes kind of the governance landscape a little bit different, too, sort of different ideas about where governing legitimacy comes from. And, you know, I think that can be manifest in really different ways. But if I had to try and, you know, grab onto that interesting idea about what's different, that's what comes to mind. In this, you know, incredibly important question about what's it going to take to recognize African states as equal players and African lives as—every bit as urgently valuable as any other, you know, I do think that as the world continues to grapple with this pandemic and with other issues that can only be resolved globally, like climate change, it will, over time, kind of force a reckoning and a rethink about what are the important states and what are not. You know, it's interesting to me, it's absolutely true that by not moving out robustly to ensure that the whole world has access to vaccines the richest countries have created opportunities for new mutations to emerge. I hesitate to say that, in some ways, in this context because it sounds like I'm positive that these emerged from Africa, and I'm not. But we do know, you know, as a basic matter of science, right, that we're not safe until everyone's safe. And so I do think that as these kinds of issues that military might and economic power cannot address alone, where it really does take global solidarity and an awful lot of multilateral cooperation, which is messy and cumbersome, right, and necessary, my hope is that that will start to change perceptions in framing. FASKIANOS: Thank you. So I'm going to go next to a written question from Abbey Reynolds, who's an undergraduate student at the University of Central Florida. What steps do you think that international and regional organizations can take to preempt future attempts to derail democratic governance in the region—coups, circumvention of constitutional term letter—limits, rigged elections, et cetera? GAVIN: OK. I'm sorry. What steps should who take? I'm sorry. FASKIANOS: Multilateral—international and regional organizations. GAVIN: OK. You know, I think that in a number of cases subregional organizations have been taking steps, right—ECOWAS, certainly, in rejecting coups and suspending memberships, et cetera. I think, you know, if you look at the sort of articulated and documented principles of a lot of these organizations they're pretty good. It's really about the gulf sometimes between stated principles and practice. So, you know, I think the Southern African Development Community is sometimes guilty of this where there are—you know, there's a clear commitment in static kind of principle documents and protocols around democratic governance but you also have an absolute monarchy that's a member state of SADC. You've had, you know, significant repression in a number of states—Zimbabwe leaps to mind—that SADC doesn't have, really, anything to say about. So you can have organizations that have kind of principles and procedures. At the end of the day, organizations are made up of member states, right, who have a set of interests, and I think that, you know, how governments understand their interest in standing up for certain norms, it's—I think it's specific in many ways to those governments in those states how they derive their own legitimacy, the degree to which they feel they may be living in a glass house, and, you know, frankly, relative power dynamics. So I'm not sure. Certainly, it's always—you know, I'm a believer in multilateralism. I think from an African point of—you know, if you imagine African states trying to assert themselves on the international stage, multilateralism is really important, right, to get if it's possible, where interests align, to have as many African states speaking with one voice. It's a much more powerful message than just a couple individual states. But there are always going to be intrinsic limits. FASKIANOS: Thank you. I'm going to take the next question from Gary Prevost with the College of St. Benedict. And if you can unmute yourself. Q: Speaking today, actually, as honorary professor and research associate from Mandela University in South Africa. I've had several students in recent years—doctoral and master's students—study U.S. and allied counterterrorism strategies both in the Middle East and in Africa, and they've come away with a general perspective that those strategies going back several administrations have been almost solely focused on military action and that it has led them in their recommendations sections of their theses to argue that other steps must be taken if these efforts in places like Nigeria or Somalia or Mozambique or even in the Middle East, Syria, and Iraq, are to be successful they must have a changed mindset about counter terror. What's your perspective on that? GAVIN: Well, thanks for that. I wholeheartedly agree, right, and I think, you know, you'll even get plenty of military officers, right, who will say there's no way we can address some—these problems, these, you know, kind of radical violent organizations aligned to global terrorist groups with a purely military approach. It's frustrating. I'm sure it's frustrating for your students, too, because it feels like everyone keeps coming to this conclusion, and, certainly, there have been efforts to, you know, counter violent extremism, provide opportunity for young people. But we're not very good at it, right. We haven't been very good at it yet. There's still a mismatch in terms of the resources we pour into these kind of relative—these different streams of effort, right. But I think also while it's very clear in a situation like Mozambique that if you want to weaken the insurgency you need to be providing more opportunity and building more trust in a community that's been disenfranchised and alienated from the center for a very, very long time. But the how to do that, how to do that effectively and how to do it in a climate of insecurity I actually think is an incredibly difficult challenge, and there are, you know, brilliant people working on this all the time. You know, some of the best work that I've seen suggests that some of this can be done but it's an incredibly long-term undertaking and that, you know, is sometimes, I think, a difficult thing to sustain support for, particularly in a system like the United States where, you know, our appropriations cycles tend to be very short term. So people are looking for, you know, quick impact, things you can put on a bar graph quickly and say that you've done. And I think that, you know, a lot of the kind of peace building research suggests that that's—that, you know, building community trust, which is a huge part of what needs to happen, operates on a very different kind of timeline. So it's a really thorny, thorny problem and how to get—you know, how to sustain political and budgetary support for those kinds of efforts. I don't know the answer yet. I'm sure somebody really smart on—maybe on the Zoom does. FASKIANOS: I'm going to go next to Pearl Robinson at Tufts University. Q: Hello, Ambassador Gavin. First of all, I'd like to congratulate you in your new position as Ralph Bunche Senior Fellow for Africa, and that's actually—as I've been sitting here listening to this, my thought was I'd like to know if you have thought about ways in which you can use your position at the Council to help actualize forms of partnerships about policy dialogues related to Africa. You began by articulating the U.S.'s new strategic vision for Africa. That was an American statement. I haven't really heard an African statement that would be engaging with that policy dialogue. These one-on-one trips of the secretary of state and other people going to individual African countries, based on our agenda, and having one-on-one dialogue discussions, in a way, does not get towards that real notion of African agency in policy and partnership. So I'm actually wondering whether you might envision the Council playing a role and creating some kinds of policy dialogue fora that would have American(s) and Africans participating in ways that would be visible to American publics as well as African publics. So I'm suggesting that you might, you know, be uniquely well suited to have the Council play a role in actually making visible and operationalizing this concept. I just thought about this sitting here listening because what I realized was everybody talking is talking from the American side and I'm wondering if—well, my dear colleague, Olufúnké, actually was an African voice. But I think what needs to happen is there needs to be a way for this taking place maybe with African institutions, academics, civil society actors. So I just throw that out for you to think about and I'd like to hear your first response to that idea. GAVIN: So I think it's exciting and I'd love, actually, to follow up with you. I'm delighted that you're here. I heard some wonderful things about your work. I think there's always the hard part of, right, who speaks for Africa, right, because there are so many diverse African perspectives. But I don't think you're suggesting there's necessarily a unitary voice. You're talking about sort of different actors, and I would agree with you that it's always incredibly rich to have conversations. You know, I recently did a panel with Professor Ed Vitz, who is working on some—working on a paper, I think, that will eventually be a book about sort of U.S.-Africa policy and particularly interested in the kind of frame of major power rivalry. But it was such a refreshing conversation to examine that and compare notes on what we thought the flaws of that frame might be to hear his perspective on where he thought there might be advantages to be seized from it. It was wonderful, and I agree with you that the more dialogue and the more opportunity not just to sort of talk amongst ourselves in a U.S. community that cares about Africa and about U.S. policy the better. You know, I will be honest with you, I often, in a situation like the one right now, I try hard to stick to—to at least keep circling back to U.S. policy because that's where my background is and I, you know, have no desire to posit myself as speaking on behalf of Africans. That's nuts and, you know, not my role. But I do—I have spent a lot of time thinking about how the U.S. engages with the continent. And so I think it's a really interesting notion. I'd love to follow up with you. FASKIANOS: Great. I'm going to take the next written question from Krista Johnston, who's a professor at Howard University. The African Continental Free Trade Area will create the largest consumer market. What are the barriers U.S. businesses investing in Africa and positioning themselves to take advantage of this new trade area and what can the Biden administration do to incentivize this kind of engagement with China? And perhaps I can tack on another question to that because we have a lot of questions—(laughs)—both raised hands—is just to talk a little bit about China's footprint in Africa as well. GAVIN: Sure. Well, so I absolutely agree that the African Continental Free Trade Area is a really incredibly promising step forward for African economic integration and that is, you know, compelling in any number of ways. I think, for example, about the very hot topic of pharmaceutical production, right. And between the Free Trade Area, the standing up of the African Medicines Agency, right, which should help to harmonize regulatory standards for pharmaceuticals and medical equipment throughout the continent, investments seem a lot more attractive, right, when you're looking at much bigger markets than any one country, even than a giant like Nigeria, can provide. So I think that there's tremendous potential here. I will go back to what I said earlier, which is that even with these positive steps, right, it's going to be really important that the peace and security parts start trending in the right direction because it's very—you know, I would say this. U.S. investors are already quite bad at assessing risk in Africa and a backdrop of instability is not going to help that situation, right, and it is, in many cases, going to make a given investment opportunity or partnership opportunity too risky for many. So, you know, there's just no way to jettison those concerns. But wholeheartedly agree it's an exciting development. If the world hadn't gotten sort of hijacked by COVID, I think we'd be talking about it a lot more. On China, you know, the Chinese engagement on the continent is a fact of life that's existed for a very long time and is not going anywhere. It is economic, it is political, it is, increasingly, cultural, and I think, you know, for a state like China that aspires to be a major global power it's entirely predictable and understandable. Do I think that there are some ways in which Chinese investment and engagement are not always beneficial to African states? I do. I have concerns, certainly, about the way China sometimes uses its influence to secure African support for Chinese positions that appear antithetical to stated values in AU documents and other(s) and I have concerns about the transparency of some of the arrangements. I have concerns as well about some of the tech standards and just sort of play for technical dominance that maybe does not have the cybersecurity interests of Africans as its top priority. All that said, I think it's really important for the United States to, you know, understand that there's no—there's nothing to be gained by constantly vilifying China's engagement, some of which has been incredibly helpful for African states hungry, particularly, for financing on major infrastructure projects, and, you know, it's a fact of life we all have to learn to deal with. I do think, you know, there's some natural tension between the Biden administration's democracy focus, right, and the very explicit and intentional efforts of China to present a different model, and I don't think that the U.S. needs to shy away from that or pretend that those differences don't exist. But I do think it's incredibly unhelpful to frame up all of U.S. policy as if it's intended to counter China as opposed to intended to find those areas in the Venn diagram of, you know, those overlaps of African interests and U.S. interests and work together on them. FASKIANOS: Thank you. I'm going to go next to Anna Ndumbi, who is a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Southern Mississippi. Please unmute yourself. Q: Thank you very much. I really appreciate the presentation. I have a quick question in regards to the Democratic Republic of Congo, which is center of Africa. About three years ago, there was a new president that stepped in by the name of Félix Tshisekedi, and he decided to pass a law saying that all the secondary education should be free because, obviously, in Africa schools aren't free. And I, personally, think that maybe it wasn't really—it was something they should have probably considered before passing the law. The result of that is that you have classrooms where there were maybe twenty students and now there's, like, there could be over a hundred students in one classroom, right. So we spoke about the pandemic. When COVID hit a lot of schools were shut down. They were shut down for a long period of time, and when you look at a lot of schools in Africa they don't have the ability of giving out maybe laptops or anything like that to assist students to continue school at home. So in result of that, you see a lot of children who are really below what they should be, below the average when it comes to education, and my question with that is where do we see the future going as far as maybe having international organization(s) or United States intervene because the future is not bright when we look at education with the children or the youth. How can United Nation(s) or maybe other international organization(s) assist, especially with what happened during COVID, going forward? What does the future look like for Africa? And I'm speaking more for the Democratic Republic of Congo. How can nonprofit organization(s) or United States intervene and assist in this matter? GAVIN: Well, thank you for that, and I have followed this a little bit because it was an interesting and kind of splashy promise and initiative on the part of President Tshisekedi and it's been disappointing, I think, to see that some of the, you know, government's budget that was intended to be allocated for that appears to have found its way into a handful of individuals' accounts. But I think that, you know, the fundamental point you're making, which is that in DRC but also throughout the African continent, right, there are these vast populations of young people. It is the youngest region of the world. And if you look at it historically at how other parts of the world have dealt with youth bulges, right, investing in that human capital so that they can be drivers of innovation and economic growth has been a really powerful kind of transformational tool—for example, in Asia. And so I definitely think that you're onto something really important right now about prioritizing investing in young people and their capacity, and you're absolutely right that the disruptions of the pandemic have, in many cases, fallen most heavily on children. You know, how to tackle that, I think, is sort of—you know, I can't design a program in this moment, I'll be honest with you. But I think that you're absolutely right, it's an incredibly important and too often easily overlooked priority. You know, there have been some interesting education innovations on the continent but they're too often kind of small, not scalable, and the need is so incredibly vast. But here, again, I will be a broken record. We do have to go back to this issue that peace and security matters, right. It's very, very hard for kids to get a sustained education that's going to provide them with opportunity in a context of insecurity, which, for a lot of children in eastern Congo, is still the case. FASKIANOS: OK. We have three minutes left. I am going to—and so many questions, and I apologize that we're not going to be able to get to all of you. So I'm going to give the final question to Caleb Sannar. Q: Hi. Yes. Thank you for joining us today, Ambassador Gavin. As they said, my name is Caleb Sanner. I'm a student from the University of Wisconsin in Whitewater. My question is with the Abraham Accords the Trump administration signed the agreement with Morocco to recognize Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara. Following that, there was some discrepancies in the southern territory controlled by the U.N., MINURSO, and the Polisario Front, the external Saharawi government, ended up declaring war again on Morocco, resuming the war from nineteen years previously. My question is what is the Biden administration's policy on that? GAVIN: Great question. Reporters have been asking that question, too, and with great message discipline the administration continues to say is that they're supporting U.N. efforts. And so whenever they ask, are you are you going to reconsider this decision regarding recognition of Moroccan sovereignty in Western Sahara, they respond not by answering that question but by saying they're supporting U.N. efforts. So that's the most I can report to you in—regarding that. FASKIANOS: Thank you. Well, we are at the end of our time. So, Ambassador Gavin, thank you very much for being with us and, again, to all of you for your fantastic questions, and I apologize for not being able to get to all of you. But we will have to continue doing webinars on this important topic and on digging in a little bit deeper. So we will be announcing the winter-spring academic lineup next month through our academic bulletin. This is the final webinar of this semester. Good luck with your finals—(laughs)—and grading and taking the exams and all of that. I know it's a very busy and stressful time with the pandemic layered on top of all of it. If you haven't already subscribed for the bulletin, please, you can do so by emailing us at cfracademic@cfr.org. You can follow us on Twitter at @CFR_Academic. And of course, please go to CFR.org, ForeignAffairs.com, and ThinkGlobalHealth.org for new research and analysis on global issues. You can see on CFR.org Michelle's latest post on Africa—blog posts, so you should follow her there as well. So, again, thank you. Thanks to all of you, and happy holidays, and we look forward to reconvening in 2022.

Down the Wormhole
Mental Health Part 5 (Traumatic Brain Injury)

Down the Wormhole

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 1, 2021 54:23


Episode 93 In part 5 of our mental health miniseries, we're talking about what makes us who we are. If our brain is the center of our personalities and identities, what happens when our brains get broken? Rachael tells us the curious story of Phineas Gage as well as her own experience with traumatic brain injury. Along the way, we will talk about split brains, manipulative microbiomes, and hungry ghosts.    Support this podcast on Patreon at https://www.patreon.com/DowntheWormholepodcast   More information at https://www.downthewormhole.com/   produced by Zack Jackson music by Zack Jackson and Barton Willis    Transcript  This transcript was automatically generated by www.otter.ai, and as such contains errors (especially when multiple people are talking). As the AI learns our voices, the transcripts will improve. We hope it is helpful even with the errors.     Zack Jackson  00:05 You are listening to the down the wormhole podcast exploring the strange and fascinating relationship between science and religion. This week our hosts are   Ian Binns  00:14 Ian Binns Associate Professor of elementary science education at UNC Charlotte, in my favorite brain character is crying from Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles.   Zack Jackson  00:27 Zack Jackson UCC pastor in Reading Pennsylvania and my favorite cartoon brain character is the brain from Arthur   Kendra Holt-Moore  00:36 Kendra Holt-Moore, assistant professor of religion at Bethany College in Lindsborg Kansas. And my favorite brain is the brain in those comics, I think they're like from PhD comics or something, but it's like a brain and a heart that are always talking. And the hearts like, I'm gonna go catch a butterfly and the brains like no, we need to work.   Rachael Jackson  01:06 Rachael Jackson, Rabbi at Agoudas, Israel, congregation Hendersonville, North Carolina, and my favorite cartoon brain, brain from pink in the brain, especially their line. What are we going to do tonight? The same thing we do every night Pinky try to take over the world. I use that when anyone in my family asks, What are we going to do? Because it turns out, they never actually take over the world. And this is for all y'all that watch this TV show in the 1990s kids WV in   Zack Jackson  01:44 the late 1900s.   Rachael Jackson  01:48 So if you have no idea what I'm talking about, I'm sure you can find it somewhere. But I haven't looked yet. So pinky in the brain is awesome, because they're going to take over the world. But they never end up taking over the world. Because, well, the laboratory mice. So why are we asking this question? Why did we want to talk about our favorite brain characters. And that's because today I want to start us by talking about our actual brains. As much as we might enjoy the comics are cartoons of brains and the way that we anthropomorphize and frankly, anthropomorphize them, they are just a part of our bodies, like every other part of our bodies, except not at all, like every other part of our bodies, because they can troll the rest of our bodies. And we might have this inclination to think that our brains have, again, like the rest of our bodies, oh, well, if something happens to it, you know, me, you put it in a cast, right, you break out, you break a bone, you set it, you get a scrape, or cut, you sew it up. But what happens when your brain matter gets damaged, it also can bruise, it also can shrink and get cuts, it also has the ability to suffer physical damage. And one of the biggest things that happens when that when the brain itself is damaged, is that our personalities can change. Our emotions can change, which is why I really love what Kendra brought in as her example, that it's the heart and the brain, these comics, that for so long in our American culture, the emotions are kept in the heart. And the rational thought is kept in the brain. But we really know that that's not at all true. The heart has no emotions, the heart pumps blood and receives blood and recycles blood like it's that's all it does. Not that that's an all like   Zack Jackson  04:11 if there's any hearts out there, listen kind of sorry.   Rachael Jackson  04:15 I apologize if I hurt your feelings heart. But hearts don't have feelings. Right? Our feelings are all in our brains. Our personalities are all in our brains. And we forget that. And I want to bring in one of the most famous medical stories, people that they really started to understand this. So this was 19th century or so mid 19th century, and prior to this point, they had no idea where our personalities really came from and how they were formed. There's a whole lot of well, the shape of your skull dictates How Your personality is? Well, that's weird. Case. In case that needs to be said. I mean, it's almost it's almost as backwards as The Little Mermaid cartoon, right? The show or the movie, excuse me, The Little Mermaid. And the seagull goes up to the prince. And they say, Is he alive? And what does he do? The Seagull puts the ear to the man's foot. Oh, yeah, he's right. It's like, what that's really, that's not how your body works. And we know that and we can laugh at that. Because that's how absurd it is. Well, a couple 100 years ago, they didn't know how our personalities worked at all. So by saying, Well, it's the shape of your head that dictates your personality. Okay? Why not? We have these ideas that maybe again, prior to this, and to this day, maybe it's when you were born, that dictates your personality, right? We all it for a lot of people. It's it's mostly used as a funny thing, and less deeply integrated into who they are like, what's your sign? Right? Well, I'm a Pisces, oh, well, if you're a Pisces, and these planets were rising, that means your personality is xy and z. And for some, there's a lot of truth in that. And for others, it's just a way of connecting and be like, Oh, that's when my birthday is to how fun that we still don't know exactly how our personality works unless you're in that field. So going back to the mid 19th century, there is a person who's named is Phineas Gage Pei, or, excuse me, pah is how you start his name, Phineas Gage. And he is, well, the typical youth of the 19th century blue collar worker. And he's working hard, working hard. And he finally says, I'm going to get a good job. And he gets a good job building the railroad. right way back when when we needed railroads to move us from one side to another part of the country. And so here he is a strapping man because frankly, in order to you know, lay railroad ties and put this stuff in, you have to be physically fit. And people around him, his friends and letters and stuff, his own notes, said, you know, had some fun, kind, reverence, upstanding, you know, still rapidly Strapping Young Lad. And so he gets promoted through the railroad. And now he's the manager, and he's, you know, like 2324 years old, and he's the manager of this railroad. And what they did back then is you don't just lay the railroad ties and, and hammer them in, you actually have to make space for the railroad, right, the ground has to be flat, the ground has to be ready. And if you're going over a mountain pass, or or a molehill or something, like you have to actually make the ground ready. And the way they did that is with explosives. So what they do is they basically dig a hole, and they put some gunpowder or TNT or something like that inside the hole, you know, a couple of meter or so down. And they pack it in. And they use a tamping iron to tap it in, right, basically, and this thing is usually four inches in diameter, and about a meter or three feet long, right? This is this is a big thing. This is not a small, small stick. So as the manager Phineas Gage is tamping this stuff in and because he was so well liked, he's talking his other people. His mouth is open, and it precisely at that moment with his mouth open, it goes off it this explosive explodes, and it's such a forceful explosion. And his mouth is open that the tamping iron goes through his mouth exits his skull and lands several dozen feet away Thank you, Zach. Yes,   Ian Binns  09:41 that's yeah, so I'm sorry. I just I know you're talking sorry. You're good. Yeah, that was the part that I kept trying to figure out so it did exit his called they did not have to take it out.   09:52 No, no, it exit it like okay, it was   Ian Binns  09:56 Did it get stuck in there and then yeah, okay.   Rachael Jackson  09:59 No, no which is great. Yeah, but it didn't get stuck in there. Yeah, and so we're gonna, of course, put pictures and Wikipedia pages and medical journals, we're gonna put stuff like that in our show notes. Tangential aside, parenthetical aside, if I can remember to send them to Zach, so hopefully there'll be there. Anyway, so it exits his skull, and pupa. And he's still alive, and he's still breathing. And he's still walking. And people are like, Oh, my God, what do we do? Literally, this guy's head, like, his skull blew off?   Zack Jackson  10:40 What do we do?   Rachael Jackson  10:42 And so they take him to to his doctor, right? This is your just, it's just your run of the mill PCP. I don't know about you guys. But I don't think my PCP could handle this. So he goes to his PCP and the guy goes, okay, okay. Let's keep him alive. So we keep them alive. And they recognize, well, there is no skull fragment, so they can't capture the bone, they can't put the bone back, and his brain starts to swell. And it bleeds and so that's their number one, that's their number one focus is to stop the bleeding. Right? Because if you just bleed to death, well, there's nothing else to do. So if you're really interested in the medical part of this, again, I'll link I'll link the journal article that talks about it. So on and on, he recovers it takes about six weeks for like for him to recover to the point where he can be awake, right? So this is a long recovery in being awake. Right? It's it's very much a traumatic injury. But it happened in his brain. And he wakes up, and he really starts physically getting better, right? His his blood supply has returned back to normal. He's able to sit and eat and converse. And what people notice is that he's mean, and he's vulgar. And he says irreverent things all the time. And they have no idea what happened. So Phineas Gage, changed. And the doctor noticed this, too. And one of the lines from the doctor's report says, He is fitful, irreverent, indulging at time and the grossest profanity, which was not his previous custom, manifesting but little deference for his fellows. This doesn't sound like the same person. And so they're really trying to figure out what happens. And so Phineas Gage to end his story that is, Phineas Gage lives for another decade, decade and a half. And at one point, he goes to Chile as a long haul, or long distance stagecoach. And the long distance stagecoach, according to their job description required the driver to be reliable, resourceful, and possess great endurance. And above all, they had to have the kind of personality that enabled them to get on well with their passengers. Fascinating, also, not a job Island. No 19th century drive in the hills long distance of Chile. Hmm. So this was a job that he took. And then he started to feel ill and he went back to live with his mom who was at that point living in San Francisco, and he started to have major seizures. And he died before he was about 40. So sort of ends his life. His life story that is, but I bring this bring this stage coach piece, because that doesn't quite match what his doctor wrote that he was irreverent and spewing profanities. And remember, this is at a time in our American puritanical society that was like, oh, no, we can't say profanities. That's only for the bad people. We've changed our culture since then.   Zack Jackson  14:23 Yeah. That least Whoa. This is Kellyanne.   Ian Binns  14:31 You can bleep that out. Right? Don't Don't take it out, believe it, because I think it's perfect timing. Sounds good. Thank you.   Rachael Jackson  14:40 So here we have a person who has changed. And the best understanding at that point was that his brain injury caused him to be a different person. And we now recognize that our medical science that that is completely true. that our personalities reside in the mush that is contained in our skulls. And if something happens to that mush, it's very soft material, if something happens to it, it can affect who we are. And that can be quite disturbing. And like as not even for a person going through it, but can you imagine, I can just say to you, right, I can say to Kendra, Kendra, you don't, you're not who you think you are. And that at any moment, if I cut off a slide of your slice of your brain, you're going to be a different person. And that kind of shakes our foundation of one of the things that we believe in our life to be in to be permanent, right, so much of our life is filled with impermanence, that we think well, at least who I am, unless I willingly change it unless I have the control to change who I am. And that control is part of my personality. Then it then I am who I am. And, and it goes, this is showing that it's not. And that can be disconcerting, especially when there are so very many medical diseases and challenges that affect the brain throughout life. One of the most common ones that we see in our society is dementia. Not just Alzheimer's, but dementia as a whole category of different of different illnesses that affect the brain. And I highly suggest if there's anyone in your family, if there's anyone that you work with, if these are patients that you care for, if you somehow engage with anyone that is in the population of those who have dementia, there's this book called the gems and the gems and dementia, a guidebook for care partners. And what it does is it walks a person through stages of dementia, and rest six stages of dementia. And it helps them recognize helps us recognize what a person might be going through, I'm not going to read you all six of them. But the titles are sapphire, diamond, emerald, Amber, Ruby, and ending with pearl. And what happens is in each of these different places, so let me let me read one of these to you. And this is the diamond, this is the second stage. And it sort of says cognitive characteristics. A person gets rigid, but does the best and does best with established routines and rituals can really do well at times, they can shine. And so it seems planned or on purpose. They can be hurtful or say mean things without seeming to notice or care. They talk and worry a lot about cost money and expenses. Different people will see them differently. Like we do diamonds and different facets, they can't seem to get it at times or won't let it go. Some family members are not sure if it's dementia versus just being mean stubborn, and forgetful. Dementia is really a brain disease. It's something that physically affects the physical mush of the brain. Now, I'm not a neuroscientist, I'm not a neuro surgeon. I'm not, I don't even play one on TV. So I cannot explain what's happening in those. But I trust those that do know what they're talking about. So I'm going to pause here and see if there's questions or reactions to the story and what I've just shared and then I'll move us into a slightly different direction.   Ian Binns  19:23 So I've always found that, you know, prior to you sharing the link for that story, Phineas Gage you know, I've read it somewhere else before and was just so fascinated by it for multiple reasons. Obviously, the fact that he survived for so light, right? I mean, it's like, holy, sorry, there we go again. Good things not 1850s Right. So but uh, the other thing too is, you know, how much that accident advanced doctors at the time advanced their own understandings of the brain and led to like the development of different types of medical fields and scientific fields because of that accident. Okay, I just find that so fascinating. And, yeah, again, it's just it's, it's just insane to me that he survived that, and then what they're able to do with it?   Rachael Jackson  20:22 No, thank you for that. I mean, and I love that you said that it that they learned from that this story. It happened in the 19th century is still in modern day textbooks and modern day classes. So my dad went to medical school starting in what year was that? 1998. And he learned a Phineas Gage in medical school. Right. I mean, there's, there's a reason that this person is so well known because of how he changed the understanding of what our brains are and what our personalities are. I hope I didn't cut you off there. Yeah.   Ian Binns  21:02 No, not at all. It's again, it's just, it's really interesting. You know, that again, he survived what, how at advanced the medical community in the medical field. And then yesterday, when in preparing for today's recording, looking at some of the notes and things like that, that were written by the doctors, you know, that we have those those notes in their description of what was going on in the brain. You know, what they were able to witness of, like, some of these descriptions, or was it of like, you know, parts of brain matter coming out of the top of his head and stuff. I'm sitting there like, oh, my gosh, like Jess, who? That was, I was cringing while Reading it. It just like that just now I see why not doctor? medical doctor. Dr. Binns? That's right, that's right. Yeah,   Kendra Holt-Moore  22:02 the thing that this story of Phineas Gage, and just the conversation about, like brain injury and personality, it reminds me of something that I learned, I think I learned about this when I was maybe at the end of my master's degree, or like, early PhD student and I went to some conference, but I, it was like, a conversation about the microbiome. And it was one of the first times or maybe the first time that I had heard someone talk about how there are neurons in our stomachs. And so it just is always really interesting, when, like, we talk about, like this topic of, it's really like a question about, you know, Who Who are we and, you know, how much do we are we sort of prone to just like, the impermanence of whatever happens to our bodies changes our experience of the world, but we like, have this idea of self, that, at least in like, a lot of cultures is, you know, in the brain, and for other people, it's maybe more in the heart, but there's also the gut, or like that, that, you know, we talk about, like our gut telling us what to do, or, you know, the, that feeling you get in the pit of your stomach when something is, you know, happening that you are unsure about, like, it's just, it's this other part of our physical experience that, you know, is also an option for how we like identify, like, the core of our self. And that's really interesting. And also just interesting to, like, bring in, I think, the, like medical, there's, I mean, I'm not a biologist, but I love like listening to and talking about the microbiome and that, like, just our relationship to our bodies, is not just a relationship to a body, its relationship to like, these, like millions of teeny tiny little things like micro organisms that help make up our body. And it's, you know, there's a plurality built into ourselves that we're not always like, aware of, but like, what does that mean in terms of selfhood, and personhood and personality and the way that we relate to people and love people and, you know, show respect and all these other like bigger questions about personhood, and they just become more interesting questions when you consider, like, the complexity of like the body itself, whether we're talking about the brain or, you know, those neurons in our guts, our gut brain, it's all just really cool. You know,   Zack Jackson  24:57 that's why it's so hard to give up junk food. is when you have eaten a lot of junk food you have selectively bred in microbiome that that thrives off of that junk food. And that mic, those little microbes, then release chemicals into your blood, which tells your brain to get more of that junk food. And so your microbiome wants a certain kind of food, which you have selectively bred by your choices, and then your cravings, that you think this is my favorite food, because I love it. But it's really your favorite food, because all of the microorganisms that live in your belly love it, and you're just its host. And it's, it's telling you, they're telling you what you think that you actually like, but it's really just them.   Rachael Jackson  25:42 But you're the ones that did selectively put them there, maybe they're the brains, you have the ability to change, or maybe they were always there. Right. And so maybe some people don't have   Zack Jackson  25:52 much of your microbiome, from their mother, during the birthing process, when you are a blank slate, and those microbes can get in there and set up shop. And then yeah, you can you can take swabs of people, and you can tell who their mother is by the specific fingerprint of the microbiome we got. Yeah, it's crazy to think that we are, in many ways, like a mech suit for a whole host of, of microbes, more so than we are an independent person that just so happens to have a bunch of microbes that eat our food. Now, we are a universe in and of ourselves. I like that.   Rachael Jackson  26:34 We tend to be so narcissistic into thinking that we are who we are. And we have complete control over this body that we inhabit. When the reality is far more complex than that. Right? Like you were just saying, right? How much control do we have over these things in our gut, especially when they're really imprinted? Like fingerprints, right? When they're imprinted in such a way that we can identify family lineage, right, which you have very little control over who your parents are. In fact, you have zero control over who your parents are. But we but we have this, this deep need to know that. And one of the hard parts is if we have that need for ourselves, do we not also have this need for other people in our lives? When we meet with a person, we go, Oh, I really like this person, we can be friends. And then you become friends. And then that person changes. Are you still friends with them? Does it matter how or why they changed if it was by choice or by happenstance? So I want to share a slightly personal story with us. In I'm actually forgetting what year this was. It must have been 2008. to that. Yeah, I think it was 2008 Is that the election was 2008. And Obama took office in January of oh nine. So this happened Christmas Day. 2008. So I'm 27. I'm 27 years old. And I just go up on a ski hill. I've skied before, but it's not a hobby, right? It's just something like, Oh, I've done it once or twice. I know, you know, I know that. If you want to slow down, you make a wedge. And if you want to speed up, you put your feet together and you know, go side to side. Cute little things like that. I wasn't being ridiculous. I was just staying on the green slopes. I was I was with my best friend at the time, who later became my husband. And I go on my second green run and I'm with his mom, and all the guys are off doing like black diamonds and something like Oh my God, I don't even know how people can do that. And my second run, it's Christmas time, and I fall. And I don't just like oops, hee hee hee. I fell on my tokus wasn't that funny? I'm a little embarrassed. i fall i garage sale, I fall down the mountain and the everything's on the yard, right? That sort of concept of the garage sale, like everything in my pockets. Like everything is off. Now, I knew I was going to do a green. So I didn't wear a helmet. Was that smart? I don't know. Maybe? I don't know. They didn't. This was again 2008. This was up in Colorado. They didn't necessarily offer how much to people that are just having this cute little fun time on a green slope. I don't know what to tell the person you just really have to ask a person that knows how to ski from now on like it's my suggestion that you wear a helmet because why not? You wear a helmet when you ride a bike and you go just As fast on skis as you do a bike, so that's my suggestion. I was not wearing one and I didn't even occur to me that I should have been wearing when one of my skis did not pop off like they are supposed to. And it just like twisted my leg as it was, as I was literally falling down the mountain. And so it stayed on and I had this massively strained and sprained ankle, so I couldn't walk. But as I'm falling, and I, I have this very distinct moment, where here a crack, like an actual crack, and then I, I'm laying there, and it's a beautiful day, so I'm laying in the snow looking at this blue sky, bright light. And, and I run my tongue around my teeth, because I thought the crack was my teeth breaking. And I was really scared that I was like, Oh, my God, teeth are so expensive, kid you not. That's what my thought was. Yeah, I was like, I broke my teeth and teeth are expensive. didn't occur to me, that I broke my brain didn't occur to me that I broke my neck did not occur to me. And then I was stupid. Because I was not thinking, like, I literally wasn't thinking and I was stupid. And I said, Sure, I can go on another run. And I somehow work through the pain of my ankle, went down the mountain, got back up on the chairlift started down again. And then I went, I'm getting dizzy, I think I need to lay down. And I just lay down in the snow. And my eyes were doing this weird thing. And it's like I couldn't see and they were just going so fast. This is a stress story. Imagine living it   Kendra Holt-Moore  31:58 gone, don't worry. Yeah, that's what's helping you live.   Ian Binns  32:04 So I live   Kendra Holt-Moore  32:06 spoiler alert, I   Rachael Jackson  32:06 don't die. And then then they call the rescue, right? They call the rescue the ski squad or whatever they're called. Because I still am in the middle of the mountain and I have to get down. And they take me to like a little cab out and they have a heart or something. And they brace my neck and they put me on a stretcher, so they can take me down. And I'm only told this I don't remember this. At this point, I have completely lost the ability of consciousness. I am a conscious, but I don't actually know that I'm conscious at this point. And so these guys are strapping me into the board. And I asked one of them for a kiss. Is everything okay? I was like, Well, you could you could kiss me. Like, okay, oh, glad to know that I said that. I've never been that forward in my life. So interesting that I would have chosen that ailment. Yeah. And then I'm taken down the ski, I'm taken down the ski hill, and they do a quick X ray and they go, Yeah, you're broken, like we can't fix you. And so they have to send me to a large hospital, which is about an hour away. And so they take me to the large hospital. And they see that I've broken part of my CFR and I have a severe concussion and they keep me in the hospital for about a week. And then I go home, and I can't walk because of my leg, my ankle. And I can't turn my head because of my my neck issue. And far more distressing, was I can't think I couldn't think. And one of the exercises that I was told to do that an occupational therapist or I was someone like that I had so many different therapists, physical, occupational and speech. And I can't remember exactly who told me this. But my task was to make a grilled cheese sandwich. Mind you, I am 27 almost 28 years old. I am a chemist. I know I've lived alone like a grilled cheese sandwich. Are you kidding me? Turns out, I couldn't. I couldn't make a grilled cheese sandwich. I didn't know the order to put Oh right. You got to butter the bread. And you have to put the butter side down and you have to get out the right pan and then you put the cheese on and you have to flip it and I didn't know how to make a grilled cheese sandwich. And I sat my pantry and cried. There was one time when I didn't have a walk in pantry. I just had like a large like it was a bifold door that then had three shelves on either side so you could walk I guess it's a walk But like you couldn't turn around, really. And I walked in, and I couldn't find my way out.   35:06 I didn't know how to get out of my battery that literally, like, that made no sense.   Rachael Jackson  35:13 And I lost the ability to really understand math, I lost the ability to know how to play the piano. I learned Hebrew the year before, couldn't recognize a single letter after this. And to this day, language is still extremely hard for me. Now, people that know me now would have no idea that I had this. People that knew me then would go, Wow, you're really different. I have high I have extremely heightened anxiety that I never had before. Like ever. I was not an anxious person, I was a stubborn, I was shy, I was lots of other things. But I wasn't anxious. And now I have, I have quite a diagnosed generalized anxiety disorder. And so this, this Phineas Gage story really resonates with me. And I think one of the things that we as people who are with others, and this for me is where I bring in the religious piece to so many of us have religious communities, that when we're in them, we may not know why a person has changed. And it's our obligation. And I mean that word intentionally, to care for them. We don't have to be their best friends, we don't have to, to be there those ways. And if someone is abusing you, verbally abusing you, you don't have to stay in that situation. Right? Because people can get very mean, I definitely had a mean streak. While my brain was trying to figure itself out. One of my therapists called it, I had to defrag my brain. And I love that like computers. So I just defrag my brain. And then I got much better and so took about a year before before I became who I am now, but who I am now is different than who I was. So I just want to add that to our to our story. And I'm not a unique case, and I am 100% Lucky. Right? It is a it's a scary situation. And frankly, I still went to rabbinical school after that fact. So I my traumatic brain injury had a had a happy ending. Very much so. But not everyone's does. And so I think if we share our compassion and recognize this idea of myths, LM Elohim that we're all made in the image of God. And I don't believe in a God that is static. I believe in a God that is dynamic. So too, are we dynamic. So questions, reactions, etc.   Kendra Holt-Moore  38:14 I think my reaction is just a fish. Again, agape facial expression. And glad that you're with us, Rachel, that's crazy, too.   Zack Jackson  38:31 It reminds me of the split brain surgeries. Have you heard of these? Yes, yeah, we don't do these anymore. And so there's, there's only a small amount of research done into it. We're basically for a period of time. Some doctors were treating people with recurring seizures that were just really bad. They were treating them by severing through the corpus callosum, which is the connecting point between the two hemispheres of the brain. And it seemed to really work. Now that's, that's significant brain damage, is what that is, but it stopped the seizures and increased the quality of life. And then what they found the some of the people who had this done, started to act very strangely, in that the two halves of their bodies were not acting together anymore. Yeah. And so there were stories of like, a guy would reach into his into his closet to pick something out and his other hand would pick something else out. There was one, one guy where like, one hand was, would like hit him, while the other one had to like restrain it. There was, I think, my favorite case and this is so they're starting to see that the it seemed almost like for some people. There were two different personalities in their brain now that we're at work. Before they were working together, now they were working separately trying to control the body at the same time. But the left hemisphere of the brain is where most of your language centers are localized. And so the right hemisphere of your brain is effectively mute, and is unable to speak, but is able to have different thoughts. And but it can't speak anymore. And so there was one person who they refer to as P S. And they were able to using scrabble tiles, and moving them around with each different hand, and like blocking, putting something in between their eyes so that they can't see what the other hand is doing. And only one eye can see one and one can see the other real, confusing, convoluted thing. They asked this person who are you, and both hands spelled out, Paul. And then they asked him, What is your desired occupation and the left hand, which, which would be controlled by the right part of the brain, the more artistic impulsive side or whatever, spelled out racecar driver. And the other hand, which was controlled by the more rational one spelled out draughtsmen, which is a much more down to earth sort of occupation, right. And it was like, there were two different ambitions, two different brains, there was one that was more rational and down to earth, and there was one that was more impulsive and excited, and their ability to communicate with each other was severed, but in some ways, it gave the right brain some more freedom to interact, because now it wasn't, it could communicate now, without being overpowered by the left side of the brain. And, again, we don't do this anymore. So we only have this like, select number of patients. But it seems like maybe we are not the unified to being that we imagine ourselves to be. That even within our own brain, there is a multitude of consciousnesses that are in concert that are that are, you know, creating a sort of Mosaic personality. But that are not the same. And I think about, about in, like Rome, in Romans, the book of Romans, Paul says, I always I seem to always do what I don't want to do, and the things that I want to do, for some reason I can't do. And I am always at war with myself. And I think we can all kind of relate to this feeling of like, I have these higher ideals. And for some reason, I cannot do them. And I always seem to revert down to this other thing that I don't want to do. And like how would that conversation about our personality, our spirituality, our higher ideals or morality change, if we imagined ourselves not as, like one person being, you know, impacted from without, as much as it is multiple persons, within ourselves a multitude of people who are working in concert together to make what we feel is the best decision for our collective selves. If we start to see ourselves as a universe instead of as an individual, like, what, what kind of a difference would that make for how much grace we're willing to give ourselves or complexity we're willing to offer to others?   Rachael Jackson  43:28 That's beautiful. I just finished Reading. So I'm sort of listening to what you're saying there, Zach. I just finished Reading a book called When Breath Becomes Air Are any of you familiar with Yes? So it's Paul calling our colony the colony Yeah, certainly colony, the colony, k a la a nit Hi, When Breath Becomes Air. It is a hard read. It came out just about six years ago, January of 16. A by an autobiography of a neuro surgeon who develops metastatic lung cancer, I'm not spoiling anything. He tells you that in the first chapter one of his lines that has stuck with me the whole book is like if you if you highlight in your books, and you're like oh, I just want to highlight really powerful and important passages your highlighting this whole book was he was doing a brain surgery on a person that's awake, right and that's necessary so that you know what's happening. Is that amazing that we have all these surgeries, right? We have all of these surgeries are like put me deep asleep. And these ones, they want to make sure you're awake, because they're going into your brain and they'll change and one time he's telling the story where he He's doing something, he puts some sort of thin electrode in. And the person says, I'm sad. I'm so sad. And then Paul takes it out politics electrode out, and the person goes, Oh, that's better. And so he does it again, because this is right around the area of a tumor or something like he needs to be in this area for reason. He wasn't just being like, Hey, what's this do to be in this area,   Ian Binns  45:28 we should be interested. Right, just like poking it with a stick, and   Rachael Jackson  45:33 he goes, and then the patient again goes, everything is just so sad. And then he pulls back a millimeter, a millimeter, I sick. I'm no longer sad, right? That's how fragile and that's, that's where we give people so much grace, a millimeter, right? Tiny little percentage, no room for air. So if you get jostled, perhaps that millimeter got shaken up. And that's why you're really sad today. And the world feels like it's really sad today. That we have this ability to give people grace. And I think that's one of the best things that we can give them, compassion or humbleness, right, that we can not even understand where they're coming from, but just understand that, that they're going through something, whatever it might be, and then we can be there for them. I don't have a I don't have a nice little bow.   Kendra Holt-Moore  46:38 That story that that book though is like, it is amazing. I around the room Reading it crying by myself. Basically,   Rachael Jackson  46:50 I just bought it. Yeah, if you need a cry, like almost as a cry if you need to think about death. And think about what is your purpose in life? What is the value of living and what is not to be scared about death? I'm it's just, it's an incredible book. Absolutely incredible. And then his wife wrote sort of an afterword a couple of chapters to sort of sum up like from her perspective and to finish it because he wasn't able to finish it because he died. Again, not a spoiler.   Ian Binns  47:23 Yeah. Well, like the book cover said that like when I was boiling Okay.   Rachael Jackson  47:35 Unlike my story, he doesn't he does not live.   Zack Jackson  47:40 We are remarkably fragile creatures.   Rachael Jackson  47:43 remark. Yep. So we've talked a lot about life and where that can take us and the fragility of it. So I think that that's wonderful and a good a good place to pause our conversation and if anyone has stories that they want to share with us, please feel free to do so. But I think we are at the moment where we can have our down the wormhole minute and today or this week is Kendra   Kendra Holt-Moore  48:20 so I haven't decided what I want the theme music to be for the segment yet, but I might workshop a couple ideas. Right now. I want it to be something like Welcome to the segment on residents of hell. No, no, no, no, no, no, no. I mean, like some electric guitar.   Zack Jackson  48:44 It will be so much better if instead of electric guitar you just did it with your mouth   Kendra Holt-Moore  48:57 yeah, that's, that's kind of where I am right now. But I also want to figure out a way to blend the drone earner and earner of electric guitar with like, needy, needy like ukulele sounds. I just think those things together can really express you know, the sentiment of hell. So Well, we'll see. Yeah, so welcome to the first segment of residence, pal. I just wanted to do that again. And so today, the first Resident of hell that we're going to talk about are the hungry ghosts. And if you've never heard of the hungry ghosts, hungry ghosts, come out of the Buddhist tradition, and are particularly popular in Chinese Buddhism and are present in a few other East Asian countries where Buddhism is popular, but I think Chinese Buddhism is kind Have the main Buddhist tradition that people kind of associate with hungry ghosts and to kind of paint a picture of what a hungry ghost looks like. Because they have a very distinct presentation, they are these beings with large distended bellies, that they're always hungry. Hence, you know, it's kind of implied in the name. But they have distended bellies that are, you know, always ravenous with hunger, but they have, like long, very skinny, skinny throats. And whenever hungry, goes, try to eat food, the food, basically like turns to fire in their mouths and in their throat. So it's very painful, to try to eat food to, you know, satisfy the hunger in their large, empty stomachs. And their throats are also so skinny and small that like they can't really eat that much. And so it's they, the Hungry Ghosts, like the image of a hungry ghost is kind of like this embodiment of desire and greed. And there are a lot of different ways that you might become a hungry ghost. So that's the other thing to kind of point out is that hungry ghosts is like a possible reincarnation for, for a human, depending on your karma. So in Buddhism, there's another image that I can try to kind of paint for you, that's the Buddhist wheel of life. And there are upper realms that are more the heavenly realms, and there are lower realms, more the hellish realms, there is a distinct hell realm. And hungry ghosts actually have their own realm and they're on the visual of the Buddhist wheel of life, hungry ghosts are adjacent to the hell realm. So they're one of the lower realms and like, you don't want to be reincarnated into the Hungry Ghost Realm. But you might be reincarnated as a hungry ghost if you lived a life that was just full of greed and desire and over attachment to worldly things. Because, you know, if you're unfamiliar with Buddhism, then it's worth mentioning that in Buddhism, attachment is like a big no, no, like, you want to try to live a life in which you are not attached to, to worldly things, and you recognize that everything changes and it is marked by impermanence. And when you become attached to anything that leads to suffering. And so you're trying to kind of alleviate suffering by these practices of non attachment. So hungry ghosts are kind of a like if you become a hungry ghost, then you didn't do a very good job of being unattached. And every year during the ghost Festival, which happens in the seventh month of the lunar calendar this year, it happened like mid August, people the the lower realm the hellish realms kind of open up and hungry ghosts can roam, roam the earth here with humans and people are able to feed the hungry ghosts during the ghost festival to kind of alleviate their suffering. And so people will burn money and food like paper money and paper, food and paper kind of like luxury items to you know, appease the suffering of these beings as they wander the earth on a during the time of the ghost festival. So that is the Hungry Ghost   53:59 when I'm just hungry   Zack Jackson  54:05 I can relate. Hungry Hungry Ghosts   Kendra Holt-Moore  54:08 are done or not. You have just listened to the first residents of hill. Thanks for joining me didi.

Voices In Validation
Ruggedness of Visible Residue Limits for Cleaning Validation

Voices In Validation

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 30, 2021 36:31


This week, Stacey chats with Rich Forsyth about understanding the results of testing, and reproducibility of test results under varying conditions allows for consistency across teams and lessens the risk of error in cleaning validation activities. Visual inspection of equipment has always been an important element of the cleaning validation program. Establishing visible residue limits is extremely valuable in setting a baseline for cleanliness, highlighting viewing conditions, and defining a methodology for performing routine checks on cleaning validation procedures. Resources for this episode: Richard J. Forsyth; Ruggedness of Visible Residue Limits for Cleaning Validation, April 2, 2016, Pharmaceutical Technology FDA Cleaning Validation Guideline from CFR 211.67 Questions and Answers on Current Good Manufacturing Practices—Equipment EMA Cleaning Validation Guideline on setting HBELs   QnA on the implementation of the above guideline WHO good manufacturing practices for active pharmaceutical ingredients  Points to consider when including Health-Based Exposure Limits (HBELs) in cleaning validation PIC/s Aide-Memoire: Inspection of Health Based Exposure Limit (HBEL) Assessment and use in Quality Risk Management Health Canada Cleaning Validation Guideline About our guest: Richard Forsyth Rich is responsible for customer support for Cleaning Validation and Cleaning related topics.  He has worked as a consultant for several years and prior to that worked in as Associate Director with Merck & Co. for more than three decades.  He has been involved with Cleaning Validation for over 20 years.  Rich has a broad range of analytical experience including methods development and validation as well as formulation development and project management.  Academic training includes an MS in Chemistry and an MBA in Management, both from St. Joseph's University in Philadelphia, PA. Voices in Validation brings you the best in validation and compliance topics. Voices in Validation is brought to you by IVT Network, your expert source for life science regulatory knowledge. For more information on IVT Network, check out their website at http://ivtnetwork.com.  

Monitor Mondays
Resisting Medicare Advantage Bullies

Monitor Mondays

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 29, 2021 30:15


"It's time to stop getting stuck thinking we have a square-peg-and-a-round-hole problem, and focus on the fact that 42 CFR codifies and makes it law that a Medicare Advantage plan, even though it has autonomy in its contract, cannot offer less benefits than Medicare. Medicare Advantage plans cannot have more restrictive guidelines than Medicare; they must at the very least adhere to the simplistic confines of traditional Medicare” – this according to Dr. Jerilyn Morrissey, who will make her debut appearance during the next live edition of the long-running Monitor Mondays broadcast.We'll also report on the latest news and most current updates, offering you our early-warning alert system. You'll receive the latest national audit news updates from well-respected broadcast consultants, including:RAC Report: Knicole Emanuel, a partner at the law firm of Practus, will file the Monitor Mondays RAC Report.Monday Rounds: Ronald Hirsch, MD, vice president of R1 RCM, will return with another installment of his popular segment.Legislative Update: Former Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) official Matthew Albright, now chief legislative affairs officer for Zelis, will report on the latest healthcare regulatory news coming out of Washington, D.C.SDoH Report: Ellen Fink-Samnick, a nationally recognized expert on the social determinants of health (SDoH), will have the latest news on a trending topic that is attracting significant media attention. Ellen will also conduct the Monitor Mondays Listeners Survey.Risky Business: Healthcare attorney David Glaser, shareholder in the law offices of Fredrikson & Bryon, will join the broadcast with his trademark segment, reporting on legal implications facing healthcare providers.

From the Friars (Catholic Christian Spirituality)
LOOKING AND LISTENING FOR THE LORD DURING ADVENT

From the Friars (Catholic Christian Spirituality)

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 28, 2021 18:48


The season Advent is the perfect period to begin again. If we want find the Lord we have to be looking for him. If we want to hear the Lord we have to be listening for him. Podcast by Fr. Luke Fletcher, CFR.

Hablando de Tecnología con Orlando Mergal | Podcast En Español | Discusión inteligente sobre computadoras, Internet, telé

Hace 11 años atrás, en el 2011 para ser exacto, Jim Lecinski, el otrora Director de Mercadeo de Google escribió un libro importantísimo para el mundo del mercadeo que titulo “ZMOT, Winning The Zero Moment Of Truth” (el momento cero de la verdad). En ese libro Lecisnki identifica los distintos puntos por los que pasa un consumidor en su proceso de compra. También nos identifica —y esto es lo verdaderamente innovador— el momento exacto en el que se realiza dicha venta. Y, curiosamente, en la mayoría de los casos no tiene nada que ver con el momento en el que se realiza la transacción. Aún en las llamadas “ventas emocionales” el momento de compra o “el momento cero de la verdad” sucede mucho antes de que se realice el intercambio monetario. Este fin de semana fue especialmente duro para mí. Me pase largas horas luchando con la compañía que me presta el servicio de alojamiento para Hablando De Tecnología. El circo de errores que caracterizó el proceso, y que me llevó a decisiónde cambiar de proveedor, me hizo pensar que el momento cero de la verdad no sólo se da en el proceso de ventas. También está presente en el servicio al cliente. Muchas veces propiciamos que nuestros clientes se vayan sin siquiera darnos cuenta. Y lo triste es que a veces sucede mucho antes de que el evento mismo se manifieste. Muchas veces los comportamientos que vemos hoy tienen sus raíces en eventos que sucedieron meses atrás. Afortunadamente, existen pasos que podemos tomar para influenciar el momento cero de la verdad. Y créeme, cambiarle el nombre a la compañía o gastar más en anuncios no son los pasos necesarios. Como decía David Olgilvy: “la mejor manera de sacar un producto malo del mercado es haciéndole una buena campaña”. Originalmente el episodio de hoy iba a tratar sobre “la tecnología y el Día de Acción de Gracias”, pero este tema es mucho más importante, invita más a la reflexión y hasta se presta para trazarnos “metas de cambio” para el año que se avecina. Enlaces: ZMOT, Winning The Zero Moment Of Truth Quién es Jim Lecinsky What is The Zero Moment Of Truth And Why Should You Care? OTROS EPISODIOS QUE TE PUEDEN INTERESAR: La Importancia De Usar Una Contraseña Fuerte El Verdadero Significado De “Gratis” En La Internet El Modelo De La Comunicación 15 Formas De Hacer Buenas Fotos Con Cualquier Cámara Cómo Protegerte De Las Fallas Eléctricas ©2021, Orlando Mergal, MA _________________ El autor es Experto En Comunicación Corporativa (Lic. R-500), Autor de más de media docena de Publicaciones de Autoayuda y Productor de Contenido Digital Inf. 787-306-1590 • 787-750-0000 Divulgación de Relación Material: Algunos de los enlaces en esta entrada son “enlaces de afiliados”. Eso significa que si le das click al enlace, y compras algo, yo voy a recibir una comisión de afiliado. No obstante, tú vas a pagar exactamente lo mismo que pagarías al visitar al comerciante directamente y de manera independiente.  Además, yo sólo recomiendo productos o servicios que utilizo personalmente y que pienso que añadirán valor a mis oyentes. Al patrocinar los productos o servicios que mencionamos en Hablando De Tecnología contribuyes para que el programa continúe. Hago esta divulgación en cumplimiento con con el "16 CFR, Part 255" de la Comisión Federal De Comercio de los Estados Unidos "Guías Concernientes al uso de Endosos y Testimonios en la Publicidad".

Parallax Views w/ J.G. Michael
U.S. MidEast Policy Was Never About Democracy w/ Juan Cole/A ‘Play‘ Cold War? w/ Mike Swanson

Parallax Views w/ J.G. Michael

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 25, 2021 79:49


On this edition of Parallax Views, we have another double feature. First up, a 45 minute conversation with Juan Cole, proprietor of the Informed Comment blog and a noted commentator and scholar on the modern Middle East, unpacking a recent New York Times article by Max Fischer about a study indicating that U.S. allies are driving much of the world's democratic decline. In a recent piece for the Informed Comment blog, Prof. Cole argues that U.S. foreign policy, particularly in the Middle East, has never, in reality, about Democracy promotion and that the rise of authoritarian regimes allied to the U.S. like Saudi Arabia are the fruits born from a grand strategy that prioritized "oil, absolutism, and anti-communism" during the Cold War. In this regard we discuss the Iran coup of 1953 as well as the U.S.'s seeking to obtain cheap petroleum for European allies during the Cold War and how this relates to the relationship between countries like the U.S., Saudi Arabia, and Syria. We also delve rather deeply into other issues that informed this period in the history of U.S. foreign policy like distrust of Arab nations and specifically Arab Nationalism, President Dwight Eisenhower's "two-pronged approach" to dealing with anti-colonial movements, U.S. foreign policy and Egypt's Gamal Abdel Nasser, post-Cold War U.S. foreign policy and the recession of anti-communist concerns in that policy after the fall of the Soviet Union, the "War on Terror" and Islamic fundamentalism as the new enemy, Islamophobia and U.S. ally France's illiberal after the 2015 ISIL attacks in Paris, U.S. foreign policy depends on who the enemy is, examples of U.S. not supporting Democracy during the War on Terror, Egypt's Hosni Mubarak and the Arab Spring revolts in the Obama era, the military coup d'état in Egypt in the Obama years and U.S. aid, the Bush administration and the Iraq War, Saudi Arabia  and oil, OPEC, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), gulf monarchies and the coup in Tunisia, gas prices, Saudi Arabia and 9/11 (Juan has a different take than previous guests of the program), the death of Jamal Khashoggi and how it embarrasses the U.S., Biden as harder on Saudi Arabia in rhetoric but not in action, the Asia Pivot and the relationship between the U.S. and Saudi Arabia, thinking in Washington that the Middle East isn't a fruitful place to put much foreign policy focus on, electric cars as a death knell for the Saudi economy, U.S. and Saudi Arabia's relationship with Iran, and more! Then, Mike Swanson of Wall Street Window, and author of the book The War State and Why the Vietnam War (also, as a full disclosure, a sponsor of Parallax Views), to discuss a fascinating New York Times article on the Biden administration's posture towards China and Washington's concerns over hearing "echoes of the '50" when it comes to the question of a New Cold War. We also discuss National Security Advisor's emphatic comments about how we are in competition with China rather than a "New Cold War". Mike believes that Washington may be hoping for a "play" Cold War with China rather than a full-on Cold War. This would benefit certain political actors, due to China being an issue of bipartisan interest to many voters, and the military-industrial complex. Due to the nature of the global economy and the reliance the U.S. has on China and vice-versa, Mike believes a full-on New Cold War is unlikely. We also discuss the recent nuclear submarine deal involving the U.S., Australia, and England as well as the breakdown between communications between the U.S. and China during the Trump Presidency, Trump's trade war with China and China's confusion over it, the blockades against that the U.S. and U.S.S.R. launched against each other and why that is unlikely to happen between the U.S. and China, Philip Zelikow's CFR report seeking to foment a strategy to avoid a hot war with China, Col. Lawrence Wilkerson's comments about a Pentagon war game simulation involving Taiwan and China, Biden walking back comments about being willing to commit troops to support Taiwan if necessary, the use of the term "industrial policy" in the NYT article, keeping tensions afloat while avoiding a full-on Cold War and how that would benefit the military-industrial complex, the War on Terror and the Asia Pivot, the risks of escalation and tension with China, the arms race, concern over a future nuclear arms race, and more in this brisk 25-minute conversation with Mike Swanson. "Biden Administration Has Told China It Needs A Play Cold War, But Doesn't Want A Real One" by Michael Swanson - Wall Street Window 11/19/21

The My Future Business™ Show

Nick Luksha Prospect Ridge Resources Interview with Nick Luksha at Prospect Ridge Resources #TesoroCapitalPartners #ProspectRidge #NickLuksha Hi, and welcome to the show! On today's My Future Business Show I have the pleasure of welcoming to the show, Managing Partner of Tesoro Capital Partners, and President and Director at Prospect Ridge Resources, Mr. Nick Luksha to talk about the bright future in store for Prospect Ridge Resources.   Nick has more than 15 years of business experience in capital markets as a director of companies. Nick has close to two decades of business experience as an owner, senior manager, and in capital markets as a director of private and publicly traded companies. Nick's vast network of value-add capital sources include high net worth retail investors, family offices, institutional investors and brokers/dealers; and throughout his career, he's been a leader in numerous sectors including real estate development, investment, asset management, technology, franchising, and building management teams to help small to medium sized businesses achieve controlled growth. Having operated across Canada, the USA, and Latin America, Nick has cultivated a sophisticated approach to a diverse range of professional environments. Nick has studied math and statistics at Concordia University and attended Harvard University. On this content-rich call, Nick talks about how Teroro Capital Partners joined forces with Prospect Ridge Resources, and talks about the people behind the business, including the legendary Michael Iverson, Liam Corcoran, Jacques Brunelle, Stella Chen, Nicolai Goeppel, Jason Chornobay and Rein Turrna. There's a lot of very exciting progress being made across the PRR project. So, watch this space, there's solid gold potential for a very bright future at Prospect Ridge Resources. To learn more about Nick, Tesoro Capital Investors, or Prospect Ridge Resources, click the link below. Disclosure of Material Connection: This is a “sponsored post.” The company who sponsored it compensated My Future Business via a cash payment, gift, or something else of value to produce it. We are disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission's 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.”

The My Future Business™ Show

Joe Templin Every Day Excellence Interview with author of Every Day Excellence Joe Templin #Author #EveryDayExcellence #JoeTemplin Hi, and welcome to the show! On today's My Future Business Show I have the pleasure of welcoming to the show, author, planner, mentor, trainer, coach and creator, Joe Templin, to talk about his book Every Day Excellence A Daily Guide To Growing, and how you can use it to live your best life. Joe is father to three ‘hooligans', he's a reformed physicist, financial planner, startup founder and autodidactic polymath best described as a Swiss Army Knife. Over the last decade or so, Joe has helped others reach their financial potential as a planner, trainer, mentor and creator. Joe has served as a member of the National Association of Insurance and Financial Advisors, on both the local and national level, including three terms on the NAIFA National Young Advisors Team Subcommittee. He was also honored as one of the 2011 Four Under 40. Joe is a graduate of the Leadership in Life Institute of NAIFA as well as Rensseleaer Polytechnic Institute, and is an alum of Johns Hopkins University. On today's call, Joe shares his book ‘Every Day Excellence”. EDE is, as Joe puts it, is basically a multivitamin for life; and on this content-rich call, Joe shares many stories relating to his own life's journey, and reveals how the book can guide you towards living both a rewarding and fulfilling life. To learn more about Joe's books, or to contact him directly, click the link below. Disclosure of Material Connection: This is a “sponsored post.” The company who sponsored it compensated My Future Business via a cash payment, gift, or something else of value to produce it. We are disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission's 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.”

The My Future Business™ Show

Dr. Allen Steven Lycka The Secrets To Living A Fantastic Life Interview with Dr. Allen Steven Lycka on The Secrets To Living A Fantastic Life #FantasticLife #Author #AllenStevenLycka Hi, and welcome to the show! On today's show I have the pleasure of welcoming award-winning media personality, #1 best-selling author, and sought-after speaker Dr. Allen Steven Lycka to talk about The Secrets To Living A Fantastic Life, and the steps you can take that will inspire you to be your very best. Dr. Lycka is a Former World-Renowned Cosmetic Dermatologist with over three decades of experience. As a pioneer in cosmetic surgery, he helped to develop laser assisted “Tumescent Liposuction and Moh's Micrographic Surgery”. Today, Dr. Lycka is a sought-after Speaker, Thought Leader, Coach, Mentor and Best-Selling Author. Dr. Allen Steven Lycka will make your group laugh, cry, and take action. He will deliver a transformative experience that will take your audience, virtual or in person, to the next level. Don't stand for ordinary when you can have Dr. Lycka deliver extraordinary. Based on his bestselling book, The Secrets To Living a Fantastic Life (co-authored with Woman of Distinction winner Harriet Tinka) Dr. Lycka delivers “13 Golden Pearls” that are guaranteed to inspire change. A dynamic, humorous, and passionate speaker, Dr. Lycka has appeared on numerous radio, television network stations, and hundreds of podcasts. He has also graced many international stages during his lifetime and is a TEDx speaker. To learn more about how to live a fantastic life, or to contact Dr. Lycka directly, click the link below. Disclosure of Material Connection: This is a “sponsored post.” The company who sponsored it compensated My Future Business via a cash payment, gift, or something else of value to produce it. We are disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission's 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.”

Hablando de Tecnología con Orlando Mergal | Podcast En Español | Discusión inteligente sobre computadoras, Internet, telé

Hoy el programa va a tocar tres temas. Primero una exhibición de arte a la que asistí el pasado lunes, titulada “Beyond Van Gogh”, y que incorpora arte y tecnología —muuuuuucha tecnología— bajo un mismo techo. Segundo, un equipo que acabo de añadir a mi arsenal de trucos, y que sé que puede ser del interés de muchos de ustedes. Y, por último, vamos a intentar contestar la pregunta que sirve de título a este episodio: “Contenido Para Qué, Contenido Para Quién”. Vivimos sumidos en la Internet sin detenernos por un momento a pensar para qué lo hacemos ni para quién. ¿Será por los likes? ¿Has intentado para en el supermercado con likes? ¿Recibes muchos? ¿O colocas rótulos en el desierto que son mmayormente ignorados? Y claro, eso nos lleva a cuestionar todo aquello del “mercadeo mediante contenido. ¿Será de verdad mercadeo cuando no logramos venderle nada a nadie? ¿O será mero entretenimiento inútil? Albert Einstein, quien era muy práctico a su manera, decía que la definición de la locura es: “hacer lo mismo una y otra vez y esperar resultados diferentes”. ¿Estará el “metaverso” exhibiendo algún grado de locura colectiva? A veces parece que sí. Ciertamente, el desenfreno con el que la gente coloca boberías en la Internet es asombrosos. Y aún más asombroso es que se atreven a llamarle “mercadeo”.   Hoy vamos a filosofar. Nos vamos a preguntar para qué y para quién hacemos todo esto del “mercadeo mediante contenido” y hasta si continuará siendo práctico en un mundo plagado de ruido cibernético. Enlaces: Exhibición “Beyond Van Gogh” Obtén el AirTurn Duo BT-200 Lenguaje Mediante Contenido… Un Espejismo Mediático Entrevista con el Dr. Luis López Nieves: “Lenguaje, Pensamiento y Mensaje” OTROS EPISODIOS QUE TE PUEDEN INTERESAR: Consejos Para Hacer Un Buen Podcast La Atención Es El Producto Autoempleo, Cómo Crear Tu Propia Realidad Los Descuidos Digitales Son Costosos Redacción SEO, Al Centro De Todo En La Internet ©2021, Orlando Mergal, MA _________________ El autor es Experto En Comunicación Corporativa (Lic. R-500), Autor de más de media docena de Publicaciones de Autoayuda y Productor de Contenido Digital Inf. 787-306-1590 • 787-750-0000 Divulgación de Relación Material: Algunos de los enlaces en esta entrada son “enlaces de afiliados”. Eso significa que si le das click al enlace, y compras algo, yo voy a recibir una comisión de afiliado. No obstante, tú vas a pagar exactamente lo mismo que pagarías al visitar al comerciante directamente y de manera independiente.  Además, yo sólo recomiendo productos o servicios que utilizo personalmente y que pienso que añadirán valor a mis oyentes. Al patrocinar los productos o servicios que mencionamos en Hablando De Tecnología contribuyes para que el programa continúe. Hago esta divulgación en cumplimiento con con el "16 CFR, Part 255" de la Comisión Federal De Comercio de los Estados Unidos "Guías Concernientes al uso de Endosos y Testimonios en la Publicidad".

CFR On the Record
Academic Webinar: Energy Policy and Efforts to Combat Climate Change

CFR On the Record

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 17, 2021


Jason Bordoff, cofounding dean, Columbia Climate School, founding director of the Center on Global Energy Policy, and professor of professional practice in international and public affairs at Columbia University, leads a conversation on energy policy and efforts to combat climate change.   FASKIANOS: Welcome to today's session of the CFR Fall 2021 Academic Webinar Series. I am Irina Faskianos, vice president of the National Program and Outreach here at CFR. Today's discussion is on the record. And the video and transcript will be available on our website, CFR.org/academic. As always, CFR takes no institutional positions on matters of policy. We are delighted to have with us today Jason Bordoff to talk about energy policy and efforts to combat climate change. Jason Bordoff is cofounding dean of the Columbia Climate School, founding director of the Center on Global Energy Policy, and professor of professional practice in international and public affairs at Columbia University. He previously served as special assistant to President Obama and senior director for energy and climate change on the National Security Council, and he has held senior policy positions on the White House's National Economic Council and Council on Environmental Quality. He is a columnist for Foreign Policy magazine and is often on TV and radio. So, we're really happy to have him with us today. So, Jason, thank you very much. We are just coming off the COP26 conference that took place in Glasgow that started on October 31, I believe, and concluded last Friday, November 12. Could you talk about what came out of the conference at a high level, if you think that the agreements that were reached went far enough or didn't go far enough, and what your policy recommendations are to really advance and fight the countdown that we have to the Earth warming? BORDOFF: Yeah. Thanks. Well, first, thanks to you, Irina, and thanks to CFR for the invitation to be with you all today. Really delighted to have the chance to talk about these important issues. I was there for much of the two-week period in Glasgow representing the Energy Center and the Climate School here at Columbia. I think it's kind of a glass half-full/glass half-empty outlook coming out of Glasgow. So I think the Glasgow conference was notable in several respects. We'll look back on it, I think, and some of the things we will remember are—some of the things we'll remember—(dog barking)—sorry—are the role of the private sector and private finance, I think, was much more prominent in Glasgow this year. I think there were commitments around some important things like methane, a very potent greenhouse gas, was much higher on the priority list in this U.N. climate meeting than in prior ones. You had pledges on deforestation and other things that are important. And then the final agreement did have some important elements to it, particularly around Article 6, how you design carbon markets around the world. But the glass half-empty outlook is still we are nowhere close to being on track for the kind of targets that countries and companies are committing to: net zero by 2050 or 1.5 degrees of warming. I think there were—there should be hope and optimism coming out of COP. The role of the youth—at Columbia, we were honored to organize a private roundtable for President Obama with youth climate activists. It's hard to spend time with young people in COP or on campus here at Columbia or anywhere else and not be inspired by how passionately they take these issues. So the activism you saw in the streets, the sense of urgency among everyone—activists, civil society, governments, the private sector—felt different, I think, at this COP than other COPs that I have attended or probably the ones I haven't attended. But there was also for some I saw kind of we're coming out of this and we're on track for below two degrees. Or, you know, Fatih Birol, the head of the International Energy Agency, tweeted that when you add up all the pledges we're on track for 1.8 degrees Celsius warming. He's talking about all of the pledges meaning every country who's promised to be net zero by 2050, 2060, 2070, and at least from my standpoint there's a good reason to take those with a grain of salt. They're not often backed up by concrete plans or ideas about how you would get anywhere close to achieving those goals. So it's good that we have elevated ambition, which is kind of one of the core outcomes of the COP in Glasgow. But it is also the case that when you elevate ambition and the reality doesn't change as fast or maybe faster than the ambition is changing, what you have is a growing gap between ambition and reality. And I think that's where we are today. Oil use is rising each and every year. Gas use is rising. Coal use is going up this year. I don't know if it's going to keep going up, but at a minimum it's going to plateau. It's not falling off a cliff. So the reality of the energy world today—which is 75 percent of emissions are energy—is not anything close to net zero by 2050. It is the case that progress is possible. So if you go back to before the Paris agreement, we were on track for something like maybe 3.7 degrees Celsius of warming. If you look at a current outlook, it's maybe 2.7, 2.8 (degrees), so just below three degrees. So progress is possible. That's good. If you look at the nationally determined contribution pledges—so the commitments countries made that are more near term, more accountability for them; the commitments they made to reduce emissions by 2030, their NDCs—we would be on track for about 2.4 degrees Celsius warming, assuming all those pledges are fulfilled. But history would suggest a reason to be a little skeptical about that. The U.S. has a pledge to get to a 50 to 52 percent reduction in emissions by 2030, and look at how things are working or not working in Washington and make your own judgment about how likely it is that we'll put in place the set of policies that would be required to get to that ambitious level of decarbonization by 2030. And I think the same healthy dose of skepticism is warranted when you look elsewhere in the world. But even if we achieve all of those, we're still falling short of below two degrees, nevertheless 1.5 (degrees). And so, again, I think the outcome from COP for me was optimism that progress is possible—we have made a lot of progress in the last ten years—but acute concern that we're nowhere close to being on track to take targets like 1.5 degrees Celsius or net zero by 2050 seriously. And we just need to be honest as a climate and energy community—and I live in both of those worlds; there's a lot of overlap between them, obviously—about how hard it is to achieve the goals we are talking about. Renewables have grown incredibly quickly. Optimistic headlines every day about what is happening in solar and wind. Costs have come down more than 90 percent. Battery costs have come down more than 90 percent in the last decade. But solar and wind create electricity, and electricity is 20 percent of global final energy consumption. The outlook for electric vehicles is much more promising today. Lots of companies like Ford and others are committing to be all-electric by a certain date ten or twenty years from now. Cars are 20 percent of global oil demand. About half of the emission reductions—cumulative emission reductions between now and 2050 will need to come from technologies that are not yet available at commercial scale and sectors of the economy that are really hard to decarbonize like steel and cement and ships and airplanes. We're not—we don't have all the tools we need to do those yet. And then, in Glasgow, the focus of a lot of what we did at Columbia was on—we did a lot of different things, but one of the key areas of focus was the challenge of thinking about decarbonization in emerging and developing economies. I don't think we talk about that enough. The issue of historical responsibility of loss and damage was more on the agenda this year, and I think you'll hear even more about it in the year ahead. The next COP is in Africa. There was growing tension between rich and poor countries at this COP. I think a starting point was what we see in the pandemic alone and how inequitable around the world the impacts of the pandemic are. Many people couldn't even travel to Glasgow from the Global South because they couldn't get vaccinated. We need, between now and 2050, estimates are—a ballpark—$100 trillion of additional investment in clean energy if we're going to get on track for 1.5 (degrees)/net zero by 2050. So the question that should obsess all of us who work in this space: Where will that money come from? Most of it's going to be private sector, not public. Most of it is going to be in developing and emerging economies. That is where the growth in energy is going to come from. Eight hundred million people have no access to energy at all. Nevertheless, if you model what energy access means, it's often defined as, you have enough to turn on lights or charge your cellphone. But when you talk about even a fraction of the standard of living we take for granted—driving a car, having a refrigerator, having an air conditioner—the numbers are massive. They're just huge, and the population of Africa's going to double to 2.2 billion by the year 2050. So these are really big numbers and we need to recognize how hard this is. But we should also recognize that it is possible. We have a lot of the tools we need. We need innovation in technology and we need stronger policy, whether that's a carbon price or standards for different sectors. And then, of course, we need private-sector actors to step up as well, and all of us. And we have these great commitments to achieve these goals with a lot of capital being put to work, and now we need to hold people accountable to make sure that they do that. So, again, I look back on the last two weeks or before, two weeks of COP, the gap between ambition and reality got bigger. Not necessarily a bad thing—ambition is a good thing—but now it's time to turn the ambition into action. We need governments to follow through on their pledges. Good news is we have a wide menu of options for reducing emissions. The bad news is there's not a lot of time at our current rate of emissions. And emissions are still going up each and every year. They're not even falling yet. Remember, what matters is the cumulative total, not the annual flow. At our current rate of emissions, the budget—carbon budget for staying below 1.5 (degrees) is used up in, around a decade or so, so there's not much time to get to work. But I'm really excited about what we're building with the first climate school in the country here at Columbia. When it comes to pushing—turning ambition into action, that requires research, it requires education, and it requires engaging with partners in civil society and the public sector and the private sector to help turn that research into action. And the people we're working with here every day on campus are the ones who are going to be the leaders that are going to hopefully do a better job—(laughs)—than we've done over the last few decades. So whatever you're doing at your educational institution—be it teaching or research or learning—we all have a role to play in the implementation of responsible, forward-thinking energy policy. I'm really excited to have the chance to talk with you all today. Look forward to your questions and to the conversation. Thank you again. FASKIANOS: Jason, that's fantastic. Thank you very much for that informative and sobering view. So let's turn to all of you now for your questions. So I'm going to go first to—I have one raised hand from Stephen Kass. Q: OK. Thank you. Jason, thank you for the very useful and concise summary. What specific kinds of energy programs do you think developing countries should now be pursuing? Should they be giving up coal entirely? Should they be importing natural gas? Should they be investing in renewables or nuclear? What recipe would you advise developing countries to pursue for their own energy needs? BORDOFF: It's going to need to be a lot of different things, so there's no single answer to that, of course. And by the way, I'll just say it would be super helpful if people don't mind just introducing yourself when you ask a question. That would be helpful to me, at least. I appreciate it. I think they need to do a lot of different things. I think I would start with low-hanging fruit, and renewable electricity is not the entire answer. The sun and wind are intermittent. Electricity can't do certain things yet, like power ships and airplanes. But the low cost of solar and wind, I think, does mean it's a good place to start, and then we need to think about those other sectors as well. I think a key thing there comes back to finance, and that's why we're spending so much time on it with our research agenda here. Access to financing and cost of capital are really important. Clean energy tends to be more capital-intensive and then, like solar and wind, more CAPEX, less OPEX over time. But attaining financing in poor countries is really difficult and expensive. Lack of experience with renewable energy, local banks are often reluctant to lend to those kinds of projects. And then foreign investors, where most of that capital is going to come from, view projects often in emerging markets and developing economies particularly as more risky. Local utilities may not be creditworthy. There's currency inflation risk in many developing countries, people worry about recouping their upfront investment if bills are paid in local currency. There's political risk, maybe corruption, inconsistently enforced regulations. And it can be harder to build clean energy infrastructure if you don't have other kinds of infrastructure, like ports, and roads, and bridges and a good electrical grid. So I would start there. And I think there's a role for those countries to scale up their clean energy sectors, but also for policymakers and multilateral development banks and governments elsewhere—there was a lot of focus in Glasgow on whether the developed countries would make good on their promise made in Copenhagen to send $100 billion a year in climate finance to developing countries. And they fell short of that. But even that is kind of a rounding error, compared to the one to two trillion (dollars) a year that the International Energy Agency estimates is needed. So there are many other things besides just writing a check that government, like in the U.S. or elsewhere, can do. The Development Finance Corporation, for example, can lend to banks in local and affordable rates, finance projects in local currency, expand the availability of loan guarantees. I've written before about how I think even what often gets called industrial policy, let's think about some sectors—in the same way China did with solar or batteries fifteen years ago. Are there sectors where governments might help to grow domestic industries and, by doing that, scale—bring down the cost of technologies that are expensive now, the premium for low-carbon or zero-carbon cement or steel. It's just—it's not reasonable to ask a developing country to build new cities, and new highways, and all the new construction they're going to do with zero-carbon steel and cement because it's just way too expensive. So how do you bring those costs down? If we think about investments, we can make through U.S. infrastructure or other spending to do that, that not only may help to grow some domestic industries and jobs here, that can be its own form of global leadership if we're driving those costs of those technologies down to make it cheaper for others to pick up. So I think that's one of the places I'd start. But there are a lot of other things we need to do too. FASKIANOS: Thank you. I'm going to take the next question—and let me just go back. Stephen Kass is an adjunct professor at NYU. So the next question is a written question from Wei Liang, who is an assistant professor of international policy studies at Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey. And the question is: I wonder if you could briefly address the Green Climate Fund and individual countries' pledge on that. BORDOFF: Yeah, I mean, it touches a little bit on what I said a moment ago about the need for developed countries to provide climate finance to developing countries. And so I think that's—it's important that we take those obligations seriously, and that we, in advanced economies, step up and make those funds available. And but, again, we're talking—the amount we're still talking about is so small compared to the amounts that are needed to deal both with the impacts of climate change, and then also to curb climate change, to mitigate climate change. Because we know that developing countries are in the parts of the world that will often be most adversely impacted by climate impacts—droughts, and heat waves, and storms, and food security issues—from a standpoint of equity are the parts of the world that have done the least to cause this problem, responsible for very few emissions. If you look cumulatively at emissions since the start of the industrial age, about half—nearly half have come from the U.S. and EU combined. Two percent from the entire continent of Africa. So they are using very little energy today, haven't therefore contributed to the problems, and have the fewest resources, of course, to cope with the impacts, and also to develop in a cleaner way. Sometimes it's cheaper to develop in a cleaner way. Renewables are often today competitive with coal, even without subsidy. But there are many areas where that's not the case, and there is a cost. And we need to help make sure that, you know, we're thinking about what a just transition looks like. And that means many different things for different communities, whether you're a coal worker or an agricultural worker in California that may, you know, be working outside in worse and worse heat. But it also means thinking about the parts of the world that need assistance to make this transition. So I think we need to be taking that much more seriously. FASKIANOS: Next question is a raised hand from Tara Weil, who is an undergraduate student at Pomona College. Q: Hi. So, given that developed nations are the largest contributors to carbon emissions, as you've said, how can larger powers be convinced as to the importance of addressing global inequality with regards to climate change? And thank you so much, also, for giving this talk. BORDOFF: Yeah. Thank you for being here. I don't have a great answer to your question. I mean, the politics of foreign aid in general are not great, as we often hear in events at CFR. So I do think one—we need to continue to encourage, through political advocacy, civil society, and other ways, governments in advanced economies to think about all the tools they have at their disposal. I think the ones that are going to be—I'm reluctant to try to speak as a political commenter rather than a climate and energy commenter on what's going to work politically. But part of that is demonstrating what—it's not just generosity. It is also in one's self-interest to do these things. And just look at the pandemic, right? What would it look like for the U.S. to show greater leadership, or any country to show even greater leadership and help cope with the pandemic all around the world in parts of the world that are struggling to vaccinate their people? That is not only an act of generosity, but it is clearly one of self-interest too, because it's a pretty globalized economy and you're not going to be able to get a pandemic under control at home if it's not under control abroad. Of course, the same is true of the impacts of climate change. It doesn't matter where a ton of CO2 comes from. And we can decarbonize our own economy, but the U.S. is only 15 percent of annual emissions globally. So it's not going to make a huge difference unless everyone else does that as well. There is also the potential, I think, to—and we see this increasingly when you look at the discussion of the Biden infrastructure bill, how they talk about the U.S.-China relationship, which of course are the two most important countries from the standpoint of climate change. It is one of cooperation. That was one of the success stories in Glasgow, was a commitment to cooperate more. We'll see if we can actually do it, because it's a pretty difficult and tense U.S.-China relationship right now. So the question is, can you separate climate from all those other problems on human rights, and intellectual property, and everything else and then cooperate on climate? It's been hard, but there's a renewed commitment to try to do that. But also, a recognition that action in the clean energy space is not only about cooperation but it's also about economic competition. And you have seen more and more focus on both the Republican and Democratic sides of the aisle on thinking about the security of supply chains, and critical minerals, and the inputs in lithium and rare earth elements that go into many aspects of clean energy. To my point before about aspects of industrial policy that might help grow your own domestic economy, I think there are ways in which countries can take measures that help—that help their own economies and help workers and help create jobs, and that in the process are helping to drive forward more quickly the clean energy technologies we need, and bring down the cost of those technologies to make them more accessible and available in some of the less-developed countries. So I think trying to frame it less as do we keep funds at home, do we write a check abroad? But there are actually many steps you could do to create economic opportunities and are win-win. Without being pollyannish about it, I think there is some truth to some of those. And I think we can focus on those politically as well. FASKIANOS: Thank you. I'm going to take an international question from Luciana Alexandra Ghica, who is an associate professor for international cooperation at the University of Bucharest. What type of topics do you think we should address immediately in university programs that provide training in climate, development, global policies, or international public affairs, so that a new generation of leaders really pushes forward the agenda on climate change? BORDOFF: Yeah. Well, I'll say a quick word about what we're doing at Columbia, and maybe it's relevant to that question, because Columbia has made this historic commitment to build a climate school. There are many initiatives, and centers, and institutes. There was not only a handful of schools—law school, business school, medical school, engineering school. And it is the largest commitment a university can make to any particular topic, is something on the scale of a school with degree-granting authority and tenure-granting authority, and all the things that come with a school. And it's just the scale at a place like Columbia, and many other places, is just enormous. That's what we're doing on climate. We have created a climate school. And I'm honored President Bollinger asked me to help lead it. And we're going to build a faculty. We have our first inaugural class of masters' students, about ninety students that are going through the program right now, and we have a building in Manhattan for the climate school, and on and on. The idea—but the question is, what is climate, right? Because academia has been historically organized into traditional academic disciplines. So you have people who you hire through a tenured search, and they go to the engineering faculty and build their lab there. And there's law professors, and their business school professors, and on and on and on, social work. But for climate, you need all of those, right? They all kind of need to come together. And, like, interdisciplinary doesn't even sort of do justice to what it means to think about approaching this systemic—it's a systemic challenge. The system has to change. And so whatever solution you're talking about—if you want to get hydrogen to scale in the world, let's—you know, for certain sectors of the economy that may be hard to do with renewable energy, or in terms of renewable energy and, say, green hydrogen. You need engineering breakthroughs to bring down the cost of electrolyzers, or you need new business models, or you need financial institution frameworks that figure out how you're going to put the capital into these things. You need the policy incentives. How are you going to—you need permitting and regulation. How do we permit hydrogen infrastructure? It's barely been done before. There are concerns in the environmental justice community about some aspects of technologies like that or carbon capture that need to be taken seriously and addressed. There are geopolitical implications, potentially, to starting to build a global trade in ammonia or hydrogen, and what security concerns—energy security concerns might accompany those, the way we thought about oil or gas from Russia into Europe. I have an article coming out in the next issue of Foreign Affairs about the geopolitics of the energy transition. So we need disciplines that come together and look at a problem like that in all of those multifaceted dimensions, so we can figure out how to get from a lab to scale out in the world. And so when we think about the areas of concentration here, climate finance, climate justice, climate in society, climate in international security—I mean, a range of things that I think are really important to help people understand. And that's going to be a major focus of what we do at the climate school here. FASKIANOS: Fantastic. Let's go next to Sean Grossnickle, who has raised his hand. A graduate student at Fordham University. Q: Speak now? Hi, this is not Sean but Henry Schwalbenberg, also at Fordham, where I teach in our international political economy and development program. I went to a conference about a month ago in Rome. And there was a physicist from CERN. And he was a big advocate of something I'd never heard of, and this is this thorium for nuclear reactors. And he was going through all the pros, but I wanted a more balanced perspective on it. And I'm hoping that you might give me a little pros and cons of this thorium nuclear reactor technique. BORDOFF: Yeah. I will be honest and say that nuclear is not my area of focus. We have a pretty strong team here that works in nuclear, and I think is optimistic about the breakthroughs we're going to see in several potential areas of nuclear—advanced nuclear technology, that being one of them, or small modular reactors, and others. At a high level, I will say I do think if you're serious about the math of decarbonization and getting to net zero by 2050, it's hard to do without zero-carbon nuclear power. It's firm, baseload power. It runs all the time. Obviously, there are challenges with intermittency of solar and wind, although they can be addressed to some extent with energy story. Most of the analyses that are done show not necessarily in the U.S. but in other parts of the world significant growth in nuclear power. The International Energy Agency just modeled what it looks like to get to net zero by 2050, and this pathway that got a lot of attention for saying things like we would not be investing in new oil and gas supply. The world has to change a lot pretty quickly. And they have about a hundred new nuclear plants being built by 2030, so that's a pretty big number. So we're going to need all tools—(laughs)—that we have at our disposal. And unfortunately, I worry we may still fall short. So I think at a high level we need to think really hard about how to improve nuclear technology. The people who know that really well I think are optimistic about our ability to do that. And I will follow up on thorium in particular with my colleagues at Columbia, and happy to follow up with you offline about it. FASKIANOS: Great. I'm going to take a written question from Stephen Bird, who's an associate professor of political science at Clarkson University. He thanks you, and he wanted you to talk a little bit more about political will. The overall dollar amounts are clear. Much cheaper to address climate change than to ignore it. That said, countries are, clearly, lagging. Is it a case of countries just don't want to take action now because of issues of fairness or because of lack of domestic political support, i.e., citizens aren't convinced that they should pay costs now with payoffs that come later, and what might we do to improve that issue in terms of persuading or arguing for more political will? BORDOFF: Yeah. It's a question for, you know, a political scientist as much as an energy or climate expert, and I wish I had a better answer to it. I think it is—climate is one of the trickiest problems for so many reasons but one of those is there is no acute event now that you sort of respond to, hopefully, and pull everyone together. It's a set of things that, you know, of course, there would have been storms and droughts before but we know they're intensified and made worse. It's hard to rally public support. We often respond to a crisis kind of proverbial, you know, frog in the boiling water kind of thing. So that makes it hard. There are huge issues—we talked about a just transition a few minutes ago—there are huge issues with intergenerational equity when we talk about climate. There are, clearly, climate impacts and damages today but some of the worst will be in the future, including for people who may not be born yet, and we don't do a great job in our political environment about thinking about those and valuing them today and how you do that, and from an economic standpoint, of course, there are questions about discount rates you apply and everything else. I think, politically, one of the things that has mobilized stronger climate—support for climate action, so it is encouraging that if you look at polling on climate change, the level of urgency that the public in many countries, including the U.S., broadly, ascribe to acting on climate has gone up a lot. It's higher today than it was, you know, a decade or so ago. That's a result of people seeing the impacts and also advocacy campaigns and political campaigns. It is often tied to—it's like a win-win. Like, President Biden says when he thinks of climate he thinks of jobs, and so we're going to deal with climate and we're going to grow the economy faster and we're going to create jobs, and there is truth to that. It is also the case that there are costs. The cost of inaction are higher, but there are costs associated with the transition itself. So if you survey the American public, I think, climate, according to the latest YouGov/Economist poll I saw, you know, it was number two on the list of things they cared the most about. That's much higher than in the past. And then if you ask the American public are they willing to pay $0.25 a gallon more at the pump to act on climate, 75 percent say no. And you look at the challenges the Biden administration is having right now sort of thinking about a really strong set of measures to put in place to move the ball forward on climate, but acute concern today about where oil prices are and inflation and natural gas prices as we head into the winter. If the weather is cold then it's going to be really expensive for people to heat their homes in parts—some parts of the country like New England, maybe. So that's a reality, and I think we need to—it was interesting, in the roundtable we did with President Obama with climate activists, that was a message he had for them. You know, be impatient, be angry, keep the pressure on, but also be pragmatic. And by that he means, like, you know, try to see the world through the eyes of others and people who are worried about the cost of filling up at the pump, the cost of paying their heating bills. They're not—some of them may not be where you are yet. They may not have the same sense of urgency with acting on climate that many of us on this Zoom do and need to take those concerns seriously. So I think that's a real challenge, and it can be addressed with good policy, to some extent, right, if you think about the revenue raised from a carbon tax and how it could be redistributed in a way that reduce the regressive impacts. I've written about how, at a high level—I'll say one last point—if we get on track for an energy transition, which we're not on yet, right. (Laughs.) Oil and gas use are going up each and every year. But imagine we started to get on track where those were falling year after year. It's still going to take decades, and that process of transition is going to be really messy. It's going to be really volatile. We're going to have fits and starts in policy from Obama to Trump to Biden. We're going to make estimate—we're going to make bets on technologies and maybe get those technologies wrong or misunderstand the cost curves, the potential to shut down investment in certain forms of energy before the rest are ready to pick up the slack. If it's messy and volatile and bumpy, that's not only harmful economically and geopolitically, it will undermine public support for stronger climate action. So you see, like, in Washington they're selling off the Strategic Petroleum Reserve because we're moving to a world beyond oil and also we have all this domestic oil now with shale. We need more, not fewer, tools to mitigate volatility for the next several decades if we're serious about making this transition, and I think the same is true for thinking about sort of buffers you could build into geopolitics, foreign policy, and national security, because there will be—in a post-oil and gas world, you know, you may say, well, we're not going to worry as much about the Middle East or about, you know, Russia's leverage in Europe. But there will be new risks created and we can talk about what some of those might be, and we need new tools of foreign policy to mitigate those potential foreign policy risks. FASKIANOS: Thank you. I'm going to take the next question. Raised hand from Chloe Demrovsky, adjunct instructor at NYU. Q: Hey, can you hear me? BORDOFF: Yes. Thank you. FASKIANOS: Yes. Q: Hi. Chloe Demrovsky, adjunct at NYU and president and CEO of Disaster Recovery Institute International. Thanks for being with us, Jason. So my question is about the feasibility and your thoughts on artificially altered clouds or solar geoengineering. What are the ethical and geopolitical implications of, perhaps, using this to buy a little time for our energy transition? Thanks. BORDOFF: Yeah. A super interesting question, and I will say, again, I'm sort of—think of myself as an energy expert. So that is where I spend more time than thinking about tools like solar geoengineering. I guess, it seems there's, obviously, huge risks associated with something like that and we need to understand them. We need to do research. We need to figure out what those risks may be. There are global governance concerns. It's actually pretty cheap to do solar geoengineering. So what happens when some country or some billionaire decides they want to start spraying stuff into the atmosphere to cool the planet? And for those who don't know that, you know, solar—I mean, you think of after a volcano the planet cools a little bit because of all the particulates up in the atmosphere. When you model in an energy system model how much phasing out coal will reduce warming, you, obviously, have much less carbon dioxide emissions but that's offset slightly—not completely, of course—it's offset a little bit by the fact that you have less local air pollution, which is a good thing from air pollution. But air pollution has a slightly cooling effect, because you have these little particles floating around that reflect sunlight. So the idea is can we create that artificially and cool the planet, and you can imagine lots of reasons why that could go wrong when you're trying to figure out what—how much to put in there, what unintended consequences could be. You still have other impacts of carbon dioxide like ocean acidification. Maybe you go too far in one direction, that's like you're setting the thermostat. That's why one of the companies doing carbon removal is called Global Thermostat. You're kind of figuring out what temperature it should be. But I will say so it's an area that needs research and I think, given how far we are away from achieving goals like 1.5 and net-zero 2050, I guess what I would say is in the same way that when I worked in the Obama administration it was—I wouldn't say controversial, but there were some people who didn't want to talk about adaptation because it was kind of a more—there was a moral hazard problem there. It was, you know, less pressure to mitigate and reduce emissions if we thought adaptation was a solution. People worry about that from the standpoint of solar geoengineering. But the likelihood—I hope I'm wrong, but the likelihood that we roll the clock forward, you know, later this decade and we realize we've made progress but we're still pretty far short, and the impacts of climate change in the same way the IPCC 1.5 report said, you know what, 1.5 is going to be pretty bad, too, and that's even worse than we thought, the more we learn about climate the more reason there is to be concerned, not less concerned. It seems very plausible to me that we will kind of come to a growing consensus that we have to think about whether this technology can, as you said, buy us time. This is not something you do permanently. You need to get to net zero to stop global warming. But if you want to reduce the impacts of warming on the rate of Arctic sea ice melt and all the rest, can you buy time, extend the runway, by doing this for some number of decades. And I think—I don't have a strong view on the right answer to that. But I think it's something we, certainly, need to be thinking about researching and understanding what the consequences would be because we're going to have to figure out how to take more abrupt actions to close that gap between ambition and reality unless the reality starts to change much more quickly than is the case right now. FASKIANOS: Thank you. I saw a raised hand from Maya but she lowered it. So if you want to raise your hand again, please do so. And in the meantime, I'm going to take a written question from Jennifer Sklarew, who's an assistant professor of energy and sustainability at George Mason University. Was CCS/CCUS, which carbon capture and storage/carbon capture utilization and storage, to write out those acronyms, promoted as a climate change solution in Glasgow and was there a pushback against this technology option as both a climate change solution and a support mechanism for continued fossil fuel use? BORDOFF: There was some pushback but, I think, actually, more in the other direction. So I think there has been a growing recognition from many in the climate world that carbon capture technology, carbon removal technology, need to be part of the solution. I think there's almost no climate model at this point that shows how you would get to 1.5 degrees or net zero—1.5 degrees without huge amounts of negative emissions—carbon removal. Some of that can be nature based, but a lot of it will be—some of it will be technology based as well and focusing on what we care about, which is the emissions, is the most important thing. So and this is not, I don't think, the primary thing you're going to do. You want to do the things that are easiest and cheapest and present the fewest risks. So putting a lot of renewables into the grid, getting electrification into the vehicle fleet—there's a lot of things that you would do before that. But if you think about some of the sectors in the economy we talked about before that are hard to decarbonize like steel and cement, it may well be the case that carbon capture is part of the technology there. There was a big announcement yesterday from the NET Power Allam Cycle gas plant in Texas that they had finally come online with delivering net-zero power to the grid. It was sort of a milestone in that technology. So we need to advance this technology and figure out how we're going to—how we're going to get where we need to be. We need to hold that kind of technology accountable to make sure that it's actually meeting the standards we're talking about so that it actually is very low, if not zero, carbon. But if you look at, you know, most of the scenarios I'm aware of, whether it's—Princeton did the study “Net-Zero America,” how we get to net zero by 2050 in the U.S. The International Energy Agency, as I said, did it for net zero globally. There is a meaningful role for carbon capture, to some extent, in the power sector in these heavy industry sectors like steel and cement, and then making, say, hydrogen some of that will be blue hydrogen. Most of it, eventually, will be green, but there may be some role for blue hydrogen, which is—which is gas with carbon capture. So I think, if anything, there's been a growing understanding that we need all tools on deck right away and, again, I fear even with all the tools we may still fall short. FASKIANOS: Great. There's a written question from Laila Bichara, who's at SUNY Farmingdale, international business. There was a New York Times article, “Business Schools Respond to a Flood of Interest in ESG,” talking about the issue of the scarcity of skills in recent graduates to help with social impact, sustainable investments, climate finance, and social entrepreneurship. And she wanted to know if there are resources that you could point the group to in terms of foundation courses or certification that would provide all students with a basic foundation. BORDOFF: Yeah. That's a really good question and it's a growing area of focus and I think universities should be doing more in. The Tamer Center of Columbia Business School does a lot of work in ESG. We hosted a really interesting roundtable at the Center on Global Energy Policy yesterday on ESG and actually been doing a lot of work thinking about that in the context of state-owned enterprises and national oil companies, which we don't talk about enough. But they're a really, really big part of the problem we're talking about. We tend to focus more on these very well-known private sector companies or financial institutions in places like New York. So there—Bloomberg Philanthropies has done a huge amount in this space. I think there's some really good educational programs with some universities and business schools that have done a lot in the ESG space. But I think it's a need, to be frank. I mean, the fact that you're asking the question and I'm pointing to a few examples, but not a huge number, and it is something that universities need to educate themselves about but then is an opportunity for us to educate others. Maybe a revenue one, too, with executive education or something. But there's a lot of companies and financial institutions that want to understand this better. I worry that while there's a huge growing focus on climate, which is a good thing, in the financial community, the phrase ESG kind of means so many different things right now. It's this alphabet soup of regulations and standards and disclosure requirements, and some may make a difference and some may not and it's hard to figure out which ones matter, and for people who want to do the responsible thing what does that really mean. That's an area where research is needed. I mean, that's a role for what we do every day to think about if the SEC is going to regulate what makes a difference and what doesn't, if you're going to create green bonds. If you're going to call everything green in the finance community, what's real and what's not? What moves the needle? What doesn't? What are the returns for greener portfolios? How is that affecting the cost of capital for clean energy versus dirty energy? You know, on and on. I think those are important research questions for us to take on and then it's our job to help educate others as well. FASKIANOS: Great. So the next question I'm going to take from—oh, OK. Good. Maya Copeland (sp) has written her question. She's a political science major at Delaware State University. Do you believe developed nations like the U.S. have done a lot in reference to climate change or mostly talk? If you believe nations like the U.S. have dropped the ball in this aspect, what do you think it would take to get those powerhouses serious about environmental change? BORDOFF: I think advanced economies have done—many have done a lot. I mean, the European Union has taken climate seriously and has reduced emissions and has pretty strong measures in place with a carbon market, for example, with a pretty high carbon price right now. The politics of this issue are not quite as favorable in the U.S., but the U.S. has seen emissions decline more than most over the last decade and a half, in part because of policy measures that have, you know, advanced renewable energy and brought the cost of that down as well as cheaper natural gas displacing coal for a while. But at a broader level, you know, have we done enough? The answer is no one's done enough—(laughs)—which is why emissions are still going up every single year. So that—so the answer is no, we haven't done enough. Almost no country has done enough at home to be on a trajectory for net zero 2050. You saw the announcements from countries like India saying, we'll get to net zero by 2070, and, you know, people said, oh, well, that's terrible. They're not saying 2050. And implicit in that is sort of saying, well, if you want to get global to net zero by 2050 we're not all going to move at the same speed, right. Some countries have advanced with the benefit of hydrocarbons since the Industrial Age and some haven't. So, presumably, the pathways are going to look different, right. And, you know, that's not always how countries in the advanced—in the developing—in the developed world talk about it. The commitment from the Biden administration is net zero by 2050. So I would say there's been—there are some models to point to of countries that have taken this issue seriously but we're not doing enough and partly because the political will is not there and partly—I come back to what I said before—this problem is harder than people realize. So you say which countries are doing enough, like, point to some models, right, and somebody might point to Norway, which, you know, the share of new vehicles sold that are electric in Norway went from zero to, I think, it's 70 percent now. I mean, that's amazing. Seventy percent of new car sales are electric. And if you go back to the start of that trajectory, about a decade or decade and a half, oil demand is unchanged in Norway. So we can talk about why that is and it's because a lot—as I said earlier, a lot of oil is used for things other than cars, and it's increased for trucks and planes and petrochemicals. It takes time for the vehicle fleet to turn over. So when you start selling a bunch of electric cars, you know, average car is on the road for fifteen years so it takes a while before that—the vehicle stock turns over. So I saw that kind of mapped out on a chart recently, just two lines—one is electric vehicle sales going straight up and then the other is oil demand in a flat line. It's a reminder of how unforgiving the math of decarbonization is. The math of climate is really unforgiving, like, you know, the kind of harmful impacts we're going to see with even 1.5 degrees warming. But the math of energy and decarbonization is really unforgiving, too. It's—and we just need to be honest with ourselves about what it takes to get where we need to go. Because I think it's good to have optimism and ambition, but I worry there should be optimism but not happy talk. We should recognize that there's a lot of work to do and let's get to work doing it. FASKIANOS: Great. So there are several questions in the chat about China. I'm going to start off with Andrew Campbell, who's a student at George Mason University. Is LNG—liquefied natural gas—a bridge toward renewable energy still being considered? If not, how are India and China's expected growth and increase in coal use going to be addressed? And then there are a couple of other comments or questions about China. You know, what's your take on China as the biggest emitter and return somewhat to coal? Can we actually even make stated and adequate new goals? And, you know, given the relationship between U.S. and China, which is contentious, you know, what is the cooperation going to be between U.S. and China on climate? So there's a lot packed in there, but I know you can address it all. (Laughs.) BORDOFF: Yeah. I think the China question is really hard, as I said earlier, this kind of, like, competition and cooperation and we're going to try to do both, and I think there was a hope early on—Secretary Kerry said it—that climate could be segmented from the broader challenges in the U.S.-China relationship, and I think that has proven harder to do than people had hoped, in part, because, you know, you need both parties to want to do that. I think China has signaled it's not necessarily willing to segment cooperation on climate from lots of other issues. And then these things bleed together where, you know, there's measures being taken in Washington to restrict imports of solar panels from China, that there were concerns that were made with—in ways that have human rights abuses associated with them with forced labor or maybe have unfair trade practices in terms of subsidies. China is—you know, the leadership in China takes climate seriously. This is a country that recognizes, I think, climate change is real and that needs to be addressed. They have a set of national interests that matter a lot, obviously, to them in terms of economic growth, and the pathway to get there is challenging. So it's a country that's growing clean energy incredibly quickly, as we're seeing right now, in part because there's a(n) energy crunch throughout Europe and Asia. They are ramping up the use of coal quite a bit again, but also taking some pretty strong measures to advance clean energy and, over time, hopefully, move in a lower carbon direction for reasons both about concerns over climate but also local air pollution, which is much, much worse in many parts of China than it is here and that's a huge source of concern for the public there. So when it comes to things like coal they need to figure out how to address those air pollution problems. And then for reasons of economic competition, like I mentioned a minute ago. I mean, China dominates the global market for refining and processing of critical minerals for solar panels, and there are economic and national competitiveness and strategic reasons to do that. So all of those things motivate them to move in the direction of clean energy, but they need to be moving faster to phase down hydrocarbon energy for sure. And then you ask a really hard question about—not hard, but one of the most contentious questions is about the role of natural gas in the transition, and we can have a whole separate session about that. I think there is a view of many in the climate community and many in developing countries—in developed countries that there's not space left in the carbon budget for natural gas, and you saw the Biden administration recently declare through the Treasury Department that, except in very rare cases of the poorest of the poor like Sierra Leone or something, they would not finance natural gas projects through the multilateral development banks. The vice president of Nigeria, I think, responded—speaking of CFR—in Foreign Affairs by writing that this was not fair and you need to think about a viable pathway for a country like Nigeria to develop and it just—it doesn't work to get there that fast. There has to be a bridge. The role of gas looks very different in different parts of the world. It looks different in the U.S. than it does in an emerging or a developing economy. It looks different in the power sector, where there are a lot more alternatives like renewables than it does in heavy industry or how we heat our homes. It looks different for, say, in the Global South, where you're talking about people who are still using coal and charcoal and dung for cooking to think about solutions like liquefied petroleum gas. So all of those things are true, but we need to think about gas also with the carbon budget in mind. I mean, the math is just the math. (Laughs.) If you're going to build any gas infrastructure and not have it blow through the carbon budget, it's going to have to be retired before the end of its normal economic life and you need to think about how that might look in different parts of the world. So you need to be fair to people, to allow them to grow, but also recognize that the math of carbon, you know, is what it is. FASKIANOS: Great. I just want to credit those last—the China questions came from Lada Kochtcheeva at North Carolina State University and Joan Kaufman, who's director of Schwarzman Scholars based in China. We are really at the end of our time—we started a couple minutes late—and I just wanted to go back to—there are students on the call who are following with a professor on the webinar who wanted you just to comment on blue hydrogen, whether or not it is contributing or helping to reduce greenhouse gases. BORDOFF: I think the answer is it can. You just need to make sure that it actually does. So the question of—and by blue hydrogen we mean, you know, using gas with carbon capture to create hydrogen. It needs to have very low methane leakage rates. It needs to have very high capture rates, and we know that is technically possible. It doesn't mean it will be done that way. So if people are going to pursue blue hydrogen as part of the solution in the—particularly in the near term, you need to make sure that it's meeting those standards. I think in the long run my guess and, I think, most guesses would be that green hydrogen is going to make more sense. It's going to be cheaper. The cost is going to come down. And so if we have a significant part of the energy sector that is hydrogen and ammonia in, say, 2050, more of that's going to be green than blue. But there can be a role for blue if you make sure it's done the right way. You just have to actually make sure it's done the right way. FASKIANOS: Great. And, Jason, we are out of time, but I wanted to give you one last, you know, one-minute or thirty seconds, whatever you want, just to say some parting words on your work at the center or, you know, to leave the group with what they can do, again. So— BORDOFF: Well, I would just say thanks for the chance to be with you all and for the work that you're doing every day. You know, I think Glasgow was a moment when the world came together to elevate ambition and roll up our sleeves and say this is—this is the decisive decade. Like, we'll know ten years from now—(laughs)—if we got anywhere close to making it or not. And so it's time for everyone to kind of roll up their sleeves and say, what can we do? We're doing that, I think, at Columbia with the creation of this new climate school. We do that every day at the Center on Global Energy Policy. And so just in all of your institutions, you know, what does that mean for you? What does it mean for the institution? What does that mean for your own research and time and how you allocate it? How do we step up and say, what can we do in the biggest and boldest way we can? Because we need—we're creating a climate school because I think the view is—you know, a hundred years ago there were no schools of public health and now it's how would you deal with a pandemic without a school of public health? So I think our view is decades from now we'll look back and wonder how we ever thought it was possible to handle a problem as complex and urgent as climate change without universities devoting their greatest kind of resource to them. And the measure of success for universities has to be research and new knowledge creation. It has to be education. It has to be serving our own communities. For us, it's, you know, the community here in New York, Harlem. But also are we focusing the extraordinary resources and capacity and expertise of these great institutions to solve humanity's greatest problems? That has to be a motivating force, too, for much of—maybe not all of but a lot of what universities do. So I'd just ask all of us to go back and think about how we can do that in our own work every day. and we have to do it through partnerships. I think universities don't work together as well as they need to. But this is only going to work if we work together. FASKIANOS: Great way to end. Thank you very much, Jason Bordoff. We really appreciate it. We'll have to look for your article in Foreign Affairs magazine, which is published by CFR. So, we are excited that you continue to contribute to the magazine. You can follow Jason Bordoff on Twitter at @JasonBordoff. Very easy to remember. Our final academic webinar of the semester will be on Wednesday, December 1, at 1:00 p.m. (ET). Michelle Gavin, who is CFR's Ralph Bunche senior fellow for Africa policy studies, will talk about African politics and security issues. So in the meantime, follow us at @CFR_Academic. Come to CFR.org, ForeignAffairs.com, and ThinkGlobalHealth.org for research and analysis on global issues, and we look forward to continuing the conversation with you. Take care. BORDOFF: Thank you. (END)

CFR On the Record
Centennial Speaker Series Session 9: The Future of World Order

CFR On the Record

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 17, 2021


Please join Richard Haass and Fareed Zakaria for a conversation of U.S. grand strategy and world order in the 21st century. This meeting is the ninth and final session in CFR's centennial speaker series, The 21st Century World: Big Challenges & Big Ideas, which features some of today's leading thinkers and tackles issues ​that will define this century. The series commemorates CFR's centennial and will be released as a podcast later this year.

The 10 Minute Teacher Podcast
How to Teach Writing with Digital Media with Dr. Sarah Levine

The 10 Minute Teacher Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 16, 2021 14:42


"Really, we have to write?" say some students. No more! If you're working to engage your student in writing that is engaging and exciting, Dr. Sarah Levine from Stanford University has some practical ideas for you and your students. In this episode, you'll learn ways to engage students in writing using digital media. You'll also learn about an incredible idea "audio gifts" which you could use to support writing and gift giving for the upcoming holiday season. She also gives us the language for how to help students strengthen their writing with strong verbs and concrete language as they create their audio gifts. Sponsor: Defined Learning has engaging project-based lessons for your students., Take a look at the PBL tools & resources on Defined Learning with an online library of engaging hands-on projects, inspiring career-focused videos, research resources & more to help you create deeper learning opportunities for your students. Listeners of this podcast can get free 60-day access to all of Defined Learning's PBL resources by going to definedlearning.com/coolcat. Show Notes: www.coolcatteacher.com/e767 About Dr. Sarah Levine - Bio As Submitted Sarah Levine is an Assistant Professor at the Stanford Graduate School of Education. Dr. Levine's primary goal as an academic is to help shape the teaching and learning of secondary English teachers and contribute to research that will help students — especially those in urban and under-resourced schools — become independent readers and writers. Twitter: @s_r_levine Disclosure of Material Connection: This is a “sponsored podcast episode.” The company who sponsored it compensated me via cash payment, gift, or something else of value to include a reference to their product. Regardless, I only recommend products or services I believe will be good for my readers and are from companies I can recommend. I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission's 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising."

The My Future Business™ Show

Audrey Kerchner Inkyma Interview with co-founder of Inkyma Audrey Kerchner #Inkyma #DigitalAgency #AudreyKerchner Hi, and welcome to the show! On today's show I have the pleasure of welcoming co-founder and chief marketing strategist at INKYMA Audrey Kerchner to talk about how and why businesses can and should build websites, and we lift the lid on the entire suite of products and services offered by this dynamic marketing agency. During this content-rich call, Audrey reveals many of the important reasons for why every business needs to have a well-designed website with all of the moving parts that are needed to convert visitors into buyers more often. This is a deep dive conversation that will get you not only thinking about your next website, but about all of the other ways Inkyma can help build you a better, more productive business. To learn more about Inkyma, or to contact Audrey directly, click the link below. Disclosure of Material Connection: This is a “sponsored post.” The company who sponsored it compensated My Future Business via a cash payment, gift, or something else of value to produce it. We are disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission's 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.”

Tabadlab Presents...
Pakistonomy - Episode 84 - Major Power Rivalry in South Asia

Tabadlab Presents...

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 13, 2021 60:11


Uzair talks to Dr. Tanvi Madan about her research paper which looks at the role of major power rivalries in the broader South Asian region. The emerging US-China rivalry and growing tensions between India and China are already having an impact on the geopolitics of the region. As this rivalry sharpens, countries in the region will have to strategize and find ways to effectively balance against these major powers in a way that maximizes the benefits they can derive in line with their own national interests. We also talked about potential areas of cooperation in the region, including climate change. Dr. Tanvi Madan is a senior fellow in the Project on International Order and Strategy in the Foreign Policy program, and director of The India Project at the Brookings Institution in Washington, DC. Madan's work explores India's role in the world and its foreign policy, focusing in particular on India's relations with China and the United States. She also researches the U.S. and India's approaches in the Indo-Pacific, as well as the development of interest-based coalitions, especially the Australia-India-Japan-U.S. Quad. Her book Fateful Triangle: How China Shaped US-India Relations during the Cold War is a must-read along with her most recent paper for CFR: - https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07N8DRSQC/ref=cm_sw_r_tw_dp_3YRDM3S9FWQ92PTE366H - https://www.cfr.org/report/major-power-rivalry-south-asia Reading Recommendations: - The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America by Louis Menand - War and Peace in Modern India by S. Raghavan - Animosity at Bay: An Alternative History of the India-Pakistan Relationship, 1947-1952 by Pallavi Raghavan - The Price of Aid: The Economic Cold War in India by David Engerman

The My Future Business™ Show

David Roddenberry HealthyWage Interview with Co-Founder of HealthyWage David Roddenberry #HealthyWage #DavidRoddenberry Hi, and welcome to the show! On today's My Future Business Show I have the pleasure of welcoming to the show, co-founder of HealthyWage David Roddenberry to talk about Healthy Wage, and how incentivizing health and fitness is changing the weight-loss space. HealthyWage is at the forefront of the weight wagering movement, having formally created competitive, cash-fuelled programs for more than 90 Fortune 500 and other companies, hospitals, health systems, insurers, school systems, municipal governments and other organizations throughout the U.S., and their program has been more informally run at more than 3,000 companies and organizations. HealthyWage was founded in response to academic research that proves even small cash rewards triple the effectiveness of weight-loss programs; that people are more effective at losing weight when their own money is at risk; and those social networks play a large role in the spread of obesity, and will likely play a large role in reversing obesity. During the call, David reveals how HealthyWage provides cash incentives, social and expert-based support, tools and resources, and goal-setting and tracking technologies to address the nation's obesity epidemic and improve our collective health. To learn more about HealthyWage, or to contact David directly, click the link below. Disclosure of Material Connection: This is a “sponsored post.” The company who sponsored it compensated My Future Business via a cash payment, gift, or something else of value to produce it. We are disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission's 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.”

The My Future Business™ Show

Michael Neill Super Coach Interview with bestselling author speaker and coach Michael Neill #SuperCoach #BestSellingAuthor # MichaelNeill Hi, and welcome to the show! On today's show I have the pleasure of welcoming internationally renowned bestselling author, coach, and speaker Mike Neill to talk about how he's challenging cultural mythology that stress and pressure are a necessary part of adaptation and growth, along with how to reconnect with your deepest self to get more out of life. Mike is an internationally renowned author, speaker, and thought leader, challenging the cultural mythology that stress and struggle are a prerequisite to creativity and success. His bestselling books, podcasts, keynotes, trainings, and retreats have inspired and impacted millions of people on six continents around the world. Mike has spent the past 30 years as a coach, adviser, friend, mentor, and creative spark plug to celebrities, CEOs, royalty, and people who want to get more out of themselves and their lives. He has been consistently ranked by the international research agency GlobalGurus.org as one of the top 30 coaching thought leaders in the world. Mike's TEDx talks, ‘Why Aren't We Awesomer?' and ‘Can a TEDx Talk Really Change the World?' have been viewed by nearly two million people, and his blog and podcast, Caffeine for the Soul, is now in its 19th year and going strong. Mike's books have been translated into 24 languages, and his public talks, retreats, seminars, and online programs have touched and transformed lives at the United Nations and in over 60 countries and on six continents around the world. If you're ready to reconnect with your deepest self and live and work with less fear, stress, and pressure and more love, creativity, and happiness than ever before, then this call is not to be missed. To learn more about Michael, or to contact him directly, click the link below. Disclosure of Material Connection: This is a “sponsored post.” The company who sponsored it compensated My Future Business via a cash payment, gift, or something else of value to produce it. We are disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission's 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.”

ChinaPower
Artificial Intelligence and the People's Liberation Army: A Conversation with Ryan Fedasiuk

ChinaPower

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 9, 2021 41:22


In this episode of the ChinaPower Podcast, Mr. Ryan Fedasiuk joins us to discuss the People's Liberation Army's (PLA) efforts to adopt artificial intelligence (AI) technology. Mr. Fedasiuk explains the findings of his new report, which analyzes critical AI defense industry suppliers to the PLA and the implications for China's ability to compete with the US on AI defense technology. Mr. Fedasiuk says AI technology will be central to the PLA's goal of becoming a “world-class” military force and for preparing the PLA for “intelligentized” warfare. In addition, Mr. Fedasiuk argues that through AI technology, the PLA has the potential to compensate for areas where it has historically been vulnerable, such as undersea warfare. He also discusses PLA's procurement of different AI technologies, including intelligent autonomous vehicles. Lastly, he explains that only a small portion of identified AI suppliers to the PLA are subject to US export controls or sanctions regimes, and he analyzes the corresponding policy implications for the United States. Ryan Fedasiuk is a research analyst at Georgetown's Center for Security and Emerging Technology (CSET). His work explores military applications of artificial intelligence, as well as China's efforts to acquire foreign technology. Prior to joining CSET, Mr. Fedasiuk worked at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, the Arms Control Association, the Missile Defense Advocacy Alliance, and the Council on Foreign Relations, where he primarily covered aerospace and nuclear issues. His writing has appeared in Foreign Policy, Defense One, the Jamestown Foundation's China Brief, and CFR's Net Politics.

The My Future Business™ Show

Chris Parsons A Little Spark Interview with Chris Parsons about A Little Spark and Be That Spark #ALittleSpark #Author #ChrisParsons Hi, and welcome to the show! On today's My Future Business Show I have the pleasure of welcoming to the show, founder of Zuroam Media Mr. Chris Parsons to talk about his book ‘A Little Spark' which is redefining children's literature. Originally from a fishing village in Newfoundland, to a global technology executive, Chris Parsons is now making his mark on children's literature. Because of Chris' ability to tap into wonderfully rich storytelling in an innovative way, people are noticing Zuroam Media and ‘A Little Spark'. In fact, Chris' work has received the Mom's Choice Award for Excellence. Going back a little bit, Chris left his executive position at AT&T behind to focus full time on his true passion and life mission of creating meaningful experiences for children. He subsequently formed a publishing start-up called Zuroam Media and began assembling an amazing team of editors, illustrators, animators and musicians. Chris' vision for “A Little Spark” was to create an experience incorporating a great story, fantastical illustrations with a music soundtrack and an audiobook adaption. In short, to make it an interactive experience for families and classes to read and listen to together, appealing to “kids from 2 to 82.” Chris believes that, by utilizing engaging stories, reading and music, children can be encouraged to Be That Spark and do amazing things with their little lives. Today, Chris lives in Dallas with his wife, Kathleen and their two children Kealan and Maggie where they share a love of all God's creatures including their two Newfoundland Dogs, Bear and Abbey. This is a content-rich conversation in which Chris shares his journey towards turning A Little Spark into a big success. There are many people involved who have helped create this wonderful children's resource, and credit goes to each and every person who has contributed to this amazing book. To learn more about Zuroam Media, A Little Spark, or to contact Chris directly, click the link below. Disclosure of Material Connection: This is a “sponsored post.” The company who sponsored it compensated My Future Business via a cash payment, gift, or something else of value to produce it. We are disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission's 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.”

The World Next Week
Ethiopia's State of Emergency, China's Communist Party Central Committee Convenes, and More

The World Next Week

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 4, 2021 29:03


Ethiopia declares a state of emergency as its civil war intensifies, China holds a crucial meeting of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee, and Sudan moves toward a new power-sharing deal to reverse last week's coup.   Blog Mentioned on the Podcast   Michelle Gavin, Africa in Transition, CFR.org

The President's Inbox
Kissinger‘s Middle East Diplomacy, With Martin S. Indyk

The President's Inbox

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 2, 2021 25:14


Martin S. Indyk, distinguished fellow at CFR, sits down with James M. Lindsay to discuss how Secretary of State Henry Kissinger's shuttle diplomacy reshaped the politics of the Middle East and continues to offer lessons for U.S. foreign policy today.   Enter the CFR book giveaway before November 16, 2021, for the chance to win one of ten free copies of Master of the Game: Henry Kissinger and the Art of Middle East Diplomacy by Martin S. Indyk. You can read the terms and conditions of the offer here.   Books Mentioned in the Podcast   Martin Indyk, Master of the Game: Henry Kissinger and the Art of Middle East Diplomacy (Knopf, 2020)   Henry Kissinger, A World Restored: Metternich, Castlereagh and the Problems of Peace, 1812–22 (Houghton Mifflin, 1957)   Henry Kissinger, World Order (Penguin Books, 2014)

Cutting Through the Matrix with Alan Watt Podcast (.xml Format)
Oct. 31, 2021 "Cutting Through the Matrix" with Alan Watt --- Redux (Educational Talk From the Past): "Vote for......?????" *Dialogue Copyrighted Alan Watt - Oct. 20, 2019 (Exempting Music and Literary Quotes)

Cutting Through the Matrix with Alan Watt Podcast (.xml Format)

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 31, 2021 61:30


--{ "Vote for......????? "We're on Par with China using Techniques Coercive, Total Surveillance on All in The Great Collective."© Alan Watt}-- Original Broadcast Oct. 20, 2019 - News is Presented with Sides to Choose From - The Dialectic Technique - People are Militarized into a Cause - Given a Fictitious History as Your Nations Rulers or Leaders Go Across the World Pillaging Resources - The Scottish Pipe Band - Culloden; Highland Clearing, Genocide; Forbidden to Wear Clan Tartans or Speak Gaelic - Given the Version of Events You are Supposed to Accept; 9/11 - The Revolutionary Movement; Your Elected Leaders are Not the Bosses - Charles Galton Darwin's book, The Next Million Years; Ruled by Wild Men who haven't Been Indoctrinated - Given So-Called Geniuses to Follow - Christian Culture; No One was Higher Than God - In the Digital Age, You're Watching History Disappear - Everything Run by Science on Behalf of a Very Rich Elite - The Banking Collective of the World Bank, IMF, BIS, and Central Banks - Bring Down Standard of Living Under Various Guises such as Sustainability - Yuri Bezmenov - NATO - Grabbing Oil and Resources for Private Corporations - Dominant Minority - Surveillance by Government and Private Corporations; Orwell's 1984 - Religion Gave Purpose - China's Social Credit System - Long Ago, We had Rights but Now We Get Privileges - Behavioural Insights Teams (BIT) - Free Trade - China was Set Up by Those Who Ruled and Still Rule the West - EU, CFR, RIIA, Cecil Rhodes, Centralized Banking - Bertrand Russell Talked about Those Bright Children Who Might Be Brought into the Agenda - Agenda 21, Off the Land into the City - Bill Clinton and the Origin of Smart Cities - The First Thing Communists Do is Restrict Movement - Fairmount Line Bus Shelter Living Roof Initiative - NGOs, Soviet Rule by Councils - Google Tool for Cities to Measure Emissions - Nearly 100 City Mayors Announce Support of Global Green New Deal at C40 Summit - Car Free Zones in Glasgow - Australia, China, France, U.S., Canada Use of Facial Recognition - Locksley Hall, Alfred, Lord Tennyson - Managed with Left/Right Politics or You'd Have to Have Revolutions. *Dialogue Copyrighted Alan Watt - Oct. 20, 2019 (Exempting Music and Literary Quotes)

Wheelbarrow Profits Podcast: Multifamily Real Estate Investment
Habits for Holiness With Fr. Mark-Mary

Wheelbarrow Profits Podcast: Multifamily Real Estate Investment

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 26, 2021 34:58


On this episode, Julia and Gino talk with Fr. Mark-Mary, CFR, the Director of Communications for the Franciscan Friars of the Renewal. He hosts The Poco A Poco Podcast and has also authored a book titled "Habits for Holiness', wherein he takes 800 years of wisdom from the Franciscans and provides small and manageable steps that can lead anyone to great holiness.   Key Insights: 00:00 Introduction 02:15 The value of doing things that scare you 05:10 "Beauty will save the world" - Dostoevsky 06:45 The idea of writing a book on values 08:59 Fulfilling responsibilities 11:20 The 100 Year Mindset 11:50 Helping others and giving back 15:15 God's plan is always the best 16:55 The power of family 18:23 Serving the destitute 20:48 Tips to turn ideas into reality 21:38 Keep hope alive 26:10 Your child is a person not a product 27:48 Five reasons to express gratitude   Learn more at www.franciscanfriars.com/media   Get 'Habits for Holiness' on Amazon: https://amz.run/507o     Jake & Gino are multifamily investors, operators, and mentors who have created a vertically integrated real estate company that controls over $100,000,000 in assets under management. They have created the Jake & Gino community to teach others their three-step framework: Buy Right, Finance Right and Manage Right®, and to become multifamily entrepreneurs.   Subscribe to this channel: https://ytube.io/3McA     Sign up for free training: https://jakeandgino.mykajabi.com/freetraining   Apply for Mentorship: https://jakeandgino.com/apply/     #realestate #multifamilyrealestate #multifamilyinvesting #investing   Jake & Gino Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/jakeandgino/   Jake & Gino Twitter: https://twitter.com/JakeandGino Jake & Gino Linkedin: https://www.linkedin.com/company/jake-and-gino-llc/