Religious belief of Christianity, primarily Catholicism
Ripple XRP - Lawsuit Must End With Clarity - Otherwise Crypto Purgatory OTC MERCH https://onthechain.shop BUY US A COFFEE https://otc.one/buy-us-a-coffee -------------- SUBSCRIBE TO THE OTC PODCAST: https://otc.one/podcast -------------- FOLLOW ON THE CHAIN: Subscribe to our other Youtube Channel: http://www.youtube.com/c/OnTheChain On The Web: https:/onthechain.io Follow OTC on Twitter: https://twitter.com/on_the_chain Join our FREE Telegram Roundtable channel: https://t.me/onthechain_roundtable -------------- JEFF Follow Jeff on Twitter: https://twitter.com/thehodlreview -------------- CHIP Follow Chip on Twitter: https://twitter.com/stephenchip Listen to Chip's music http://nojoyyet.com -------------- DISCLAIMER: All opinions expressed by content contributors that appear on OTC are solely expressing their opinions and do not reflect the opinions of OTC, its affiliates, or sponsors. Content contributors may have previously disseminated information on a social media platform, website, or another medium such as a podcast, television, or radio. OTC, Content Contributors, Affiliates, or Sponsors are not obligated to update or correct any information. The content contributors are sharing the information which they believe to be reliable. OTC, its affiliates, or sponsors cannot guarantee the accuracy of the opinion shared, and viewers, readers, and listeners should not rely on it. Opinions expressed are not financial advice. Please consult a licensed financial advisor before making any financial decisions. It is imperative that before you invest in anything you research before investing. Do not invest based on what someone else is doing or not doing, or based on other people's opinions. #XRP #Ripple #Cryptocurrency
Welcome back to Purgatory!!!! This week Mike and Jeremy talk about the recent Antoine Fuqua film The Guilty staring Jake Gyllenhaal from 2021 on Netflix now!!! Thanks for checking us out!!! Outro song "True" from Danny Elfman and Trent Reznor https://youtu.be/V1adLb9c6U4
Apologies for the quietness in the audio when Mason or John talk. We added a new microphone to our repertoire that messed up our usual audio settings. We'll get better eventually! Hell is a difficult subject, but that doesn't mean it isn't worth discussing. We brought back John Duncan to join our first of two Hell-based discussions! Join us as we discuss the Universalist and Purgatory views of Hell! Also, you can join the discussion here: www.facebook.com/groups/559020738083556/ www.instagram.com/cross.training20/ www.twitter.com/crosstraining20 Thanks for listening!
As Jesus was setting out on a journey, a man ran up, knelt down before him, and asked him, “Good teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?” Mark 10:17This story starts out looking quite good. Here is a young man who is quite wealthy who comes to Jesus with a question grounded in faith. By asking Jesus what He must do to inherit eternal life, this man most likely believed that Jesus had the answer. And in his excitement, he wanted direction from Jesus.Jesus tells him that he must keep the Commandments, to which the young man responds that he has observed them from his youth. But then Jesus says something that this young man never expected Him to say. He says, “You are lacking in one thing. Go, sell what you have, and give to the poor and you will have treasure in heaven; then come, follow me.” Ouch! This must have stung this rich young man in the heart. The passage continues by stating that this young man walked away sad as a result of what Jesus said.The young man started with good intentions, that is clear. But good intentions are not enough. Following Jesus and gaining eternal life is an all-consuming and radical commitment of every part of our lives. It's not enough to tell Jesus that we will keep the Commandments but that's all. Sure, that may get us into Purgatory, but what we should desire is Heaven! So how do we obtain Heaven?We only obtain Heaven through a life of perfection. Yes, it's true. If we want Heaven, we must ultimately become perfect in every way. Every worldly attachment must disappear, and every sin must be overcome. Our good intentions must turn into a radical and total gift of self to Jesus, seeking Him and only Him.The rich young man walked away sad because he failed to realize that Jesus' invitation to him to give everything away was actually an act of love. He did not understand that he would find happiness in this radical commitment to follow Christ.Reflect, today, upon the radical call of Jesus in your life. He wants every part of your life. You may have good intentions of trying to be good, but are you willing to go all the way following Christ in a full and unlimited way?Lord, I love You, and I want to love You more. I want to love You with my whole being. Help me to realize that following You requires a radical and complete gift of myself to You. May I be ready and willing to let go of any attachment in life that keeps me from following You. Jesus, I trust in You.Source of content: catholic-daily-reflections.comCopyright © 2021 My Catholic Life! Inc. All rights reserved. Used with permission via RSS feed.
Elaine – Having some problems with my son and his belief on the book of Henoch. Can you help? Mary – In the Purgatory book it says that flowers should not be used at funerals. What do you think? Fabiola – I have a son who is 25 and he recently was questioning Catholicism. Watching […] All show notes at The Patrick Madrid Show: October 08, 2021 – Hour 3 - This podcast produced by Relevant Radio
This week, host Jesse David Fox sits down with comedian and Mystery Science Theater 3000 host Jonah Ray and writer Dave Schilling to do a special crossover episode with their podcast, Galaxy Brains that's all about Jesse's favorite sitcom of all time, Seinfeld. Jesse, Jonah, and Dave discuss whether or not Seinfeld's best joke is actually that these characters who hate each other are stuck together for eternity. Is Seinfeld actually an elaborate dramatization of purgatory? They also dive into what each character represents in Jerry's psyche, how Jerry's approach to comedy differs from Larry David's, and if Seinfeld was the pinnacle of New York comedy. Click here to listen to more hilarious, mind-blowing episodes of Galaxy Brains. Follow Galaxy Brains on Twitter. Follow Jonah Ray on Instagram. Follow Jesse David Fox on Twitter. Follow Dave Schilling on Twitter. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit podcastchoices.com/adchoices
Jake Niall and Peter Ryan discuss the deals that were done on day four, including Adam Cerra to Carlton, and some of the other potential moves that are bubbling away as we reach the midpoint of trade period. Got a question about your club? Send it to email@example.com for our hosts to answer. Follow us on Twitter and Facebook. And if you value independent, quality journalism, please subscribe to The Age today. Thanks for listening and don't forget to check out more great podcasts from The Age & SMH. Support the show: https://subscribe.theage.com.au/ See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
James and Toby spend more time on the road than Hope and Crosby but unfortunately it’s not together. This week we’re all about James’s return to grey old England after his glorious week in Croatia and Toby’s trip to Scotland (in which he fails, spectacularly, to shoot a deer). After the personal preliminaries we touch on the redaction of the emails from Sir Patrick Vallance (the UK’s version of Anthony Fauci) about the Wuhan lab leak, and a discussion of who is more like Jimmy Saville – Toby or James (Hint: Neither one.) In Culture Corner it’s book week with Purgatory’s Shore by Taylor Anderson and The Young Lions by Irwin Shaw (movie trailer here). Next week: A Bond special. This week’s opening sound is The Sun Travel Editor Lisa Minot on UK travel changes courtesy of GBNews.
Show Notes: ---------------------- Appreciation written, produced, and narrated by Remedy Robinson, MA/MFA Twitter: https://twitter.com/slowdragremedy Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Podcast music by https://www.fesliyanstudios.com Rate this Podcast: https://ratethispodcast.com/slowdrag ---------------------- References: Elvis Costello Wiki Resource, “Next Time ‘Round”: http://www.elviscostello.info/wiki/index.php/Next_Time_%27Round “Next Time ‘Round”: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QgQbf__uOvE Purchase “The Most Terrible Time in My Life…Ends Thursday” https://www.amazon.com/Most-Terrible-Time-Life-Thursday-ebook/dp/B07XLXS5PL/ref=sr_1_1?crid=Y4SGCT62WPEK&dchild=1&keywords=the+most+terrible+time+in+my+life+ends+thursday&qid=1608873405&sprefix=The+Most+Terrible+Time+in+%2Caps%2C195&sr=8-1 "Next Time 'Round" Lyrics As I stepped out upon the landing my heart was already down the stairs She's in the bedroom with that boy of hers Though her face is creased and her eyes seem strange There's a second-hand emotion on battered forty-five My tears were never enough to keep that girl alive Now she seems contrite, will she make the change Chorus: The next time 'round The next time 'round You'll be someone else's baby But I'll be underground The next time 'round Then you took two steps forward and then one step on your back Now it's a future for me and you that I lack You'll be the one who stands out in the dark Even when you're all dressed in black (Chorus) You've got something I want now And I've got something I can't hide I've got too much love for you now You've got too much pride? Sometimes I name and number all the things you gave to me Your elastic love, this velvet-lined purgatory You used to take the breath out of me Now I think you'll be the death of me (Chorus) The next time 'round The next time 'round You'll be someone else's baby But I'll be underground The next time 'round The next time 'round
Is it better to burn out or fade away? What to do if you are a legendary 80's college radio band who has been touring on their back catalog for years? Dare you venture into the realm of new music? It worked for some of your left of the dial compatriots (Dinosaur Jr, Camper Van Beethoven) but will it work for a band like The Pixies? Well...apparently not. Savaged by even the band's most ardent champions upon release, this album has been called so bad that it invalidated the entire Pixies reunion. But, come on. Is it really that bad?
The Storm Skiing Podcast is sponsored by Mountain Gazette - Listen to the podcast for discount codes on subscriptions and merch.WhoMike Kaplan, CEO of Aspen Skiing CompanyRecorded onSept. 24, 2021Why I interviewed himVail may rule the American skiing economy, but Aspen remains king of the nation’s popular skiing imagination. From Aspen Extreme to Dumb and Dumber, the town and its mountains serve as the stand-in for big-mountain Western skiing as a whole, one word that communicates to skiers and non-skiers the essence of the sport. And there is something spectacular about it. This city at the end of the road, hovering just past the gravitational pull of Denver and the I-70 disaster seeping beyond it. Those narrow expert mountains with their unrelenting fall lines and absence of greens. Buttermilk with its lazy empty groomers and lost-in-plain-site underdog patina. The wild labyrinthian variety of burly Snowmass. The city itself, bleeding as one into Aspen Mountain, some invigorating mashup of town and city, luxe and lowbrow, skibum and jetset. Aspen doesn’t have the wildest terrain. It doesn’t get the most snow. It doesn’t have the most vertical or the most skiable acres. But it may just be the best total ski experience America offers. What we talked aboutArriving in Aspen in 1993; how the city has changed over the past three decades; going from ski school instructor to CEO of one of America’s great ski companies; celebrating 75 years of skiing at Aspen; the significance of Aspen’s original Lift 1, the present-day Shadow Mountain lift, and what may replace it and when; the return of Ruthie’s restaurant; the scope and status of the proposed Pandora expansion off Aspen Mountain’s summit; what could be developed on that land if the county denies the expansion permit; what the expansion could mean for the Gent’s Ridge quad and the rest of Aspen’s lift fleet; Snowmass lifts: the new high-speed six-pack on Big Burn, a timeline to replace Coney Glade, the latest thinking on a possible Burnt Mountain lift; whether we could ever see a lift up Highland Bowl at Aspen Highlands; whether the Bowl Cat will return for the 2021-22 ski season; where we could see future expansion at Highlands; how the Deep Temerity expansion at Highlands could inform the Pandora expansion at Aspen; the status of the Golden Horn surface lift at Highlands; a different point of view on Buttermilk; the interplay of the four mountains to create a distinctive Aspen experience; why Aspen didn’t become part of Alterra; the Mountain Collective Pass and Ikon Pass origin stories; why Aspen pulled off the Ikon Base Pass and how the move to the “plus” tier has worked out; the future of the Mountain Collective; what happened with the $2 million that Liftopia owed Aspen for Mountain Collective Passes; Aspen’s plan to “stay in business forever” amid a changing climate; why Aspen is requiring all employees to get vaccinated against Covid-19 prior to the start of the 2021-22 ski season; and the tangle of problems Covid brought along with it last season.Why I thought that now was a good time for this interviewAspen, under Kaplan, has evolved. It is: a leader in the fight against climate change, a model for implementing creative employee housing solutions in the modern mountain town, a crown-jewel of two transcontinental ski pass products, a voice in skiing’s struggles to diversify, and an uncompromising partner in the battle against Covid. There was nothing inevitable about any of this. Fifteen years ago, Aspen was a fun town with a pack of fun ski hills. The Epic Pass didn’t exist and issues of diversity, equality, and environmental catastrophe were minimized or ignored. Aspen could have just kept being Aspen and that would have probably been good enough to keep on existing. But Kaplan had other ideas. Lots of ideas. And while a phalanx of market and social forces, innovators, and disruptors would likely have forced the company into some version of its 2021 self, Kaplan no doubt accelerated the change. Aspen Mountain, by skiable acres, is only the 20th largest ski area in Colorado – smaller than Monarch, Sunlight, Eldora, Wolf Creek, Powderhorn, A-Basin, Purgatory, and Loveland. Yet in its purpose and its presence it is bigger than all of them. Now seemed as good a time as ever to find out why that continues to be true.Questions I wish I’d askedI had wanted to discuss the origin and influence of the X-Games at Buttermilk, whether the locals backlash against the Ikon Pass has subsided as Aspen changed access levels and started giving out a Base Pass with an Aspen season pass, whether Aspen would continue rationing season passes, how the company’s various diversity initiatives are evolving, whether post-Covid employee benefit cuts had been restored, how short-term rentals and urban Covid refugees were impacting the local housing market, Aspen’s employee housing initiatives, how the Covid fallout compared to the aftermath of The Great Recession, whether the company expected last year’s skier visit declines to continue, and which Covid-era operating changes were most likely to hang around. We ran out of time. Next time.Why you should ski AspenBecause Aspen will give you the best total ski week in America. The skiing, yes: the mountains, teetering above the valley, four poles balancing one another like a perfectly assembled sports team. The steeps that are not too steep to manage and the greens that are not too flat to lean into. The lost-in-time-and-space feeling of the Hanging Valley Glades or Deep Temerity or Bingo Glades. But it’s everything else, too. The free and frequent shuttlebus connecting town and mountains. The incredible variety of lodging options that make the place more affordable than you’d think. And the city itself, a pedestrian-friendly human-scaled relic salvaged from Colorado’s Wild West ancestry and outfitted with T-shirt shops, celebrity-chef eateries, weed emporiums, surly bars, grocery stores, Prada shops, and antique stores, like the most bizarre Lego set ever invented. And you go because you have to. It’s just one of those places. If you’re a skier you must ski Aspen because it’s Aspen. I really don’t know how else to say it. Just go.More AspenLift Blog’s lift inventories for:Aspen MountainAspen HighlandsButtermilkSnowmassHistoric trailmaps for:Aspen MountainAspen HighlandsButtermilkSnowmassArchival footage of Lift 1, the single chair that stood from 1947 to 1971 and took 40 minutes to rise from town to the Aspen Mountain summit:Get stoked on Aspen Extreme: Get on the email list at www.stormskiing.com
This is a companion episode to 56, the main interview with Taylor Anderson. For fans of his Destroyermen series, in particular, this is an opportunity to learn more about how he developed the characters and world, and get some answers to a few burning questions. Enjoy!And then head over HERE for the main episode, where Taylor Anderson talks about his new series, The Artillerymen, starting with Purgatory's Shore.You can learn more about Taylor at his website HERE. A great resource for learning more, once you're a bonified fan of Taylor's writing, is to visit this FB fan group.Like the podcast episode? You can "Buy me a Coffee" as a thank you! I'll even give you a free short story to show my gratitude. Thank you!Finally, please consider subscribing to the Coffee in Space newsletter so you can stay up to date on all podcast episodes and news about the interviews! * Links in these show notes may be affiliate links. I may make a small percentage from your purchase. I would always want you to buy from a local, independent store, but if you are looking to use Amazon, I would appreciate you considering my links. Thank you!
Questions Covered: 06:20 – If from the moment God creates us, he knows we're predestined to heaven or hell, how do we have free choice? 15:20 – Why do Catholics believe in Purgatory? Specifically, the Biblical evidence. 21:19 – Could things like having our temperature taken on our forehead, or carrying our phones around in our hands, be signs of the Mark of the Beast? And would God make it something like that, that we might do without knowing? 23:15 – Why does the Church keep and venerate relics and saints' bodies? 34:00 – What does the Church teach about organ donation and cremation? 40:15 – Why do Catholics believe they're not allowed to hold God accountable to his own moral system? 46:25 – Why do Catholics worship Mary and the saints? …
About Krista St-Germain Krista St-Germain is a Master Certified Life Coach, grief expert, widow, mom and host of The Widowed Mom Podcast. When her husband was killed by a drunk driver in 2016, Krista's life was completely flipped upside down.... READ MORE The post Grieving an unexpected death + navigating the wealth purgatory | Krista St-Germain appeared first on .
Good Morning, Colorado, you're listening to the Daily Sun-Up with the Colorado Sun. It's Tuesday September 28th, Today - Glenwood Springs has had a challenging year … between the Grizzly Creek Fire, and mudslides. But businesses have largely stayed afloat thanks to federal aid. And now, they have access to federal disaster loans. But before we begin, let's go back in time with some Colorado history adapted from historian Derek R Everett's book “Colorado Day by Day”: Today, we take you back to September 28th, 1719, when a massive expedition of Spaniards, Puebloans, and Apaches endured an early winter storm and feared for whether they had enough food. It's little wonder that this beleaguered company at its camp near present day Trinidad Colorado, referred to a nearby river as the River of Lost Souls in Purgatory. Now, our feature story. Glenwood Springs has had a rough year … the Grizzly Creek Fire in August 2020 forced a two-week shutdown of Interstate 70 in Glenwood Canyon, just as the tourist destination was emerging from COVID lockdown …. in August this year the hot-springed resort town again endured a two-week closure of the canyon as mudslides buried the interstate below the burn scar … Glenwood businesses have been able to stay afloat for most of 2021 thanks to COVID relief from the federal government … and now those businesses have access to low interest federal disaster loans approved earlier this month. Colorado Sun reporter David Gilbert looked into what he called Glenwood's “cavalcade of hardships,” and how this new round of federal assistance is helping the town's economy … To read more of David's reporting on Glenwood Springs, go to coloradosun.com And Before we go, here are a few stories that you should know about today: Nonprofit river conservation group American Whitewater is exploring a plan to adjust Colorado water law so communities can protect recreational river flows without building whitewater parks. The proposed changes to Colorado's Recreational In-Channel Diversion water rights regulations faces stiff opposition from Western Slope water users. The Denver Public Schools board has expanded its conflict-of-interest policy to ban employees of independent charter schools and innovation zones from serving on the board. The district's policy already barred school district employees from serving on the seven-member school board. Last week the board unanimously approved the new rules without public discussion. The board's next election is set for Nov. 2. Fewer than 5,000 students — that's less than 1% of Colorado's K-through-12 students — have signed up for a weekly coronavirus testing program. That is not enough kids, says Colorado Governor Jared Polis, who launched the testing plan as a way to track cases and prevent outbreaks. Schools need to test at least one in five students to make a difference, the governor says. The testing program, which is backed by $173 million in federal funding, is testing about one-in-25 kids at 200 Colorado schools. And Colorado students are catching COVID, with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment last week tracking 156 active coronavirus outbreaks in K-12 schools. For more information on all of these stories, visit our website, www.coloradosun.com. And don't forget to tune in again tomorrow. The Colorado Sun is non-partisan and completely independent. We're always dedicated to telling the in-depth stories we need today more than ever. And The Sun is supported by readers and listeners like you. Right now, you can head to ColoradoSun.com and become a member. Starting at $5 per month for a basic membership and if you bump it up to $20 per month, you'll get access to our exclusive politics and outdoors newsletters. Thanks for starting your morning with us and don't forget to tune in again tomorrow. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
Taylor Anderson is, to put it bluntly, a friend of the Coffee in Space podcast. Not only have I enjoyed every single interaction I've had with him, but he's also lent me his audience and his pull. He's taught me so very much about alternate history and speculative fiction. More than that, he's taught me how to fall in love with a character. And so many people have fallen in love with Taylor's Characters. If you get nothing else from this interview, I hope you've understand a touch of what makes Taylor such a gifted writer. His worldbuilding, of course, is on point. It has to be because of the alternate world and history in which he writes. But it's more than just worldbuilding. It's characters we want to love. Taylor nails it.Enjoy this episode and then the next one, which is ten more minutes with Taylor. I think you'll be happy you did. Get it HERE.And when you're done listening, grab a copy of Purgatory's Shore! You can learn more about Taylor at his website HERE. A great resource for learning more, once you're a bonified fan of Taylor's writing, is to visit this FB fan group. Like the podcast episode? You can "Buy me a Coffee" as a thank you! I'll even give you a free short story to show my gratitude. Thank you!Finally, please consider subscribing to the Coffee in Space newsletter so you can stay up to date on all podcast episodes and news about the interviews! * Links in these show notes may be affiliate links. I may make a small percentage from your purchase. I would always want you to buy from a local, independent store, but if you are looking to use Amazon, I would appreciate you considering my links. Thank you!
Fr. Pine shares the church's teaching on Purgatory. Fr. Pine's other Podcast: Godsplaining Sign up for my free course on St. Augustine's "Confessions"! SPONSORS Hallow: http://hallow.app/mattfradd STRIVE: https://www.strive21.com/ Ethos Logos: https://www.elinvestments.net/pints GIVING Patreon or Directly: https://pintswithaquinas.com/support/ This show (and all the plans we have in store) wouldn't be possible without you. I can't thank those of you who support me enough. Seriously! Thanks for essentially being a co-producer co-producer of the show. LINKS Merch: https://teespring.com/stores/matt-fradd FREE 21 Day Detox From Porn Course: https://www.strive21.com/ SOCIAL Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/mattfradd Twitter: https://twitter.com/mattfradd Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/mattfradd Gab: https://gab.com/mattfradd Rumble: https://rumble.com/c/pintswithaquinas MY BOOKS Get my NEW book "How To Be Happy: Saint Thomas' Secret To A Good Life," out now! Does God Exist: https://www.amazon.com/Does-God-Exist-Socratic-Dialogue-ebook/dp/B081ZGYJW3/ref=sr_1_9?dchild=1&keywords=fradd&qid=1586377974&sr=8-9 Marian Consecration With Aquinas: https://www.amazon.com/Marian-Consecration-Aquinas-Growing-Closer-ebook/dp/B083XRQMTF/ref=sr_1_4?dchild=1&keywords=fradd&qid=1586379026&sr=8-4 The Porn Myth: https://www.ignatius.com/The-Porn-Myth-P1985.aspx CONTACT Book me to speak: https://www.mattfradd.com/speakerrequestform
When a person dies their soul may not be ready to enter heaven, but at the same time they are not deserving of hell. What happens then? Monsignor James Shea of the University of Mary explains the mercy and hope of purgatory. Everyone has different problems, and our brain can try solving them all […] All show notes at Monsignor James Shea, purgatory/Danielle Bean, 4 tools that can help us reduce anxiety - This podcast produced by Relevant Radio
Hollow Earth Theory Well hello there passengers, and welcome to yet another exciting day aboard the MidnightTrain. Today we delve deep into the mysterious, creepy, possibly conspiratorial world that is our own. What do I mean by that? Well we are digging our way to the center of truth! Today, we learn about Hollow Earth… and for the flat earthers out there… you're gonna wanna hang out for a minute before you dip outta here… also fuck you. (Cinematic trailer voice) In a World where there exists people who think the world is a flat piece of paper with trees growing out of it and a big guy who flips the piece of paper over to switch between day and night. One man wants to change that idea. His name… is Edmund Halley. Yes that Halley. The one known for the comet he discovered. But before we explore more about him and his findings, let's discuss what led us to this revolutionary hypothesis. So besides idiots who believe the earth is flat, I mean stupid-endous personalities, there are other more interesting characters that believe the earth is completely hollow; or at least a large part of it. This is what we call the Hollow Earth Theory. Now where did this all come from? Well, nobody cares, Moody. That's the show folks! Ok, ok, ok… fine. Since the early times many cultures, religions, and folklore believed that there was something below our feet. Whether it's the lovely and tropical Christian Hell, the Jungle-esque Greek Underworld, the balmy Nordic Svartálfaheim, or the temperate Jewish Sheol; there is a name for one simple idea. These cultures believed it to be where we either come from or where we go when we die. This may hold some truth, or not. Guess we will know more when the time comes. The idea of a subterranean realm is also mentioned in Tibetan Buddhist belief. According to one story from Tibetan Buddhist tradition, there is an ancient city called Shamballa which is located inside the Earth. According to the Ancient Greeks, there were caverns under the surface which were entrances leading to the underworld, some of which were the caverns at Tainaron in Lakonia, at Troezen in Argolis, at Ephya in Thesprotia, at Herakleia in Pontos, and in Ermioni. In Thracian and Dacian legends, it is said that there are caverns occupied by an ancient god called Zalmoxis. In Mesopotamian religion there is a story of a man who, after traveling through the darkness of a tunnel in the mountain of "Mashu", entered a subterranean garden. Sounds lovely. In Celtic mythology there is a legend of a cave called "Cruachan", also known as "Ireland's gate to Hell", a mythical and ancient cave from which according to legend strange creatures would emerge and be seen on the surface of the Earth. They are said to be bald, taller than most with blue eyes and a big, bushy beard… fucking Moody. There are also stories of medieval knights and saints who went on pilgrimages to a cave located in Station Island, County Donegal in Ireland, where they made journeys inside the Earth into a place of purgatory. You guys know purgatory, that place or state of suffering inhabited by the souls of sinners who are shedding their sins before going to heaven. In County Down, Northern Ireland there is a myth which says tunnels lead to the land of the subterranean Tuatha Dé Danann, who are supposedly a group of people who are believed to have introduced Druidism to Ireland, and then they said fuck it and went back underground. In Hindu mythology, the underworld is referred to as Patala. In the Bengali version of the Hindu epic Ramayana, it has been depicted how Rama and Lakshmana were taken by the king of the underworld Ahiravan, brother of the demon king Ravana. Later on they were rescued by Hanuman. Got all that? The Angami Naga tribes of India claim that their ancestors emerged in ancient times from a subterranean land inside the Earth. The Taino from Cuba believe their ancestors emerged in ancient times from two caves in a mountain underground. Natives of the Trobriand Islands believe that their ancestors had come from a subterranean land through a cavern hole called "Obukula". Mexican folklore also tells of a cave in a mountain five miles south of Ojinaga, and that Mexico is possessed by devilish creatures who came from inside the Earth. Maybe THAT'S where the Chupacabra came from! In the middle ages, an ancient German myth held that some mountains located between Eisenach and Gotha hold a portal to the inner Earth. A Russian legend says the Samoyeds, an ancient Siberian tribe, traveled to a cavern city to live inside the Earth. Luckily, they had plenty of space rope to make it back out. The Italian writer Dante describes a hollow earth in his well-known 14th-century work Inferno, in which the fall of Lucifer from heaven caused an enormous funnel to appear in a previously solid and spherical earth, as well as an enormous mountain opposite it, "Purgatory". There's that place, again. In Native American mythology, they believed that the ancestors of the Mandan people in ancient times emerged from a subterranean land through a cave at the north side of the Missouri River. There is also a tale about a tunnel in the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation in Arizona near Cedar Creek which is said to lead inside the Earth to a land inhabited by a mysterious tribe. It is also the belief of the tribes of the Iroquois that their ancient ancestors emerged from a subterranean world inside the Earth. The elders of the Hopi people believe that a Sipapu entrance in the Grand Canyon exists which leads to the underworld. Brazilian Indians, who live alongside the Parima River in Brazil, claim that their forefathers emerged in ancient times from an underground land, and that many of their ancestors still remained inside the Earth. Ancestors of the Inca supposedly came from caves which are located east of Cuzco, Peru. So, this is something that has been floating around a shit ton of ancient mythos for a long ass time. Well, ya know… before that silly thing called SCIENCE. Moving on. Now to circle back to our friend Edmund. He was born in 1656, in Haggerston in Middlesex (not to be confused with uppersex or its ill-informed cousin the powerbottomsex). He was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist; because what else was there to do in the 1600's but be a know-it-all? He was known to work with Sir Isaac Newton among other notable (but not gonna note them here) proponents to science. In 1692 he proffered the idea that the earth was indeed hollow and had a shell about 500 miles thick with two inner concentric (having a common center, as circles or spheres… hear that flat earthers??) shells and an inner core. He proposed that the atmospheres separated the shells and that they also had their own magnetic poles and that the shells moved at different speeds. This idea was used to elucidate(shed light upon… yes pun intended) anomalous(ih-nom-uh-luhs) compass readings. He conceptualized that the inner region had its own atmosphere and possibly luminous with plausible inhabitants. MOLE PEOPLE!! He also thought that escaping gases from the inner earth caused what is now known as the Northern Lights. Now another early ambassador to this idea was Le Clerc Milfort. Jean-Antoine Le Clerc, or known by a simpler name, Louis Milfort. Monsieur Milfort was a higher ranking French military officer who offered his services during the late 1700's. He is most notably known for leading Creek Indian warriors during the American Revolutionary War as allies of the British. I guess having a common enemy here would make sense as to why he chose this group to lead. He emigrated in 1775 to what was then known as the British Colonies of North America. But we all know there is nothing Bri'ish about us. Now why would a higher ranking French military Officer want to emigrate from his home to a place of turmoil? Great question Moody! I knew you were paying attention. Well, a little about this French saboteur. He was known by many aliases, but we will just stick with Louis (Louie) for all intents and purposes. Louis was born in Thin-le-Moutier, near Mezieres, France. He served in the French Military from 1764 to 1774. Now this is according to his memoir that was dated in 1802. He left France after he ended up killing a servant of the king's household in a duel. Apparently, the king's servant loved the king. So much so that when Louis read aloud a poem that he had written that included the king, the servant jumped up, tore off his glove and slapped Louis across the face not once, but 4 fucking times! This is obviously something that Louis could not just let happen, so he challenged the servant to a duel. Not just any duel, mind you. He challenged him to a duel of what was then known as a “mort de coupes de papier.” The servant died an excruciating death and Louis fled. Here is the poem that started the feud. There's a place in France Where the naked ladies dance There's a hole in the wall Where the men can see it all But the men don't care Cause they lost their underwear And the cops never shoot Cause they think it's kind of cute There a place in France Where the alligators dance If you give them a glance They could bite you in the pants There's a place on Mars Where the ladies smoke cigars Every puff she makes Is enough to kill the snakes When the snakes all die They put diamonds in their eye When the diamonds break The dancing makes them ache When the diamonds shine They really look so fine The king and the queen Have a rubber ding-a-ling All the girls in France Have ants in their pants Yes, this is 100% bullshit… but, you'll have that shit stuck in your head for days. Now as much as we tried to find ACTUAL information as to why there was duel and why it was with a servant of the king, we couldn't find much. But after digging up some more information on Louis we found out that he ended up going back to France to be a part of the Sacred Society of Sophisians. This group is also known as the secret society of Napoleon's Sorcerers… This may have to be a bonus episode so stay tuned for more! Now back to the “Core” of our episode. The Creek Indians who are originally from the Muscogee [məskóɡəlɡi](Thank wikipedia) area which is southeast united states which roughly translates to the areas around Tennessee, Alabama, western Georgia and Northern Florida. Louis adapted their customs and assimilated into their Tribe. He even married the sister of the Chief. Now after Louis and the rest of the people in the American Revolutionary War lost to the U.S. he decided to lead the Creek Tribe on an expedition in 1781 because, well, they had nothing else to do. On this expedition they were searching for caverns where allegedly the Creek Indians ancestors had emerged from. Maybe even the Origin of Bigfoot. Yes, the Creek Indians had believed that their ancestors lived below the earth and lived in caverns along the Red River junction of the Mississippi River. Now during the expedition they did come across these caverns which they suspected could hold 20,000 of their family in. That's pretty much all they found. They didn't have video cameras back then otherwise, I'm pretty sure they would have found footage of bigfoot though. Another advocate was Leonhard Euler, yes, you heard right. Buehler… Buehler… No Leonard Euler. A great 18th century mathematician; or not so great if you didn't enjoy math in school unlike moody who was the biggest nerd when it came to math. Euler founded the study of graph theory and topology. No moody, not on-top-ology. Mind always in the gutter. Euler influenced many other discoveries such as analytic number theory, complex analysis, and the coolest subject ever; Infinitesimal Calculus. Which is Latin for BULLSHIT. But anyways I digress. This guy knew his stuff BUT he did think with all his “infinite” wisdom that the earth was in fact hollow and had no inner shells but instead had a six hundred mile diameter sun in the center. The most intriguing and plausible theory he had within this whole idea was that you could enter into this interior from the northern and southern poles. Let's hold to that cool hypothesis for right now and move along with our next Interesting goon of the hollow earth community. With Halley's spheres and Eulers's Holes came another great man with another great theory. Captain John Symmes! Yes you know Captain Symmes. HE was a hero in the war of 1812 after being sent with his Regiment to Canada and providing relief to American forces at the battle of Lundy's Lane. He was well known as a trader and lecturer after he left the army. In 1818 Symmes announced his theory on Hollow Earth to the World! With his publication of his Circular No. 1. “I declare the earth is hollow, and habitable within; containing a number of solid concentric spheres, one within the other, and that it is open at the poles 12 or 16 degrees; I pledge my life in support of this truth, and am ready to explore the hollow, if the world will support and aid me in the undertaking.”— John Cleves Symmes Jr., Symmes' Circular No. 1 While there were few people who would consider Symmes as the “Newton of the West”, most of the world was less than impressed. Although his theory wasn't as popular as one would expect, you gotta admire the confidence he had. Symmes sent this declaration at a rather hefty cost to himself to “each notable foreign government, reigning prince, legislature, city, college, and philosophical societies, throughout the union, and to individual members of our National Legislature, as far as the five hundred copies would go.”15] Symmes would then be followed by an exorbitant amount of ridicule for his proclamation, as many intellectuals were back then. This ridicule would later influence a rather bold move, Cotton. We'll touch on this later. What was so special about his theory that got 98% of the world not on the edge of their seats? Well, to start he believed the Earth had five concentric spheres with where we live to be the largest of the spheres. He also believed that the crust was 1000 miles thick with an arctic opening about 4000 miles wide and an antarctic opening around 6000 miles wide. He argued that because of the centrifugal force of the Earth's rotation that the poles would be flattened which would cause such a gradual gradation that you would travel into the Hollow Earth without even knowing you even did it. Eventually he refined his theory because of such ridicule and criticism. Now his theory consists of just a single hollow sphere instead of five concentric spheres. So, now that we know all about symmes and his theory, why don't we talk about what he decided to do with his theory? What do you think, Moody? You think he created a cult so he could be ostracized? Or do you think he gave up and realized he was silly? Hate to be the bearer of bad news here but he decided to take his theory and convince the U.S. congress to fund and organize an expedition to the south pole to enter the inner earth. Good news and bad news folks. Good news, congress back then actually had some people with heads on their shoulders as opposed to those today and they said fuck that noise and denied funding for his expedition. Hamilton, Ohio even has a monument to him and his ideas. Fuckin' Ohio. Next up on our list of “what the fuck were they thinking?” We have Jeremiah Reynolds. He also delivered lectures on the "Hollow Earth" and argued for an expedition. I guess back in those days people just up and went to the far reaches of the earth just to prove a point. Reynolds said “look what I can do” and went on an expedition to Antarctica himself but missed joining the Great U.S. Exploring Expedition of 1838–1842, even though that venture was a result of his craziness, I MEAN “INTEREST”. He gained support from marine and scientific societies and, in 1828, successfully lobbied the House of Representatives to pass a resolution asking then-President John Quincy Adams to deploy a research vessel to the Pacific. The president, for his part, had first mentioned Reynolds in his November 4, 1826, diary entry, writing: “Mr Reynolds is a man who has been lecturing about the Country, in support of Captain John Cleves Symmes's theory that the Earth is a hollow Sphere, open at the Poles— His Lectures are said to have been well attended, and much approved as exhibitions of genius and of Science— But the Theory itself has been so much ridiculed, and is in truth so visionary, that Reynolds has now varied his purpose to the proposition of fitting out a voyage of circumnavigation to the Southern Ocean— He has obtained numerous signatures in Baltimore to a Memorial to Congress for this object, which he says will otherwise be very powerfully supported— It will however have no support in Congress. That day will come, but not yet nor in my time. May it be my fortune, and my praise to accelerate its approach.” Adams' words proved prophetic. Though his administration opted to fund Reynolds' expedition, the voyage was waylaid by the 1828 presidential election, which found Adams roundly defeated by Andrew Jackson. The newly elected president canceled the expedition, leaving Reynolds to fund his trip through other sources. (The privately supported venture set sail in 1829 but ended in disaster, with the crew mutinying and leaving Reynolds' ass on shore.) Per Boston 1775, the U.S. Exploring Expedition only received the green light under the country's eighth president, Martin Van Buren. As Howard Dorre explains on his Plodding Through the Presidents blog, multiple media outlets (including Smithsonian, in an earlier version of this article) erroneously interpreted Adams' description of Reynolds' ideas as “visionary” as a sign of his support for the hollow earth theory. In fact, notes Bell in a separate Boston 1775 blog post, the term's connotations at the time were largely negative. In the words of 18th-century English writer Samuel Johnson, a visionary was “one whose imagination is disturbed.” The president, adds Dorre, only agreed to support the polar expedition “after Reynolds abandoned the hollow earth idea.” I had always heard that he was a believer in mole people and hollow earth, turns out his words were just misinterpreted. Hmm… I wonder if there are any other books out there where the overall ideas and verbage could and have been misinterpreted causing insane amounts of disingenuous beliefs? Nah! Though Symmes himself never wrote a book about his ideas, several authors published works discussing his ideas. McBride wrote Symmes' Theory of Concentric Spheres in 1826. It appears that Reynolds has an article that appeared as a separate booklet in 1827: Remarks of Symmes' Theory Which Appeared in the American Quarterly Review. In 1868, a professor W.F. Lyons published The Hollow Globe which put forth a Symmes-like Hollow Earth hypothesis, but failed to mention Symmes himself. Because fuck that guy, right? Symmes's son Americus then published The Symmes' Theory of Concentric Spheres in 1878 to set the record straight. I think the duel would have been a better idea. Sir John Leslie proposed a hollow Earth in his 1829 Elements of Natural Philosophy (pp. 449–53). In 1864, in Journey to the Center of the Earth, Jules Verne described a hollow Earth containing two rotating binary stars, named Pluto and Proserpine. Ok… fiction. We get it. William Fairfield Warren, in his book Paradise Found–The Cradle of the Human Race at the North Pole, (1885) presented his belief that humanity originated on a continent in the Arctic called Hyperborea. This influenced some early Hollow Earth proponents. According to Marshall Gardner, both the Eskimo and Mongolian peoples had come from the interior of the Earth through an entrance at the North Pole. I wonder if they knew that. NEQUA or The Problem of the Ages, first serialized in a newspaper printed in Topeka, Kansas in 1900 and considered an early feminist utopian novel, mentions John Cleves Symmes' theory to explain its setting in a hollow Earth. An early 20th-century proponent of hollow Earth, William Reed, wrote Phantom of the Poles in 1906. He supported the idea of a hollow Earth, but without interior shells or inner sun. Ok, no sun. Got it. The spiritualist writer Walburga, Lady Paget in her book Colloquies with an unseen friend (1907) was an early writer to mention the hollow Earth hypothesis. She claimed that cities exist beneath a desert, which is where the people of Atlantis moved. Mmmk. Deserts and Atlantis. Check. She said an entrance to the subterranean kingdom will be discovered in the 21st century. Pretty broad brush she's painting with there. Next up we're gonna talk a little about Admiral Richard E. Byrd. According to Hollow Earth theorists, Byrd met an ancient race underground in the South Pole. According to Byrd's “diary,” the government ordered Byrd to remain silent for what he witnessed during his Arctic assignment: March 11, 1947 “I have just attended a Staff Meeting at the Pentagon. I have stated fully my discovery and the message from the Master. All is duly recorded. The President has been advised. I am now detained for several hours (six hours, thirty- nine minutes, to be exact.) I am interviewed intently by Top Security Forces and a Medical Team. It was an ordeal!!!! I am placed under strict control via the National Security provisions of this United States of America. I am ORDERED TO REMAIN SILENT IN REGARD TO ALL THAT I HAVE LEARNED, ON THE BEHALF OF HUMANITY!!! Incredible! I am reminded that I am a Military Man and I must obey orders.” After many polar accomplishments, Byrd organized Operation Highjump in 1947. The objective: construct an American training and research facility in the South Pole. Highjump was a significant illustration of the state of the world and the cold war thinking at the time. The nuclear age had just begun, and the real fears were that the Soviet Union would attack the United States over the North Pole. The Navy had done a training exercise there in the summer of 1946 and felt it needed to do more. The northern winter was coming, and Highjump was a quickly planned exercise to move the whole thing to the South Pole. Politically, the orders were that the Navy should do all it could to establish a basis for a [land] claim in Antarctica. That was classified at the time.Now Operation High jump could probably be its own episode, or is at minimum a bonus. But we'll get some of the important details on how it pertains to this episode. Some say the American government sent their troops to the South Pole for any evidence of the rumored German Base 211. Nazis were fascinated with anything regarding the Aryan race. They traveled all over the world including Antarctica to learn more of alleged origins. The Germans did make their mark in the South Pole. However, what they have discovered doesn't compared to what Byrd recorded in his diary. the time. The nuclear age had just begun, and the real fears were that the Soviet Union would attack the United States over the North Pole. The Navy had done a training exerci but was that all it was “For thousands of years, people all over the world have written legends about Agartha (sometimes called Agarta or Agarthi), the underground city. Agartha (sometimes Agartta, Agharti, Agarath, Agarta or Agarttha) is a legendary kingdom that is said to be located in the Earth's core. Agartha is frequently associated or confused with Shambhala which figures prominently in Vajrayana Buddhism and Tibetan Kalachakra teachings and revived in the West by Madame Blavatsky and the Theosophical Society. Theosophists in particular regard Agarthi as a vast complex of caves underneath Tibet inhabited by demi-gods, called asuras. Helena and Nicholas Roerich, whose teachings closely parallel theosophy, see Shambhala's existence as both spiritual and physical. Did Byrd find it? He claims to have met “The Master,” the city's leader, who told him of his concerns about the surface world: “Our interest rightly begins just after your Race exploded the first atomic bombs over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. It was that alarming time we sent our flying machines, the ‘Flugelrads' to your surface world to investigate what your Race had done…You see, we have never interfered before in your Race's wars and barbarity. But now we must, for you have learned to tamper with a certain power that is not for your Man, mainly that of atomic energy. Our emissaries have already delivered messages to the power of your World, and yet they do not heed.” Apparently, the government knew about Agartha before Byrd. Marshall Gardner wrote A Journey to the Earth's Interior in 1913 and published an expanded edition in 1920. He placed an interior sun in the Earth (ah ha! The Sun's back!) and built a working model of the Hollow Earth which he actually fucking patented (U.S. Patent 1,096,102). Gardner made no mention of Reed, but did criticize Symmes for his ideas. DUEL TIME! Around the same time, Vladimir Obruchev wrote a novel titled Plutonia, in which the Hollow Earth possessed an inner Sun and was inhabited by prehistoric species. The interior was connected with the surface by an opening in the Arctic. The explorer Ferdynand Ossendowski wrote a book in 1922 titled Beasts, Men and Gods. Ossendowski said he was told about a subterranean kingdom that exists inside the Earth. It was known to Buddhists as Agharti. George Papashvily in his Anything Can Happen (1940) claimed the discovery in the Caucasus mountains of a cavern containing human skeletons "with heads as big as bushel baskets" and an ancient tunnel leading to the center of the Earth. One man entered the tunnel and never returned. This dude was a sniper with the Imperial Russian Army during World War I Moody is going to love these next examples. Novelist Lobsang Rampa in his book The Cave of the Ancients said an underground chamber system exists beneath the Himalayas of Tibet, filled with ancient machinery, records and treasure. Michael Grumley, a cryptozoologist, has linked Bigfoot and other hominid cryptids to ancient tunnel systems underground. According to the ancient astronaut writer Peter Kolosimo a robot was seen entering a tunnel below a monastery in Mongolia. Kolosimo also claimed a light was seen from underground in Azerbaijan. Kolosimo and other ancient astronaut writers such as Robert Charroux linked these activities to DUN DUN DUNNNN….UFOs. A book by a "Dr. Raymond Bernard" which appeared in 1964, The Hollow Earth, exemplifies the idea of UFOs coming from inside the Earth, and adds the idea that the Ring Nebula proves the existence of hollow worlds, as well as speculation on the fate of Atlantis and the origin of flying saucers. An article by Martin Gardner revealed that Walter Siegmeister used the pseudonym "Bernard", but not until the 1989 publishing of Walter Kafton-Minkel's Subterranean Worlds: 100,000 Years of Dragons, Dwarfs, the Dead, Lost Races & UFOs from Inside the Earth did the full story of Bernard/Siegmeister become well-known. Holy fucking book title, Batman! The science fiction pulp magazine Amazing Stories promoted one such idea from 1945 to 1949 as "The Shaver Mystery". The magazine's editor, Ray Palmer, ran a series of stories by Richard Sharpe Shaver, claiming that a superior pre-historic race had built a honeycomb of caves in the Earth, and that their degenerate descendants, known as "Dero", live there TO THIS DAY, using the fantastic machines abandoned by the ancient races to torment those of us living on the surface. As one characteristic of this torment, Shaver described "voices" that purportedly came from no explainable source. Thousands of readers wrote to affirm that they, too, had heard the fiendish voices from inside the Earth. The writer David Hatcher Childress authored Lost Continents and the Hollow Earth(1998) in which he reprinted the stories of Palmer and defended the Hollow Earth idea based on alleged (cough… “alleged”) tunnel systems beneath South America and Central Asia. Hollow Earth proponents have claimed a number of different locations for the entrances which lead inside the Earth. Other than the North and South poles, entrances in locations which have been cited include: Paris in France, Staffordshire in England, Montreal in Canada, Hangchow in China, and The Amazon Rain Forest. Ok, have you two gents heard of the Concave Hollow Earth Theory? It doesn't matter, we're still going to talk about this lunacy. Instead of saying that humans live on the outside surface of a hollow planet—sometimes called a "convex" Hollow Earth hypothesis—some whackamuffins have claimed humans live on the inside surface of a hollow spherical world, so that our universe itself lies in that world's interior. This has been called the "concave" Hollow Earth hypothesis or skycentrism. Cyrus Teed, a doctor from upstate New York, proposed such a concave Hollow Earth in 1869, calling his scheme "Cellular Cosmogony". He might as well have called it Goobery Kabooblenuts. See, I can make up words, too. Anyway, Teed founded a group called the Koreshan Unity based on this notion, which he called Koreshanity. Which sounds like insanity and would make far more sense. The main colony survives as a preserved Florida state historic site, at Estero, Florida, but all of Teed's followers have now died. Probably from eating Tide Pods. Teed's followers claimed to have experimentally verified the concavity of the Earth's curvature, through surveys of the Florida coastline making use of "rectilineator" equipment. Which sounds like something you use to clean out your colon. Several 20th-century German writers, including Peter Bender, Johannes Lang, Karl Neupert, and Fritz Braut, published works advocating the Hollow Earth hypothesis, or Hohlweltlehre. It has even been reported, although apparently without historical documentation, that Adolf Hitler was influenced by concave Hollow Earth ideas and sent an expedition in an unsuccessful attempt to spy on the British fleet by pointing infrared cameras up at the sky. Oh boy. The Egyptian mathematician Mostafa “Admiral Akbar” Abdelkader wrote several scholarly papers working out a detailed mapping of the Concave Earth model In one chapter of his book On the Wild Side (1992), Martin Gardner discusses the Hollow Earth model articulated by Abdelkader. According to Gardner, this hypothesis posits that light rays travel in circular paths, and slow as they approach the center of the spherical star-filled cavern. No energy can reach the center of the cavern, which corresponds to no point a finite distance away from Earth in the widely accepted scientific cosmology. A drill, Gardner says, would lengthen as it traveled away from the cavern and eventually pass through the "point at infinity" corresponding to the center of the Earth in the widely accepted scientific cosmology. Supposedly no experiment can distinguish between the two cosmologies. Christ, my head hurts. Gardner notes that "most mathematicians believe that an inside-out universe, with properly adjusted physical laws, is empirically irrefutable". Gardner rejects the concave Hollow Earth hypothesis on the basis of Occam's razor. Occam's razor is the problem-solving principle that "entities should not be multiplied beyond necessity", sometimes inaccurately paraphrased as "the simplest explanation is usually the best one." Purportedly verifiable hypotheses of a Concave Hollow Earth need to be distinguished from a thought experiment which defines a coordinate transformation such that the interior of the Earth becomes "exterior" and the exterior becomes "interior". (For example, in spherical coordinates, let radius r go to R2/r where R is the Earth's radius; see inversive geometry.) The transformation entails corresponding changes to the forms of physical laws. This is not a hypothesis but an illustration of the fact that any description of the physical world can be equivalently expressed in more than one way. Contrary evidence Seismic The picture of the structure of the Earth that has been arrived at through the study of seismic waves is quite different from a fully hollow Earth. The time it takes for seismic waves to travel through and around the Earth directly contradicts a fully hollow sphere. The evidence indicates the Earth is mostly filled with solid rock (mantle and crust), liquid nickel-iron alloy (outer core), and solid nickel-iron (inner core). Gravity Main articles: Schiehallion experiment and Cavendish experiment Another set of scientific arguments against a Hollow Earth or any hollow planet comes from gravity. Massive objects tend to clump together gravitationally, creating non-hollow spherical objects such as stars and planets. The solid spheroid is the best way in which to minimize the gravitational potential energy of a rotating physical object; having hollowness is unfavorable in the energetic sense. In addition, ordinary matter is not strong enough to support a hollow shape of planetary size against the force of gravity; a planet-sized hollow shell with the known, observed thickness of the Earth's crust would not be able to achieve hydrostatic equilibrium with its own mass and would collapse. Based upon the size of the Earth and the force of gravity on its surface, the average density of the planet Earth is 5.515 g/cm3, and typical densities of surface rocks are only half that (about 2.75 g/cm3). If any significant portion of the Earth were hollow, the average density would be much lower than that of surface rocks. The only way for Earth to have the force of gravity that it does is for much more dense material to make up a large part of the interior. Nickel-iron alloy under the conditions expected in a non-hollow Earth would have densities ranging from about 10 to 13 g/cm3, which brings the average density of Earth to its observed value. Direct observation Drilling holes does not provide direct evidence against the hypothesis. The deepest hole drilled to date is the Kola Superdeep Borehole, with a true vertical drill-depth of more than 7.5 miles (12 kilometers). However, the distance to the center of the Earth is nearly 4,000 miles (6,400 kilometers). Oil wells with longer depths are not vertical wells; the total depths quoted are measured depth (MD) or equivalently, along-hole depth (AHD) as these wells are deviated to horizontal. Their true vertical depth (TVD) is typically less than 2.5 miles (4 kilometers). Ok, then let's discuss what actual scientists, like ALL OF THEM, believe the earth is actually composed of. The inner core This solid metal ball has a radius of 1,220 kilometers (758 miles), or about three-quarters that of the moon. It's located some 6,400 to 5,180 kilometers (4,000 to 3,220 miles) beneath Earth's surface. Extremely dense, it's made mostly of iron and nickel. The inner core spins a bit faster than the rest of the planet. It's also intensely hot: Temperatures sizzle at 5,400° Celsius (9,800° Fahrenheit). That's almost as hot as the surface of the sun. Pressures here are immense: well over 3 million times greater than on Earth's surface. Some research suggests there may also be an inner, inner core. It would likely consist almost entirely of iron. The outer core This part of the core is also made from iron and nickel, just in liquid form. It sits some 5,180 to 2,880 kilometers (3,220 to 1,790 miles) below the surface. Heated largely by the radioactive decay of the elements uranium and thorium, this liquid churns in huge, turbulent currents. That motion generates electrical currents. They, in turn, generate Earth's magnetic field. For reasons somehow related to the outer core, Earth's magnetic field reverses about every 200,000 to 300,000 years. Scientists are still working to understand how that happens. The mantle At close to 3,000 kilometers (1,865 miles) thick, this is Earth's thickest layer. It starts a mere 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) beneath the surface. Made mostly of iron, magnesium and silicon, it is dense, hot and semi-solid (think caramel candy). Like the layer below it, this one also circulates. It just does so far more slowly. Near its upper edges, somewhere between about 100 and 200 kilometers (62 to 124 miles) underground, the mantle's temperature reaches the melting point of rock. Indeed, it forms a layer of partially melted rock known as the asthenosphere (As-THEEN-oh-sfeer). Geologists believe this weak, hot, slippery part of the mantle is what Earth's tectonic plates ride upon and slide across. Diamonds are tiny pieces of the mantle we can actually touch. Most form at depths above 200 kilometers (124 miles). But rare “super-deep” diamonds may have formed as far down as 700 kilometers (435 miles) below the surface. These crystals are then brought to the surface in volcanic rock known as kimberlite. The mantle's outermost zone is relatively cool and rigid. It behaves more like the crust above it. Together, this uppermost part of the mantle layer and the crust are known as the lithosphere. The crust Earth's crust is like the shell of a hard-boiled egg. It is extremely thin, cold and brittle compared to what lies below it. The crust is made of relatively light elements, especially silica, aluminum and oxygen. It's also highly variable in its thickness. Under the oceans (and Hawaiian Islands), it may be as little as 5 kilometers (3.1 miles) thick. Beneath the continents, the crust may be 30 to 70 kilometers (18.6 to 43.5 miles) thick. Along with the upper zone of the mantle, the crust is broken into big pieces, like a gigantic jigsaw puzzle. These are known as tectonic plates. These move slowly — at just 3 to 5 centimeters (1.2 to 2 inches) per year. What drives the motion of tectonic plates is still not fully understood. It may be related to heat-driven convection currents in the mantle below. Some scientists think it's caused by the tug from slabs of crust of different densities, something called “slab pull.” In time, these plates will converge, pull apart or slide past each other. Those actions cause most earthquakes and volcanoes. It's a slow ride, but it makes for exciting times right here on Earth's surface. https://www.imdb.com/list/ls003260126/?sort=user_rating,desc&st_dt=&mode=detail&page=1 BECOME A P.O.O.P.R.!! http://www.patreon.com/themidnighttrainpodcast Find The Midnight Train Podcast: www.themidnighttrainpodcast.com www.facebook.com/themidnighttrainpodcast www.twitter.com/themidnighttrainpc www.instagram.com/themidnighttrainpodcast www.discord.com/themidnighttrainpodcast www.tiktok.com/themidnighttrainp And wherever you listen to your favorite podcasts. Subscribe to our official YouTube channel: OUR YOUTUBE Support our sponsors www.themidnighttraintrainpodcast.com/sponsors The Charley Project www.charleyproject.org
Are you single? Still together? Kinda still together but not really? Sounds like you are in relationship purgatory my friend. How do you get out? Why would you stay in it? The guys tackle this issue head on. They get down and dirty with their own purgatory stories.
Steve – Who takes responsibility for sin? Carmen – Is it ok to wear my rosary? Jessica – Can the souls in Purgatory speak to us here on earth? Chris – Question regarding the transgender call from Eliza. Would you feel the same way Patrick if it was your daughter? Bruce – How aggressive should […] All show notes at The Patrick Madrid Show: September 20, 2021 – Hour 1 - This podcast produced by Relevant Radio
The Devil went up to Bethlehem, he was looking for the Bros this week, he brought cans of beer, a surly sneer, and was listening for prose critiques, your two hosts met the Slanderer and offered up a cheers, 'cause when rating brews you pay your dues if you want any sort of career.That's right listeners, this week we'll be talking about the Prince of Darkness, the Father of All Lies, the Author of all Sin, Dante. Er...that is, the Devil! We're rating Surly Brewing's "Give the Devil His Due" and discussing all manner of wicked fiends such as Count Chocula, Alice Cooper, and Prohibition laws. Paired with this beer is an excerpt from Dante's The Inferno, where we get one of the first descriptions of Satan in verse form. Of course we'll discuss some of the other people Dante meets in hell, including of course Harry Potter, but don't let me spoil all the surprises. Tune in, and as always, enjoy.Cheers!
Jennifer says that Catholic's behavior in the parking lot after Mass on Sunday made her think twice about becoming #Catholic, why is it necessary to be Catholic when I am already a good #Christian?, why focus so much on praying for the souls in #Purgatory?, How do we prove that #Jesus really rose from the dead?, and am I risking my sainthood if I get the #vaccine? #Catholicism #Christianity #Apologetics #Covid19 #prayer
Patrick comments on his experience at the Christ Brings Hope and shares the story that he told the gala last night Anne – The book on Purgatory you recommended is kind of scaring me. If priests and nuns are spending such a long time there, people like me don’t have a chance. Patrick explains what […] All show notes at The Patrick Madrid Show: September 17, 2021 – Hour 1 - This podcast produced by Relevant Radio
Tonight we're chatting with Chris Beyrooty and Connor Martin, directors and writers of Shelter in Place, releasing on digital September 14, 2021.Directed and Written by Chris Beyrooty and Connor Martin, SHELTER IN PLACE stars Brendan Hines (The Tick, Lie to Me), Tatjana Marjanovic (Great White, Purgatory), Kevin Daniels (Atypical, Modern Family, The Big Leap), Ola Kaminska (The Madness Within), and Jey Reynolds.SYNOPSIS: A honeymooning couple gets stranded at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel and learns that there is more to fear than just cabin fever.
Jennifer says that Catholic's behavior in the parking lot after Mass on Sunday made her think twice about becoming #Catholic, why is it necessary to be Catholic when I am already a good #Christian?, why focus so much on praying for the souls in #Purgatory?, How do we prove that #Jesus really rose from the dead?, and am I risking my sainthood if I get the #vaccine? #Catholicism #Christianity #Apologetics #Covid19 #prayer
We continued this evening with our reading of Hypothesis IX. As always the stories that we are given from the Fathers are both comforting and fiercely challenging. We heard first about how saintly souls are able to see divine things. Because of their purity of heart and by the grace of God they are able to have a vision of things beyond the limits of the human mind and our capacity for perceiving the hidden realities around us. We also heard about the reality of Hell itself through the experience of these holy Fathers. Hell is presented very much as the opposite of the complete intimacy and communion the faithful soul shares with the eternal Trinity. If that life is lacking in nothing and knows the fullness of love, Hell is the experience of complete isolation from God and one another. Those who were blessed to receive the fullness of revelation in Christ, those who know His teaching and yet turned away from it, come to experience the deeper loss. For the judgment that comes upon them is not only due to their sinful actions and deeds, it also due to the fact that they have lead others to blaspheme the name of God and to insult God. “He who has ears to hear, let him hear.” --- Text of chat during the group: 00:13:20 D Fraley: Would you go back? 00:14:35 Rachel (30): FR. John McGuckin has a good talk on St. Cyril 00:14:47 Rachel (30): Do you have pictures of the Sinai icons? 00:16:30 Ashley Kaschl: I'm with you, Ren. It's WAY easier to warm up than cool off. 00:38:18 Rachel (30): Yes! Exactly what I was hoping to be addressed today. The renewal of the Church through the Fathers.. 00:39:51 Rachel (30): I have encountered suspicion at times, in the West, of the Fathers, the writings of the Philokalia, Cassian, Climacus, Maximos,,I think it our blessing, priviledge and patrimony..to be able to have access to these teachings and writings. 00:42:30 Ambrose Little: “I agree with all that you have said.” 00:42:50 Carol Nypaver:
In this episode we profile the beautiful Ancona Chicken, take you on a fun timeline to the modern chicken lady, share our recipe for eggs poached in tomato sauce, and review a watercolor art Etsy Shop, Living in the Lovelies.From now until the end of September, our sponsor, Grubbly Farms, is offering our listeners 25% off your purchase for first time buyers! That's a fantastic value! This offer does not apply to subscriptions and cannot be used with any other discounts. Click here for our affiliate link and use our code CWTCL25 to get your discount.Livestock Conservancy's Breeders Directoryhttps://livestockconservancy.org/heritage-breeds/breeders-directory/Chicken Luv Boxhttps://www.chickenluv.com/Invisible Guardians: Women Manage Livestock Diversity, FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS Rome, 2012 http://www.fao.org/3/i3018e/i3018e00.pdfGoing Places : Where Chickens and Women RuleVideo by International Livestock Research Institutehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nN3JkjAOuc8Eggs in Purgatory - Poached Eggs in Marinara Saucehttps://coffeewiththechickenladies.com/farm-fresh-egg-recipes/poached-eggs-in-marinara-sauce/Living in the Lovelies Etsy Shophttps://www.etsy.com/shop/livingintheloveliesCWTCL Websitehttps://coffeewiththechickenladies.com/CWTCL Etsy Shophttps://coffeewiththechickenladies.com/CWTCL Amazon Recommendationshttps://coffeewiththechickenladies.com/CWTCL Instagramhttps://coffeewiththechickenladies.com/Support the show (https://www.patreon.com/coffeewiththechickenladies)
SEPTEMBER TOPIC: The Cecil Hotel Check out Buzz Killers every Sunday for new episodes! In episode forty eight we discuss the crimes of Austria's First Serial Killer, Jack Unterweger. On December 11, 1974, Jack Unterweger murdered 18 year old Margaret Schaefer in cold blood. For this crime, Jack was sentenced to life in prison by an Austrian court. Deciding to make use of his time in prison and "better himself," Jack learned to read and write and quick realized he had a talent for the written word. His memoir, Purgatory, would become a best seller while he was in prison. The Austrian Elite would soon praise his work and petition for Jack's release in the name of prison reform. He was released on May 23, 1990 on parole, after only serving 15 years of his life sentence. For the next two years, Jack would go on a murderous rampage that would see him charged for crimes in three different countries and would make the Austrian authorities question if they had done the right thing by making Jack their poster boy for prison reform. For this episode we drank Once Upon A Vine Sauvignon Blanc! Check out The Wine Bar to see their full selection. Music made by M.Eighmey on Soundtrap Sources: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/murderer-s-final-freedom-the-bizarre-life-of-jack-unterweger-poet-and-killer-of-prostitutes-ends-at-his-own-hand-1417861.html https://www.biography.com/crime-figure/jack-unterweger https://murderpedia.org/male.U/u/unterweger-jack.htm https://allthatsinteresting.com/jack-unterweger https://www.marieclaire.com.au/who-is-jack-unterweger-cecil-hotel Serial Killers: “The Vienna Strangler” Pt. 1 & 2 - Jack Unterweger, Parcast Network, Sept 2019, Available on Spotify https://www.the-sun.com/news/2352799/netflix-vanishing-cecil-hotel-killer-jack-unterweger/ https://www.popsugar.com/entertainment/who-was-killer-jack-unterweger-48141838 https://www.ranker.com/list/jack-unterweger-facts/cat-mcauliffe https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1994-06-30-me-10223-story.html https://www.nydailynews.com/true-crime-justice-story/ny-vienna-woods-killer-20200816-h4wwajrgevh6zltwo4xfv3lfiq-story.html Biography - Jack Unterweger -BBC (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jd8rNNaWEhw) The FBI Files - Killer Abroad - Season 2 Episode 14 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BylXQN28CAU) World's Most Evil Killers - Season 2, Episode 18 - Jack Unterweger (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ScpHyuEHUjg) https://the-line-up.com/jack-unterweger https://hellhorror.com/serial-killers/jack-unterweger-serial-killer-74.html **This episode is brought to you by BK Creations, LLC. **
Does #Catholicism have some pagan elements?, is #Hinduism more true than the Catholic #faith because it is older?, is Purgatory in the #Bible?, and why go to Church when some people are so rude there? #God #Jesus #Christianity #Church
My mom was a #Holocaust survivor: would it be moral to make a claim against the German government now that it's possible?, any comments from the #Church on taking anti-anxiety medication?, is the #Eucharist efficacious when Protestants try to confer it?, and how does being in #Purgatory until the end of time reflect #God's #mercy? #Christian #Catholicism #Protestant #anxiety #WWII
Today's readings are from Notebook 3, numbers 1224-1230. We will finish up the Novena today by covering three days. The readings will be a little longer but when we are done, we will finish up Notebook 3. Here are the souls we are to bring today. Day 7: Those souls that venerate and glorify God's mercy. Day 8: Souls in the prison of Purgatory. Day 9: Lukewarm souls
Questions Covered: 04:33 – In Acts 3:13-16, Peter says twice the Jewish people denied the holy and righteous one. Why does he say this about others when he did it himself? 07:10 – Is there any effect the Eucharist has on an unborn child when his mother receives it? 11:21 – Can you still receive the Holy Spirit if you smoke cigarettes? 15:12 – When they took all the animals on Noah's Ark, did that include the dinosaurs? 17:35 – When Jesus forgave the paralytic's sins, did Jesus forgive the sins that caused him to become paralyzed, or did he forgive unrelated sins? 28:29 – How do you avoid discouragement when your good deeds aren't accepted by the world? 35:39 – Does the cloud of witnesses (Heb 12) include those in Purgatory? And are they aware of our life events? 43:21 – What's the difference between Jesus's Ascension into heaven and Mary's Assumption into heaven? 45:58 – How did we transition from worshipping on Saturdays to Sundays when Genesis says God sanctified the seventh day? 53:20 – What does the Bible mean when it says St. Paul was forgiven out of ignorance? …
(0:00) Intro (3:00) Fixing the Texans (14:30) Eagles Discussion (27:00) Lions Discussion (33:00) Broncos Discussion (45:00) Vikings Discussion (1:16:00) Raiders Discussion (1:26:00) QB Tiers
What is #Catholic #Church's view and response to #transgenderism and gender theory?, how come there isn't much fellowship in the Catholic Church?, #Purgatory, on different #Christian denominations, and why in some places can't we receive Communion on the tongue anymore? #EWTN #apologetics #Jesus
What is #Catholic #Church's view and response to #transgenderism and gender theory?, how come there isn't much fellowship in the Catholic Church?, #Purgatory, on different #Christian denominations, and why in some places can't we receive Communion on the tongue anymore? #EWTN #apologetics #Jesus