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People from Afghanistan

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Craig Peterson's Tech Talk
Do You Know How Crypto's Nose-dive Will Even Hurt Your 401K?

Craig Peterson's Tech Talk

Play Episode Listen Later May 21, 2022 83:25


Do You Know How Crypto's Nose-dive Will Even Hurt Your 401K? Hey, it looks like if you did not invest in "Crypto," you were making a smart move! Wow. We got a lot to talk about here. Crypto has dived big time. It's incredible. What's happened? We get into that and more. [Following is an automated transcript] Hi everybody. Craig Peterson here. Appreciate your joining me today. Spend a little bit of time with me. It's always a fun thing to do thanks for coming in. And Thanks for sticking around.  [00:00:29] Crypto currencies. It's a term for all kinds of these basically non-government sanctioned currencies. [00:00:39] And the idea behind it was I should be able to trade with you and you should be able to trade with me. We should be able to verify the transactions and it's nobody's business as to what's happening behind the scenes. And yet in reality, Everybody's business because all of those transactions are recorded in a very public way. [00:01:03] So crypto in this case does not mean secret or cryptography. It's actually referring to the way the ledgers work and your wallet. And in fact, the actual coins themselves, a lot of people have bought. I was talking with my friend, Matt earlier this week and Matt was saying, Hey, listen I made a lot of money off a crypto. [00:01:29] He's basically a day trader. He watches it. And is it going up? Is it going down? Which coin is doge coin? The way to go? Because Elon Musk just mentioned it. Is it something else? What should I do? And he buys and sells and has made money off of it. However, a lot of people have. And held on to various cryptocurrencies. [00:01:51] Of course, the most popular one. The one everybody knows about is Bitcoin and Bitcoin is pretty good stuff, bottom line, but 40% right now of Bitcoin investors are underway. Isn't that incredible because of the major drop-off from the November peak. And this was all started by a problem that was over at something called Terra Luna, which is another cryptocurrency now. [00:02:22] Already that there is a ton of vulnerable vol a ton of changes in price in various cryptocurrencies, Bitcoin being of course a real big one where, we've seen 5,000, $10,000 per Bitcoin drops. It really is an amazingly fluid if you will coin. So there's a number of different people that have come out with some plans. [00:02:47] How about if we do like what the us dollar used to do, which is it's tied to a specific amount of gold or tied to a specific amount of silver. And of course, it's been a while since that was the case. President Nixon is the one that got us off of those standards. Having a gold, for instance, back in your currency means that there is going to be far less fluctuation and your currency means something. [00:03:16] See, the whole idea behind currency markets for government is yeah, you do print money and you do continue to increase the amount of money you print every year. Because what you're trying to do is create money for the. Good product services that are created as well. So if we created another million dollars worth of services in the economy, there should be another million dollars in circulation that's the basic theory. [00:03:46] Monetary theory, really boiling. Down now of course, already our government is printed way more than it. Maybe should have. It is certainly causing inflation. There's no doubt about that one. So they're looking at these various cryptocurrencies and say what can we do? How can we have a gold standard where the us dollar was the currency the world used and its value was known. [00:04:10] Having a stable currency is incredibly important for consumers and businesses. The business needs to know, Hey, listen, like we signed a three-year contract with our vendors and with our customers. And so we need a stable price. So we know what's our cost going to be, what can we charge our customer here? [00:04:30] Can the customer bear the price increases, et cetera. The answer to most of those questions of course is no, they really can't is particularly in this day and age. So having a. Fixed currency. We know how much it's worth. I know in two years from now, I'm not going to be completely upside down with this customer because I'm having to eat some major increases in prices. [00:04:55] And as a consumer, you want to look at it and say, wow, I've got a variable rate interest rate on my mortgage. And man, I remember friends of mine back in the eighties, early eighties, late seventies, who just got nailed by those. They had variable rate interest loan on their home because that's all they could get. [00:05:14] That's all they could afford. So the variable rate just kept going up. It was higher than credit cards are nowadays. I remember a friend of mine complaining. They had 25% interest and that's when they lost the house because 25% interest means if you have a hundred thousand dollar loan, you got $25,000 in interest that year, let alone principal payments. [00:05:36] So it, it was a really. I think it was really hard for people to, to deal with. And I can understand that. So the cryptocurrency guys. I said, okay, let's tie it to something else. So the value has a value and part of what they were trying to tie it to is the us dollar. That's some currencies decided to do that. [00:06:00] And there were others that tried to tie it to actual. Assets. So it wasn't just tied to the dollar. It was okay. We have X dollars in this bank account and that's, what's backing the value of our currency, which is quite amazing, to think about that. Some of them are backed by gold or other precious metals. [00:06:24] Nowadays that includes a lot of different metals. This one coin called Terra Luna dropped almost a hundred percent last year. Isn't that amazing. And it had a sister token called Tara USD, which Tara Luna was tied to. Now, this is all called stable coin. The idea is the prices will be staying. [00:06:46] And in the case of Tara and Tara USD, the stability was provided by a computer program. So there's nothing really behind it, other than it can be backed by the community currencies themselves. So th that's something like inter coin, for instance, this is another one of the, there are hundreds of them out there of these cryptocurrencies. [00:07:13] Yeah. The community backs it. So goods and services that you can get in some of these communities is what gives value to inter coin money system. Now that makes sense too, right? Because the dollar is only worth something to you. If it's worth something to someone else, if you were the only person in the world that had us dollars, who would want. [00:07:36] Obviously the economy is working without us dollars. So why would they try and trade with you? If you had something called a us dollar that nobody else had, or you came up with something, you made something up out of thin air and said, okay, this is now worth this much. Or it's backed by that. [00:07:56] Because if again, if he can't spend it, it's not worth anything. Anyhow, this is a very big deal because on top of these various cryptocurrencies losing incredible amounts of money over the last couple of weeks, We have another problem with cryptocurrencies. If you own cryptocurrencies, you have, what's called a wallet and that wallet has a transaction number that's used for you to track and others to track the money that you have in the cryptocurrencies. [00:08:29] And it's pretty good. Function or feature it's hard for a lot of people to do so they have these kinds of crypto banks. So if you have one of these currencies, you can just have your currency on deposit at this bank because there's a whole bunch of reasons, but one of the reasons is that. [00:08:50] There is a run on a bank, or if there's a run on a cryptocurrency, currencies have built into them incredibly expensive penalties. If you try and liquidate that cryptocurrency quickly. And also if there are a lot of people trying to liquidate it. So you had a double whammy and people were paying more than three. [00:09:13] Coin in order to sell Bitcoin. And so think about that and think about much a Bitcoin's worth, which is tens of thousands of dollars. So it's overall, this is a problem. It's been a very big problem. So people put it into a bank. So Coinbase is one of the big one called Coinbase, had its first quarter earnings report. [00:09:37] Now, this is the U S is largest cryptocurrency exchange and they had a quarterly loss for the first quarter of 2022 of $430 million. That's their loss. And they had an almost 20% drop in monthly users of coins. So th that's something right. And they put it in their statement. Their quarterly statement here is to, WhatsApp. [00:10:07] Here's the real scary part Coinbase said in its earnings report. Last Tuesday that it holds. $256 billion in both Fiat currencies and cryptocurrencies on behalf of its customer. So Fiat currencies are things like the federal reserve notes are U S dollar, okay. Quarter of a trillion dollars that it's holding for other people think of it like a bank. [00:10:36] However, they said in the event, Coinbase we ever declare bankruptcy, quote, the crypto assets. We hold in custody on behalf of our customers could be subject to bankruptcy proceedings. Coinbase users would become general unsecured creditors, meaning they have no right to claim any specific property from the exchange in proceedings people's funds would become in accessible. [00:11:06] A very big deal. Very scary for a very good reasons. Hey, when we come back a website, no, you go, you type stuff in my email address, do you know? You don't even have to hit submit. In most cases, they're stealing it. [00:11:23] I'm sure you've heard of JavaScript into your browser. This is a programming language that actually runs programs right there in your web browser, whether you like it or not. And we just had a study on this. A hundred thousand websites are collecting. Information upfront. [00:11:40] Hi, I'm Craig Peterson, your chief information security officer. This is not a surprising thing to me. I have in my web browser, I have JavaScript turned off for most websites that I go to now, Java script is a programming language and then lets them do some pretty cool things on a webpage. [00:12:02] In fact, that's the whole idea behind Java. Just like cookies on a web browser, where they have a great use, which is to help keep track of what you're doing on the website, where you're going, pulling up other information that you care about, right? Part of your navigation can be done with cookies. They go on and on in their usefulness. [00:12:23] Part of the problem is that people are using them to track you online. So like Facebook and many others will go ahead and have their cookies on the other websites. So they know where you're going, what you're doing, even when you're not on Facebook, that's by the way, part of. The Firefox browsers been trying to overcome here. [00:12:48] They have a special fenced in mode that happens automatically when you're using Firefox on Facebook. Pretty good. Pretty cool. The apple iOS device. Use a different mechanism. And in fact, they're already saying that Facebook and some of these others who sell advertiser in from advertisers information about you have really had some major losses in revenue because apple is blocking their access to certain information about you back to Jarvis. [00:13:24] It's a programming language that they can use to do almost anything on your web browser. Bad guys have figured out that if they can get you to go to a website or if they can insert an ad onto a page that you're visiting, they can then use. Your web browser, because it's basically just a computer to do what while to mine, Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies. [00:13:51] So you're paying for the electricity for them as your computer is sitting there crunching on these algorithms that they need to use to figure out the, how to find the next Bitcoin or whatever. And you are only noticing that your device is slowing down. For instance, our friends over on the Android platform have found before that sometimes their phones are getting extremely hot, even when they're not using them. [00:14:18] And we found that yeah, many times that's just. Bitcoin miner who has taken over partial control of your phone just enough to mind Bitcoin. And they did that through your web browser and JavaScript. So you can now see some of the reasons that I go ahead and disable JavaScript on most websites I go to now, some websites aren't going to work. [00:14:40] I want to warn you up front. If you go into your browser settings and turn off JavaScript, you are going. Break a number of websites, in fact many of the websites that are out there. So you got to figure out which sites do you want it on? Which sites don't you want it on? But there's another problem that we have found just this week. [00:15:00] And it is based on a study that was done as reported in ARS Technica, but they found. A hundred thousand top websites, a hundred thousand top websites. These include signing up for a newsletter or making a hotel reservation, checking out online. You probably take for granted that you nothing happens until you hit submit, right? [00:15:25] That used to be the case in web one dot O day. It isn't anymore. Now I want to point out we, I have thousands of people who are on my email list. So every week they get my insider show notes. So these are the top articles of the week. They are, usually six to 10 articles, usually eight of them that are talking about cybersecurity, things of importance. [00:15:51] The whole radio show and podcasts are based on those insider show notes that I also share with the host of all of the different radio shows and television shows that I appear on. It's pretty, pretty cool. So they get that, but I do not use this type of technology. Yeah. There's some Java script. [00:16:11] That'll make a little signup thing come up at the top of the screen, but I am not using technology that is in your face or doing. What these people are doing, right? So you start filling out a form. You haven't hit cement. And have you noticed all of a sudden you're getting emails from. It's happened to me before. [00:16:31] Your assumption about hitting submit, isn't always the case. Some researchers from KU Leuven university and university of Lu sane, crawled and analyze the top 100,000 websites. So crawling means they have a little robot that goes to visit the web page, downloads all of the code that's on the page. [00:16:55] And then. Analyzed it all so what they found was that a user visiting a site, if the user is in the European union is treated differently than someone who visits the site from the United States. Now there's a good reason for it. We've helped companies with complying with the GDPR, which are these protection rules that are in place in the European union. [00:17:21] And that's why you're seeing so many websites. Mine included that say, Hey, listen, we do collect some information on you. You can click here to find out more and there's some websites let you say no. I don't want you to have any information about me where you collect information, just so that you can navigate the site properly. [00:17:39] Okay. Very basic, but that's why European union users are treated differently than those coming from the United States. So this new research found that over 1800 websites gathered an EU users' email address without their consent. So it's almost 2000 websites out of the top 100,000. If you're in the EU and they found. [00:18:07] About well, 3000 website logged a U S users' email in some form. Now that's, before you hit submit. So you start typing in your email, you type in your name and you don't hit cement. Many of the sites are apparently grabbing that information, putting it into the database and maybe even started using it before you gave them explicit permission to do. [00:18:36] Isn't that a fascinating and the 1800 sites that gathered information on European news union users without their consent are breaking the law. That's why so many us companies decided they had to comply with the GDPR because it's a real big problem. So these guys also crawled websites for password leaks and made 2021, and they found 52 websites where third parties, including Yandex, Yandex is. [00:19:11] Big Russian search engine and more we're collecting password data before submission. So since then the group went ahead and let the websites know what was happening, what they found because it's not necessarily intentional by the website itself. It might be a third party, but third-party piece of software. [00:19:33] That's doing it. They w they informed those sites. Hey, listen, you're collecting user data before there's been explicit consent to collect it. In other words, you, before you hit the submit button and they thought, wow, this is very surprising. They thought they might find a few hundred website. In the course of a year now they've found that there were over 3000 websites really that were doing this stuff. [00:20:01] So they presented their findings that use neck. Oh, actually they haven't presented them yet because it's going to be a useful. In August and these are what the cold leaky forum. So yet another reason to turn off JavaScript when you can. But I also got to add a lot of the forums do not work if JavaScript's not enabled. [00:20:23] So we got to do something about it. Maybe complain, make sure they aren't collecting your. Maybe I should do a little course on that once you can figure out are they doing it before I even give them permission? Anyhow, this is Greg Peterson. Visit me online, Craig Peter, som.com and sign up for that. No obligation insider show notes. [00:20:44] We are shipping all kinds of military equipment over to Ukraine. And right now they're talking about another $30 billion worth of equipment being shipped to what was the world's number one arms dealer. [00:21:00] I'm looking right now at an article that was in the Washington post. And some of their stuff is good. [00:21:07] Some of their stuff is bad, I guess like pretty much any media outlet, but they're raising some really good points here. One of them is that we are shipping some pretty advanced equipment and some not so advanced equipment to you. To help them fight in this war to protect themselves from Russia. [00:21:31] Now, all of that's pretty common. Ultimately looking back in history, there have been a lot of people who've made a lot of money off of wars. Many of the big banks financing, both sides of wars. Going way, way back and coming all the way up through the 20th century. And part of the way people make money in war time is obviously making the equipment and supplies and stuff that the armies need. [00:22:03] The other way that they do it is by trading in arms. So not just the supplies. The bullets all the way through the advanced missile systems. Now there's been some concerns because of what we have been seen online. We've talked about telegram here before, not the safest webs, app to use or to keep in touch. [00:22:28] It's really an app for your phone. And it's being used by. Ukraine to really coordinate some of their hacker activities against Russia. They've also been using it in Russia to have telegram that is in order to communicate with each other. Ukraine has posted pictures of some of the killed soldiers from Russia and people have been reaching out to their mothers in Russia. [00:22:57] They've done a lot of stuff with telegram. It's interesting. And hopefully eventually we'll find out what the real truth is, right? Because all of a sudden hides in the military, he uses a lot of propaganda, right? The first casualty in war is the truth. It always has been. So we're selling to a comm country, Ukraine that has made a lot of money off of selling. [00:23:22] Then systems being an intimate intermediary. So you're not buying the system from Russia? No. You're buying it from Ukraine and it has been of course, just as deadly, but now we are sending. Equipment military grade equipment to Ukraine. We could talk about just that a lot. I mentioned the whole Lend-Lease program many months ago now teams to be in the news. [00:23:50] Now it takes a while for the mainstream media to catch up with us. I'm usually about six to 12 weeks ahead of what they're talking about. And it's so when we're talking about Lynn Lee sent me. We're not giving it to them. We're not selling it to them. We're just lending them the equipment or perhaps leasing it just like we did for the United Kingdom back in world war two, not a bad idea. [00:24:16] If you want to get weapons into the hands of an adversary and not really, or not an adversary, but an ally or potential ally against an adversary that you have, and they have. But part of the problem is we're talking about Ukraine here. Ukraine was not invited in Donato because it was so corrupt. You might remember. [00:24:39] They elected a new president over there that president started investigating, hired a prosecutor to go after the corruption in Ukraine. And then you heard president Joe Biden, vice president at the time bragging about how he got this guy shut down. Yeah, he got the prosecutor shut down the prosecutor that had his sights on, of course hunter Biden as well as other people. [00:25:03] So it's a real problem, but. Let's set that aside for now, we're talking about Ukraine and the weapon systems who we've been sending over there. There have been rumors out there. I haven't seen hard evidence, but I have seen things in various papers worldwide talking about telegram, saying. The Ukrainians have somehow gotten their hands on these weapons and are selling them on telegram. [00:25:32] Imagine that a effectively kind of a dark web thing, so we're saying the byte administration okay. There, that none of this is going to happen. Why? Because we went ahead and we put into the contracts that they could not sell or share or give any of this equipment away without the explicit permission of the United States, governor. [00:25:57] Okay. That kind of sounds like it's not a bad idea. I would certainly put it into any contract like this, no question, but what could, what happened here? If this equipment falls into the hands of our adversaries or our other Western countries, NATO countries, how do you keep track of them? It's very hard to do. [00:26:18] How do you know who's actually using. Very hard to do so in forcing these types of contracts is very difficult, which makes the contract pretty weak, frankly. And then let's look at Washington DC, the United States, according to the Washington post in mid April, gave Ukraine a fleet of M 17 helicopter. Now, these are my 17 helicopters are Russian, originally Soviet designs. [00:26:51] Okay. And they were bought by the United States. About 10 years ago, we bought them for Afghans government, which of course now has been deposed, but we still have our hands on some of these helicopters. And when we bought them from Russia, We signed a contract. The United States signed a contract promising not to transfer the helicopters to any third country quote without the approval of the Russian Federation. [00:27:23] Now that's according to a copy of the certificate that's posted on the website of Russia's federal service on military technical cooperation. Russia has come out and said that our transfer, those helicopters has grossly violated the foundations of international law. And you know what they think it has, right? [00:27:43] Arms experts are saying the Russia's aggression Ukraine more than justifies you. I support, but the violations of the weapons contracts, man, that really hurts our credibility and our we're not honoring these contracts. How can we expect you crane to honor those contracts? That's where the problem really comes in. [00:28:07] And it's ultimately a very big problem. So this emergency spending bill that it, the $30 billion. Makes you crane, the world's single largest recipient of us security assistance ever. They've received more in 2022 than United States ever provided to Afghanistan, Iraq, or Israel in a single. [00:28:33] So they're adding to the stockpiles of weapons that we've already committed. We've got 1400 stinger and the aircraft systems, 5,500 anti-tank missiles, 700 switch blade drones, nine 90. Excuse me, long range Howard. There's that's our Chellora 7,000 small arms. 50 million rounds of ammunition and other minds, explosives and laser guided rocket systems, according to the Washington post. [00:29:03] So it's fascinating to look. It's a real problem. And now that we've got the bad guys who are using the dark web, remember the dark web system that we set up, the onion network. Yeah. That one they can take these, they can sell them, they can move them around. It is a real problem. A very big problem. What are we going to do when all of those weapons systems come back aimed at us this time? [00:29:32] It's one thing to leave billions of dollars worth of helicopters, et cetera, back in Afghanistan is the Biden administration did with her crazy withdrawal tactic. But at least those will wear out the bullets, missile systems, Howard, a different deal. [00:29:51] It seems like the government calls a war on everything, the war against drugs or against poverty. Now we are looking at a war against end-to-end encryption by governments worldwide, including our own. [00:30:07] The European union is following in America's footsteps steps again, only a few years behind this time. [00:30:16] But it's not a good thing. In this case, you might remember a few have been following cybersecurity. Like I have back in the Clinton administration, there was a very heavy push for something called the clipper chip. And I think that your whole clipper chip. Actually started with the Bush administration and it was a bad thing because what they were trying to do is force all businesses to use this encryption chip set that was developed and promoted by the national security agency. [00:30:52] And it was supposed to be an encryption device that is used to secure voice and data messages. And it had a built-in. Back door that allowed federal state, local law enforcement, anybody that had the key, the ability to decode any intercepted voice or data transmissions. It was introduced in 93 and was thank goodness. [00:31:19] Defunct by 1996. So it used something called skipjack, man. I remember that a lot and use it to transfer Dilley or defi, excuse me, Hellman key exchange. I've worked with that maybe for crypto keys that used it. Use the Dez algorithm, the data encryption standard, which is still used today. And the Clinton administration argued that the clipper chip was. [00:31:46] Absolutely essential for law enforcement to keep up with a constantly progressing technology in the United States. And a lot of people believe that using this would act as frankly, an additional way for terrorists to receive information and to break into encrypted information. And the Clinton administration argued that it would increase national security because terrorists would have to use it to communicate with outsiders, bank, suppliers, contacts, and the government could listen in on those calls, are we supposed to in the United States have a right to be secure in our papers and other things, right? That the federal government has no right to come into any of that stuff unless they get a court order. So they were saying we would take this key. We'll make sure that it's in a lock box, just like Al gore social security money. [00:32:41] And no one would be able to get their hands on it, except anyone that wanted to, unless there was a court order and you know how this stuff goes. And it just continues to progress. A lot worse. There was a lot of backlash by it. The electronic privacy information center, electronic frontier foundation boast, both pushed back saying that it would be. [00:33:05] Only have the effect of have not, excuse me, have the effect of, this is a quote, not only subjecting citizens to increased impossibly illegal government surveillance, but that the strength of the clipper Chip's encryption could not be evaluated by the public as it's designed. It was classified secret and that therefore individuals and businesses might be hobbled with an insecure communication system, which is absolutely true. [00:33:33] And the NSA went on to do some things like pollute, random number generators and other things to make it so that it was almost impossible to have end-to-end encrypted data. So we were able to kill. Many years ago. Now what about 30 years ago? When they introduced this thing? It took a few years to get rid of it, but now the EU is out there saying they want to stop and end encryption. [00:34:00] The United States has already said that the new director of Homeland security has, and as well as Trump's again Homeland security people said we need to be able to break the. And we've talked about some of those stories, real world stories of things that have happened because of the encryption. [00:34:20] So the EU is now got our proposal forward. That would force tech companies to scan private messages for child sexual abuse material called CSM and evidence of grooming. Even when those messages are supposed to be protected by indenting. So we know how this goes, right? It starts at something that everybody can agree on, right? [00:34:48] This child, sexual abuse material abductions of children, there's still a lot of slavery going on in the world. All of that stuff needs to be stopped. And so we say, yeah. Okay. That makes a whole lot of sense, but where does it end? Online services that receive detection orders. This is from ARS Technica under the pending European union legislation would have obligations concerning the detection, the reporting, the removal, and blocking of known and. [00:35:20] Child sexual abuse material, as well as the solicitation of children. So what we're starting to see here in the us is some apps, some companies that make smartphones, for instance, looking at pictures that are sent and shared to see if it looks like it might be pornographic in. Because again, we're seeing the younger kids who are sending pictures of each other naked or body parts and they get to others. [00:35:46] If you can believe that. Absolutely incredible. But what happens when you send them using an end-to-end encrypted app? Now, my advice for people who want to keep information private, you're a business person you're working on a deal. You don't go to Twitter like Elon Musk and put it out there for the world. [00:36:08] Although, I'm sure he's got some ulterior motives in doing that. You use an app called signal. That's certainly the best one that's out there right now. It provides a whole lot of encryption and privacy, and even has some stuff built in to break the software. That's often used to break into the end to end encryption systems. [00:36:29] So they're trying to get this in place here. They're calling it an important security tool. But it's ordering companies to break that end to end encryption by whatever technological means necessary. It's going to be hard because it's, frankly, it's going to be impossible for them to enforce this because you can take encrypted data and make it look like. [00:36:53] Anything, and man has that happened for a long time? Think of the microdots way back when, certainly in rural world war two and on, they were very popular there's techniques to encrypt data and embedded in a photograph and make it almost impossible to detect. So again they're not going to get to do what they're hoping to do. [00:37:18] And I think that's an important thing for everybody. Please pay close attention to, so they do want to get rid of end-to-end there's WhatsApp out there, which I don't really trust because it's owned by Facebook, but that's supposedly end to end. There's end to end encryption on apple. I message. Although. [00:37:38] Apparently, there are some ways to get into that. I think apple is now maintaining a secondary key that they can use to decrypt, but the back doors that the us has called for and other people have called for. I have been pushed back by companies like apple CEO, Tim cook, oppose the government mandated back doors. [00:38:01] Of course, apple got a major backlash from security experts when in veiled, a plan to how I phones and other devices, scan user photos for child sexual abuse images. That's what I was referring to earlier. And apple put that plan on hold and promised to make changes. But this is apple all over again. And it's hard to say what's the least privacy intrusive way, because if the ISP can read them all, if the company that's providing new with the app that you're using to send the message. [00:38:34] I can read them all, how much privacy is there and if they can read it, who else can read it and what can be done with it? Blackmail has happened many times in the past because someone got their hands on something. So what happens when a Congressman or the military or someone in the military uses that's another problem. [00:38:54] Because if we don't know the way the encryption is being used or is made just like, was true with a clipper chip. And then we move on to the next step, which is okay. So what do we do now with this data that we're storing? Are they going to keep that data confidential? Can they keep it out of the hands of the criminals. [00:39:17] We've certainly found that they just haven't been able to. And if you're talking about grooming, which is what the European union wants. In other words, someone that's trying to get a child to the point where they're doing something that would be important. You've got two. Look at all of the messages, you have to have them analyze by some sort of an AI artificial intelligence, and then ultimately analyzed by people. [00:39:42] It's just going to get worse and worse. This is the most sophisticated mass surveillance machinery. That has ever been deployed outside of China in the USSR. It's absolutely incredible when you look at it from a crypto graphic standpoint. And again, we understand protecting the children. We all want to do that, but how far will this end up going? [00:40:06] I also want to point out that. Nu insider show notes that I've been sending out over the last few weeks have had some amazing responses from people. I've had people saying that this is what they look for in their mailbox. It's the first piece of email they read that it's the most relevant news. But you can only get it one way and that's by going to Craig peterson.com, you can sign up there. [00:40:33] It's easy enough to do. There's no obligation on your part, right? This is not my paid newsletter. This is absolutely free. And it's incredibly valuable. Plus I'll also be sending you once a week. Ish, a small training, just, it takes you a few minutes to read. I just last week went through the firewall in your windows machine, the firewall. [00:40:56] And gave you step-by-step instructions. Is it turned on? What is it doing? What should it do? How do you turn it on and how do you use it? So you can only get that one way and that's, if you are on my email list, so it's important to be there. And if you have any questions, you can hit reply. Any of those emails where there's a training, or if it's the insider show notes, just hit reply. [00:41:22] And I'll go ahead and answer your question. You might have to wait a few days cause I can get pretty busy sometimes, but always answer. So me M e@craigpeterson.com. Anybody can send me email and you can also text me at 6 1 7 503 2 2 1 6 1 7 5. 3, 2, 2, 1 with any questions? That's it for right now, there is so much more. [00:41:51] Make sure you sign up right now. And of course there's more coming right up. So stick around. . [00:42:04] Jam packed today. We're going to start with non fungible tokens. If you don't know what those are, this is a very big deal because so many people are investing in them right now. Are they really investments? I've got a bit of a blow back here. Most people think that Bitcoin is anonymous. We're going to talk about how it absolutely is not. [00:42:24] We're going to talk about anonymous. In fact, the Russians, Microsoft, what they're doing against the Russians and this little comedic thing about cars. [00:42:32] NFTs or very big deal. [00:42:34] I'm going to pull up here on my screen right now. This is a picture of Mr. Jack Dorsey. We'll go full screen, an article from a website called CoinDesk. CoinDesk is one of these sites that really tries to track what's happening out there in the Bitcoin community. Of course, nowadays it's much more than Bitcoin. [00:42:57] Isn't it? We're talking about all kinds of. Different currencies that have a blockchain backend. They're called cryptocurrencies basically. But the big one was of course, Bitcoin. And there is a whole concept. Now, when we're talking about things like cryptocurrencies and these non fungible tokens. People have been investing them in them. [00:43:23] Like crazy people are making millions of dollars every week. Now, remember, I am not an investment advisor and particularly I'm not your investment advisor. So take all the. To your investment advisor. I'm not telling you to buy them. I am telling you to be cautious here though, because these non fungible tokens are designed to give you the ability to be able to just, own something in the digital world. [00:43:52] What might you own in the digital world? We've had a lot of different stuff. We've seen some just crazy monkey things. Have you seen those, these little pictures of monkeys there? Graphic designed and it's all animated. If you will. It's like cartoons and people pay money for them. One of the things that people paid money for was the rights to the first tweet ever on Twitter. [00:44:20] So that's what you're getting. When we're talking about an NFT on a non fungible transaction, it is now yours. So this particular NFT we're talking about was of our friend here, Jack Dorsey. We'll pull it up again, this article, and he had a tweet that was sold last year for $48 million. That is a lot of money. [00:44:47] So people look at this as an investment, but it's not the same as hanging art on the wall. You've got a Picasso that has some intrinsic value. It's a painting. It has all the oil paint on that, it was designed by and painted by a crazy man years ago. And you can take that Picasso and you can. [00:45:11] Turn it around and sell it. It has some real value. If you own the rights to something, let's say it's one of these monkey pictures. It reminds me of a postage stamp and you paid real money for it. Some of these things are going, as I said, for over a million dollars and this Jack Dorsey first tweet went for $48 million. [00:45:31] So let's say that's what you did, right? You bought this thing for $48 million. Really? What do you have? Because anybody can go online and look at that tweet. Anybody can print it up and stick it on a wall. Anybody can go out and get that picture of the monkeys right there. The guy drew, and you can look at it. [00:45:54] In fact, I can pull it up right now, if you want to do. But people paid real money for that. So they've got what really? What do they have? You can't take it off the wall, like you're Picasso and salad, right? Or Banksy, if you're into the more modern art, it's just not. What is doable? How do you make this work? [00:46:15] Only the NFT only gives you bragging rights in reality. That's what it does. You have bragging rights because you could take that digital picture and make a hundred quadrillion copies. Yeah, you'd still own the NFT you would still have in the blockchain for whatever NFT company you're using the rights to it. [00:46:41] They would say this, you owned it. So let's talk about the blockchain behind it. There are a lot of companies that are trying to give you that. Okay. All right. I get it. Yeah, I get to to own it. But who's running the blockchain behind it. Who's validating that you own it with Bitcoin and many of these other blockchain currencies that are out there. [00:47:08] There are various. Companies and individuals who are registered, who have all of the paperwork, if you will saying who owns, how much of what, and who paid, who and everything. And that by the way, is why it takes so long for some of these Bitcoin and other transactions to occur. But how about the NFT? There are tons of companies out there that say they will certify the NFT. [00:47:38] So it gets to be real problem. And when we get into this Jack Dorsey tweet and this article about it, which are let me pull it up again here for you guys. This guy Sina bought the very first tweet ever from Twitter founder, Jack Dorsey for $2.9 million last year. And he decided that he wanted to sell it. [00:48:07] So he listed it for sale again at $48 million last week. Real. He put it up for open bid and this article and CoinDesk is talking about that. And you can see that if you're watching me on rumble or YouTube, I'm showing you my screen here right now. But this Iranian born crypto entrepreneur named of again. [00:48:32] As TAVI purchased it for $2.9 million in March, 2021. Last Thursday, he announced on Twitter where out, that he wanted to sell this and Ft. And he said, Hey, listen, I'm going to put 50% of the proceeds to charity while the auction closed. This was an open auction. People could go and bid on it and head auction closed. [00:49:00] With a, an offer of basically $288, $277 at current prices when this article was written $277 and the lowest bid was $6. And as I recall, this is not in this article, but there were only. I handful of bids. Like when I say handful, I mean a half a dozen beds. Crazy. This is a real problem because the deadline is over. [00:49:31] He paid how much for it, right? How much did he pay? Pull that up again. $2.9 million last year. And his highest bid was in the neighborhood of $280. Isn't that crazy. So did he get money on this? Did he win money on this? I don't know. I'm looking at those saying is it worth it to buy something like that? [00:49:59] That you might think, oh, the very first apple computer, an apple. While that's going to be worth some serious money. Yeah, it is. It's something, you can grab onto, you can hold onto it, it's something and you can sell it. You can trade it. You can take a picture of it. You can't make digital copies of it. [00:50:20] You, you, it's a physical thing. That's worth something. Same thing with that Picasso on the wall, it's really worth something that has some basic intrinsic. Jack's true tweet. The very first tweet. How much is that thing worth? It basically nothing. So the tweet is showing he'll pull it up on the screen again that he's selling ad Jack 2000 6 0 3 21 at eight 50 14:00 PM. [00:50:50] Just setting up my Twitter. So there you go. There's Jack is very first to. And it's absolutely amazing. Is it worth it? Let me pull up some other stuff here for you guys. I'm going to pull this up here is Coinbase launching an NFT marketplace in hopes of appealing to crypto on mainstream users. So here's some examples from a man and FTEs. [00:51:16] I'm going to zoom in on this for those of you guys watching on rumble or on Twitter. All right. Mean. Yeah actually you can see it on Twitter too, but YouTube, here you go. Here's some NFTs it's artwork and it's a creature. So you can buy creature number 7, 8 0 6 right now for six Eve. So let me see. [00:51:39] Value of six. Ethereum is what ether, M two us dollars. So for 3000. And $84. As of right now, you can get a crappy picture that even I could have draw okay. Of this guy and look at all of the work this artist has put in. There's how many of these up here? 1, 2, 3, 4, or five, 10 of them. And it's the same head. [00:52:08] Each time it looks like this almost the same eyes. He changes colors and he's got different background. It's absolutely not. So that's what they're trying to do right now, trying to sell these NFT. So who's going to buy that. Who's going to pay $3,000 for artwork that hunter Biden could have done with a straw. [00:52:30] Anchored around. Here's another one. This is from ledger insights. NBA's launching dynamic NFTs for fans, baseball cards for the NBA that are basically just worthless. They're NF. Non fungible tokens. It has taken the crypto world by storm and people are losing millions as you look, but it really is changing the e-commerce world. [00:52:58] Stick around. We'll be right back. [00:53:02] Bitcoin blockchain. All of the rage, a lot of people are talking about it, but I got to say most people who are talking. I don't know much about it. And when it comes to anonymity, Bitcoin is probably the worst thing you could possibly do. It's amazing. [00:53:20] There are a lot of misconceptions out there when it comes to technology, you have almost any kind of technology and blockchain and Bitcoin are examples of a very misunderstood technology. [00:53:35] Now I'm not talking about how does it work? How are these ledgers maintained? How does this whole mining thing work? Why has Chan. Bandit. Why are a lot of countries going away from it, one country. Now the dictator said, yeah, we're going to use Bitcoin as our we're official currency. In addition to the U S dollar what's going on. [00:53:57] It is complicated behind the scenes. It's complicated to use. Although there are some entrepreneurs that have made some great strides there. I saw a documentary on what has been happening in that one country. I mentioned. They are able to pay in us dollars using Bitcoin. So they'll go up to a vendor on the street. [00:54:22] Quite literally they'll have their smartphone with them. The vendor has their smartphone. They type in 15 cents for the taco and a hit send. It goes to the other person and they have 15 cents worth of Bitcoin. By the way, these types of micro-transactions with the way Bitcoin is structured behind the scenes, make things even less manageable in the Bitcoin world than they have been in the past. [00:54:50] And that's why in case you didn't know, Bitcoin is making some major changes here fairly soon. They've got to change the way all of this ledger stuff works because it takes too long. To record and authorized transactions. And these ledgers just get way too long when it comes to all of these kinds of microtransaction. [00:55:14] So there's stuff going on, Bitcoin, there, there are many of these types of currencies out there. Theories comes one. You've heard about doge coin because of course that's Elon Musk has been talking about and many others and they're all different somewhat, but the main concepts are the. One of the big concepts, I'm going to pull an article up here on the screen for those watching on YouTube or also on rumble. [00:55:39] But this is an article from our friends at wired magazine. And now you have subscribed to wired for many years. This particular one is about what wired is calling the crypto. Trap now that's a very big deal. It is a trap and it's a trap and a lot of different ways. And that's what we're going to talk about right now. [00:56:05] Crypto is not what its name implies. A lot of people look at it and say, oh, crypto that's cryptography. That's like the German enigma machine in world war two and all of this new, great crypto that we have nowadays. And there are some pretty amazing new cryptographic technologies that we've been using, but no, that's not. [00:56:26] What's really going on. You see the basic premise behind all of these technologies is the concept of having a. And this wallet has a unique identifier. It has a number assigned to it. So if I'm sending money to you, I'm going to have your wallet, ID, your wallet number, and I'm going to now send you some amount of fraction, most likely of a cryptocurrency. [00:56:55] It's certainly if it's Bitcoin, it's almost certainly a fraction. And so I'm going to send you $100 worth of, let's say. What ends up happening now is these ledgers, which are public, are all going to record the Craig's sent you a hundred dollars worth of Bitcoin. Of course, it's going to be in a fraction of a Bitcoin. [00:57:16] So sometimes there's rounding errors is not going to be really exactly a hundred dollars. Plus there's the amazing amount of. Tivoli volatility in the cyber currencies. So even though I meant just hitting a hundred dollars, mine ended up being 110 of it goes up. It might be 90. If it goes down you get that. [00:57:34] You don't understand how that works. So the problem now is I have sent you a hundred dollars. And public ledgers that anyone can gain access to now say wallet number 1, 2, 3, 4 cent, a hundred dollars, two wallet, number 5, 6, 7, 8. Obviously the wallet numbers bruises a lot longer than that. So then it's fine. [00:57:58] And there's a degree of anonymity there it's really called pseudo anonymity because in reality, it's not completely anonymous because people know the transaction occurred and they know the wallet numbers. Correct. It's like a bank account, and if I'm putting money into your bank account, that bank account number knows that the money came from a check that I wrote. [00:58:21] Can you imagine that someone writing a check and that check I had a number on it, a bank account number, right? So it can all be tracked while much. The same thing is true when it comes to cryptocurrencies, these cryptocurrencies are in public ledgers and those public ledgers can be used with a little bit of work to figure out. [00:58:42] Who you are. So this article here from our friends at wired gets really hairy. And it might be of interest to you to read, but this is talking about a take-down that happened, and this is a massive take down. This take down was of a whole group of people who were involved in some really nasty stuff. [00:59:09] In this particular case, what it was kitty. Just a terrible thing and the abuse surrounding it. So this logical goes into not a lot of detail. I'm not going to read it because here on the air, because I don't want to upset too many people. Cause it's some of the details of this evening to think about them are incredible. [00:59:29] But. This the police broke into this middle-class suburb home in the outskirts of Atlanta. And he there was Homeland security. It was a guy from the IRS and they came in, they took all of their electronic devices. They separated the family, putting the father who is an assistant principal at the local high school assistant printers. [00:59:57] And he was the target of this investigation. So they had him in one room, they had his wife and another room and they put the two kids into a third room and they started questioning him. Now, this is part of a takedown of a, as I said, a whole ring of these people, including this assistant. Principal at a school. [01:00:20] Can you believe that? So this IRS guy had flown in from Washington DC to have a look over what was going on, but this agent from the IRS and his partner whose name is let's see, his name was Jenn S Scouts. I probably got that wrong. And Tigran GAM bar Yan, Cambodian, and they had a small group of investigators and they were at a whole bunch of different federal agencies, not just the IRS. [01:00:48] What once seemed to be. Untraceable was no longer traceable. Now I've talked on this show before about a lecture I went to by the secret service about how they had tracked down and shut down the world's largest website that was being used to sell illegal materials online. And it's fascinating what they did. [01:01:12] But frankly, they're calling this particular boss to proof of concept and that's why they are IRS was in on this as well, but it was huge. Here's a quote from the IRS agent in this wired magazine article. He's saying he remembers how the gravity of this whole thing. Let me pull this up on the screen too. [01:01:32] So you can read along here, but this was a high school administrator, a husband, and a father of two, whether he was guilty or innocent. The accusations, this team of law enforcement agents were leveling against him. There are mere presence in the home would almost certainly ruin his life. And he, as well as these other people were counting on anonymity from Bitcoin. [01:01:59] Now, obviously I'm glad they got taken down, but listen, folks, if you think that it's safe, that it's anonymous, it ain't Bitcoin just ain't there. Craig peterson.com stick around. [01:02:15] I've been blamed for really complaining about people not updating their software. And that includes things like firewalls. The FBI has stepped in and they are going ahead and doing updates for you. [01:02:30] So once you get into this, because this is, I think something that should concern all of us, what should we be doing as a country? [01:02:40] People are. Updating their software. They're not updating their hardware. And particularly our hardware take a look at what's been happening with the firewalls and the firewall concerns. Everybody has some sort of firewall will almost everybody, but enough people that we can say, everybody has a firewall, you get your internet from you, name it. [01:03:05] And because of the fact they're using something called Nat network address translation, they've got some sort of firewall in front of you. So for instance, You've got your phone, right? You're using your phone and it's got internet on it. You're going through whoever your carrier is. And that carrier is giving you internet access, right? [01:03:28] They don't have enough IP addresses, particularly IPV four, in order for you to get your very own unique little address out on the. No they do. When it comes to V6 things a little bit different, but your device is not completely exposed on the internet. Windows comes to the fire. And by default, the windows firewall is turned on. [01:03:50] Now this gets more than a little concerning because that firewall that's turned on. Isn't really doing anything because I've got a firewall turned on and yet every service is accessible from outside, which is defeating the purpose of the firewall. Again, it's a complaint I've had about Microsoft now for. [01:04:10] Decades, which is they have features that are just check boxes. Yes. Yes. It's got a firewall. Yeah, it's turned on, but the features don't work. So having a firewall and having everything open defeats the purpose of a firewall max do not have a firewall turned on by default, but they do have their services disabled. [01:04:33] Which is just as effective if not more effective. So one of the things we advise people to do is go into your windows system, into the firewalls and your security settings, and turn off any services that you're not using. If you're not sharing file systems, then turn that off. In other words, You're mounting the G drive or whatever you might call it from another computer, then you don't need it. [01:04:59] If you're not as server for what's called SMB, then you don't need to share it. So turn off everything that you don't need. That's going to happen is one of your programs isn't going to work, right? And the, what you did last year, you're going to turn it back on and you can do a lot of research online to find out what they are. [01:05:18] We have over 200 settings that we change in windows. When we get a customer. Now on the Mac side, you can turn it on. I liked turning it on. I liked turning off the ability to see my machine. So in other words, the ability to be able to. So I turned it on and I enable specific services. And again, you can do some research on that. [01:05:44] I've got an improving windows security course that people have taken, and we should probably do that again, if not just have some free webinars on how to do this. So you guys can learn how to do it, but not that hard to do. Anyhow, bottom line is. People aren't updating their computers, even the Macs and windows. [01:06:06] We have a client that would just started a new client and we're tightening things up and we've been finding Mac computers that are major multiple major revisions behind. And that to me is shocking. Apple Macs are just so easy to update. It is extremely rare that an apple update will make your computer break unlike in the windows world, where it's pretty common. [01:06:32] So windows guys, I can understand, but your even more exposed, your bigger target, you need to keep up to date. So how about all of the other equipment that we. I've had warnings again and again, with you guys about what's happening with our smart devices that are out there, right? Our security cameras we have up in the corner, right? [01:06:56] We have these smart thermostats, people are using the list goes on and on of all of this equipment that we're using that is exposing us because when was the last time you have. How about the firmware in your router or your wifi, right? Some of the devices that I recommend to people, and if you have any questions, just email me M e@craigpeterson.com. [01:07:19] I can give you recommendations, even if you're a home user. Although my business obviously is working with businesses on what kind of wifi to buy, what you should get, what you should do. I don't charge for any of that stuff. Okay. You get it. But you have to ask. Me@craigpeterson.com. So you get this information and you go ahead and you buy whatever it is, but you don't keep it up to date, which is why I tend to only recommend stuff that automatically updates. [01:07:48] But that also means every few years you're going to have to replace it because unless you're using the good Cisco equipment where you can get a seven year life out of it you're not gonna find that in consumer grid. So what's happened here. I'm going to pull this up on my screen for people watching this on YouTube or on rumble. [01:08:07] But here is a thing that came straight out of our friends here from the FBI. This is from CSO. This is a a magazine that I do follow. But they're talking about what they call psych clock. Blink. So the article says for the second time in a year, the FBI has used search and seizure warrant to clean malware from devices owned by private businesses and users without their explicit approval. [01:08:40] The FBI used this approach to disrupt a botnet, believed to be the creation of right. Government hackers. So the calling this SYEP clock cycle clubs, blink malware discovered earlier this year. So here's the problem. What do you do if you're the federal government, how do you try and keep your country safe? [01:09:05] Now we know. We've got these military contractors. They make missiles that take out missiles, right? The provide defensive systems. You've heard of iron dome from years ago, all the way through all of the current stuff. That's what they do, but what do they do? What can they do when there's a botnet? A botnet is where there are multiple computers in this case, probably tens of thousands of computers located in the United States that are acting like sleeper. [01:09:36] They sit there and they wait for commands as to what they should do. Should they try and attack a machine? Should they try and spread more? Malware, what should they be doing? And the, these things are vicious. They are absolutely nasty. And in this case, we're looking at Russian malware. So Russia effectively like the Americans. [01:09:59] You might remember that TV show. It was great show, but that. Computers that are owned by you and me and our businesses and government agencies that are under the control of the Russians. Now you don't even know it. You're using your computer or you're playing games. You're going to Facebook, whatever it is you do on your computer. [01:10:20] Your computer is under command and control of the Russians. So the FBI goes to a court and says, Hey, we've got to go ahead and shut this down. We need a warrant. They get the warrant and the search and seizure warrant lets them now. Get on to these machines that are part of the bot net or the controlling machines for the bot net, and either remove the malware or go ahead and take control of the botnet themselves. [01:10:49] So it can't be used. And by the way, our friends at Microsoft they've gotten involved in this too, which is really frankly, cool in shutting down some of these botnets, Hey, I want to encourage everyone. Take a couple of minutes, go to Craig peterson.com/subscribe. That's Craig Peterson. CREI G P T R S O N. [01:11:12] And subscribe, and I'll be sending you a special report on passwords. Plus two more. I send out the most popular special reports that anybody has ever asked for. [01:11:25] Hey, I've got a little bit more to discuss on what's happening with Russia and Microsoft and more, but I'm also going to talk about QR codes. There is a great explanation. That's in your newsletter from Monday about why you shouldn't trust him. [01:11:41] Let's finish up this Russian thing. And then we're going to get into why you cannot trust QR codes and a brand new way. [01:11:51] The bad guys are using QR codes to really mess with us. Now, if you're watching over on either YouTube or on rumble, you'll see this. Let me pull up my screen for you. But here we go. Okay. This is very interesting. Then the last segment, we talked a little bit about what our friends over at the FBI had been doing, which is they have been removing malware from people's computers because people haven't been keeping their computers up-to-date right. [01:12:26] Part of the botnets. So we explained. At the FBI, isn't the only one out there trying to stop these Russians and the hackers anonymous has been very big at it. In fact, let me pull up this other article. This is from security affairs. And here we go. And it's talking about this whole army of these anonymous hackers. [01:12:50] Now none of us have been a nightmare for many businesses that they didn't like. I had an anonymous we'll go ahead and they'll do usually pretty basic stuff. They'll do denial of service attacks and some other things, so they don't like you because of. The don't say gay bill in Florida, and, without bothering to do any research, they'll just start attacking organizations that support it, or organizations that don't support it depending on how they want to do it. So this is an interesting article here, because it's talking about these various. Websites that they've hacked. Now, some of them are government site and some of them are private industries. Now, one of the cool things, bad things about hacking private industry and releasing the emails is now the competitors to these businesses know what they're doing. [01:13:46] And in some cases there's proprietary technology that's being released. Now, when it comes to Russian proprietary technology. The Western world doesn't care a whole lot about some of it, but here's some examples of what these hacktivists of GoDaddy. This is a company called forest 37,000 emails stolen from the company, Russian logging and wood manufacturing firm. [01:14:09] Again, it would give a little bit of an idea into the whole Russian, what are they doing? In the forest industry. This one, I think is a little more concerning for the Russians Aero gap. This is an engineering company that focuses in the oil and gas industry. Their clients include a whole bunch of Russian companies. [01:14:30] They've leaked approximately 100,000 emails from Aero gas. That is a huge deal because so much of the country's revenue, the number one industry in Russia is oil and gas. Petro Fort one of the largest office space and business centers in St. Petersburg, the hackers have leaked approximately 300,000 emails from Petro fork. [01:14:56] Again, you can use that to find out what's happening in your economy. What. Doing how are businesses doing? Are they going to go under so you can see some tweets here. I've got them up on my screen on YouTube and rumble anonymous. What they're saying that they've done and you can follow anonymous directly on Twitter. [01:15:14] Particularly fond of them. They've done a lot of things that I disagree with. This is really telling us about a whole new approach to warfare, right back in the day, you and I couldn't get involved, we could potentially take up arms and go and fight right there and think about the Spanish American war. [01:15:33] Think about what's happening now in Ukraine, where Americans have just gone over there. Taken up firearms in order to help them defend Ukraine. People who are maybe of Ukrainian descent, maybe not right. We have never seen this type of involvement by average citizens because anonymous is not like some big fancy company or government agency anonymous is a bunch of people who are trying to be anonymous and do something. [01:16:05] So they stole 145 gigabytes. Look at this. It's just crazy. So here. The anonymous Twitter thread itself, right? Talking about what. It's absolutely incredible. Incredible. So that's what anonymous is up to. They are hacking Russia and they're hacking Russia in a big way. Now, next stop. We have our friends at Microsoft. [01:16:30] Microsoft has been seizing Russian domains that they are accusing of having been linked to these Russian hackers that have been going after think tanks and government agencies in the U S and the. He kn

Awake At Night
Sitting face to face with the Taliban

Awake At Night

Play Episode Listen Later May 20, 2022 29:20


What is it like living and working in Afghanistan as a woman leader of a UN Agency?  Mary-Ellen McGroaty witnessed the Taliban takeover in Afghanistan in August 2021. As Head of the World Food Programme in the country, she has seen first hand the seismic shift in the economic, political and cultural landscape.  “Some days, I sometimes wish I hadn't been here before the 15th of August, because then I wouldn't have seen the hope and the promise and the potential.” Now, over 50% of Afghans are threatened with hunger. People are unable to go out to work either because of the economic crisis or, in the case of millions of women, because of new restrictions on their freedom. In this episode, Mary-Ellen McGroaty reflects on the impact of the takeover, the scale of the ensuing humanitarian crisis, and what it's like sitting face to face with the Taliban. 

After Trump
Lawfare Presents: Allies (new limited podcast series)

After Trump

Play Episode Listen Later May 20, 2022 34:25


A new series from LawfareAfter 20 years of war, the U.S. withdrawal from Afghanistan ended in chaos at an airfield in Kabul. Thousands of Afghans who worked with the American soldiers as translators, interpreters and partners made it onto U.S. military planes. But despite the decades-long efforts of veterans, lawmakers and senior leaders in the military, even more were left behind. Now they live in hiding from the Taliban. From Lawfare and Goat Rodeo, this is Allies. A podcast about America's eyes and ears over 20 years of war in Afghanistan. This show will take you from the frontlines of the war to the halls of Congress to find out: How did this happen? See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

Amanpour
Resisting the Taliban with a needle and thread

Amanpour

Play Episode Listen Later May 18, 2022 54:54


A damning new report released today from a US watchdog blames both the Trump and Biden administration for the swift collapse of the Afghan military in August last year. Afghans are now living with the consequences, with women and girls bearing the biggest burdens. After 20 years of progress, many of their rights are slipping away, with secondary girl students still barred from public school. Despite their fears, though, girls are continuing the fight right under the Taliban's nose. Today Christiane visited one former fashion studio, where the tools of resistance are needle and thread.  Also in today's show: Afghan women's rights activist Fatima Gailani, Pakistani Foreign Minister Bilawal Bhutto Zardari, Bloomberg Managing Editor of Crypto Stacy-Marie Ishmael. To learn more about how CNN protects listener privacy, visit cnn.com/privacy

FP's First Person
Allies in Afghanistan

FP's First Person

Play Episode Listen Later May 18, 2022 40:32


Foreign Policy recommends: Allies This week on FP Playlist, we feature a new series from Lawfare and Goat Rodeo about the Afghans who helped the United States' war effort in Afghanistan. Allies host Bryce Klehm sat down with FP Playlist to discuss the episode and how the series came to be. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

Latitude Adjustment
93: A Double-Refugee from Syria and Ukraine

Latitude Adjustment

Play Episode Listen Later May 14, 2022 73:57


This marks the second episode of a two-part series on the war in Ukraine. For this episode we speak with Jana Kalaaji, a Syrian national who fled the war in her country to study medicine in Ukraine, only to become a double-refugee, after the outbreak of the war in her new home. Support Latitude Adjustment Podcast on Patreon Support the Palestine Podcast Academy on LaunchGood

The Lawfare Podcast
Lawfare Archive: Biden Announces a Military Withdrawal from Afghanistan

The Lawfare Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later May 14, 2022 52:54


From April 16, 2021: On Wednesday, President Biden announced a full withdrawal of all U.S. military personnel from Afghanistan by September 11, 2021, an announcement that comes as the U.S. and Afghan governments have been trying to reach a power sharing agreement with the Taliban. Prior to the withdrawal announcement, Bryce Klehm spoke with Thomas Gibbons-Neff, a New York Times correspondent based in the Kabul bureau and a former Marine infantryman, who walked us through the situation on the ground in Afghanistan over the last year. Following Biden's announcement, Bryce spoke with Madiha Afzal, the David M. Rubenstein Fellow in the Foreign Policy program at the Brookings Institution, who talked about the broader implications of a U.S. withdrawal from Afghanistan.In May 2022, Lawfare and Goat Rodeo will debut their latest podcast, Allies, a series about America's eyes and ears over 20 years of war in Afghanistan. Thousands of Afghans who worked with the American soldiers as translators, interpreters and partners made it onto U.S. military planes. But despite the decades-long efforts of veterans, lawmakers and senior leaders in the military, even more were left behind. This show will take you from the frontlines of the war to the halls of Congress to find out: How did this happen? Learn more and subscribe to Allies at https://pod.link/1619035873.Support this show http://supporter.acast.com/lawfare. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

Deconstructed with Mehdi Hasan
The U.S. Is Stealing Afghanistan's Money and Starving Its People

Deconstructed with Mehdi Hasan

Play Episode Listen Later May 13, 2022 40:09


As their country's economic crisis continues to spiral out of control, Afghans are finding themselves forced to resort to increasingly desperate measures just to get enough food for their families. The crisis is driven by the US refusal to release frozen Afghan central bank reserves, a measure that might restore some semblance of normalcy to the economy. Afghan journalist Masood Shnizai rejoins the podcast to discuss the situation in his country.https://join.theintercept.com/donate/now See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

Access to Inspiration
69. Sanzar Kakar: Trading is key to the Afghan spirit

Access to Inspiration

Play Episode Listen Later May 11, 2022 26:49


Sue Stockdale talks to Sanzar Kakar about his life as an entrepreneur in Afghanistan, how he measures success, and how the company pivoted to support the recent humanitarian crisis in the country. Sanzar Kakar is the Chairman of Afghanistan Holding Group, a 13-year-old private firm with 350 Afghan team members that has served over 700 international organizations. Ventures include Moore Afghanistan (accounting and consulting), Afghanet (internet service), Mezan (school), F45 Training (fitness), BusinessDNA (media), Hesab (payments), and BBR (transport). Mr. Kakar graduated from the University of Pennsylvania with a Bachelor of Science in Computer Science Engineering and from Warwick Business School with a Master's in Business Administration. At the University of Pennsylvania, Sanzar served as the Manager of the Wharton Graduate Association. Following his undergraduate degree, he worked for Merrill Lynch as a Technology Analyst on a trading desk for bonds and equities, creating a link for automatic reporting to the New York Stock Exchange.Mr. Kakar started in Afghanistan as an Investment Associate for Acap Partners, setting up a $20 million venture capital facility and sourcing over 300 new deals for consideration. He joined as an Executive Advisor to the Attorney General's Office of Afghanistan on a U.S. Department of State program to reorganize the institution and set up a national paper and computer criminal case management system spanning seven-justice institutions. Later, Sanzar served as the Economic Advisor for the Afghanistan Investment Climate Facility, setting up operational and fiduciary requirements for the seven-year £30 million grant facility in Kabul, followed by a promotion to Deputy Interim Team Leader. Mr. Kakar speaks English, Pashtu, and Dari.Find out more about Afghanistan Holding Group at the website. https://ahg.com.af This series is kindly supported by Squadcast –the remote recording platform which empowers podcasters by capturing high-quality audio and video conversations. Find out more at squadcast.fmKey Quotes:‘I like to start new ventures and new opportunities.'‘I think Afghans in general have an incredible entrepreneurial spirit.'‘It is the greatest humanitarian crisis probably of our lives and anything we can do to try to address it and help people in their time of greatest need, it's an obligation upon us.'‘I'm very much from the technology background, and technology is a lot about scale. You can accomplish a lot of things through technology by making a bigger difference and bigger impact.'‘I'll be able to look back and say, I tried my best and I was able to help the most number of people. And that would be a great measure of success for us.'‘What I learned more and more about myself is that the value of helping others.'‘I'm a very visual person often making charts and diagrams and try to imagine things differently, imagine things, better'.Read the transcription for this episode on www.accesstoinspiration.org and connect with us:Twitter www.twitter.com/accessinspirat1 Facebook www.facebook.com/accesstoinspiration Instagram www.instagram.com/accesstoinspiration LinkedIn www.linkedin.com/company/access-to-inspiration/Sign up for our newsletter http://eepurl.com/hguX2b Read our Impact Report https://bit.ly/3hElalv Sound Editor: Matias de Ezcurra (he/him)Producer: Sue Stockdale (she/her)

ON Point with Alex Pierson
Afghans Interpreters Left Behind By Canada Are Being Tortured by The Taliban

ON Point with Alex Pierson

Play Episode Listen Later May 11, 2022 10:00


Guest Host Rubina Ahmed-Haq speaks with Chris Ecklund, the founder of Canadian Heroes & Fight For Ukraine about the Taliban hunting, torturing and killing former Afghan Interpreters in Afghanistan. Chris tells Rubina why this is such a dark chapter in Canadian history and how the Canadian government failed the people of Afghanistan.  Let's get talking See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

KGO 810 Podcast
John Rothmann:  The Taliban's oppression of women

KGO 810 Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later May 10, 2022 17:17


Afghanistan's supreme leader has ordered the country's women to cover their faces in public – one of the harshest restrictions imposed on them since the Taliban seized power last year and an escalation of growing restrictions on women that is drawing a backlash from the international community and many Afghans. “They should wear a chadori (head-to-toe burqa) as it is traditional and respectful,” said a decree issued by Taliban chief Haibatullah Akhunzada that was released by authorities at a function in Kabul on Saturday. Speaking to Al Jazeera, Fawzia Koofi, former Afghanistan parliament deputy speaker, said the Taliban's decrees regarding women can only be regarded as “oppression and repression”. “The question is, in the middle of all this suffering for Afghan people, why is the issue of women the only one taking priority,” asked Koofi, while referring to the deepening economic crisis across the country. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

The John Rothmann Show Podcast
John Rothmann:  The Taliban's oppression of women

The John Rothmann Show Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later May 10, 2022 17:17


Afghanistan's supreme leader has ordered the country's women to cover their faces in public – one of the harshest restrictions imposed on them since the Taliban seized power last year and an escalation of growing restrictions on women that is drawing a backlash from the international community and many Afghans. “They should wear a chadori (head-to-toe burqa) as it is traditional and respectful,” said a decree issued by Taliban chief Haibatullah Akhunzada that was released by authorities at a function in Kabul on Saturday. Speaking to Al Jazeera, Fawzia Koofi, former Afghanistan parliament deputy speaker, said the Taliban's decrees regarding women can only be regarded as “oppression and repression”. “The question is, in the middle of all this suffering for Afghan people, why is the issue of women the only one taking priority,” asked Koofi, while referring to the deepening economic crisis across the country. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

Burn the Boats
BONUS: The Clock is Ticking for Afghan Evacuees

Burn the Boats

Play Episode Listen Later May 9, 2022 30:48


Currently, more than 76,000 Afghan refugees who have immigrated to the U.S. have been granted temporary, two-year humanitarian parole status. Shawn VanDiver and his coalition #AfghanEvac, with support from the White House, are urging Congress to pass the Ukraine Supplemental Appropriations Act, which among other things, would provide these refugees with a path to a green card and permanent residency.  If this does not pass in the coming days, Shawn believes that many Afghans will lose their temporary status. They would then have nowhere left to go. Right now, the biggest obstacles facing the Ukraine Supplemental Appropriations Act are Rep. Jim Jordan, the ranking member of the House Judiciary Committee, and Sen. Chuck Grassley, the ranking member of the Senate Judiciary Committee. You can call Jim Jordan at 202.225.2676, and Chuck Grassley at 202.224.4374 to urge them to support our Afghan allies. For more information, please visit AfghanEvac.org. You can also follow Shawn on Twitter @ShawnJVanDiver Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

RTSreligion - La 1ere
RTSreligion - Saint-Louis fait les yeux doux aux réfugiés afghans

RTSreligion - La 1ere

Play Episode Listen Later May 9, 2022 2:28


The Lawfare Podcast
Lawfare Archive: Bruce Riedel on Al Qaeda's Many Faces

The Lawfare Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later May 7, 2022 46:41


From August 5, 2012: Ritika Singh sat down with Bruce Riedel, one of the country's leading experts on Al Qaeda. Riedel's long and impressive career speaks for itself. A 30-year veteran of the CIA, a senior advisor on South Asia and the Middle East to the last four presidents of the United States in the staff of the National Security Council, and an expert advisor to the prosecution of underwear bomber Omar Farooq Abdulmutallab, he is also the author of Deadly Embrace: Pakistan, America, and the Future of the Global Jihad and The Search for Al Qaeda: Its Leadership, Ideology, and Future, among much else.The discussion ranged from the state of Al Qaeda today, to the posture of the Taliban and other regional terrorist groups that the United States engages by both military and diplomatic means, to targeted killing and the way forward for U.S. counterterrorism policy. They don't discuss the law—but any lawyer interested in the power to confront the enemy will find Riedel's discussion of the enemy itself particularly valuable.In May 2022, Lawfare and Goat Rodeo will debut their latest podcast, Allies, a series about America's eyes and ears over 20 years of war in Afghanistan. Thousands of Afghans who worked with the American soldiers as translators, interpreters and partners made it onto U.S. military planes. But despite the decades-long efforts of veterans, lawmakers and senior leaders in the military, even more were left behind. This show will take you from the frontlines of the war to the halls of Congress to find out: How did this happen? Learn more and subscribe to Allies at https://pod.link/1619035873.Support this show http://supporter.acast.com/lawfare. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

Hold Your Fire!
S2 Episode 32: Taliban Rule in Afghanistan

Hold Your Fire!

Play Episode Listen Later May 6, 2022 65:49


It's been almost nine months since the Taliban seized power in Afghanistan. What for years had been the world's deadliest war is mostly over and the country is suffering considerably less violence, though reprisals against some former members of the security forces and attacks by the local Islamic State branch continue. Afghanistan is also in the grips of an economic crisis. The UN and humanitarian organisations managed to stave off a famine over the past winter. But the situation remains dire as the prices of staples rise and the Afghan central bank has collapsed. The economic squeeze largely owes to Western policy, particularly donors cutting off all but essential aid, and Western capitals seizing Afghanistan's assets and applying pre-existing sanctions on the Taliban insurgency to the state as a whole. The Taliban's decision, on 23 March, not to reopen girls' secondary schools across the country, despite repeatedly promising to do so, has made it even less likely that donors will reverse course. That decision is only one of several recent edicts that suggest a harder line by the Taliban government.This week on Hold Your Fire! Richard Atwood and Naz Modirzadeh talk to Crisis Group's Afghanistan experts Graeme Smith and Ibraheem Bahiss, both recently returned from their first trip to the country since the Taliban seized control. They talk about their time in the capital Kabul and how it compares to life before the takeover. They explain the impact of the country's economic isolation, dependence on humanitarian aid and faltering central banking system — in particular the costs for millions of Afghans struggling to scrape by. They discuss in depth Western policies related to aid, the frozen assets and sanctions. They break down the Taliban's decision to keep girls' secondary schools closed and what that says about debates within, and the direction of, the Taliban government. They also describe resistance to that decision among many Afghans and prospects for teenage girls desperate to get back to school.For more on Afghanistan, check out Crisis Group's extensive analysis on our Afghanistan country page. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

HomeTown
Better Together: Three Episcopal Churches Circle Up in Tri-Parish Sponsor Circle

HomeTown

Play Episode Listen Later May 4, 2022 55:35


In this episode of HomeTown, we speak with members of Neighbor to Neighbor's own Tri-Parish Sponsor Circle team. This Sponsor Circle consists of three Episcopal parishes who have teamed up together with EMM's Neighbor to Neighbor program to do the critical work of welcome with individuals arriving in their communities. I speak with Embry Howell and Rev. Julianne Buenting from All Souls Episcopal Church in Washington D.C., Jess Sanchez and Lacy Broemel from St. John's Episcopal Church in Lafayette Square, Washington D.C., and Dana Martin from St. Mary's Episcopal Church in Arlington, VA about their process, experience, and call to this critical work of welcome. Our Neighbor to Neighbor program is an official Sponsor Circle Umbrella under the Sponsor Circle Program for Afghans! **We are in urgent need of sponsor circles to support the move of Afghan newcomers into welcoming communities. You can play a critical role. To learn how you can be a community sponsor, visit https://dfms.formstack.com/forms/initial_congregation_interest_form Be sure to follow us on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram where we are @emmrefugees. To stay up to date on all new episodes, make sure to follow us wherever you get your podcasts on Spotify, iTunes, Stitcher, Google Play, or SoundCloud. To support the ministry of welcome, you can make a gift to Episcopal Migration Ministries. With your help, we will continue to welcome and resettle refugees in communities across the country, offer support to asylum seekers, and create beloved community for all of our immigrant siblings. Visit episcopalmigrationministries.org/give or text HOMETOWN to 91999. Our theme song composer is Abraham Mwinda Ikando. Find his music at abrahammwinda.bandcamp.com

Pray the Word with David Platt
Seeking Justice (Isaiah 1:16–17)

Pray the Word with David Platt

Play Episode Listen Later May 4, 2022 3:59


In this episode of Pray the Word on Isaiah 1:16–17, David Platt asks God to keep us from ignoring justice and oppression among Afghans.

Seriously…
Blood, Sweat and Tears

Seriously…

Play Episode Listen Later May 3, 2022 28:45


As the BBC's former defence correspondent, Caroline Wyatt spent more than a decade covering the war in Afghanistan. She first went there just after the 9/11 attacks, to report on the British troops joining the US-led coalition against Al Qaeda and their Taliban hosts. By the time combat operations ended in 2014, 454 British military personnel and civilians had died - and many more Afghan civilians. Following the final withdrawal of US troops last year – and the scramble for safety by Afghans who'd worked with the West – she set out to speak to British veterans of the conflict. To find out what had made them sign up to fight, despite the risks, and what the campaign's ultimate failure means to them now. Like many who served in Afghanistan, Louise Jones signed up because she “wanted to make a difference”. She found watching the scenes unfold on television “painful”. It made her question how much she trusted those in power “when they say we want to commit to Ukraine, for example.” Harry Parker, a former captain in the 4th Battalion The Rifles, signed up at 26 just as the fighting in Afghanistan was reaching a crescendo. Eight weeks into his tour of duty he stepped on an improvised explosive device and lost both his legs. Meanwhile, his father General Sir Nick Parker was preparing to head out to Afghanistan to take over as commander of British Forces. “It only made me even more committed to make sure that we achieved our military objectives,” he says, “that we didn't squander young men and women's lives.” As a commando trained chaplain with the Royal Marines, Stuart Hallam ministered to young soldiers as they fought and died on the front lines. “We never come back to being normal in the same sense as we were normal before. It can be a very positive transformation. But nevertheless, it's a transformation.” Presenter: Caroline Wyatt Producer: Emily Williams A Whistledown production for BBC Radio 4

Make Me Smart with Kai and Molly
Immigration is (still) a labor market story

Make Me Smart with Kai and Molly

Play Episode Listen Later May 2, 2022 15:54


In today’s show, we flag one economic benchmark investors are watching, then dive into some recent stories that highlight the unequal ways the U.S. grants immigrant and refugee status. Don’t forget, what happens at the border impacts our labor force. Speaking of work, employees nationwide are voting on unionization. Finally, a new study validates dog owners’ premonitions about their special pups and makes us smile. Here’s everything we talked about today: “10-Year Treasury Yield Hits 3% for First Time Since 2018” from The Wall Street Journal “Amazon Workers Reject Union in New York After Labor Victory at Separate Facility” from The Wall Street Journal “Biden to comply with forthcoming order to keep Covid border restrictions in place” from Politico “Afghans subject to stricter rules than Ukrainian refugees, advocates say” from NBC News “Your dog's personality may have little to do with its breed” from AP News Have a question or comment about something you heard on the show? Email us at makemesmart@marketplace.org or leave us a voice message at 508-827-6278, or 508-U-B-SMART.

Marketplace All-in-One
Immigration is (still) a labor market story

Marketplace All-in-One

Play Episode Listen Later May 2, 2022 15:54


In today’s show, we flag one economic benchmark investors are watching, then dive into some recent stories that highlight the unequal ways the U.S. grants immigrant and refugee status. Don’t forget, what happens at the border impacts our labor force. Speaking of work, employees nationwide are voting on unionization. Finally, a new study validates dog owners’ premonitions about their special pups and makes us smile. Here’s everything we talked about today: “10-Year Treasury Yield Hits 3% for First Time Since 2018” from The Wall Street Journal “Amazon Workers Reject Union in New York After Labor Victory at Separate Facility” from The Wall Street Journal “Biden to comply with forthcoming order to keep Covid border restrictions in place” from Politico “Afghans subject to stricter rules than Ukrainian refugees, advocates say” from NBC News “Your dog's personality may have little to do with its breed” from AP News Have a question or comment about something you heard on the show? Email us at makemesmart@marketplace.org or leave us a voice message at 508-827-6278, or 508-U-B-SMART.

The Sporkful
Where Houston's Afghan Refugees Go For A Taste Of Home

The Sporkful

Play Episode Listen Later May 2, 2022 33:37


Over the past year, Houston has taken in more Afghan refugees than any other American city. When they arrive, Omer Yousafzai is there to welcome them. He owns The Afghan Village restaurant, which has become a community hub and gathering place for Afghans and non-Afghans alike. Dan heads to Houston to share a meal with Omer at The Afghan Village. Over palau and kabobs — cooked with the help of Omer's nine-year-old son — they talk about how Omer's time as a defense contractor in the war in Afghanistan inspired him to open the restaurant, the place's rocky first days, and why some people eat there for free.If you are looking for organizations helping to resettle Afghans and Ukrainians displaced by war, you can check out The Alliance in Houston, and the International Rescue Committee.The Sporkful production team includes Dan Pashman, Emma Morgenstern, Andres O'Hara, Johanna Mayer, Tracey Samuelson, and Jared O'Connell.Transcript available at www.sporkful.com

The Lawfare Podcast
Lawfare Archive: Daniel Byman on Al Qaeda and its Affiliates

The Lawfare Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 30, 2022 23:06


From August 22, 2012: This is the second in a series of interviews Ritika Singh is doing with scholars around town who have non-legal expertise that bears on the national security law issues Lawfare readers care about. As she did in her first piece with Brookings Senior Fellow Bruce Riedel, she is posting the full interview as an episode of the Lawfare Podcast and writing up a summary of their conversation as well.The subject this time is Daniel Byman, Senior Fellow and Director of Research at the Saban Center for Middle East Policy at Brookings, and a professor at Georgetown University's Security Studies Program. Byman is one of the country's foremost experts on counterterrorism and the Middle East. He served as a staff member on the 9/11 Commission, and has worked for the U.S. government and at the RAND Corporation. He recently published a paper entitled Breaking the Bonds between Al Qaeda and its Affiliate Organizations that Ritika describes in more detail here. They sat down for a discussion of the major themes that make up his paper—themes that dovetail with those Ritika discussed with Riedel in her first interview. In May 2022, Lawfare and Goat Rodeo will debut their latest podcast, Allies, a series about America's eyes and ears over 20 years of war in Afghanistan. Thousands of Afghans who worked with the American soldiers as translators, interpreters and partners made it onto U.S. military planes. But despite the decades-long efforts of veterans, lawmakers and senior leaders in the military, even more were left behind. This show will take you from the frontlines of the war to the halls of Congress to find out: How did this happen? Learn more and subscribe to Allies at https://pod.link/1619035873.Support this show http://supporter.acast.com/lawfare. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

HomeTown
Sponsorship 101: Pathways to Welcome

HomeTown

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 28, 2022 45:50


On this episode of HomeTown, we are joined by some of our very own Episcopal Migration Ministries team members, Allison Duvall and Zoë Bayer, who will help us break down the different types of sponsorship and how community groups can get involved. Many efforts to welcome our newest neighbors are happening in the form of co-sponsorship, community sponsorship, and Sponsor Circles-- but as folks who are called to this work, we want to know: what exactly is the difference between them all? Join us for this illuminating breakdown of sponsorship. Our Neighbor to Neighbor program is an official Sponsor Circle Umbrella under the Sponsor Circle Program for Afghans! **We are in urgent need of sponsor circles to support the move of Afghan newcomers into welcoming communities. You can play a critical role. To learn how you can be a community sponsor, visit https://dfms.formstack.com/forms/initial_congregation_interest_form Be sure to follow us on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram where we are @emmrefugees. To stay up to date on all new episodes, make sure to follow us wherever you get your podcasts on Spotify, iTunes, Stitcher, Google Play, or SoundCloud. To support the ministry of welcome, you can make a gift to Episcopal Migration Ministries. With your help, we will continue to welcome and resettle refugees in communities across the country, offer support to asylum seekers, and create beloved community for all of our immigrant siblings. Visit episcopalmigrationministries.org/give or text HOMETOWN to 91999. Our theme song composer is Abraham Mwinda Ikando. Find his music at abrahammwinda.bandcamp.com

The Journal.
Afghanistan's Desperation Economy

The Journal.

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 26, 2022 16:11


Afghanistan is dealing with an unprecedented humanitarian crisis, which has accelerated since the Taliban took power. Jobs are scarce, the nation's suffering a devastating drought and Afghans are going hungry. As WSJ's Sune Engel Rasmussen explains, Afghans are resorting to increasingly desperate measures to survive, such as selling kidneys. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

Partly Political Broadcast
Blue Crime Stories

Partly Political Broadcast

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 25, 2022 52:06


The podcast returns after two weeks to find that, well, sadly, the Crime Minister is still in post. He can't go because apparently that'd cause instability for the country and we can't have that at these, er, historically stable times. Johnson's law breaking, Indian free trade deals, the French election and an interview with Sarah and Andrew (@Mr_Andrew_Fox) at Azadi Charity (@azadi_charity) about the Afghans who should have refuge in the UK. AZADI CHARITY: https://azadicharity.com/DONATE TO AZADI CHARITY HERE: https://www.justgiving.com/crowdfunding/azadiforafghansAZADI'S EXCELLENT T-SHIRTS: https://azadi.teemill.com/Donate to the Patreon at www.patreon.com/parpolbroBuy me a coffee at https://ko-fi.com/parpolbroUSE THE CODE ON THE PODCAST AT BRITISH BOXERS FOR 15% OFF: https://british-boxers.com/OR FIND THE ACAST SUPPORTER BUTTON WHEREVER IT ISREVIEW THE PODCAST AT: https://lovethepodcast.com/parpolbroUSUAL PODCAST NOISE:LOOK AT TIERNAN'S WEBSITE: www.tiernandouieb.co.uk/Follow us on Twitter @parpolbro, on Facebook at https://www.facebook.com/groups/ParPolBro/ and the fancy webpage at http://www.partlypoliticalbroadcast.co.ukMusic by The Last Skeptik (@thelastskeptik) – https://www.thelastskeptik.com/ – Subscribe to his podcast Thanks For Trying here.Support this show http://supporter.acast.com/partlypoliticalbroadcast. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

The John Batchelor Show
#Darien Gap: Panama: The Great Migration: The Afghans, the Mainland Chinese, the Venezuelans, the Haitians. Michael Yon MichaelYon/Locals.com #FriendsofHistoryDebatingSociety

The John Batchelor Show

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 24, 2022 14:51


Photo: No known restrictions on publication. @Batchelorshow #Darien Gap: Panama: The Great Migration: The Afghans, the Mainland Chinese, the Venezuelans, the Haitians.  Michael Yon MichaelYon/Locals.com  #FriendsofHistoryDebatingSociety

The Lawfare Podcast
Lawfare Archive: Bruce Riedel on the Lessons From Afghanistan

The Lawfare Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 23, 2022 65:22


From July 12, 2014: As the election crisis in Afghanistan comes to a head, all eyes—or some of them, anyway—are once again on the future of Afghan democracy. But the United States's history in the region extends back much further than its nation-building efforts there since September 2001. On Tuesday, at a Brookings Institution launch event for his newest book entitled, “What We Won: America's Secret War in Afghanistan, 1979-1989,” Bruce Riedel, Senior Fellow and Director of the Intelligence Project at Brookings, discussed lessons the United States can learn from its successful efforts in the 1970s and 1980s in Afghanistan. In his talk, Riedel discusses why the American intelligence operation in Afghanistan in the 1980s was so successful, and what, if any lessons, the United States can apply to its ongoing operations in the country. Riedel also explored the complex personalities and individuals who shaped the war, and explained how their influence still affects the region today. Brookings Institution President Strobe Talbott provided introductory remarks and moderated the conversation.In May 2022, Lawfare and Goat Rodeo will debut their latest podcast, Allies, a series about America's eyes and ears over 20 years of war in Afghanistan. Thousands of Afghans who worked with the American soldiers as translators, interpreters and partners made it onto U.S. military planes. But despite the decades-long efforts of veterans, lawmakers and senior leaders in the military, even more were left behind. This show will take you from the frontlines of the war to the halls of Congress to find out: How did this happen? Learn more and subscribe to Allies at https://pod.link/1619035873.Support this show http://supporter.acast.com/lawfare. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

All Things Therapy
The Biology of Belief

All Things Therapy

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 21, 2022 28:13


An end of the week mental boost to help when going through changes! How to appreciate yourself and affirm your importance in this world using your mind. Sessions at https://www.nolatherapy.com * 10% off 1st month of online therapy from sponsor Betterhelp.com at https://www.betterhelp.com/att * 15% off Psilocybin products to boost mood from sponsor Schedule35 at https://www.schedule35.co with code ATT  * 75% off Crafting Kit subscription from sponsor Annie's Kit Club. Learn to make jewelry, socks, Afghans, woodworking and more at https://www.annieskitclubs.com with code THERAPY75 * 20% off Magic Mind nutrition supplement drink containing Matcha, Turmeric, Ashwagandha, Vit C, L-Theanine, Echinacea that's paleo and vegan at https://magicmind.co/discount/ATT * Order injectable Peptide therapy from sponsor Concierge MD at https://conciergemdla.com/anti-aging-medicine/peptide-therapy/ and email your order to nick@conciergemdla.com

Latitude Adjustment
92: Ukraine (1 of 2): Investigating Migration

Latitude Adjustment

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 21, 2022 46:11


This marks the first episode of a two-part series on the war in Ukraine. The first will focus on the work of investigative journalism being done by LightHouse Reports, a nonprofit organization based in The Netherlands. And we'll be speaking with investigative journalist Halima Salat Barre about the experiences of non-Ukrainian refugees fleeing Ukraine. The second part of this series will focus on the experiences of Jana Kalaaji, a Syrian national who fled the war in her country to study medicine in Ukraine, only to become a double refugee, after the outbreak of the war there. It is not our intention, nor is it within our means, to provide a full panoramic view of the entire conflict, all of its parties, nor all of their grievances or the events that inform them. But you will hear some perspectives about this war that you are not hearing about much in the coverage of this war from traditional media from either side, and we have done our best to clearly lay out the facts as well as the limits of our knowledge. Also please be sure to support our Palestine Podcast Academy! And our regular programming on Patreon!

Best of Today
Karzai: No way Afghanistan can live without girls going to school

Best of Today

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 21, 2022 14:27


Afghanistan has been through many decades of civil war and hundreds of thousands of people have been killed in those years of conflict. Now much of the population is facing extreme hunger. The World Bank has warned that more than a third of Afghans no longer have enough money to feed themselves. The country's economy was dependent on foreign grants that were cut off after the Taliban takeover and there are rising concern over their policies on women and girls. The BBC's Afghanistan correspondent Secunder Kermani also reports from Kabul and Today's Martha Kearney speaks to Afghanistan's former president Hamid Karzai. (Image Credits:EPA/JALIL REZAYEE)

This Is Nashville
Welcoming Afghan refugees to Middle Tennessee

This Is Nashville

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 20, 2022 50:22


In August, U.S. forces withdrew from Afghanistan as the Taliban took over the country. Millions of Afghans were forcibly displaced, and hundreds of thousands fled as refugees. Over 500 Afghans resettled in Nashville. At first, resettlement agencies were overwhelmed. The local community – mosques, teachers, electrical engineers, activists, grocers and more – stepped up to make sure the new arrivals got the help they needed, and more people are still coming.   In this episode, we hear the stories of the people who have been resettled here. Then, we learn about how Tennessee's refugee resettlement infrastructure works. Finally, we hear how the community came together to fill in the gaps in the system and how listeners can help.  But first, WPLN Enterprise Reporter Damon Mitchell joins in studio with an update on Mason, Tennessee's fight to stop the state comptroller from taking over the town's finances. Guests:  Damn Mitchell, WPLN enterprise reporter Louisa Saratora, state refugee coordinator with Catholic Charities's Tennessee Office for Refugees Sabina Mohyuddin, executive Director of the American Muslim Advisory Council Masood Sidiqyar, senior director of information security for Vanderbilt IT and an Afghan refugee Saleem Tahiri, technical operations manager for Computer & Communications Innovations and cofounder of Tennessee Resettlement Aid

Appels sur l'actualité
[Vos réactions]: Demandeurs d'asile : accord controversé entre Londres et Kigali

Appels sur l'actualité

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 18, 2022 20:00


Le Royaume-Uni va envoyer au Rwanda les migrants et demandeurs d'asile arrivés illégalement sur son sol. Qu'ils soient Syriens, Erythréens ou Afghans. Londres versera dans un premier temps à Kigali 144 millions d'euros. L'ONU et plusieurs ONGs dénoncent l'inhumanité du projet. Qu'en pensez-vous ?  * Par téléphone : de France : 09 693 693 70 de l'étranger : 33 9 693 693 70 * Par WhatsApp : +33 6 89 28 53 64 N'OUBLIEZ PAS DE NOUS COMMUNIQUER VOTRE NUMÉRO DE TÉLÉPHONE (avec l'indicatif pays). Pour nous suivre : * Facebook : Rfi appels sur l'actualité * Twitter : @AppelsActu

The Lawfare Podcast
Lawfare Archive: Stephen Tankel on Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Lashkar-e-Taiba

The Lawfare Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 16, 2022 35:43


From November 14, 2012: Ritika Singh interviews American University scholar Stephen Tankel on Pakistani counterterrorism cooperation, the endgame in Afghanistan, and Lashkar-e-Taiba.In May 2022, Lawfare and Goat Rodeo will debut their latest podcast, Allies, a series about America's eyes and ears over 20 years of war in Afghanistan. Thousands of Afghans who worked with the American soldiers as translators, interpreters and partners made it onto U.S. military planes. But despite the decades-long efforts of veterans, lawmakers and senior leaders in the military, even more were left behind. This show will take you from the frontlines of the war to the halls of Congress to find out: How did this happen? Learn more and subscribe to Allies at https://pod.link/1619035873.Support this show http://supporter.acast.com/lawfare. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

The New Statesman Podcast
BONUS: Operation Warm Welcome: the hotel that became home to 100 refugees

The New Statesman Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 16, 2022 34:19


When the Taliban took control of Kabul in August 2021, the Koofi family were among 8,000 Afghans airlifted to safety in the UK, as part of the government's Operation Warm Welcome. The New Statesman's Sophie McBain met them in a hotel in the north of England soon afterwards, where they were waiting to be resettled. As the months passed, she followed their new life, as well as that of the hotel staff and its other residents: an uncertain limbo of bureaucracy and confinement. Written and read by Sophie McBain. Subscribe to Audio Long Reads, from the New Statesman here.Read the text version here. It was published on the New Statesman website and in the magazine on 10 December 2021. To receive all our long reads, subscribe to the New Statesman for just £1 a week for 12 weeks using our special podcast offer. Just visit www.newstatesman.com/podcastoffer. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

America's Work Force Union Podcast
Jeff Stoffer (American Legion) / Rich Fiesta (Alliance for Retired Americans)

America's Work Force Union Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 15, 2022 54:40


Jeff Stoffer, Media and Communications Director for The American Legion, joined the America's Work Force Union podcast and discussed the Promise to Address Comprehensive Toxics Act, the Ukraine War and the need to expedite special immigrant VISAs for Afghans who supported the U.S. during the war.     Executive Director of The Alliance for Retired Americans Richard Fiesta was today's second guest and he explained why Medicare should be allowed to negotiate the prices of prescription drugs in order to lower prices for all Americans.

Spirit In Action
Welcoming Afghan Neighbors to Fort McCoy with Law & Love

Spirit In Action

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 15, 2022 55:00


Many hands were needed to help in the transition for the immense number of Afghans that fled Afghanistan with the fall of the government there to the Taliban last year. Among those answering the call was Sahar Taman, providing legal assistance to the 13,000 Afghans located to Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, last fall. The personal situations & the legal requirements were complex, demanding deeply dedicated work of both the heart and head.

Stateside from Michigan Radio
Shelters Struggle With Influx of Afghan Kids

Stateside from Michigan Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 13, 2022 17:51


Tens of thousands of Afghans have fled their home country after U.S. troops withdrew and Taliban forces seized control of the government last summer. Among them are around 1,400 unaccompanied minors, some of whom have ended up in refugee youth shelters here in Michigan. Today on the pod, we talked to two reporters about the experience of these young people--and what their future might hold.  GUESTS:  Anna Clark, reporter with ProPublica   Melissa Sanchez, reporter with ProPublica You can read Clark and Sanchez's reporting on the young Afghan refugees here. Looking for more conversations from Stateside? Right this way. If you like what you hear on the pod, consider supporting our work. Stateside's theme music is by 14KT. Additional music by Blue Dot Sessions. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

CFR On the Record
Academic Webinar: Refugees and Global Migration

CFR On the Record

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 13, 2022


Anne C. Richard, distinguished fellow and Afghanistan coordination lead at Freedom House, will lead a conversation on refugees and global migration. FASKIANOS: Thank you. Welcome to the final session of the Winter/Spring 2022 CFR Academic Webinar Series. I'm Irina Faskianos, vice president of the National Program and Outreach here at CFR. Today's discussion is on the record, and the video and transcript will be available on our website, CFR.org/academic. As always, CFR takes no institutional positions on matters of policy. We are delighted to have Anne Richard with us today to talk about refugees and global migration. Ms. Richard is a distinguished fellow and Afghanistan coordination lead at Freedom House. She has taught at several universities including Georgetown, University of Virginia, Hamilton College, and the University of Pennsylvania. From 2012 to 2017, Ms. Richard served as an assistant secretary of state for population, refugees, and migration, and before joining the Obama administration she served as vice president of government relations and advocacy for the International Rescue Committee. She has also worked at the Peace Corps headquarters and the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, and is a member of CFR. So, Anne, thank you very much for being with us today. With your background and experience, it would be great if you could talk from your vantage point—give us an overview of the current refugee trends you are—we are seeing around the world, especially vis-à-vis the war in Ukraine, the withdrawal from Afghanistan, et cetera. RICHARD: Thank you so much, Irina, for inviting me today and for always welcoming me back to the Council. And thank you to your team for putting this together. I'm very happy to speak about the global refugee situation, which, unfortunately, has, once again, grown yet larger in a way that is sort of stumping the international community in terms of what can well-meaning governments do, what can foundations and charitable efforts and the United Nations (UN) do to help displaced people. I thought we could start off talking a little bit about definitions and data, and the idea is that I only speak about ten minutes at this beginning part so that we can get to your questions all the more quickly. But for all of us to be on the same wavelength, let's recall that refugees, as a group, have an organization that is supposed to look out for them. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees is the title of the number-one person in the organization, but the entire organization is known by that name, UNHCR, or the UN Refugee Agency. It also has a convention—the 1951 Refugee Convention—that came about after World War II and was very focused on not allowing to happen again what had happened during World War II where victims of the Nazis and, as time went on, people fleeing fascism, people fleeing communism, couldn't get out of their countries and were persecuted because of this. And there's a legal definition that comes out of the convention that different countries have, and the U.S. legal definition matches very much the convention's, which is that refugees have crossed an international border—they're not in their home country anymore—and once they've crossed an international border the sense is that they are depending on the international community to help them and that they're fleeing for specific purposes—their race, their religion, their ethnicity, their membership in a particular social group such as being LGBTQ, or political thought. And if you think back to the Cold War, these were some of the refugees coming out of the former Soviet Union, coming out of Eastern Europe, were people who had spoken out and were in trouble and so had to flee their home countries. So what are the numbers then? And I'm going to refer you to a very useful page on the UN High Commissioner for Refugees website, which is their “Figures at a Glance” presentation, and we're going to reference some of the numbers that are up there now. But those numbers change every year. They change on June 20, which is World Refugee Day. And so every year it hits the headlines that the numbers have gone up, unfortunately, and you can anticipate this if you think in terms of the summer solstice, the longest day of the year. It's usually June 20, 21, 22. So June 20, that first possible day, is every year World Refugee Day. So if you're working on behalf of refugees it's good sometimes to schedule events or anticipate newspaper articles and conversations about refugees ticking up in—at the end of June. So if you were paying attention last June for World Refugee Day, UNHCR would have unveiled a number of 82.4 million refugees around the world, and so this upcoming June what do we anticipate? Well, we anticipate the numbers will go up again and, in fact, yesterday the high commissioner was in Washington, met with Secretary of State Tony Blinken, and they met the press and Filippo Grandi, the current high commissioner, said that he thinks the number is closer to ninety-five to ninety-six million refugees. So, clearly, a couple things have happened since last June. One is that so many people are trying to flee Afghanistan and another is so many people have fled Ukraine. So if we went back to that $82.4 million figure that we know we have details on, we would find that this is the figure of people who are displaced because of conflict or persecution around the world. The ones that count as refugees who have actually crossed an international border is a smaller number. It's 20.7 million people that UNHCR is concerned about and then another close to six million people who are Palestinians in the Middle East whose displacement goes back to 1948, the creation of the statehood of Israel, and upheaval in the Middle East region as Palestinians were shifted to live elsewhere. And so—and they are provided assistance by a different UN agency, UNRWA—UN Relief Works Administration in the Near East—and so if you see a number or you see two sets of numbers for refugees and they're off by about five or six million people, the difference is the Palestinian, that number—whether it's being counted in, which is for worldwide numbers, or out because UNHCR cares for most refugees on Earth but did not have the responsibility for the Palestinians since UNRWA was set up with that specific responsibility. So what's the big difference then between the eighty-two million, now growing to ninety-five million, and this smaller number of refugees? It's internally displaced persons (IDPs). These are people who are displaced by conflict or are displaced by persecution, are running for their lives, but they haven't left their own countries yet. So think of Syrians who, perhaps, are displaced by war and they have crossed their own countries and gone to a safer place within their own country but they haven't crossed that border yet. Others who have crossed into Lebanon or Turkey or Jordan or Iraq or have gone further afield to Egypt, those would be considered refugees. Who's responsible for the IDPs then? Well, legally, their own countries are supposed to take care of them. But in my Syria example, the problem is Syria was bombing its own people in certain areas of the country, and so they were not protecting their own people as they should be. People can be displaced by things other than war and conflict and persecution, of course. More and more we talk about climate displacement, and this is a hot issue that we can talk about later. But who's responsible then when people are displaced by changing climactic conditions and it's their own governments who are supposed to help them? But more and more questions have been raised about, well, should the international community come together and do more for this group of people—for internally displaced persons—especially when their own governments are unwilling or unable to do so? What about migrants? Who are the migrants? Migrants is a much broader term. Everyone I've talked about so far who's crossed a border counts as a migrant. Migrants are just people on the go, and the International Organization for Migration estimates there's about 281 million migrants on Earth today—about 3.6 percent of the world population—and one of the big issues I've pushed is to not see migrants as a dirty word. Unfortunately, it often is described that way—that migratory flows are bad, when, in fact, lots of people are migrants. Students who travel to the U.S. to take classes are migrants to our country. The secretary general of the United Nations, António Guterres, who was himself for eleven years the high commissioner for refugees, he says, I am a migrant, because he's a Portuguese person working in New York City. People hired by Silicon Valley from around the world to work in high-paid jobs, legally in the United States, they are migrants. More concerning are vulnerable migrants, people who are displaced and don't have the wherewithal to, necessarily, protect themselves, take care of themselves, on the march or where they end up, or also if they're seen as traveling without papers, not welcome in the places where they're going, that can be a very, very dangerous situation for them. So be aware that migrants is a really broad all-encompassing term that can include travelers, businesspeople, as well as vulnerable and very poor people who are economic migrants. Finally, immigrants are people who set out and migrate because they intend to live somewhere else, and when we were talking about the Trump administration's policies to reduce the number of refugees coming to the U.S. we also see that immigration to the U.S. also was decreased during that administration as well. So both the refugee program and a lot of the immigration pathways to the U.S. are now being examined and trying to be not just fixed, because a lot of them have needed care for quite some time, but also put back on a growth trajectory. And then asylum seekers are people who get to a country on their own, either they have traveled to a border or they pop up inside a country because they have gotten in legally through some other means such as a visitor visa or business visa, and then they say, I can't go home again. It's too dangerous for me to go home again. Please, may I have asylum? May I be allowed to stay here and be protected in your country? So that's a lot of different terminology. But the more you work on it, the more these terms—you get more familiar using them and understand the differences between them that experts or legal experts use. So ninety-five to ninety-six million people, as we see another eleven million people fleeing Ukraine and of that four million, at least, have crossed the borders into neighboring countries and another seven million are internally displaced, still inside Ukraine but they've gone someplace that they feel is safer than where they were before. When we looked at the eighty million refugees and displaced people, we knew that two-thirds of that number came from just five countries, and one of the important points about that is it shows you what could happen, the good that could be done, if we were able to push through peace negotiations or resolutions of conflict and persecution, if we could just convince good governance and protection of people—minorities, people with different political thought, different religious backgrounds—inside countries. So the number-one country still remains Syria that has lost 6.7 million people to neighboring countries, primarily. Secondly was Venezuela, four million. Third was Afghanistan. The old number from before last August was 2.6 million and some hundreds of thousands have fled since. And the only reason there aren't more fleeing is that they have a really hard time getting out of their country, and we can talk more about that in a moment. The fourth are Rohingya refugees fleeing from Burma, or Myanmar. That's 1.1 million, and the fifth was Southern Sudanese, 2.2 million, who have fled unrest and violence in that country. So we know that we have not enough peace, not enough solutions, and we have too much poverty, too, and dangers. In addition to the Venezuelans, another group that has approached the U.S. from the southern border that were in the paper, especially around election times, is from the Northern Triangle of Central America, so El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. These are people who could be fleeing because of economic situations and could also be fleeing from criminal violence, gangs, warfare, narcotraffickers. And so if they are fleeing for their lives and approaching our southern border, we are supposed to give them a hearing and consider whether they have a case for asylum, and the—unfortunately, that is not well understood, especially not by folks working at our borders. The Customs and Border Protection folks are more and more focused on, since 9/11, ensuring that bad guys don't come across, that terrorists don't come across, that criminals don't come across. And we heard in the Trump administration conversations about Mexicans as rapists, gang warfare being imported into the U.S. from Central America when, in fact, some of it had been originally exported, and this sense that people from the Middle East were terrorists. And so really harsh language about the types of people who were trying to make it to the U.S. and to get in. Some final thoughts so that we can get to the question and answer. The U.S. government has traditionally been the top donor to refugee and humanitarian efforts around the world. The bureau at the State Department I used to run, the Population, Refugees, and Migration Bureau, was a major donor to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees—UNRWA—the International Committee of the Red Cross, and also the International Organization for Migration, which used to be an independent organization and is now part of the UN since 2016. We were also the number-one resettlement location, the formal program for bringing refugees to the United States, and when I was assistant secretary we brought seventy thousand refugees per year to the United States, invited them to come through a program that took eighteen months to twenty-four months, on average, to get them in because they had to be vetted for security reasons. They had to pass medical tests. Their backgrounds had to be investigated to see that they were who they said they were. And that number went higher in the last year of the Obama administration to eighty-five thousand refugees and, in fact, the Obama administration proposed some very strong additional measures to help refugees. But the Trump administration threw that all into reverse with a completely different set of policies. So the numbers then became reduced every year—fifty-three thousand in the first year of the Trump administration, 22,500 the next year, thirty thousand in 2019, 11,814 in 2020, a similar number in 2021, and slow numbers coming today, this despite bringing so many Afghans through an evacuation exercise last summer. Many of the people who were evacuated were American citizens or green card holders. Afghans who had worked for the U.S. but did not have their formal paperwork yet were brought in under what's called humanitarian parole, and the problem with that program is that it's no guarantee for a longer-term stay in the United States. So there's a bill in Congress right now to address that. A lot of the people who worked on that, especially within the U.S. government, are proud that they've scrambled and brought so many people so quickly—120,000 people brought from Afghanistan. At the same time, those of us who are advocates for refugees would say too many people were left behind and the evacuation should continue, and that's a real concern. In terms of resettlement in the U.S., it's a program run—public-private partnership—and we've never seen so many volunteers and people helping as there are right now, and initiatives to help welcome people to the United States, which is fantastic. I would say the program should be one of humanity, efficiency, and generosity, and that generosity part has been tough to achieve because the government piece of it is kind of stingy. It's kind of a tough love welcome to the United States where the refugees are expected to get jobs and the kids to go to school and the families to support themselves. So let me stop there because I've been just talking too long, I know, and take questions. FASKIANOS: It's fantastic, and thank you for really clarifying the definitions and the numbers. Just a quick question. You said the U.S. government is the top donor. What is the percentage of DVP? I mean, it's pretty— RICHARD: Tiny. Yeah. FASKIANOS: —tiny, right? I think there's this lack of understanding that it may seem like a big number but in our overall budget it's minuscule. So if you could just give us a— RICHARD: Yeah. It's grown in the last few years because of all these crises around the world to ten to twelve million—I mean, ten billion dollars to twelve billion (dollars) between the U.S. Agency for International Development and the State Department, which was bigger. It was around seven or eight billion (dollars) when I was the assistant secretary five, six years ago. But the important part of it was it provided the whole backbone to the international humanitarian system. Governments, some of them, saw Americans sometimes as headaches in terms of we, Americans, telling them what to do or we, Americans, having our own ideas of how to do things or we, Americans, demanding always budget cuts and efficiencies. But the fact is the whole humanitarian enterprise around the world is based on American generosity, especially the big operating agencies like World Food Programme, UNHCR, UNICEF, UN Development Program. FASKIANOS: Great. Thank you. So now we're going to go to all you for your questions. Hands are already up and Q&A written questions. So I'll try to get to everybody as much as I can. I'm going to go—the first question from Rey Koslowski, and if you can unmute yourself and give us your institution that would be fantastic. RICHARD: Hi, Rey. Q: All right. Rey Koslowski, University at Albany. Hi, Anne. Good to see you. I'd like to pick up on the use of humanitarian parole. So, as I understand it, it's being utilized for Afghan evacuees, Afghans, who you mentioned, who didn't—weren't able to get on the flights and were left behind, but also for Ukrainians. You know, President Biden announced a hundred thousand Ukrainians. I mean, a very—we're using other channels but we've had, I believe, three thousand at the U.S.-Mexican border and, I believe, they're being paroled for the most part, right. As I understand it, we're—one DHS letter that I saw said that there were forty-one thousand requests for humanitarian parole for Afghan nationals. But I'm wondering about capacity of the USCIS to handle this, to process this, because, you know, normally, I think, maybe two thousand or so, a couple thousand, are processed, maybe a couple of people who do this, and also in conjunction with the challenges for processing all of the asylum applications. So, as I understand it, back in the fall there was some discussion of hiring a thousand asylum officers—additional asylum officers. I was wondering, what are your thoughts about our capacity to process all of the—the U.S. government's capacity to process the humanitarian parole applications and the asylum applications, and if you have any insights on new hires and how many— RICHARD: Well, you know, Rey, at Freedom House now I'm working on a project to help Afghan human rights defenders and— Q: Right. RICHARD: —the idea is that they can restart their work if we can find a way for them to be safe inside Afghanistan, which is very hard with the Taliban in charge right now, or if in exile they can restart their work. And so we're watching to see where Afghans are allowed to go in the world as they seek sanctuary and the answer is they don't get very far. It's very hard to get out of the country. If they get to Pakistan or Iran, they don't feel safe. They have short-term visas to stay there, and the programs that might bring them further along like resettlement of refugees are—take a much longer time to qualify for and then to spring into action, and so they're stuck. You know, they're afraid of being pushed back into Afghanistan. They're afraid of becoming undocumented and running out of money wherever they are, and so they're in great need of help. The humanitarian parole program sort of—for bringing Afghans into the U.S. sort of understood that our eighteen- to twenty-four-month refugee resettlement program was a life-saving program but it wasn't an emergency program. It didn't work on an urgent basis. It didn't scoop people up and move them overnight, and that's, really, what was called for last August was getting people—large numbers of people—out of harm's way. And so when I was assistant secretary, if we knew someone was in imminent danger we might work with another government. I remember that the Scandinavians were seen as people who were more—who were less risk averse and would take people who hadn't had this vast vetting done but would take small numbers and bring them to safety, whereas the U.S. did things in very large numbers but very slowly. And so this lack of emergency program has really been what's held us back in providing the kind of assistance, I think, people were looking for the Afghans. I was surprised we even brought them into the United States. I thought after 9/11 we'd never see that kind of program of bringing people in with so little time spent on checking. But what they did was they moved up them to the front of the line and checked them very quickly while they were on the move. So it was safe to do but it was unusual, and I think part of that was because the military—the U.S. military—was so supportive of it and U.S. veterans were so supportive of it and we had, for the first time in a while, both the right and the left of the political spectrum supporting this. So the problem with humanitarian parole is I remember it being used, for example, for Haitians who had been injured in the Haitian earthquake and they needed specialized health care—let's say, all their bones were crushed in their legs or something. They could be paroled into the U.S., get that health care that they needed, and then sent home again. So we've not used it for large numbers of people coming in at once. So what refugee advocates are seeking right now from Congress is the passage of the Afghan Adjustment Act, which would give people a more permanent legal status. They would be treated as if they were—had come through the refugee resettlement program and they'd get to stay. So you're right that the numbers being granted humanitarian parole at one time is just not the normal way of doing things. You're also right that the—this is a lot of extra work on people who weren't anticipating it, and more can continue with the hundred thousand Ukrainians who the president has said we will take in. And so the thing is when we have these kind of challenges in the United States one way to deal with it is to spend more money and do a better job, and that seems to be an option for certain challenges we face but not for all challenges we face. With these more humanitarian things, we tend to have tried to do it on the cheap and to also use the charity and partner with charities and churches more than if this were sort of a more business-oriented program. So we need all of the above. We need more government funding for the people who are working the borders and are welcoming people in or are reviewing their backgrounds. We need more assistance from the public, from the private sector, from foundations, because the times demand it. And it's very interesting to me to see Welcome US created last year with three former U.S. presidents—President Bush, President Clinton, President Obama—speaking up about it, saying, please support this, and people from across the political aisle supporting it. I wish that had existed in 2015 when we were grappling with these issues at the time of candidate Trump. So the needs are greater. Absolutely. But that doesn't mean we have to just suffer through and struggle through and have long backups like we do right now. We could be trying to put more resources behind it. FASKIANOS: I'm going to take the next written question from Haley Manigold, who's an IR undergrad student at University of North Florida. We know that the war in Ukraine is going to affect grain and food supplies for the MENA countries. Is there any way you would recommend for Europe and other neighboring regions to manage the refugee flows? RICHARD: The first part of that was about the food issue but then you said— FASKIANOS: Correct, and then this is a pivot to manage the refugee flows. So— RICHARD: Well, the Europeans are treating the Ukrainians unlike any other flow of people that we've seen lately. It goes a little bit back and reminiscent to people fleeing the Balkans during the 1990s. But we saw that with a million people in 2015 walking into Europe from Syria, Pakistan, Afghanistan—mix of economic migrants and real refugees—that Europe, at first, under Angela Merkel's leadership were welcoming to these folks showing up, and then there was a backlash and the walls came up on that route from the Balkans to Germany and to Sweden. And so in the last few years, Europeans have not been seen as champions in allowing—rescuing people who are trying to get to Europe on their own. You know, especially the Mediterranean has been a pretty dismal place where we see Africans from sub-Saharan Africa working their way up to North Africa and trying to get from Libya across the Mediterranean to Europe. These are mostly economic migrants but not solely economic migrants, and they deserve to have a hearing and, instead, they have been terribly mistreated. They get stopped by the Libyan coast guard, the Europeans push boats back, and they are offloaded back into Libya and they are practically imprisoned and mistreated in North Africa. So that's a terribly inhumane way to treat people who are trying to rescue themselves, their families, and find a better life. And another point to the Europeans has been, couldn't you use these young people taking initiative trying to have a better life and work hard and get on with their lives, and the answer is yes. Europe has this sort of aging demographic and could definitely use an infusion of younger workers and talented people coming in. But, instead, they have really pushed to keep people out. So what's happened with Ukrainians? They're seen as a different category. They're seen as neighbors. There's a part of it that is positive, which is a sense that the countries right next door have to help them. Poland, Moldova, other countries, are taking in the Ukrainians. The borders are open. If they get to Poland they can get free train fare to Germany. Germany will take them in, and that's a beautiful thing. And the upsetting thing is the sense that there is undertones of racism, also anti-Islam, where darker-skinned people were not at all welcome and people who are not Christian were not welcome. And so it's probably a mix of all the above, the good and the bad, and it's potentially an opportunity to teach more people about “refugeehood” and why we care and why it affects all of us and what we should do about it and that we should do more. FASKIANOS: Thank you. All right, I'm going to take the next question from Kazi Sazid, who has also raised their hand, so if you could just ask your question yourself and identify yourself. Q: Hello. So I'm Kazi. I'm a student at CUNY Hunter College and I happen to be writing a research paper on Central American and Iraq war refugee crises and how international law hasn't changed the behavior of a state helping them. So my question is, how does confusion and ignorance of migration and refugee terminology by state leaders and the general populace impact the legally ordained rights of refugees such as having identity documents, having the right to education, refoulement, which is not being sent back to a country where they are danger? One example is like Central Americans are termed as illegal immigrants by the right wing but the reality is they are asylum seekers who are worthy of refugee status because gang violence and corruption has destabilized their country and the judicial systems. I think femicide in El Salvador and Honduras is among the highest and—so yeah. RICHARD: Yeah. Thank you for asking the question, and I have a soft spot in my heart for Hunter College. Only one of my grandparents went to college and it was my mother's mother who went to Hunter College and graduated in the late 1920s, and as we know, it's right down the street from the Harold Pratt House, the home of the Council on Foreign Relations. So I think a lot of what you—I agree with a lot of what you've said about—for me it's describing these people who offer so much potential as threats, just because they are trying to help themselves. And instead of feeling that we should support these folks, there's a sense of—even if we don't allow them in our country we could still do things to ease their way and help them find better solutions, but they're described as these waves of people coming this way, headed this way, scary, scary. And if you follow the debates in the United States, I was very alarmed before and during the Trump administration that journalists did not establish that they had a right to make a claim for asylum at the border. Instead, they talked about it as if it were two political policies duking it out, where some people felt we should take more and some people felt we should take less. Well, the issue that was missed, I felt, in a lot of the coverage of the Southern border was the right to asylum, that they had a right to make a claim, that we had signed onto this as the United States and that there was a very good reason that we had signed onto that and it was to make sure people fleeing for their lives get an opportunity to be saved if they're innocent people and not criminals, but innocent people who are threatened, that we'd give them a place of safety. So I agree with you that the lack of understanding about these basic principles, agreements, conventions is something that is not well understood by our society, and certainly the society was not being informed of that by a lot of the messengers describing the situation over the past few years. FASKIANOS: Thank you. So I'm going to take the next question from Lindsey McCormack who is an undergrad at Baruch—oh, sorry, a graduate student at Baruch College. My apologies. Do you see any possibility of the U.S. adopting a protocol for vetting and accepting climate refugees? Have other countries moved in that direction? And maybe you can give us the definition of a climate refugee and what we will in fact be seeing as we see climate change affecting all of us. RICHARD: I don't have a lot to say on this, so I hate to disappoint you, but I will say a couple things because, one, I was on a task force at Refugees International, which is a very good NGO that writes about and reports on refugee situations around the world and shines a light on them. I was part of a task force that came out with a report for the Biden administration on the need to do more for climate migrants, and so that report is available at the Refugees International site and it was being submitted to the Biden administration because the Biden administration had put out an executive order on refugees that included a piece that said we want to do a better job, we want to come up with new, fresh ideas on climate migrants. So I don't know where that stands right now, but I think the other piece of information that I often give out while doing public speaking, especially to students, about this issue is that I feel not enough work has been done on it, and so if a student is very interested in staying in academia and studying deeper into some of these issues, I think climate migration is a field that is ripe for further work. It's timely, it's urgent, and it hasn't been over-covered in the past. I admire several people, several friends who are working on these issues; one is Professor Beth Ferris at Georgetown University who was, in fact, on the secretary general's High Level Panel on Internal Displacement and she made sure that some of these climate issues are raised in very high-level meetings. She was also part of this task force from Refugees International. Another smart person working on this is Amali Tower, a former International Rescue Committee colleague who started a group called Climate Refugees and she's also trying to bring more attention to this; she's kind of very entrepreneurial in trying to do more on that. Not everybody would agree that the term should be climate refugees since “refugees” has so much legal definitions attached to it and the people displaced by climate don't have those kind of protections or understandings built around them yet. But I think it's an area that there definitely needs to be more work done. So I think the basic question was, did I think something good was going to happen anytime soon related to this, and I can't tell because these crazy situations around the world, the war in Ukraine and Taliban in charge in Afghanistan—I mean, that just completely derails the types of exercises that the world needs of thinking through very logically good governance, people coming together making decisions, building something constructive instead of reacting to bad things. FASKIANOS: Thank you. I'm going to take the next question from raised hand Ali Tarokh. And unmute your—thank you. Q: Yes. OK, I am Ali Tarokh from Northeastern University. I came here in the United States ten years ago as a refugee. And I was in Turkey—I flew Iran to Turkey. I stayed there fourteen, sixteen months. So this is part of—my question is part of my lived experience in Turkey. So one part is humanitarian services, helping refugees move into the third country, OK? The one issue I—it's my personal experience is the UNHCR system, there is many corruptions. This corruption makes lines, OK, produce refugees—because some countries such as Iran and Turkey, they are producing refugees and there is no solution for it, or sometimes they use it as—they use refugees as a weapon. They say, OK, if you don't work with me—Turkey sent a message to EU: If you don't work with me, I open the borders. I open the borders and send the flow of refugees to EU. Even some—even Iran's government. So my question is, how can we in the very base on the ground—the level of the ground—how can we prevent all these corruption or how can we work out with this kind of government, countries that are—I named them the refugee producers. And by the time there is two sides of the refugees—one is just humanitarian services, which is our responsibility, United States playing globally there; and other side it seems refugees issue became like industry. In Turkey, the UNHCR staff, some lawyers/attorneys, they take money from people, they make fake cases for them. Even they ask them: Hey, what country—which country would you like to go, United States, Canada, Scandinavian countries? So what is our strategy? What is our solution to help real refugees or prevent produce refugees? RICHARD: Well, there's several things that are raised by your question. Turkey and, now we see, Russia have both been countries where we have seen instances where they can turn on the flow of refugees and turn it off. And Turkey was watching people walk through Turkey, cross the Mediterranean is very scary, dangerous trip between Turkey and Greece in these rubber boats in 2015, 2016, and then they would make their way onward, and then, because of this big EU-Turkey deal that involved 3 billion euros at the time, all of a sudden, the flow stopped. And then in further negotiations going on and on, Turkey would say things that seemed like it came right from a Godfather movie, like, gee, I'd hate to see that flow start up again; that would be a real shame. And so it was clear it was sort of a threat that if you didn't cooperate it could play this very disruptive role on the edges of Europe and deploying people, as you said, which is so cruel not just to the people who are receiving them but to the individuals themselves that they're not being seen as people who need care but instead as a problem to be deployed in different directions. And we saw that also with Belarus and Poland and now also it may have been part of the thinking of Vladimir Putin that by attacking Ukraine, by going to war with Ukraine that there would be exactly what is happening now, people scattering from Ukraine into Europe and that that would be a way to drive a wedge between European countries and cause a lot of not just heartache but also animosity between these countries. So what the Russians didn't seem to appreciate this time was that there would be so much solidarity to help the Ukrainians, and that has been a bit of a surprise. So you've also talked about corruption, though, and corruption is a problem all over the world for lots of different reasons, in business and it's embedded in some societies in a way that sometimes people make cultural excuses for, but in reality we know it doesn't have to be that way. But it is very hard to uproot and get rid of. So I find this work, the anti-corruption work going on around the world, really interesting and groups like Transparency International are just sort of fascinating as they try to really change the standards and the expectations from—the degree to which corruption is part of societies around the world. So UNHCR has to take great care to not hire people who are going to shake down and victimize refugees, and it's not—there's never a perfect situation, but I know that a lot of work is done to keep an eye on these kinds of programs so that the aid goes to the people who need it and it's not sidetracked to go to bad guys. And the way I've seen it is, for example, if I travel overseas and I go to someplace where refugees are being resettled to the U.S. or they're being interviewed for that, or I go to UNHCR office, there will be big signs up that will say the resettlement program does not cost money. If someone asks you for money, don't pay it; you know, report this. And from time to time, there are mini scandals, but overall, it's remarkable how much corruption is kept out of some of these programs. But it's a never-ending fight. I agree with you in your analysis that this is a problem and in some countries more than others. FASKIANOS: So I'm going to take the next question from Pamela Waldron-Moore, who's the chair of the political science department at Xavier University in New Orleans. There are reports in some news feeds that African refugees from Ukraine are being disallowed entry to some states accepting refugees. I think you did allude to this. Is there evidence of this, and if so, can the UN stop it or alleviate that situation? RICHARD: We saw before the Taliban took over in Afghanistan that some European countries were saying it was time for Afghans to go home again, and the idea that during this war it was safe for Afghans to go back—and especially for Afghans who are discriminated against even in the best of times in Afghanistan, like the Hazara minority. It's just—I found that sort of unbelievable that some countries thought this was the right time to send people back to Afghanistan. And so at the moment there's a weird situation in Afghanistan because it's safer in some ways for the bulk of the people because the active fighting has—in large parts of the country—stopped. But it's deadly dangerous for human rights defenders, women leaders, LBGTQ folks—anyone who tries to stand up to the Taliban—you know, scholars, thinkers, journalists. And so those are the folks that, in smaller numbers, we need to find some kind of way to rescue them and get them to safety while they are still inside Afghanistan or if that's outside Afghanistan and in the region. The borders—the border situations change from time to time. For a while they were saying only people with passports could come out, and for most Afghan families, nobody had a passport or, if they did, it was a head of household had a passport for business or trade. But you wouldn't have had passports for the spouse and the children. And so this has been a real dilemma. We also see a whole series of barriers to people getting out; so first you need a passport, then you need a visa to where you're going, and then you might need a transit visa for a country that you are crossing. And what has come to pass is that people who are trying to help evacuate people from Afghanistan—a smaller and smaller number as the months go on; people are trying to make this happen because it's so hard—that they will only take people out of the country if they feel that their onward travel is already figured out and that they have their visas for their final-destination country. So the actual number that's getting out are tiny. And the people who have gotten out who are in either Pakistan or Iraq are very worried. And they're afraid to be pushed back. They're afraid they will run out of money. They are afraid—I think said this during my talk before—they're afraid that there are people in Pakistan who will turn them in to the Taliban. And so it's always hard to be a refugee, but right now it's really frightening for people who are just trying to get to a safe place. FASKIANOS: And in terms of the discrimination that you referenced for refugees leaving the Ukraine, I mean, there have been some reports of EU—discrimination in European countries not accepting— RICHARD: Well, like African students who are studying in Ukraine— FASKIANOS: Yes. RICHARD: —who were not treated as if they were fleeing a country at war— FASKIANOS: Correct. RICHARD: —but instead were put in a different category and said, you know, go back, go home. FASKIANOS: Yes. RICHARD: Yeah, that's—that is quite blatant— FASKIANOS: And there's— RICHARD: And that was happening at the borders. FASKIANOS: Is there anything the UN can do about that, or is that really at the discretion of the countries—the accepting countries? RICHARD: Well, the—yeah, the UNHCR has these reception centers that they've set up, including between the border of Poland and Ukraine, and I think the other neighboring countries. And so if one can get to the reception center, one could potentially get additional help or be screened into—for special attention for needing some help that maybe a white Christian Ukrainian who spoke more than one language of the region would not need. FASKIANOS: Great. So let's go to Susan Knott, who also wrote her question, but has raised her hand. So Susan, why don't you just ask your question? And please unmute and identify yourself. KNOTT: OK, am I unmuted? FASKIANOS: Yes. KNOTT: OK. I am Susan Knott, University of Utah, Educational Policy and Leadership doctoral program. I am also a practicum intern at ASU, and I'm also a refugee services collaborator. And I'm engaged in a research project creating college and university pathways for refugees to resettle. I'm just wondering what your feel is about the current administration efforts in seeking to establish the pathway model similar to ASU's Education for Humanity Initiative with Bard, and is there helping lead the Refugee Higher Education Access program that serves learners who require additional university-level preparation in order to transition into certificate and degree programs. And I just—I'm not just—and all of this buzz that's going on since all of terrible crises are occurring, I'm not seeing a whole lot that—based on my own experience working with refugee education and training centers at colleges—on the college level, and learning about the Presidents' Alliance on Higher Ed and Immigration. I'm just wondering—and they're saying let's have this be more of a privately funded or partnerships with the university scholarships and private entities. What about a federally-funded university sponsorship program for refugee students given that the numbers or the data is showing that that age group is the largest number of just about every refugee population? RICHARD: That's a really fascinating set of issues. I'm not the expert on them, so I'm going to disappoint you. but I appreciate that you took a little extra time in how you stated your intervention to add a lot of information for this group, which should very much care about this. I get a lot of questions every week about university programs that Afghan students could take advantage of. I don't have a good handle on it, and I'm trying to do that with—I'm overdue for a conversation with Scholars at Risk in New York. Robert Quinn is the executive director of that, I believe. And so I'm glad you raised this and I'm not going to have a lot of extra to say about it. FASKIANOS: Anne, are there—is there—there's a question in the chat in the Q&A about sources for data on U.S. initiatives toward refugees. Where would you direct people to go to get updates on the latest programs, et cetera? RICHARD: Sometimes I'm embarrassed to say the best summaries are done by not-for-profits outside the government than by the government. The best source for data on resettlement of refugees to the U.S. is a website that is funded by the U.S. government called WRAPSNET.org—WRAPS spelled W-R-A-P-S-N-E-T dot-O-R-G. And in double-checking some of the things last summer, I felt that DHS had better descriptions of some of the programs than the State Department did, and that's my bureau that I used to—run, so—but they are responsible for determining who is in and who is out of these different programs, so maybe that's why they do. So there's a lot on the DHS website that's interesting if you are looking for more information. And one of the things the Council does, it has done a number of these special web presentations: one on refugees that I got to help on a couple of years ago, and I think there's one up now on Ukrainians. And this is the type of public education function that the Council does so well I think because they fact-check everything, and so it's very reliable. FASKIANOS: Thank you for that plug. You can find it all on CFR.org—lots of backgrounders, and timelines, and things like that. So we don't have that much time left, so I'm going to roll up two questions—one in the Q&A box and one because of your vast experience. So what role do NGOs play in refugee crises and migration initiatives, particularly in resettlement? And just from your perspective, Anne, you have been in academia, you've worked in the government, you worked at IRC, and now are at Freedom House. And so just—again, what would you share with the group about pursuing a career in this—government, non-government perspectives and, what students should be thinking about as they launch to their next phase in life. RICHARD: Yeah, that we could have a whole ‘nother hour on, right? That's—(laughs)— FASKIANOS: I know, I know. It's unfair to, right, do this at the very end, but— RICHARD: NGOs play really important roles in both the delivery of humanitarian assistance overseas and the help for resettlement in the United States. In the U.S. there are nine national networks of different groups; six are faith-based, three are not. They are non-sectarian, and they do amazing work on shoe-string budgets to—everything from meeting refugees at the airport, taking them to an apartment, showing them how the lights work and the toilet flushes, and coming back the next day, making sure they have an appropriate meal to have, and that the kids get in school, that people who need health care get it, and that adults who are able-bodied get jobs so they can support themselves. The other type of NGO are the human rights NGOs that now I'm doing more with, and I guess if you are thinking about careers in these, you have to ask yourself, you know, are you more of a pragmatic person where the most important thing is to save a life, or are you an idealist where you want to put out standards that are very high and push people to live up to them. Both types of organizations definitely help, but they just have very different ways of working. Another question for students is do you want high job security of a career in the U.S. government—say, as a Foreign Service Officer or as a civil servant where maybe you won't move up very quickly, but you might have great sense of satisfaction that the things you were working on were making a difference because they were being decisively carried out by the U.S. or another government. Or do you prefer the relatively lean, flatter organizations of the NGO world where, as a young person, you can still have a lot of authority, and your views can be seen—can be heard by top layers because you're not that far away from them. And so, NGOs are seen as more nimble, more fast moving, less job security. Having done both I think it really depends on your personality. Working in the government, you have to figure out a way to keep going even when people tell you no. You have figure out—or that it's hard, or that it's too complicated. You have to figure out ways to find the people who are creative, and can make thing happen, and can open doors, and can cut through red tape. In NGOs you can have a lot of influence. I was so surprised first time I was out of the State Department working for the International Rescue Committee one of my colleagues was telling me she just picks up the phone and calls the key guy on Capitol Hill and tells him what the law should be. That would never happen with a junior person in the U.S. government. You have to go through so many layers of bureaucracy, and approvals, and clearances. So, really, it depends on the type of person you are, and how you like to work, and the atmosphere in which you like to work. I can tell you you won't get rich doing this type of work, unfortunately. But you might be able to make a decent living. I certainly have, and so I encourage students to either do this as a career or find ways to volunteer part-time, even if it's tutoring a refugee kid down the block and not in some glamorous overseas location. I think you can get real sense of purpose out of doing this type of work. Thank you, Irina. FASKIANOS: Thank you very much. And I have to say that your careful definitions of the different categories—and really, I think we all need to be more intentional about how we explain, talk about these issues because they are so complex, and there are so many dimensions, and it's easy to make gross generalizations. But the way you laid this out was really, really important for deepening the understanding of this really—the challenge and the—what we're seeing today. So thank you very much. RICHARD: Thank you. Thanks, everybody. FASKIANOS: So thanks to all—yeah, thanks to everybody for your great questions. Again, I apologize; we're three minutes over. I couldn't get to all your questions, so we will just have to continue looking at this issue. We will be announcing the fall Academic Webinar lineup in a month or so in our Academic Bulletin, so you can look for it there. Good luck with your end of the year, closing out your semester. And again, I encourage you to go to CFR.org, ForeignAffairs.com, and ThinkGlobalHealth.org for research analysis on global issues. And you can follow us on Twitter at @CFR_Academic. So again, thank you, Anne Richard. Good luck to you all with finals, and have a good summer. (END)

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