hypothetical future global conflict
In 1983, whiz kid David Lightman found a digital back door into a military computer system. Thinking he was playing a computer game, he instead triggers a sequence of events that nearly triggers World War III. In this Backtrack, we remember and celebrate the fortieth anniversary of the GenX classic, WarGames! Discord » GenXGrownUp.com/discord Facebook » fb.me/GenXGrownUp Twitter » GenXGrownUp.com/twitter Website » GenXGrownUp.com Podcast » GenXGrownUp.com/pod Merchandise » GenXGrownUp.com/merch Shop » genxgrownup.com/amazon Theme: “Grown Up” by Beefy » beefyness.com Apple » itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/genxgrownup-podcast/id1268365641 Google » GenXGrownUp Podcast (google.com) Pocket Casts » pca.st/8iuL Stitcher » www.stitcher.com/s?fid=146720&refid=stpr TuneIn » tunein.com/radio/GenXGrownUp-Podcast-p1020342/ Spotify » spoti.fi/2TB4LR7 iHeart » www.iheart.com/podcast… Amazon Music » amzn.to/33IKfEK Show Notes Watch the original trailer » youtu.be/TQUsLAAZuhU Read Roger Ebert's review » bit.ly/3ChchsE WarGames for real: How one 1983 exercise nearly triggered WWIII » bit.ly/45JG1Md 15 Surprising Facts About WarGames » bit.ly/3ChcBaG The Movie War Games Inspired President Reagan To Take Cybersecurity Seriously » bit.ly/3oNVg60 Wargames: 40 years ago, this movie predicted the rise of ChatGPT and Bing Chat [Update] – Neowin » bit.ly/42n9xnT Cool WarGames Tshirt » amz.run/6l4h (affiliate) Mail the show » firstname.lastname@example.org Visit us on YouTube » GenXGrownUp.com/yt Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices
Sons of God, Angels, Angelic Beings, Otherworldy Beings, The Universe & Jesus (Part 2) Join Johnny Baptist while he discusses the empirical events across the world leading up to World War III, the trickery and deceit of the New World Order, and the bizarre weirdness of the fallen angelic UFO phenomenon as we plunge head first into the forthcoming apocalypse and the Seven Seals of Revelation (chapter 6). Join us tonight as Johnny shares some of the mysteries of our existence as he has been shown over the last 12 years of radio shows, and 420 articles on Tribulation-Now. Always remember 1 Cor. 8:2 and as the Lord to show you things too. This is PART 2. God Bless You - See you there! To sign up for radio show Email Notifications click Mail Link: http://gem.godaddy.com/signups/185380/joins
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Aliens, UAPs, Nasa, New World Order, WEF, America under siege, Ai spiraling out of control and becoming more dominant and self aware, and World War III edging even closer than we like to believe. The list of dire concerns continue to grow with no end in sight. JoeyNiles Speak on all the latest with a spirit energy perspective. Listen In.
How the Descendants of Giants in Genesis 6 Plan to Enslave Humankind with Gary Wayne (Part 27) Join Johnny Baptist while he discusses the empirical events across the world leading up to World War III, the trickery and deceit of the New World Order, and the bizarre weirdness of the fallen angelic UFO phenomenon as we plunge head first into the forthcoming apocalypse and the Seven Seals of Revelation (chapter 6). Join us tonight for another great program with brother Gary Wayne the author of the Genesis 6 Conspiracy. Tonight, among other key points, Gary will share with us his discoveries associated with Giants and How their descendants plan to enslave humankind. God Bless You - See you there! To sign up for radio show Email Notifications click Mail Link: http://gem.godaddy.com/signups/185380/join
Welcome to our thought-provoking podcast, where we delve into the complex web of global affairs, political intrigue, and socioeconomic dynamics that shape our world. In this episode, we embark on a daring exploration of the potential for World War III, the controversial role of George Soros, the looming debt ceiling crisis, and the perplexing hypocrisy within progressive circles.As tensions rise around the world, we investigate the factors that could potentially lead to a global conflict of unprecedented scale. From regional conflicts to nuclear proliferation, we analyze the geopolitical landscape and examine the warning signs that may indicate the possibility of another devastating world war.But the intrigue doesn't end there. Our investigation takes a closer look at the controversial figure of George Soros, a billionaire philanthropist and investor, who has attracted significant attention and scrutiny. We analyze the allegations surrounding his influence on global politics, financial markets, and social movements, separating fact from fiction.
WallBuilders Live! with David Barton & Rick Green
Today on Foundations of Freedom Thursday, we look at some listener questions. How can we make sure that the freedoms of private Christian schools are not restricted? Do Satanic groups have a constitutional right to hold the events they do? The Biden administration is citing the 14th amendment as the reason they can raise debt; was this the intent of the 14th amendment? Could a World War III be on the horizon? What would it mean, and what advice would the founding fathers have?
Sons of God, Angels, Angelic Beings, Otherworldy Beings, The Universe & Jesus Join Johnny Baptist while he discusses the empirical events across the world leading up to World War III, the trickery and deceit of the New World Order, and the bizarre weirdness of the fallen angelic UFO phenomenon as we plunge head first into the forthcoming apocalypse and the Seven Seals of Revelation (chapter 6). Join us tonight as Johnny shares some of the mysteries of our existence as he has been shown over the last 12 years of radio shows, and 420 articles on Tribulation-Now. Always remember 1 Cor. 8:2 and as the Lord to show you things too. God Bless You - See you there! To sign up for radio show Email Notifications click Mail Link: http://gem.godaddy.com/signups/185380/join
The Amazing Testimony Joe Sanchez and his Direct Enounter with Jesus Join Johnny Baptist while he discusses the empirical events across the world leading up to World War III, the trickery and deceit of the New World Order, and the bizarre weirdness of the fallen angelic UFO phenomenon as we plunge head first into the forthcoming apocalypse and the Seven Seals of Revelation (chapter 6). Joe had an encounter with demons growing up which caused deep depression; then Joe met Jesus in Heaven. Tonight he will share this testimony and all the miraculous ways Jesus came to his rescue. This testimony is sure to bring your closer to our King. God Bless You - See you there! To sign up for radio show Email Notifications click Mail Link: http://gem.godaddy.com/signups/185380/join
Darrell Castle talks about America's latest war which it is fighting along with its NATO allies against Russia on the battlefields of Ukraine while riding on the train to World War III. Transcription / Notes: RIDING THE TRAIN TO WORLD WAR III Hello, this is Darrell Castle with today's Castle Report. This is Friday the 26th day of May in the year of our Lord 2023 and this is also the Friday before Memorial Day which for most of us is a three-day weekend but it is also a time to pause from our barbecue grills and remember those who have fallen over the roughly two and one-half centuries of America's existence. In that vein I will be talking about America's latest war which it is fighting along with its NATO allies against Russia on the battlefields of Ukraine and on the train to World War III. Before I start, I must tell you that next weekend my dear wife and I are going to spend some time with our daughter and son-in-law so no Castle Report next week. God willing, I will talk to you again on Friday the 9th of June. Today's Report concerns the frightening escalation of the war in Ukraine which is obviously a war between America and its NATO allies against Russia. Ukraine is the battlefield and it is remarkedly similar to the battlefield the Russians fought on about 80 years ago. That war, fought on the plains of Kursk and this one just a few miles west of Kursk in what is now Ukraine. The battles raging now are primarily on the eastern border of Ukraine and Russia in virtually the exact area that Germany fought the Soviet Union in some of the greatest armored battles in history. So, the Russians should have that area indelibly etched in their collective memories since they have been fighting off invaders in that region for centuries. They fought the Mongols, they fought Napoleon, and they fought Hitler, but the difference is that this time the Russians are the invaders or so it seems. Many people have accused me of being on the side of Russia in this war but I only say that Russia has valid and understandable reasons to not want NATO on its border only 300 miles from Moscow. Would the United States allow an alliance between Russia, China, Iran, and North Korea physically located only 300 miles from Washington DC. With this administration I suppose it's possible but I hope not. This new conflict that Russia is fighting has something that separates it from all the other wars I just mentioned and that is central to our discussion today. The thing that makes this conflict so incredibly dangerous is the fact that in just about 15 minutes a great deal of humanity could be removed from the planet along with the elements of nature that make life possible. I point out to you that the government of the United States is constantly flirting with that very disaster by constantly escalating the conflict despite all prior statements to the contrary. President Biden said emphatically no warplanes to Ukraine out of a desire not to escalate and antagonize Russia but today we will see how he has changed his mind. The war gets wider and more dangerous just as it seems to be cooling off. The US makes promises or I suppose statements would be a better word but then violates the promises or changes to other statements as Ukraine's position on the battlefield changes. It's hard to determine the truth about which side is prevailing on the battlefield from day to day but one thing is certain. Ukraine is being destroyed by this war and it is starting to look like Hamburg after World War II. When Ukraine loses a battle as it apparently has in Bakhmut, the US will escalate and send in new weapons to make it worse. The recent fighting in Bakhmut which it is now clear that the Russians prevailed is a case in point. The city had a population of about 70,000 before the two sides decided to use it as a battleground. It now has a population of about zero and the buildings literally look like bombed out German cities.
President Biden this week authorized supplying F-16s to Ukraine, while images on social media purportedly showed US-made equipment destroyed during a raid inside Russia. We're getting closer to open war between Russia and the US. 5) Support for continuing Ukraine war falling in Eastern Europe; 4) Debt ceiling talks in US going down to the wire; 3) Growing popularity of barbaric behavior on social media; 2) Internet searches for terms questioning sexual orientation and gender identity up more than 1300% since 2004; 1) Using AI to help negotiate your next pay raise.
You may have not yet figured it out, but we are already in World War III. Perhaps you are not seeing hypersonic missiles flying overhead, there is no armored blitzkrieg on our borders (though there is an invasion on the United States' southern border) and no ships off our shores ready to destroy vital cities. We are in the Fifth-Generation Warfare phase of this war, which is a battle of information and control of what people believe. The next phase will clandestinely target vital infrastructure like the power grid and the internet. Today, Bob begins a two-part program on the war we are in, and where we will find ourselves next. Now, do you believe in this ministry? If you do, you can keep us on the air and as a podcast by visiting our website, https://truth2ponder.com/support. You can also mail a check payable to Ancient Word Radio, P.O. Box 510, Chilhowie, VA 24319. Thank you in advance for your faithfulness to this ministry. --- Send in a voice message: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/truth-to-ponder/message Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/truth-to-ponder/support
Russian propaganda has influenced conservative thinking regarding the war in Ukraine. This episode explains why conservatives in America should support Ukraine in the effort to defeat Russian President Vladimir Putin and how the issue will be weaponized in the upcoming election. Thomas Cromwell's book “Why Ukraine Must Win” addresses the most common arguments surrounding the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, including preventing World War III and concerns regarding NATO and the border crisis. The book also explains how President Joe Biden is not helping Ukraine but prolonging the war while assisting Russia to profit. Finally, Trevor Loudon argues for the necessity of defeating evil to create a better world, not just for Americans but Russians and Ukrainians alike. ⭕️ Watch in-depth videos based on Truth & Tradition at Epoch TV
It was a tremendous honor & pleasure to interview Richard Rhodes, Pulitzer Prize winning author of The Making of the Atomic BombWe discuss* similarities between AI progress & Manhattan Project (developing a powerful, unprecedented, & potentially apocalyptic technology within an uncertain arms-race situation)* visiting starving former Soviet scientists during fall of Soviet Union* whether Oppenheimer was a spy, & consulting on the Nolan movie* living through WW2 as a child* odds of nuclear war in Ukraine, Taiwan, Pakistan, & North Korea* how the US pulled of such a massive secret wartime scientific & industrial projectWatch on YouTube. Listen on Apple Podcasts, Spotify, or any other podcast platform. Read the full transcript here. Follow me on Twitter for updates on future episodes.Timestamps(0:00:00) - Oppenheimer movie(0:06:22) - Was the bomb inevitable?(0:29:10) - Firebombing vs nuclear vs hydrogen bombs(0:49:44) - Stalin & the Soviet program(1:08:24) - Deterrence, disarmament, North Korea, Taiwan(1:33:12) - Oppenheimer as lab director(1:53:40) - AI progress vs Manhattan Project(1:59:50) - Living through WW2(2:16:45) - Secrecy(2:26:34) - Wisdom & warTranscript(0:00:00) - Oppenheimer movieDwarkesh Patel 0:00:51Today I have the great honor of interviewing Richard Rhodes, who is the Pulitzer Prize-winning author of The Making of the Atomic Bomb, and most recently, the author of Energy, A Human History. I'm really excited about this one. Let's jump in at a current event, which is the fact that there's a new movie about Oppenheimer coming out, which I understand you've been consulted about. What did you think of the trailer? What are your impressions? Richard Rhodes 0:01:22They've really done a good job of things like the Trinity test device, which was the sphere covered with cables of various kinds. I had watched Peaky Blinders, where the actor who's playing Oppenheimer also appeared, and he looked so much like Oppenheimer to start with. Oppenheimer was about six feet tall, he was rail thin, not simply in terms of weight, but in terms of structure. Someone said he could sit in a children's high chair comfortably. But he never weighed more than about 140 pounds and that quality is there in the actor. So who knows? It all depends on how the director decided to tell the story. There are so many aspects of the story that you could never possibly squeeze them into one 2-hour movie. I think that we're waiting for the multi-part series that would really tell a lot more of the story, if not the whole story. But it looks exciting. We'll see. There have been some terrible depictions of Oppenheimer, there've been some terrible depictions of the bomb program. And maybe they'll get this one right. Dwarkesh Patel 0:02:42Yeah, hopefully. It is always great when you get an actor who resembles their role so well. For example, Bryan Cranston who played LBJ, and they have the same physical characteristics of the beady eyes, the big ears. Since we're talking about Oppenheimer, I had one question about him. I understand that there's evidence that's come out that he wasn't directly a communist spy. But is there any possibility that he was leaking information to the Soviets or in some way helping the Soviet program? He was a communist sympathizer, right? Richard Rhodes 0:03:15He had been during the 1930s. But less for the theory than for the practical business of helping Jews escape from Nazi Germany. One of the loves of his life, Jean Tatlock, was also busy working on extracting Jews from Europe during the 30. She was a member of the Communist Party and she, I think, encouraged him to come to meetings. But I don't think there's any possibility whatsoever that he shared information. In fact, he said he read Marx on a train trip between Berkeley and Washington one time and thought it was a bunch of hooey, just ridiculous. He was a very smart man, and he read the book with an eye to its logic, and he didn't think there was much there. He really didn't know anything about human beings and their struggles. He was born into considerable wealth. There were impressionist paintings all over his family apartments in New York City. His father had made a great deal of money cornering the markets on uniform linings for military uniforms during and before the First World War so there was a lot of wealth. I think his income during the war years and before was somewhere around $100,000 a month. And that's a lot of money in the 1930s. So he just lived in his head for most of his early years until he got to Berkeley and discovered that prime students of his were living on cans of god-awful cat food, because they couldn't afford anything else. And once he understood that there was great suffering in the world, he jumped in on it, as he always did when he became interested in something. So all of those things come together. His brother Frank was a member of the party, as was Frank's wife. I think the whole question of Oppenheimer lying to the security people during the Second World War about who approached him and who was trying to get him to sign on to some espionage was primarily an effort to cover up his brother's involvement. Not that his brothers gave away any secrets, I don't think they did. But if the army's security had really understood Frank Oppenheimer's involvement, he probably would have been shipped off to the Aleutians or some other distant place for the duration of the war. And Oppenheimer quite correctly wanted Frank around. He was someone he trusted.(0:06:22) - Was the bomb inevitable?Dwarkesh Patel 0:06:22Let's start talking about The Making of the Bomb. One question I have is — if World War II doesn't happen, is there any possibility that the bomb just never gets developed? Nobody bothers.Richard Rhodes 0:06:34That's really a good question and I've wondered over the years. But the more I look at the sequence of events, the more I think it would have been essentially inevitable, though perhaps not such an accelerated program. The bomb was pushed so hard during the Second World War because we thought the Germans had already started working on one. Nuclear fission had been discovered in Nazi Germany, in Berlin, in 1938, nine months before the beginning of the Second World War in Europe. Technological surveillance was not available during the war. The only way you could find out something was to send in a spy or have a mole or something human. And we didn't have that. So we didn't know where the Germans were, but we knew that the basic physics reaction that could lead to a bomb had been discovered there a year or more before anybody else in the West got started thinking about it. There was that most of all to push the urgency. In your hypothetical there would not have been that urgency. However, as soon as good physicists thought about the reaction that leads to nuclear fission — where a slow room temperature neutron, very little energy, bumps into the nucleus of a uranium-235 atom it would lead to a massive response. Isidore Rabi, one of the great physicists of this era, said it would have been like the moon struck the earth. The reaction was, as physicists say, fiercely exothermic. It puts out a lot more energy than you have to use to get it started. Once they did the numbers on that, and once they figured out how much uranium you would need to have in one place to make a bomb or to make fission get going, and once they were sure that there would be a chain reaction, meaning a couple of neutrons would come out of the reaction from one atom, and those two or three would go on and bump into other Uranium atoms, which would then fission them, and you'd get a geometric exponential. You'd get 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and off of there. For most of our bombs today the initial fission, in 80 generations, leads to a city-busting explosion. And then they had to figure out how much material they would need, and that's something the Germans never really figured out, fortunately for the rest of us. They were still working on the idea that somehow a reactor would be what you would build. When Niels Bohr, the great Danish physicist, escaped from Denmark in 1943 and came to England and then United States, he brought with him a rough sketch that Werner Heisenberg, the leading scientist in the German program, had handed him in the course of trying to find out what Bohr knew about what America was doing. And he showed it to the guys at Los Alamos and Hans Bethe, one of the great Nobel laureate physicists in the group, said — “Are the Germans trying to throw a reactor down on us?” You can make a reactor blow up, we saw that at Chernobyl, but it's not a nuclear explosion on the scale that we're talking about with the bomb. So when a couple of these emigres Jewish physicists from Nazi Germany were whiling away their time in England after they escaped, because they were still technically enemy aliens and therefore could not be introduced to top secret discussions, one of them asked the other — “How much would we need of pure uranium-235, this rare isotope of uranium that chain reacts? How much would we need to make a bomb?” And they did the numbers and they came up with one pound, which was startling to them. Of course, it is more than that. It's about 125 pounds, but that's just a softball. That's not that much material. And then they did the numbers about what it would cost to build a factory to pull this one rare isotope of uranium out of the natural metal, which has several isotopes mixed together. And they figured it wouldn't cost more than it would cost to build a battleship, which is not that much money for a country at war. Certainly the British had plenty of battleships at that point in time. So they put all this together and they wrote a report which they handed through their superior physicists at Manchester University where they were based, who quickly realized how important this was. The United States lagged behind because we were not yet at war, but the British were. London was being bombed in the blitz. So they saw the urgency, first of all, of eating Germany to the punch, second of all of the possibility of building a bomb. In this report, these two scientists wrote that no physical structure came to their minds which could offer protection against a bomb of such ferocious explosive power. This report was from 1940 long before the Manhattan Project even got started. They said in this report, the only way we could think of to protect you against a bomb would be to have a bomb of similar destructive force that could be threatened for use if the other side attacked you. That's deterrence. That's a concept that was developed even before the war began in the United States. You put all those pieces together and you have a situation where you have to build a bomb because whoever builds the first bomb theoretically could prevent you from building more or prevent another country from building any and could dominate the world. And the notion of Adolf Hitler dominating the world, the Third Reich with nuclear weapons, was horrifying. Put all that together and the answer is every country that had the technological infrastructure to even remotely have the possibility of building everything you'd have to build to get the material for a bomb started work on thinking about it as soon as nuclear fusion was announced to the world. France, the Soviet Union, Great Britain, the United States, even Japan. So I think the bomb would have been developed but maybe not so quickly. Dwarkesh Patel 0:14:10In the book you talk that for some reason the Germans thought that the critical mass was something like 10 tons, they had done some miscalculation.Richard Rhodes 0:14:18A reactor. Dwarkesh Patel 0:14:19You also have some interesting stories in the book about how different countries found out the Americans were working on the bomb. For example, the Russians saw that all the top physicists, chemists, and metallurgists were no longer publishing. They had just gone offline and so they figured that something must be going on. I'm not sure if you're aware that while the subject of the Making of the Atomic Bomb in and of itself is incredibly fascinating, this book has become a cult classic in AI. Are you familiar with this? Richard Rhodes 0:14:52No. Dwarkesh Patel 0:14:53The people who are working on AI right now are huge fans of yours. They're the ones who initially recommended the book to me because the way they see the progress in the field reminded them of this book. Because you start off with these initial scientific hints. With deep learning, for example, here's something that can teach itself any function is similar to Szilárd noticing the nuclear chain reaction. In AI there's these scaling laws that say that if you make the model this much bigger, it gets much better at reasoning, at predicting text, and so on. And then you can extrapolate this curve. And you can see we get two more orders of magnitude, and we get to something that looks like human level intelligence. Anyway, a lot of the people who are working in AI have become huge fans of your book because of this reason. They see a lot of analogies in the next few years. They must be at page 400 in their minds of where the Manhattan Project was.Richard Rhodes 0:15:55We must later on talk about unintended consequences. I find the subject absolutely fascinating. I think my next book might be called Unintended Consequences. Dwarkesh Patel 0:16:10You mentioned that a big reason why many of the scientists wanted to work on the bomb, especially the Jewish emigres, was because they're worried about Hitler getting it first. As you mentioned at some point, 1943, 1944, it was becoming obvious that Hitler, the Nazis were not close to the bomb. And I believe that almost none of the scientists quit after they found out that the Nazis weren't close. So why didn't more of them say — “Oh, I guess we were wrong. The Nazis aren't going to get it. We don't need to be working on it.”?Richard Rhodes 0:16:45There was only one who did that, Joseph Rotblat. In May of 1945 when he heard that Germany had been defeated, he packed up and left. General Groves, the imperious Army Corps of Engineers General who ran the entire Manhattan Project, was really upset. He was afraid he'd spill the beans. So he threatened to have him arrested and put in jail. But Rotblat was quite determined not to stay any longer. He was not interested in building bombs to aggrandize the national power of the United States of America, which is perfectly understandable. But why was no one else? Let me tell it in terms of Victor Weisskopf. He was an Austrian theoretical physicist, who, like the others, escaped when the Nazis took over Germany and then Austria and ended up at Los Alamos. Weisskopf wrote later — “There we were in Los Alamos in the midst of the darkest part of our science.” They were working on a weapon of mass destruction, that's pretty dark. He said “Before it had almost seemed like a spiritual quest.” And it's really interesting how different physics was considered before and after the Second World War. Before the war, one of the physicists in America named Louis Alvarez told me when he got his PhD in physics at Berkeley in 1937 and went to cocktail parties, people would ask, “What's your degree in?” He would tell them “Chemistry.” I said, “Louis, why?” He said, “because I don't really have to explain what physics was.” That's how little known this kind of science was at that time. There were only about 1,000 physicists in the whole world in 1900. By the mid-30s, there were a lot more, of course. There'd been a lot of nuclear physics and other kinds of physics done by them. But it was still arcane. And they didn't feel as if they were doing anything mean or dirty or warlike at all. They were just doing pure science. Then nuclear fission came along. It was publicized worldwide. People who've been born since after the Second World War don't realize that it was not a secret at first. The news was published first in a German chemistry journal, Die Naturwissenschaften, and then in the British journal Nature and then in American journals. And there were headlines in the New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune, and all over the world. People had been reading about and thinking about how to get energy out of the atomic nucleus for a long time. It was clear there was a lot there. All you had to do was get a piece of radium and see that it glowed in the dark. This chunk of material just sat there, you didn't plug it into a wall. And if you held it in your hand, it would burn you. So where did that energy come from? The physicists realized it all came from the nucleus of the atom, which is a very small part of the whole thing. The nucleus is 1/100,000th the diameter of the whole atom. Someone in England described it as about the size of a fly in a cathedral. All of the energy that's involved in chemical reactions, comes from the electron cloud that's around the nucleus. But it was clear that the nucleus was the center of powerful forces. But the question was, how do you get them out? The only way that the nucleus had been studied up to 1938 was by bombarding it with protons, which have the same electric charge as the nucleus, positive charge, which means they were repelled by it. So you had to accelerate them to high speeds with various versions of the big machines that we've all become aware of since then. The cyclotron most obviously built in the 30s, but there were others as well. And even then, at best, you could chip a little piece off. You could change an atom one step up or one step down the periodic table. This was the classic transmutation of medieval alchemy sure but it wasn't much, you didn't get much out. So everyone came to think of the nucleus of the atom like a little rock that you really had to hammer hard to get anything to happen with it because it was so small and dense. That's why nuclear fission, with this slow neutron drifting and then the whole thing just goes bang, was so startling to everybody. So startling that when it happened, most of the physicists who would later work on the bomb and others as well, realized that they had missed the reaction that was something they could have staged on a lab bench with the equipment on the shelf. Didn't have to invent anything new. And Louis Alvarez again, this physicist at Berkeley, he said — “I was getting my hair cut. When I read the newspaper, I pulled off the robe and half with my hair cut, ran to my lab, pulled some equipment off the shelf, set it up and there it was.” So he said, “I discovered nuclear fission, but it was two days too late.” And that happened all over. People were just hitting themselves on the head and saying, well, Niels Bohr said, “What fools we've all been.” So this is a good example of how in science, if your model you're working with is wrong it doesn't lead you down the right path. There was only one physicist who really was thinking the right way about the uranium atom and that was Niels Bohr. He wondered, sometime during the 30s, why uranium was the last natural element in the periodic table? What is different about the others that would come later? He visualized the nucleus as a liquid drop. I always like to visualize it as a water-filled balloon. It's wobbly, it's not very stable. The protons in the nucleus are held together by something called the strong force, but they still have the repellent positive electric charge that's trying to push them apart when you get enough of them into a nucleus. It's almost a standoff between the strong force and all the electrical charge. So it is like a wobbly balloon of water. And then you see why a neutron just falling into the nucleus would make it wobble around even more and in one of its configurations, it might take a dumbbell shape. And then you'd have basically two charged atoms just barely connected, trying to push each other apart. And often enough, they went the whole way. When they did that, these two new elements, half the weight of uranium, way down the periodic table, would reconfigure themselves into two separate nuclei. And in doing so, they would release some energy. And that was the energy that came out of the reaction and there was a lot of energy. So Bohr thought about the model in the right way. The chemists who actually discovered nuclear fusion didn't know what they were gonna get. They were just bombarding a solution of uranium nitrate with neutrons thinking, well, maybe we can make a new element, maybe a first man-made element will come out of our work. So when they analyzed the solution after they bombarded it, they found elements halfway down the periodic table. They shouldn't have been there. And they were totally baffled. What is this doing here? Do we contaminate our solution? No. They had been working with a physicist named Lisa Meitner who was a theoretical physicist, an Austrian Jew. She had gotten out of Nazi Germany not long before. But they were still in correspondence with her. So they wrote her a letter. I held that letter in my hand when I visited Berlin and I was in tears. You don't hold history of that scale in your hands very often. And it said in German — “We found this strange reaction in our solution. What are these elements doing there that don't belong there?” And she went for a walk in a little village in Western Sweden with her nephew, Otto Frisch, who was also a nuclear physicist. And they thought about it for a while and they remembered Bohr's model, the wobbly water-filled balloon. And they suddenly saw what could happen. And that's where the news came from, the physics news as opposed to the chemistry news from the guys in Germany that was published in all the Western journals and all the newspapers. And everybody had been talking about, for years, what you could do if you had that kind of energy. A glass of this material would drive the Queen Mary back and forth from New York to London 20 times and so forth, your automobile could run for months. People were thinking about what would be possible if you had that much available energy. And of course, people had thought about reactors. Robert Oppenheimer was a professor at Berkeley and within a week of the news reaching Berkeley, one of his students told me that he had a drawing on the blackboard, a rather bad drawing of both a reactor and a bomb. So again, because the energy was so great, the physics was pretty obvious. Whether it would actually happen depended on some other things like could you make it chain react? But fundamentally, the idea was all there at the very beginning and everybody jumped on it. Dwarkesh Patel 0:27:54The book is actually the best history of World War II I've ever read. It's about the atomic bomb, but it's interspersed with the events that are happening in World War II, which motivate the creation of the bomb or the release of it, why it had to be dropped on Japan given the Japanese response. The first third is about the scientific roots of the physics and it's also the best book I've read about the history of science in the early 20th century and the organization of it. There's some really interesting stuff in there. For example, there was a passage where you talk about how there's a real master apprentice model in early science where if you wanted to learn to do this kind of experimentation, you will go to Amsterdam where the master of it is residing. It's much more individual focused. Richard Rhodes 0:28:58Yeah, the whole European model of graduate study, which is basically the wandering scholar. You could go wherever you wanted to and sign up with whoever was willing to have you sign up. (0:29:10) - Firebombing vs nuclear vs hydrogen bombsDwarkesh Patel 0:29:10But the question I wanted to ask regarding the history you made of World War II in general is — there's one way you can think about the atom bomb which is that it is completely different from any sort of weaponry that has been developed before it. Another way you can think of it is there's a spectrum where on one end you have the thermonuclear bomb, in the middle you have the atom bomb, and on this end you have the firebombing of cities like Hamburg and Dresden and Tokyo. Do you think of these as completely different categories or does it seem like an escalating gradient to you? Richard Rhodes 0:29:47I think until you get to the hydrogen bomb, it's really an escalating gradient. The hydrogen bomb can be made arbitrarily large. The biggest one ever tested was 56 megatons of TNT equivalent. The Soviet tested that. That had a fireball more than five miles in diameter, just the fireball. So that's really an order of magnitude change. But the other one's no and in fact, I think one of the real problems, this has not been much discussed and it should be, when American officials went to Hiroshima and Nagasaki after the war, one of them said later — “I got on a plane in Tokyo. We flew down the long green archipelago of the Japanese home island. When I left Tokyo, it was all gray broken roof tiles from the fire bombing and the other bombings. And then all this greenery. And then when we flew over Hiroshima, it was just gray broken roof tiles again.” So the scale of the bombing with one bomb, in the case of Hiroshima, was not that different from the scale of the fire bombings that had preceded it with tens of thousands of bombs. The difference was it was just one plane. In fact, the people in Hiroshima didn't even bother to go into their bomb shelters because one plane had always just been a weather plane. Coming over to check the weather before the bombers took off. So they didn't see any reason to hide or protect themselves, which was one of the reasons so many people were killed. The guys at Los Alamos had planned on the Japanese being in their bomb shelters. They did everything they could think of to make the bomb as much like ordinary bombing as they could. And for example, it was exploded high enough above ground, roughly 1,800 yards, so that the fireball that would form from this really very small nuclear weapon — by modern standards — 15 kilotons of TNT equivalent, wouldn't touch the ground and stir up dirt and irradiate it and cause massive radioactive fallout. It never did that. They weren't sure there would be any fallout. They thought the plutonium and the bomb over Nagasaki now would just kind of turn into a gas and blow away. That's not exactly what happened. But people don't seem to realize, and it's never been emphasized enough, these first bombs, like all nuclear weapons, were firebombs. Their job was to start mass fires, just exactly like all the six-pound incendiaries that had been destroying every major city in Japan by then. Every major city above 50,000 population had already been burned out. The only reason Hiroshima and Nagasaki were around to be atomic bombed is because they'd been set aside from the target list, because General Groves wanted to know what the damage effects would be. The bomb that was tested in the desert didn't tell you anything. It killed a lot of rabbits, knocked down a lot of cactus, melted some sand, but you couldn't see its effect on buildings and on people. So the bomb was deliberately intended to be as much not like poison gas, for example, because we didn't want the reputation for being like people in the war in Europe during the First World War, where people were killing each other with horrible gasses. We just wanted people to think this was another bombing. So in that sense, it was. Of course, there was radioactivity. And of course, some people were killed by it. But they calculated that the people who would be killed by the irradiation, the neutron radiation from the original fireball, would be close enough to the epicenter of the explosion that they would be killed by the blast or the flash of light, which was 10,000 degrees. The world's worst sunburn. You've seen stories of people walking around with their skin hanging off their arms. I've had sunburns almost that bad, but not over my whole body, obviously, where the skin actually peeled blisters and peels off. That was a sunburn from a 10,000 degree artificial sun. Dwarkesh Patel 0:34:29So that's not the heat, that's just the light? Richard Rhodes 0:34:32Radiant light, radiant heat. 10,000 degrees. But the blast itself only extended out a certain distance, it was fire. And all the nuclear weapons that have ever been designed are basically firebombs. That's important because the military in the United States after the war was not able to figure out how to calculate the effects of this weapon in a reliable way that matched their previous experience. They would only calculate the blast effects of a nuclear weapon when they figured their targets. That's why we had what came to be called overkill. We wanted redundancy, of course, but 60 nuclear weapons on Moscow was way beyond what would be necessary to destroy even that big a city because they were only calculating the blast. But in fact, if you exploded a 300 kiloton nuclear warhead over the Pentagon at 3,000 feet, it would blast all the way out to the capital, which isn't all that far. But if you counted the fire, it would start a mass-fire and then it would reach all the way out to the Beltway and burn everything between the epicenter of the weapon and the Beltway. All organic matter would be totally burned out, leaving nothing but mineral matter, basically. Dwarkesh Patel 0:36:08I want to emphasize two things you said because they really hit me in reading the book and I'm not sure if the audience has fully integrated them. The first is, in the book, the military planners and Groves, they talk about needing to use the bomb sooner rather than later, because they were running out of cities in Japan where there are enough buildings left that it would be worth bombing in the first place, which is insane. An entire country is almost already destroyed from fire bombing alone. And the second thing about the category difference between thermonuclear and atomic bombs. Daniel Ellsberg, the nuclear planner who wrote the Doomsday machine, he talks about, people don't understand that the atom bomb that resulted in the pictures we see of Nagasaki and Hiroshima, that is simply the detonator of a modern nuclear bomb, which is an insane thing to think about. So for example, 10 and 15 kilotons is the Hiroshima Nagasaki and the Tsar Bomba, which was 50 megatons. So more than 1,000 times as much. And that wasn't even as big as they could make it. They kept the uranium tamper off, because they didn't want to destroy all of Siberia. So you could get more than 10,000 times as powerful. Richard Rhodes 0:37:31When Edward Teller, co-inventor of the hydrogen bomb and one of the dark forces in the story, was consulting with our military, just for his own sake, he sat down and calculated, how big could you make a hydrogen bomb? He came up with 1,000 megatons. And then he looked at the effects. 1,000 megatons would be a fireball 10 miles in diameter. And the atmosphere is only 10 miles deep. He figured that it would just be a waste of energy, because it would all blow out into space. Some of it would go laterally, of course, but most of it would just go out into space. So a bomb more than 100 megatons would just be totally a waste of time. Of course, a 100 megatons bomb is also a total waste, because there's no target on Earth big enough to justify that from a military point of view. Robert Oppenheimer, when he had his security clearance questioned and then lifted when he was being punished for having resisted the development of the hydrogen bomb, was asked by the interrogator at this security hearing — “Well, Dr. Oppenheimer, if you'd had a hydrogen bomb for Hiroshima, wouldn't you have used it?” And Oppenheimer said, “No.” The interrogator asked, “Why is that?” He said because the target was too small. I hope that scene is in the film, I'm sure it will be. So after the war, when our bomb planners and some of our scientists went into Hiroshima and Nagasaki, just about as soon as the surrender was signed, what they were interested in was the scale of destruction, of course. And those two cities didn't look that different from the other cities that had been firebombed with small incendiaries and ordinary high explosives. They went home to Washington, the policy makers, with the thought that — “Oh, these bombs are not so destructive after all.” They had been touted as city busters, basically, and they weren't. They didn't completely burn out cities. They were not certainly more destructive than the firebombing campaign, when everything of more than 50,000 population had already been destroyed. That, in turn, influenced the judgment about what we needed to do vis-a-vis the Soviet Union when the Soviets got the bomb in 1949. There was a general sense that, when you could fight a war with nuclear weapons, deterrence or not, you would need quite a few of them to do it right. And the Air Force, once it realized that it could aggrandize its own share of the federal budget by cornering the market and delivering nuclear weapons, very quickly decided that they would only look at the blast effect and not the fire effect. It's like tying one hand behind your back. Most of it was a fire effect. So that's where they came up with numbers like we need 60 of these to take out Moscow. And what the Air Force figured out by the late 1940s is that the more targets, the more bombs. The more bombs, the more planes. The more planes, the biggest share of the budget. So by the mid 1950s, the Air Force commanded 47% of the federal defense budget. And the other branches of services, which had not gone nuclear by then, woke up and said, we'd better find some use for these weapons in our branches of service. So the Army discovered that it needed nuclear weapons, tactical weapons for field use, fired out of cannons. There was even one that was fired out of a shoulder mounted rifle. There was a satchel charge that two men could carry, weighed about 150 pounds, that could be used to dig a ditch so that Soviet tanks couldn't cross into Germany. And of course the Navy by then had been working hard with General Rickover on building a nuclear submarine that could carry ballistic missiles underwater in total security. No way anybody could trace those submarines once they were quiet enough. And a nuclear reactor is very quiet. It just sits there with neutrons running around, making heat. So the other services jumped in and this famous triad, we must have these three different kinds of nuclear weapons, baloney. We would be perfectly safe if we only had our nuclear submarines. And only one or two of those. One nuclear submarine can take out all of Europe or all of the Soviet Union.Dwarkesh Patel 0:42:50Because it has multiple nukes on it? Richard Rhodes 0:42:53Because they have 16 intercontinental ballistic missiles with MIRV warheads, at least three per missile. Dwarkesh Patel 0:43:02Wow. I had a former guest, Richard Hanania, who has a book about foreign policy where he points out that our model of thinking about why countries do the things they do, especially in foreign affairs, is wrong because we think of them as individual rational actors, when in fact it's these competing factions within the government. And in fact, you see this especially in the case of Japan in World War II, there was a great book of Japan leading up to World War II, where they talk about how a branch of the Japanese military, I forget which, needed more oil to continue their campaign in Manchuria so they forced these other branches to escalate. But it's so interesting that the reason we have so many nukes is that the different branches are competing for funding. Richard Rhodes 0:43:50Douhet, the theorist of air power, had been in the trenches in the First World War. Somebody (John Masefield) called the trenches of the First World War, the long grave already dug, because millions of men were killed and the trenches never moved, a foot this way, a foot that way, all this horror. And Douhet came up with the idea that if you could fly over the battlefield to the homeland of the enemy and destroy his capacity to make war, then the people of that country, he theorized, would rise up in rebellion and throw out their leaders and sue for peace. And this became the dream of all the Air Forces of the world, but particularly ours. Until around 1943, it was called the US Army Air Force. The dream of every officer in the Air Force was to get out from under the Army, not just be something that delivers ground support or air support to the Army as it advances, but a power that could actually win wars. And the missing piece had always been the scale of the weaponry they carried. So when the bomb came along, you can see why Curtis LeMay, who ran the strategic air command during the prime years of that force, was pushing for bigger and bigger bombs. Because if a plane got shot down, but the one behind it had a hydrogen bomb, then it would be just almost as effective as the two planes together. So they wanted big bombs. And they went after Oppenheimer because he thought that was a terrible way to go, that there was really no military use for these huge weapons. Furthermore, the United States had more cities than Russia did, than the Soviet Union did. And we were making ourselves a better target by introducing a weapon that could destroy a whole state. I used to live in Connecticut and I saw a map that showed the air pollution that blew up from New York City to Boston. And I thought, well, now if that was fallout, we'd be dead up here in green, lovely Connecticut. That was the scale that it was going to be with these big new weapons. So on the one hand, you had some of the important leaders in the government thinking that these weapons were not the war-winning weapons that the Air Force wanted them and realized they could be. And on the other hand, you had the Air Force cornering the market on nuclear solutions to battles. All because some guy in a trench in World War I was sufficiently horrified and sufficiently theoretical about what was possible with air power. Remember, they were still flying biplanes. When H.G. Wells wrote his novel, The World Set Free in 1913, predicting an atomic war that would lead to world government, he had Air Forces delivering atomic bombs, but he forgot to update his planes. The guys in the back seat, the bombardiers, were sitting in a biplane, open cockpit. And when the pilots had dropped the bomb, they would reach down and pick up H.G. Wells' idea of an atomic bomb and throw it over the side. Which is kind of what was happening in Washington after the war. And it led us to a terribly misleading and unfortunate perspective on how many weapons we needed, which in turn fermented the arms race with the Soviets and just chased off. In the Soviet Union, they had a practical perspective on factories. Every factory was supposed to produce 120% of its target every year. That was considered good Soviet realism. And they did that with their nuclear war weapons. So by the height of the Cold War, they had 75,000 nuclear weapons, and nobody had heard yet of nuclear winter. So if both sides had set off this string of mass traps that we had in our arsenals, it would have been the end of the human world without question. Dwarkesh Patel 0:48:27It raises an interesting question, if the military planners thought that the conventional nuclear weapon was like the fire bombing, would it have been the case that if there wasn't a thermonuclear weapon, that there actually would have been a nuclear war by now because people wouldn't have been thinking of it as this hard red line? Richard Rhodes 0:48:47I don't think so because we're talking about one bomb versus 400, and one plane versus 400 planes and thousands of bombs. That scale was clear. Deterrence was the more important business. Everyone seemed to understand even the spies that the Soviets had connected up to were wholesaling information back to the Soviet Union. There's this comic moment when Truman is sitting with Joseph Stalin at Potsdam, and he tells Stalin, we have a powerful new weapon. And that's as much as he's ready to say about it. And Stalin licks at him and says, “Good, I hope you put it to good use with the Japanese.” Stalin knows exactly what he's talking about. He's seen the design of the fat man type Nagasaki plutonium bomb. He has held it in his hands because they had spies all over the place. (0:49:44) - Stalin & the Soviet programDwarkesh Patel 0:49:44How much longer would it have taken the Soviets to develop the bomb if they didn't have any spies? Richard Rhodes 0:49:49Probably not any longer. Dwarkesh Patel 0:49:51Really? Richard Rhodes 0:49:51When the Soviet Union collapsed in the winter of ‘92, I ran over there as quickly as I could get over there. In this limbo between forming a new kind of government and some of the countries pulling out and becoming independent and so forth, their nuclear scientists, the ones who'd worked on their bombs were free to talk. And I found that out through Yelena Bonner, Andrei Sakharov's widow, who was connected to people I knew. And she said, yeah, come on over. Her secretary, Sasha, who was a geologist about 35 years old became my guide around the country. We went to various apartments. They were retired guys from the bomb program and were living on, as far as I could tell, sac-and-potatoes and some salt. They had government pensions and the money was worth a salt, all of a sudden. I was buying photographs from them, partly because I needed the photographs and partly because 20 bucks was two months' income at that point. So it was easy for me and it helped them. They had first class physicists in the Soviet Union, they do in Russian today. They told me that by 1947, they had a design for a bomb that they said was half the weight and twice the yield of the Fat Man bomb. The Fat Man bomb was the plutonium implosion, right? And it weighed about 9,000 pounds. They had a much smaller and much more deliverable bomb with a yield of about 44 kilotons. Dwarkesh Patel 0:51:41Why was Soviet physics so good?Richard Rhodes 0:51:49The Russian mind? I don't know. They learned all their technology from the French in the 19th century, which is why there's so many French words in Russian. So they got good teachers, the French are superb technicians, they aren't so good at building things, but they're very good at designing things. There's something about Russia, I don't know if it's the language or the education. They do have good education, they did. But I remember asking them when they were working, I said — On the hydrogen bomb, you didn't have any computers yet. We only had really early primitive computers to do the complicated calculations of the hydrodynamics of that explosion. I said, “What did you do?” They said, “Oh, we just used nuclear. We just used theoretical physics.” Which is what we did at Los Alamos. We had guys come in who really knew their math and they would sit there and work it out by hand. And women with old Marchant calculators running numbers. So basically they were just good scientists and they had this new design. Kurchatov who ran the program took Lavrentiy Beria, who ran the NKVD who was put in charge of the program and said — “Look, we can build you a better bomb. You really wanna waste the time to make that much more uranium and plutonium?” And Beria said, “Comrade, I want the American bomb. Give me the American bomb or you and all your families will be camp dust.” I talked to one of the leading scientists in the group and he said, we valued our lives, we valued our families. So we gave them a copy of the plutonium implosion bomb. Dwarkesh Patel 0:53:37Now that you explain this, when the Soviet Union fell, why didn't North Korea, Iran or another country, send a few people to the fallen Soviet Union to recruit a few of the scientists to start their own program? Or buy off their stockpiles or something. Or did they?Richard Rhodes 0:53:59There was some effort by countries in the Middle East to get all the enriched uranium, which they wouldn't sell them. These were responsible scientists. They told me — we worked on the bomb because you had it and we didn't want there to be a monopoly on the part of any country in the world. So patriotically, even though Stalin was in charge of our country, he was a monster. We felt that it was our responsibility to work on these things, even Sakharov. There was a great rush at the end of the Second World War to get hold of German scientists. And about an equal number were grabbed by the Soviets. All of the leading German scientists, like Heisenberg and Hans and others, went west as fast as they could. They didn't want to be captured by the Soviets. But there were some who were. And they helped them work. People have the idea that Los Alamos was where the bomb happened. And it's true that at Los Alamos, we had the team that designed, developed, and built the first actual weapons. But the truth is, the important material for weapons is the uranium or plutonium. One of the scientists in the Manhattan Project told me years later, you can make a pretty high-level nuclear explosion just by taking two subcritical pieces of uranium, putting one on the floor and dropping the other by hand from a height of about six feet. If that's true, then all this business about secret designs and so forth is hogwash. What you really need for a weapon is the critical mass of highly enriched uranium, 90% of uranium-235. If you've got that, there are lots of different ways to make the bomb. We had two totally different ways that we used. The gun on the one hand for uranium, and then because plutonium was so reactive that if you fired up the barrel of a cannon at 3,000 feet per second, it would still melt down before the two pieces made it up. So for that reason, they had to invent an entirely new technology, which was an amazing piece of work. From the Soviet point of view, and I think this is something people don't know either, but it puts the Russian experience into a better context. All the way back in the 30s, since the beginning of the Soviet Union after the First World War, they had been sending over espionage agents connected up to Americans who were willing to work for them to collect industrial technology. They didn't have it when they began their country. It was very much an agricultural country. And in that regard, people still talk about all those damn spies stealing our secrets, we did the same thing with the British back in colonial days. We didn't know how to make a canal that wouldn't drain out through the soil. The British had a certain kind of clay that they would line their canals with, and there were canals all over England, even in the 18th century, that were impervious to the flow of water. And we brought a British engineer at great expense to teach us how to make the lining for the canals that opened up the Middle West and then the West. So they were doing the same thing. And one of those spies was a guy named Harry Gold, who was working all the time for them. He gave them some of the basic technology of Kodak filmmaking, for example. Harry Gold was the connection between David Greenglass and one of the American spies at Los Alamos and the Soviet Union. So it was not different. The model was — never give us something that someone dreamed of that hasn't been tested and you know works. So it would actually be blueprints for factories, not just a patent. And therefore when Beria after the war said, give us the bomb, he meant give me the American bomb because we know that works. I don't trust you guys. Who knows what you'll do. You're probably too stupid anyway. He was that kind of man. So for all of those reasons, they built the second bomb they tested was twice the yield and half the way to the first bomb. In other words, it was their new design. And so it was ours because the technology was something that we knew during the war, but it was too theoretical still to use. You just had to put the core and have a little air gap between the core and the explosives so that the blast wave would have a chance to accelerate through an open gap. And Alvarez couldn't tell me what it was but he said, you can get a lot more destructive force with a hammer if you hit something with it, rather than if you put the head on the hammer and push. And it took me several years before I figured out what he meant. I finally understood he was talking about what's called levitation.Dwarkesh Patel 0:59:41On the topic that the major difficulty in developing a bomb is either the refinement of uranium into U-235 or its transmutation into plutonium, I was actually talking to a physicist in preparation for this conversation. He explained the same thing that if you get two subcritical masses of uranium together, you wouldn't have the full bomb because it would start to tear itself apart without the tamper, but you would still have more than one megaton.Richard Rhodes 1:00:12It would be a few kilotons. Alvarez's model would be a few kilotons, but that's a lot. Dwarkesh Patel 1:00:20Yeah, sorry I meant kiloton. He claimed that one of the reasons why we talk so much about Los Alamos is that at the time the government didn't want other countries to know that if you refine uranium, you've got it. So they were like, oh, we did all this fancy physics work in Los Alamos that you're not gonna get to, so don't even worry about it. I don't know what you make of that theory. That basically it was sort of a way to convince people that Los Alamos was important. Richard Rhodes 1:00:49I think all the physics had been checked out by a lot of different countries by then. It was pretty clear to everybody what you needed to do to get to a bomb. That there was a fast fusion reaction, not a slow fusion reaction, like a reactor. They'd worked that out. So I don't think that's really the problem. But to this day, no one ever talks about the fact that the real problem isn't the design of the weapon. You could make one with wooden boxes if you wanted to. The problem is getting the material. And that's good because it's damned hard to make that stuff. And it's something you can protect. Dwarkesh Patel 1:01:30We also have gotten very lucky, if lucky is the word you want to use. I think you mentioned this in the book at some point, but the laws of physics could have been such that unrefined uranium ore was enough to build a nuclear weapon, right? In some sense, we got lucky that it takes a nation-state level actor to really refine and produce the raw substance. Richard Rhodes 1:01:56Yeah, I was thinking about that this morning on the way over. And all the uranium in the world would already have destroyed itself. Most people have never heard of the living reactors that developed on their own in a bed of uranium ore in Africa about two billion years ago, right? When there was more U-235 in a mass of uranium ore than there is today, because it decays like all radioactive elements. And the French discovered it when they were mining the ore and found this bed that had a totally different set of nuclear characteristics. They were like, what happened? But there were natural reactors in Gabon once upon a time. And they started up because some water, a moderator to make the neutrons slow down, washed its way down through a bed of much more highly enriched uranium ore than we still have today. Maybe 5-10% instead of 3.5 or 1.5, whatever it is now. And they ran for about 100,000 years and then shut themselves down because they had accumulated enough fusion products that the U-235 had been used up. Interestingly, this material never migrated out of the bed of ore. People today who are anti-nuclear say, well, what are we gonna do about the waste? Where are we gonna put all that waste? It's silly. Dwarkesh Patel 1:03:35Shove it in a hole. Richard Rhodes 1:03:36Yeah, basically. That's exactly what we're planning to do. Holes that are deep enough and in beds of material that will hold them long enough for everything to decay back to the original ore. It's not a big problem except politically because nobody wants it in their backyard.Dwarkesh Patel 1:03:53On the topic of the Soviets, one question I had while reading the book was — we negotiated with Stalin at Yalta and we surrendered a large part of Eastern Europe to him under his sphere of influence. And obviously we saw 50 years of immiseration there as a result. Given the fact that only we had the bomb, would it have been possible that we could have just knocked out the Soviet Union or at least prevented so much of the world from succumbing to communism in the aftermath of World War II? Is that a possibility? Richard Rhodes 1:04:30When we say we had the bomb, we had a few partly assembled handmade bombs. It took almost as long to assemble one as the battery life of the batteries that would drive the original charge that would set off the explosion. It was a big bluff. You know, when they closed Berlin in 1948 and we had to supply Berlin by air with coal and food for a whole winter, we moved some B-29s to England. The B-29 being the bomber that had carried the bombs. They were not outfitted for nuclear weapons. They didn't have the same kind of bomb-based structure. The weapons that were dropped in Japan had a single hook that held the entire bomb. So when the bay opened and the hook was released, the thing dropped. And that's very different from dropping whole rows of small bombs that you've seen in the photographs and the film footage. So it was a big bluff on our part. We took some time after the war inevitably to pull everything together. Here was a brand new technology. Here was a brand new weapon. Who was gonna be in charge of it? The military wanted control, Truman wasn't about to give the military control. He'd been an artillery officer in the First World War. He used to say — “No, damn artillery captain is gonna start World War III when I'm president.” I grew up in the same town he lived in so I know his accent. Independence, Missouri. Used to see him at his front steps taking pictures with tourists while he was still president. He used to step out on the porch and let the tourists take photographs. About a half a block from my Methodist church where I went to church. It was interesting. Interestingly, his wife was considered much more socially acceptable than he was. She was from an old family in independence, Missouri. And he was some farmer from way out in Grandview, Missouri, South of Kansas City. Values. Anyway, at the end of the war, there was a great rush from the Soviet side of what was already a zone. There was a Soviet zone, a French zone, British zone and an American zone. Germany was divided up into those zones to grab what's left of the uranium ore that the Germans had stockpiled. And there was evidence that there was a number of barrels of the stuff in a warehouse somewhere in the middle of all of this. And there's a very funny story about how the Russians ran in and grabbed off one site full of uranium ore, this yellow black stuff in what were basically wine barrels. And we at the same night, just before the wall came down between the zones, were running in from the other side, grabbing some other ore and then taking it back to our side. But there was also a good deal of requisitioning of German scientists. And the ones who had gotten away early came West, but there were others who didn't and ended up helping the Soviets. And they were told, look, you help us build the reactors and the uranium separation systems that we need. And we'll let you go home and back to your family, which they did. Early 50s by then, the German scientists who had helped the Russians went home. And I think our people stayed here and brought their families over, I don't know. (1:08:24) - Deterrence, disarmament, North Korea, TaiwanDwarkesh Patel 1:08:24Was there an opportunity after the end of World War II, before the Soviets developed the bomb, for the US to do something where either it somehow enforced a monopoly on having the bomb, or if that wasn't possible, make some sort of credible gesture that, we're eliminating this knowledge, you guys don't work on this, we're all just gonna step back from this. Richard Rhodes 1:08:50We tried both before the war. General Groves, who had the mistaken impression that there was a limited amount of high-grade uranium ore in the world, put together a company that tried to corner the market on all the available supply. For some reason, he didn't realize that a country the size of the Soviet Union is going to have some uranium ore somewhere. And of course it did, in Kazakhstan, rich uranium ore, enough for all the bombs they wanted to build. But he didn't know that, and I frankly don't know why he didn't know that, but I guess uranium's use before the Second World War was basically as a glazing agent for pottery, that famous yellow pottery and orange pottery that people owned in the 1930s, those colors came from uranium, and they're sufficiently radioactive, even to this day, that if you wave a Geiger counter over them, you get some clicks. In fact, there have been places where they've gone in with masks and suits on, grabbed the Mexican pottery and taken it out in a lead-lined case. People have been so worried about it but that was the only use for uranium, to make a particular kind of glass. So once it became clear that there was another use for uranium, a much more important one, Groves tried to corner the world market, and he thought he had. So that was one effort to limit what the Soviet Union could do. Another was to negotiate some kind of agreement between the parties. That was something that really never got off the ground, because the German Secretary of State was an old Southern politician and he didn't trust the Soviets. He went to the first meeting, in Geneva in ‘45 after the war was over, and strutted around and said, well, I got the bomb in my pocket, so let's sit down and talk here. And the Soviet basically said, screw you. We don't care. We're not worried about your bomb. Go home. So that didn't work. Then there was the effort to get the United Nations to start to develop some program of international control. And the program was proposed originally by a committee put together by our State Department that included Robert Oppenheimer, rightly so, because the other members of the committee were industrialists, engineers, government officials, people with various kinds of expertise around the very complicated problems of technology and the science and, of course, the politics, the diplomacy. In a couple of weeks, Oppenheimer taught them the basics of the nuclear physics involved and what he knew about bomb design, which was everything, actually, since he'd run Los Alamos. He was a scientist during the war. And they came up with a plan. People have scoffed ever since at what came to be called the Acheson-Lilienthal plan named after the State Department people. But it's the only plan I think anyone has ever devised that makes real sense as to how you could have international control without a world government. Every country would be open to inspection by any agency that was set up. And the inspections would not be at the convenience of the country. But whenever the inspectors felt they needed to inspect. So what Oppenheimer called an open world. And if you had that, and then if each country then developed its own nuclear industries, nuclear power, medical uses, whatever, then if one country tried clandestinely to begin to build bombs, you would know about it at the time of the next inspection. And then you could try diplomacy. If that didn't work, you could try conventional war. If that wasn't sufficient, then you could start building your bombs too. And at the end of this sequence, which would be long enough, assuming that there were no bombs existing in the world, and the ore was stored in a warehouse somewhere, six months maybe, maybe a year, it would be time for everyone to scale up to deterrence with weapons rather than deterrence without weapons, with only the knowledge. That to me is the answer to the whole thing. And it might have worked. But there were two big problems. One, no country is going to allow a monopoly on a nuclear weapon, at least no major power. So the Russians were not willing to sign on from the beginning. They just couldn't. How could they? We would not have. Two, Sherman assigned a kind of a loudmouth, a wise old Wall Street guy to present this program to the United Nations. And he sat down with Oppenheimer after he and his people had studied and said, where's your army? Somebody starts working on a bomb over there. You've got to go in and take that out, don't you? He said, what would happen if one country started building a bomb? Oppenheimer said, well, that would be an act of war. Meaning then the other countries could begin to escalate as they needed to to protect themselves against one power, trying to overwhelm the rest. Well, Bernard Baruch was the name of the man. He didn't get it. So when he presented his revised version of the Acheson–Lilienthal Plan, which was called the Baruch Plan to the United Nations, he included his army. And he insisted that the United States would not give up its nuclear monopoly until everyone else had signed on. So of course, who's going to sign on to that deal? Dwarkesh Patel 1:15:24I feel he has a point in the sense that — World War II took five years or more. If we find that the Soviets are starting to develop a bomb, it's not like within the six months or a year or whatever, it would take them to start refining the ore. And to the point we found out that they've been refining ore to when we start a war and engage in it, and doing all the diplomacy. By that point, they might already have the bomb. And so we're behind because we dismantled our weapons. We are only starting to develop our weapons once we've exhausted these other avenues. Richard Rhodes 1:16:00Not to develop. Presumably we would have developed. And everybody would have developed anyway. Another way to think of this is as delayed delivery times. Takes about 30 minutes to get an ICBM from Central Missouri to Moscow. That's the time window for doing anything other than starting a nuclear war. So take the warhead off those missiles and move it down the road 10 miles. So then it takes three hours. You've got to put the warhead back on the missiles. If the other side is willing to do this too. And you both can watch and see. We require openness. A word Bohr introduced to this whole thing. In order to make this happen, you can't have secrets. And of course, as time passed on, we developed elaborate surveillance from space, surveillance from planes, and so forth. It would not have worked in 1946 for sure. The surveillance wasn't there. But that system is in place today. The International Atomic Energy Agency has detected systems in air, in space, underwater. They can detect 50 pounds of dynamite exploded in England from Australia with the systems that we have in place. It's technical rather than human resources. But it's there. So it's theoretically possible today to get started on such a program. Except, of course, now, in like 1950, the world is awash in nuclear weapons. Despite the reductions that have occurred since the end of the Cold War, there's still 30,000-40,000 nuclear weapons in the world. Way too many. Dwarkesh Patel 1:18:01Yeah. That's really interesting. What percentage of warheads do you think are accounted for by this organization? If there's 30,000 warheads, what percentage are accounted for? Richard Rhodes 1:18:12All.Dwarkesh Patel 1:18:12Oh. Really? North Korea doesn't have secrets? Richard Rhodes 1:18:13They're allowed to inspect anywhere without having to ask the government for permission. Dwarkesh Patel 1:18:18But presumably not North Korea or something, right? Richard Rhodes 1:18:21North Korea is an exception. But we keep pretty good track of North Korea needless to say. Dwarkesh Patel 1:18:27Are you surprised with how successful non-proliferation has been? The number of countries with nuclear weapons has not gone up for decades. Given the fact, as you were talking about earlier, it's simply a matter of refining or transmuting uranium. Is it surprising that there aren't more countries that have it?Richard Rhodes 1:18:42That's really an interesting part. Again, a part of the story that most people have never really heard. In the 50s, before the development and signing of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, which was 1968 and it took effect in 1970, a lot of countries that you would never have imagined were working on nuclear weapons. Sweden, Norway, Japan, South Korea. They had the technology. They just didn't have the materials. It was kind of dicey about what you should do. But I interviewed some of the Swedish scientists who worked on their bomb and they said, well, we were just talking about making some tactical
We apologize for the wait, but boy do we think it's worth it for this one. Just when you thought it couldn't get wilder, we dig deeper to find something even more insane to write about. This week, we revisit a Disney channel classic, and Cadet Kelly saves the world from a threat reborn. If you like this episode, check out the rest of season 4 and beyond! As always follow us on Instagram @pitchthispod and Twitter @pitch_this_pod for more content and shenanigans!
Tests And Lessons For The Faithful Church, Part 2: A Test Of The Voices w Terri Hill Join Johnny Baptist while he discusses the empirical events across the world leading up to World War III, the trickery and deceit of the New World Order, and the bizarre weirdness of the fallen angelic UFO phenomenon as we plunge head first into the forthcoming apocalypse and the Seven Seals of Revelation (chapter 6). Join us tonight for a teaching from sister Terri Hill on hearing from the Lord entitled "A Test of the Voices". God Bless You - See you there! To sign up for radio show Email Notifications click Mail Link: http://gem.godaddy.com/signups/185380/join
A teaser of the upcoming patreon special on the satanic music industry as well as a look into the ever looming world war 3.Support the showJOIN OUR PATREON FOR EXCLUSIVE WEEKLY EPISODES! www.patreon.com/whatkastBUY US A BEER! www.buymeacoffee.com/whatkast
Beyond the Illusionary Veil with Robert Vandriest-Mitchell Join Johnny Baptist while he discusses the empirical events across the world leading up to World War III, the trickery and deceit of the New World Order, and the bizarre weirdness of the fallen angelic UFO phenomenon as we plunge head first into the forthcoming apocalypse and the Seven Seals of Revelation (chapter 6). Millions of people from all walks of life have committed themselves to the Illuminati's global work for the (so-called) "betterment of the human species". Join us tonight for (Part 60) of the troubling but edifying testimony of Robert Vandriest-Mitchell, "A Real life Story By Illuminati Born SRA Survivor", and an X-Illuminati victim and whistle-blower. God Bless You - See you there! To sign up for radio show Email Notifications click Mail Link: http://gem.godaddy.com/signups/185380/join
Explosive Zelda: Tears of the Kingdom review: Is this really a 10? ToTK vs BOTW! Do we all hate each other now? Diablo IV Server Slam, Tape to Tape hockey, Star Wars Jedi Survivor, Chess, Matt is a garbage picker, Overwatch 2 PvE canceled, Lord of the Rings MMO coming, FF16 demo soon, and more gaming news! Head to videogameoutsiders.com to find our Discord (the best place to yell at us), support us for weekly bonus shows and the entire back catalog of VGO, find our merch store, and more! Support on Twitch.tv/johnANDmichelle free with Amazon Prime each month.
Undaunted.Life: A Man's Podcast
In this episode, we welcome Jack Carr back to the show. Jack is a retired Navy SEAL who spent 20 years in Naval Special Warfare as a sniper and platoon commander. After retiring from the Navy, he became a #1 New York Times Bestselling fiction thriller writer of the James Reece series which includes titles like The Terminal List, True Believer, Savage Son, The Devil's Hand, In the Blood, and his newly released novel Only the Dead. His debut novel, The Terminal List, was adapted for the screen, starred Chris Pratt, and became the #1 Amazon Prime Video series. That led to the announcement of season two of The Terminal List with Chris Pratt, and a spinoff series about Ben Edwards (played by Taylor Kitsch). In this interview, we discuss his views on China as a rising superpower, the war in Ukraine potentially leading to World War III, how satisfied he was with the screen adaptation of his first novel, whey he and Amazon decided to expand the James Reece universe, when we can expect to see The Terminal List: Season 2, his newest novel, how quickly we can expect to see spinoffs books for the main characters of his novels, a new nonfiction project that he is working on, Only the Dead spoilers, and much more. Let's get into it… Episode notes and links HERE. Donate to support our mission of equipping men to push back darkness. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices
Shaun Attwood's True Crime Podcast
The Ninth Doctor returns Rose home to find friends, family, and farting aliens. Mike, Mike, and Mary light a match and cut into this cheesy two-part story from Russell T Davies. We want to hear from you! Please write to us at email@example.com. Also, please subscribe and rate the show on iTunes, Stitcher Radio, Google … Earth Station Who – Aliens of London / World War III Read More » The post Earth Station Who – Aliens of London / World War III appeared first on The ESO Network.
Earth Station Who – The ESO Network
The Ninth Doctor returns Rose home to find friends, family, and farting aliens. Mike, Mike, and Mary light a match and cut into this cheesy two-part story from Russell T Davies. We want to hear from you! Please write to us at firstname.lastname@example.org. Also, please subscribe and rate the show on iTunes, Stitcher Radio, Google Plus, or wherever fine podcasts are found. Feedback is always welcome and much appreciated. Links Listen to older episodes of the Earth Station Who Podcast ESW on iTunes ESW on Stitcher Earth Station Who on Spotify Make-A-Wish Foundation The ESO Network TeePublic Store The ESO Network Patreon The Rat Hole Big Finish - Seasons of Fear PromotionPromo for The Cosmic Pizza Podcast in our first break of the show If you would like to leave feedback or comment feel free to email us at email@example.com
Lucifer Father of Cain, Eden to Armageddon w Dr. Joye Pugh and Zen Garcia (51) Join Johnny Baptist while he discusses the empirical events across the world leading up to World War III, the trickery and deceit of the New World Order, and the bizarre weirdness of the fallen angelic UFO phenomenon as we plunge head first into the forth7coming apocalypse and the Seven Seals of Revelation (chapter 6). Join us tonight for part 50 of the fascinatng series, Lucifer Father of Cain, Eden to Armageddon with brother Zen Garcia, author of Sons of God, Who are We and Why are We Here, and Dr. Joye Jeffries Pugh, author of the Eden to Armegeddon trilogy. God Bless You - See you there! To sign up for radio show Email Notifications click Mail Link: http://gem.godaddy.com/signups/185380/join
The Coronation Dream of Obama as the Antichrist with sister Vicki Join Johnny Baptist while he discusses the empirical events across the world leading up to World War III, the trickery and deceit of the New World Order, and the bizarre weirdness of the fallen angelic UFO phenomenon as we plunge head first into the forthcoming apocalypse and the Seven Seals of Revelation (chapter 6). Join us tonight as sister Vicki shares a powerful dream the Lord gave her where she was taken to the actual coronation of Obama as the Antichrist. God Bless You - See you there. To sign up for radio show Email Notifications click Mail Link: http://gem.godaddy.com/signups/185380/join
How the Descendants of Giants in Genesis 6 Plan to Enslave Humankind with Gary Wayne (Part 26) Join Johnny Baptist while he discusses the empirical events across the world leading up to World War III, the trickery and deceit of the New World Order, and the bizarre weirdness of the fallen angelic UFO phenomenon as we plunge head first into the forthcoming apocalypse and the Seven Seals of Revelation (chapter 6). Join us tonight for another great program with brother Gary Wayne the author of the Genesis 6 Conspiracy. Tonight, among other key points, Gary will share with us his discoveries associated with Giants and How their descendants plan to enslave humankind. God Bless You - See you there! To sign up for radio show Email Notifications click Mail Link: http://gem.godaddy.com/signups/185380/join
James Bamford - Best-selling author, Emmy-nominated filmmaker, award-winning veteran investigative reporter James Bamford, joins Tavis to unpack his recent exclusive report which uncovers a heart-stopping revelation: a single miscommunication between a Russian fighter pilot and his base brought the world perilously close to World War III.
Fox News anchor Tucker Carlson was fired for not repeating the mainstream media's line. Censorship is the American Way. President Biden announced he is running for president. The U.S. elections is a billionaire's circus. No money, no chance of getting elected. There was a drone strike at the Kremlin. This will only escalate World War III. When All Else Fails They Take You to War. Tune into to see what's with the economy, what to do and how to prepare.
Other Worldly Beings, Nanotech and Spiritual Enemies w SRA Survivor Eleyna (33) Join Johnny Baptist while he discusses the empirical events across the world leading up to World War III, the trickery and deceit of the New World Order, and the bizarre weirdness of the fallen angelic UFO phenomenon as we plunge head first into the forthcoming apocalypse and the Seven Seals of Revelation (chapter 6). Join us tonight for another amazing and powerful visit with sister Eleyna. Eleyna has seen unbelievably amazing things that line up with other victim/survivors of SRA and I'm sure tonight's program will be nothing less than amazing as always. God Bless You - See you there! To sign up for radio show Email Notifications click Mail Link: http://gem.godaddy.com/signups/185380/join
WW3 and the Parable of the Fig Tree w Benjamin Baruch Join Johnny Baptist while he discusses the empirical events across the world leading up to World War III, the trickery and deceit of the New World Order, and the bizarre weirdness of the fallen angelic UFO phenomenon as we plunge head first into the forthcoming apocalypse and the Seven Seals of Revelation (chapter 6). Join us tonight with brother Benjamin Baruch as he shares the likelihood that WW3 may start this fall, and how this all correlates to the Parable of the Fig Tree. God Bless You - See you there!! To sign up for radio show Email Notifications click Mail Link: http://gem.godaddy.com/signups/185380/join
https://www.amazon.com/Adventures-George-Lee-Race-Against/dp/1952062691/ref=tmm_pap_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=1676665002&sr=1-1 The adventure of George Lee is a story about the United States of America being threatened by a super weapon. His job is to lead a combined force of military and civilian employees in building a device to destroy the weapon before it can target the United States of America. His objective is to prevent World War III. George finds a surprise romance while working to build the defensive device. Will the whirlwind courtship result in happiness? Will George successfully complete his mission? Find the answers to these questions and more as you read the Adventures of George Lee: A Race Against Time. https://www.podserve.fm/w/yayadiamond
Many of us envision world wars with tanks and guns. This war is something much worse...
0:00 Invasion 16:55 Climate Insanity 28:30 Solutions 44:45 Military Insanity - Shocking video shows Chinese nationals exactly how to illegally enter the USA using UN migrant camps - 500,000 CCP operatives already pre-positioned across the USA, awaiting orders - Democrats' gun control is designed to DISARM the American people and make national defense more difficult - Sen. Ted Cruz rakes traitorous DHS secretary Mayorkas over the coals - NYC to RATION food to obey their climate cult - California to BAN diesel engines for trains, demanding battery-powered trains (which don't exist) - Insanely idiotic Biden Energy Secretary demands ALL MILITARY VEHICLES BE BATTERY-POWERED by 2030 - Russia must be laughing like crazy, as World War III will only last 12 minutes until the tanks run out of power - Democrat cities are rapidly collapsing into crime, addiction and violence - Why it's URGENT to learn to grow food, acquire seeds, and get your money into decentralized systems For more updates, visit: http://www.brighteon.com/channel/hrrepor NaturalNews videos would not be possible without you, as always we remain passionately dedicated to our mission of educating people all over the world on the subject of natural healing remedies and personal liberty (food freedom, medical freedom, the freedom of speech, etc.). Together, we're helping create a better world, with more honest food labeling, reduced chemical contamination, the avoidance of toxic heavy metals and vastly increased scientific transparency. ▶️ Every dollar you spend at the Health Ranger Store goes toward helping us achieve important science and content goals for humanity: https://www.healthrangerstore.com/ ▶️ Sign Up For Our Newsletter: https://www.naturalnews.com/Readerregistration.html ▶️ Brighteon: https://www.brighteon.com/channels/hrreport ▶️ Join Our Social Network: https://brighteon.social/@HealthRanger ▶️ Check In Stock Products at: https://PrepWithMike.com
Emile, Micah, and Sohrab are joined by staff reporter Bradley Devlin to unpack Tucker Carlson's shock exit from Fox News. Plus, Joe Biden releases a video announcing his re-election bid, and the latest from the Discord leak of classified documents shows Ukraine has ambitions to expand the battlefield far beyond its borders. Picks of the week: Emile: The Fight of a Century, Kevin Roberts Micah: Winds of Change?, Ernst van Zyl Sohrab: Ukraine Plans for World War III, Bradley Devlin Bradley: A Theological Conflict, John Hirschauer
It Was A Dark and Stormy Book Club
PART 2 WWAR:Tracey reported on “Operation Blackbird: A Cold War Spy Novel” by Ellen Butler. Ellen appeared onepisode 19 in August of 2018 on her book “Isabella's Painting.”October, 1952. The war is over, but for CIA officer Miriam Becker, memories of the horrors she witnessedremain jagged in her mind. While vacationing in Argentina, recovering from a mission that nearly killed her,she's seeing more ghosts from the past than the sights.When a longtime family friend and fellow operative, Jake Devlin, tracks her down, Miriam is forced to pusheverything to the back of her mind for the next mission: help a highly prized and heavily guarded rocketscientist defect from Soviet-controlled East Berlin—right out from under the KGB's nose.Well aware that one wrong move could spark World War III, Miriam, Jake, and the team plan their strategy tothe last detail. But when a betrayal brings everything crashing down, Jake's quick thinking creates thediversion to get Miriam out alive—but leaves him trapped behind the Iron Curtain.Unsure of whom she can trust, Miriam must complete the mission by relying on contacts outside of theagency, even though her heart longs to return to East Berlin to rescue the man who is the last link to hertroubled past ... before the KGB gets to him first.Last but not least, Misty reported on Cathy Ace, one of our favorite authros, whose first appearance on thepodcast was on episode 27 for her book “The Corpse With The Silver Tongue.” She has appeared severaltimes since then.Misty reported on “The Case of The Cursed Cottage: A WISE Enquiries Agent Mystery.” HenryTwyst, eighteenth Duke of Chellingworth, is convinced his mother is losing her marbles. The dowager claimsto have seen a corpse on the dining-room floor, but all she has to prove it is a bloodied bobble hat.A BODY IN THE DINING ROOM. A BEAUTIFUL OLD MANSION. FOUR LADIES WHO WILL SOLVE THEMYSTERY.Henry hires the women of the WISE Enquiries Agency. The duke wants the strange matter explained.But the truth of what happened at the Chellingworth Estate, set in the rolling Welsh countryside near thequaint village of Anwen by Wye, is more complex, dangerous, and deadly, than anyone could have foreseen .. .THE DETECTIVESThe WISE Enquiries Agency consists of Mavis, Annie, Carol and Christine. One is Welsh, one Irish, oneScottish and one English, hence the name. Drawn together by chance – and a killer – the women of the WISEEnquiries Agency turned their backs on their previous careers to work together to help others. Combining theirunique skills, and reveling in their differences, they're doing their best to make the business succeed. Butbeing private investigators isn't a bed of roses – there are bills to pay, clients to be managed, and dangers tobe faced. Can they manage to do it all, and survive?We thank our listeners and especially our patrons who support what we do and look forward to five moreyears of fun.TRIVIALast week's question was:P.D. James began her writing career while she worked where?a. A schoolb. a Law firmc. a factoryd. a hospitalThe answer is d. A hospital. She married Ernest Connor Bantry White (called "Connor"), an army doctor,on 8 August 1941. They had two daughters, Clare and Jane. White returned from the Second World Warmentally ill and was institutionalised. With her daughters being mostly cared for by Connor's parents,Jamesstudied hospital administration, and from 1949 to 1968 worked for a hospital board in London. She beganwriting in the mid-1950s, using her maiden name ("My genes are James genes")This week's question is:What is author Laura Lippmans family connection to “The Wire?”a. her brotherb. Her sisterc. Her cousinTune in next week for the answer.
Human behavior even when it seems to be erratic is predictable. In fact, CIA super spy, Andrew Bustamante says “humans are laughably predictable.” If this is true, then why do you struggle with relationships and achieving our desired outcomes? Former CIA intelligence officer, Andrew Bustamante teaches spy hacks to help people get the ultimate advantage in business and life. The CIA taught Andrew a better way of explaining what reality actually is; he now demonstrates how espionage shapes life for everyday people like you. This interview covers some really interesting areas of human psychology that you may be aware of but haven't fully connected the dots on. People are motivated to survive with given resources, and learning how their motivations shape their drive and personality puts you in control of your relationships and the opportunities you decide to move on. Key topics Andrew touches on in this episode: -The 3 lives everyone lives but not everyone admits to -Why the people ultimately self-destruct -How the new world power transition plays out over the next 10 years -The bloodless war in China to keep your eye on -Foreign power influence in US elections Recommended reading: Mao: The Unknown Story by Jung Chang, Jon Halliday, et al The Gulag Archipelago by Aleksandr I. Solzhenitsyn Red Famine: Stalin's War on Ukraine by Anne Applebaum, Suzanne Toren, et al QUOTES: “What CIA taught me was a better way of explaining what reality actually is, and the reality is that 98 percent of human beings are trapped in their own perception, so the two percent that live in the real world that have perspective, they are able to manipulate the perception of everybody else.” “It's how you use another human's predictability that defines whether you typecast as hero or villain.” “The more a person's resources are depleted, the closer they get to their true Myers-Briggs personality.” “Questions are always being asked by the person in control of the conversation.” “Confidence is a perception, not a real thing. Confidence is how you perceive your own emotional reaction or your own emotional relationship with the environment around you.” “We are hardwired to survive, we are not wired to thrive.” Follow Andrew Bustamante: Website: https://everydayspy.com/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/EverydaySpy YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/everydayspy Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/everydayspy/ RESTART your life in 7 days: http://bit.ly/42KM8OR Click here to download your FREE guide to 100x YOUR EFFICIENCY IN 10 EASY STEPS: https://bit.ly/3F8qOJL Sponsors: Sign up for a one-dollar-per-month trial period at http://www.shopify.com/impact Visit http://www.houseofmacadmais.com/impact and use code impact for 20% off all purchases, and for a limited time a complimentary bottle of cold-pressed Extra Virgin macadamia oil! Post your job for free at http://www.linkedin.com/Lisa. Terms and conditions apply. Head over to http://www.mindpumpimpact.com to find the 5 most impactful Mind Pump fitness episodes that will transform your body and your life. Get 3lbs of Bone-in Chicken Thighs FOR FREE in every box, for a year, on top of $20 off your first order, when you go to butcherbox.com/impact and use code IMPACT Find Tools and Weapons with Brad Smith wherever you like to listen to podcasts. This episode is sponsored by BetterHelp. Give online therapy a try at http://www.betterhelp.com/impacttheory and make sure to check out our exclusive series for Mental Health Awareness month, only on Spotify. Get 8 single serving packets FREE with any LMNT order at DrinkLMNT.com/IMPACT. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices
Beyond the Illusionary Veil with Robert Vandriest-Mitchell Join Johnny Baptist while he discusses the empirical events across the world leading up to World War III, the trickery and deceit of the New World Order, and the bizarre weirdness of the fallen angelic UFO phenomenon as we plunge head first into the forthcoming apocalypse and the Seven Seals of Revelation (chapter 6). Millions of people from all walks of life have committed themselves to the Illuminati's global work for the (so-called) "betterment of the human species". Join us tonight for (Part 59) of the troubling but edifying testimony of Robert Vandriest-Mitchell, "A Real life Story By Illuminati Born SRA Survivor", and an X-Illuminati victim and whistle-blower. God Bless You - See you there! To sign up for radio show Email Notifications click Mail Link: http://gem.godaddy.com/signups/185380/join
Tests and Lessons for the Faithul Church w Terri Hill Join Johnny Baptist while he discusses the empirical events across the world leading up to World War III, the trickery and deceit of the New World Order, and the bizarre weirdness of the fallen angelic UFO phenomenon as we plunge head first into the forthcoming apocalypse and the Seven Seals of Revelation (chapter 6). Join us tonight for another edifying and awesome teaching from sister Terri Hill entitled "Tests and Lessons for the Faithul Church" God Bless You - See you there! To sign up for radio show Email Notifications click Mail Link: http://gem.godaddy.com/signups/185380/join