River in the Mid-Atlantic United States
The Point Lookout Lighthouse, located in Scotland, MD, sits at the entrance of the Potomac River at the southernmost tip of the Chesapeake Bay and is said to be the most haunted lighthouse in the United States. On May 3, 1825, it was decided that a light was needed at the entrance to the Potomac River in order to warn ships about the shoals and to prevent shipwrecks from continuing to happen at the entrance to the river. After five years of delays, it was first lit on September 20, 1830, and ran without too many issues through the years. Things changed for a time when the Civil War began. A hospital was built in the area to care for wounded Union soldiers, and when Camp Hoffman was built, it held as many as 20,000 prisoners at a time, which was double its occupancy limit, and at least 3,000 to 8000 died there due to limited rations and poor conditions.Because of the death permeating the ground in the area due to the Civil War and the several shipwrecks that occurred near the lighthouse, the lighthouse is incredibly haunted. People have heard footsteps in the hall and stairway, heard doors slamming shut, and heard voices and even snoring coming from nowhere. Several paranormal investigations have occurred here, where they were able to catch numerous EVPs, felt cold spots, and witnessed full-body apparitions. It has been discovered that there are 24 distinct voices in the lighthouse. Join us on episode 139 to hear more about Point Lookout Lighthouse, the most haunted lighthouse in America! Sources: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point_Lookout_Light, ptlookoutlighthouse.com, lighthousefriends.com/light.asp?ID=436, dnr.maryland.gov/Pages/Spirits-of-Point-Lookout.aspx, southernmarylandchronicle.com/2018/10/11/scariest-stories-of-the-chesapeake-bay-region-part-6-point-lookout-lighthouse/ ###Follow Us:https://www.paranormalpunchers.comhttps://twitter.com/ppunchershttps://instagram.com/paranormalpunchershttps://www.facebook.com/paranormalpunchersSupport the Show:https://www.teepublic.com/stores/paranormal-punchershttps://www.patreon.com/paranormalpunchers
CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:27).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 5-20-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the weeks of May 23 and May 30, 2022. This episode, marking the Memorial Day holiday observed this year on May 30, repeats an episode first done in 2015. MUSIC – ~17 sec – instrumental. That tune, composed during the U.S. Civil War, sets the stage for a water-related exploration of the origin of Memorial Day. Have a listen to the music for about 35 more seconds. MUSIC – ~35 sec – instrumental. You've been listening to a version of “All Quiet Along the Potomac Tonight,” recorded by Chloe Benner and Stewart Scales. The tune was composed in 1863 by John Hill Hewitt. The title, and the lyrics associated with the tune, are from “The Picket Guard,” a poem by Ethel Lynn Beers, published in 1861. The poem relates the loneliness, homesickness, and then sudden death of a rank-and-file soldier patrolling the dark, wooded, and deceptively quiet Potomac riverbank. As a similar tragic fate befell tens of thousands of Civil War soldiers along rivers, ridges, and battle lines in Virginia and elsewhere, surviving family and friends began honoring fallen soldiers by decorating their graves with flowers, especially during spring. The practice grew across both North and South, eventually becoming a spring tradition known as “Decoration Day.” On May 5, 1868, Gen. John Logan called for Decoration Day to be an annual, national holiday on May 30, and the first national ceremony was held that year in Arlington National Cemetery, near the banks of the Potomac. After World War I, the annual observance began to include honoring those who had died in all U.S. military conflicts. In 1971, Congress declared Memorial Day an official national holiday, to occur on the last Monday of May. Memorial Day invokes very personal and local expressions of honor and remembrance, true to the holiday's origin of individuals decorating Civil War graves with flowers. In that spirit, we close this tribute to Memorial Day with about 25 seconds of “Flowers of the Forest,” by No Strings Attached, from their 2002 album, “Old Friend's Waltz.” MUSIC – ~26 sec – instrumental. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment. For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624. Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this episode. In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 215, 5-25-15, and Episode 318, 5-30-16. The version of “All Quiet Along the Potomac Tonight” heard in this Virginia Water Radio episode was performed by Chloe Benner and Stewart Scales, used with permission. More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 619, 3-7-22. Another version of “All Quiet Along the Potomac Tonight,” by Bobby Horton, was featured in Episode 101, 3-5-12. Information on “All Quiet Along the Potomac,” about Ethel Beers, the author of the poem from which the song was derived, and about John Hill Hewitt, who composed the tune, is available from Bartleby.com, online at http://www.bartleby.com/270/13/474.html; from Britannica Encyclopedia, online at www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/58438/Ethel-Lynn-Beers; from Library of Congress, “All quiet along the Potomac to-night,” online at https://www.loc.gov/item/ihas.200002411/; and from Song of America, online at https://songofamerica.net/song/all-quiet-along-the-potomac-tonight/. “Flowers of the Forest” and “Old Friend's Waltz” are copyright by No Strings Attached and Enessay Music, used with permission. More information about the now-retired, Blacksburg/Roanoke-based group No Strings Attached is available online at https://www.enessay.com/index.html. This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 573, 4-19-21. Information on “Metsäkukkia,” the original Finnish tune on which the No Strings Attached selection was based, is available from Andrew Kuntz, “The Fiddler's Companion,” online at http://www.ibiblio.org/fiddlers/MER_MIC.htm; and from Jeremy Keith, “The Session,” online at http://thesession.org/tunes/4585. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode. More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGES(Unless otherwise noted, photographs are by Virginia Water Radio.) Looking towards the confluence of the Shenandoah River with the Potomac River at Harper's Ferry, West Va., August 14, 2008. Harper's Ferry was a strategic location and the site of a federal arsenal during the Civil War era.The confluence of Antietam Creek (foreground) with the Potomac River in Maryland, as seen from the C&O Canal Towpath, August 13, 2008. The confluence is several miles downstream of where the creek flows through Sharpsburg, Md., the site of a major Civil War battle in 1862. EXTRA INFORMATION ON THE HISTORY OF MEMORIAL DAYThe following information is quoted from the Library of Congress, “Today in History—May 30/Memorial Day,” online at https://www.loc.gov/item/today-in-history/may-30/. “In 1868, Commander in Chief John A. Logan of the Grand Army of the Republic issued General Order Number 11 designating May 30 as a memorial day ‘for the purpose of strewing with flowers or otherwise decorating the graves of comrades who died in defense of their country during the late rebellion, and whose bodies now lie in almost every city, village, and hamlet churchyard in the land.' “The first national celebration of the holiday took place May 30, 1868, at Arlington National Cemetery, where both Confederate and Union soldiers were buried. Originally known as Decoration Day, at the turn of the century it was designated as Memorial Day. In many American towns, the day is celebrated with a parade. “Southern women decorated the graves of soldiers even before the Civil War's end. Records show that by 1865, Mississippi, Virginia, and South Carolina all had precedents for Memorial Day. Songs in the Duke University collection Historic American Sheet Music include hymns published in the South such as these two from 1867: ‘Kneel Where Our Loves are Sleeping,' dedicated to ‘The Ladies of the South Who are Decorating the Graves of the Confederate Dead,' and ‘Memorial Flowers,' dedicated ‘To the Memory of Our Dead Heroes.' “When a women's memorial association in Columbus, Mississippi, decorated the graves of both Confederate and Union soldiers on April 25, 1866, this act of generosity and reconciliation prompted an editorial piece, published by Horace Greeley's New York Tribune, and a poem by Francis Miles Finch, ‘The Blue and the Grey,' published in the Atlantic Monthly. The practice of strewing flowers on soldiers' graves soon became popular throughout the reunited nation. “President Lyndon Johnson proclaimed Waterloo, New York, as the ‘Birthplace of Memorial Day,' because it began a formal observance on May 5, 1866. However, Boalsburg, Pennsylvania, also claims to have held the first observance, based on an observance dating back to October 1864. Indeed, many other towns also lay claim to being the first to hold an observance. “In 1971, federal law changed the observance of the holiday to the last Monday in May and extended the honor to all soldiers who died in American wars. A few states continue to celebrate Memorial Day on May 30. “Today, national observance of the holiday still takes place at Arlington National Cemetery with the placing of a wreath on the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and the decoration of each grave with a small American flag. Protocol for flying the American flag on Memorial Day includes raising it quickly to the top of the pole at sunrise, immediately lowering it to half-staff until noon, and displaying it at full staff from noon until sunset. … “Many veterans of the Vietnam War, and relatives and friends of those who fought in that conflict, make a pilgrimage over Memorial Day weekend to the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C., where they pay their respects to another generation of fallen soldiers.” SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION On the History of Memorial Day Library of Congress, “Today in History—May 30/Memorial Day,” online at https://www.loc.gov/item/today-in-history/may-30/. Smithsonian Institution/National Museum of American History, “You asked, we Answered: Why do we celebrate Memorial Day?”, by Ryan Lintelman, May 24, 2013; available online at http://americanhistory.si.edu/blog/2013/05/you-asked-we-answered-why-do-we-celebrate-memorial-day.html. Public Broadcasting System, “National Memorial Day Concert/History of Memorial Day,” online at http://www.pbs.org/national-memorial-day-concert/memorial-day/history/. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs:“America's Wars,” online (as a PDF) at http://www.va.gov/opa/publications/factsheets/fs_americas_wars.pdf;“Memorial Day,” online at https://www.va.gov/opa/speceven/memday; and“Memorial Day Order,” by Gen. John A. Logan, May 6, 1868, online at https://www.cem.va.gov/history/memdayorder.asp. On Rivers and Other Water Bodies in the U.S. Civil War The History PlaceTM, “The U.S. Civil War,” online at http://www.historyplace.com/civilwar/ USA Civil War Web Site, “Civil War Rivers and Streams,” online at http://usa-civil-war.com/CW_Rivers/rivers.html RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html). See particularly the “History” subject category. Following are links to some other episodes on Virginia waters in history related to military conflicts. Battle of Yorktown in the Revolutionary War – Episode 390, 10-6-17.Bull Run's present and Civil War past – Episode 223, 7-21-14. Civil War Battle of the Ironclads – Episode 412, 3-19-18.Lincoln's James River trip to Richmond at the end of the Civil War – Episode 459, 2-11-19.Potomac River in the Civil War – Episode 101, 3-5-12.Rivers and attempts to capture Richmond in the Civil War – Episode 164, 6-3-13 (for Memorial Day 2013).River origins of Virginia signers of Declaration of Independence – Episode 220, 6-30-14. Various waters involved in the Revolutionary War – Episode 168, 7-1-13. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2015 Social Studies SOLs Grades K-3 History Theme1.2 – Virginia history and life in present-day Virginia.1.4 – Lives of people associated with major holidays.2.5 – Lives of people associated with major holidays. Virginia Studies CourseVS.1 – Impact of geographic features on people, places, and events in Virginia history.VS.7 – Civil War issues and events, including the role of Virginia and the role of various ethnic groups. United States History to 1865 CourseUSI.2 – Major land and water features of North America, including their importance in history.USI.9 – Causes, events, and effects of the Civil War.Virginia and United States History CourseVUS.7 – Knowledge of the Civil War and Reconstruction eras.Virginia's SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/. Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade. Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade. Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten. Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade. Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade. Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade. Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics
One of the barges stuck in the Potomac River has been pulled away. Bills dealing with overdose prevention, cybersecurity and dental care were signed into law on Thursday. A former Maryland priest has been sentenced to 22 years in federal prison followed by lifetime supervised release for coercion and enticement of a child he met through the church to engage in illegal sexual activity. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
A total of 13 amendments which would have reduced Frederick County's proposed fiscal year 2023 budget were turned down Tuesday night by the Council. The nation of Ukraine is getting some additional aid from the State of Maryland. There are new troubling developments with the barges that are stuck in the Potomac River near Harpers Ferry over the weekend. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
Two construction barges on the Potomac River broke loose from their moorings over a rainy May weekend. They were stuck on the rocks upstream of Harper's Ferry, WV. What does these massive floating spectacles have in common with Rusty the Red Panda and Michaela Salahi? Listen to find out.
One teenager is dead and another has been arrested for murder in a stabbing that took place early Sunday morning in Hagerstown. A plan is expected to be developed to repair the sinkhole which opened up last week along Monocacy Boulevard between the I-70 ramp and East South Street. The two barges that came loose along the Potomac River last weekend have been snagged by underwater debris... and have stopped moving. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
When a weapon on the gun line of the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division fires, you hear a thud and seconds later see a splash out in the Potomac River. It sounds and looks rough, but in fact each trigger-pull is the subject of detailed measurement and analysis. For the third installment of our series on Dahlgren, the Federal Drive with Tom Temin spoke with the division's integrated engagement systems chief, Daniel Ross.
If you are a hard-core angler, you have come to the right place. This is a weekly podcast that will interview some of the top local and regional anglers in North America. Anglers who consistency finish near the top in both Largemouth and Smallmouth bass fishing tournaments. Travis and his guest will discuss techniques and strategies used to help these anglers stay so consistent and help you become a better angler and gain an edge on your body of water. This interview I chat with Robby Wedding. He sure knows his tidal waters and loves catching Largemouth from the Potomac. He goes into great detail about some of his favorite techniques like the chatter-bait and his style of fishing. He gives up some great information in this episode!Follow Robby Here https://www.facebook.com/robert.wedding.3Instagram Tackle Shack https://www.facebook.com/tackleshackmiddlebury/The Reel Shot is where I recommend you purchase your tackle! Use my Code SmallmouthCrush15 and get 15% your order today!https://bit.ly/2YtVLRLSMALLMOUTHCRUSHMonsterBass is a subscription full of great fishing tackle delivered to you monthly! https://bit.ly/MonsterBassSmallmouthCrushWant to save money on Tackle and get sponsorship pricing? Click the link below and use code CRUSH50 to get 50% off your membership!https://club.outdoorsponsors.com/St Croix Rods - The Best Rods on Earth!https://stcroixrods.link/smallmouthcrushBest Line Management system that I have found! Get your Spool Mates Here! Use Code SmallmouthCrush10 to save 10% off your orderhttps://www.anglerconcepts.com/spool-mates.htmlSome of my favorite Baits can be found here at Nikko BaitsUse Code Smallmouthcrush10 to save 10% off your orderhttps://nikko-fishing.com/NEW VIDEOS UPLOADED WEEKLY and the WORLD-FAMOUS LIVE STREAM with Co Host Epic Eric---------------------------------------Sunday 2:00PM Est - The SmallmouthCrush PodcastMonday 8:00 PM Est - LIVESTREAMFishing Videos throughout the week---------------------------------------Follow on Instagram @SmallmouthCrush https://www.instagram.com/smallmouthcrush/
This week on The Reel Down Jimmy and Dan are back together to talk with the winners of the KBF event on the Potomac River. We learn about east coast tidal fisheries, blowout currents, and how sometimes the littlest details or patch of green grass can make your tourney day magical. Hang out with us as we hear from day one winner Ryan Nye, Day 2 winner Alex Fiolka, and pro series winner Tyler Sweet. Also be sure to check in on your Fantasy teams and see if you can top the Alabama boys that are holding down the lead!! Dale Hollow Lodging- www.eastport.info Fantasy Kayak League- www.paddlenfin.com/fantasy Waypoint TV- https://waypointtv.com Patreon-https://www.patreon.com/paddlenfin Podcast & Website- www.paddlenfin.com YouTube- https://www.youtube.com/paddlenfin Email- firstname.lastname@example.org Social Media- @paddlenfin Yak Gadget- www.yakgadget.com Pelican Professional- www.pelican.com Rocktown paddlesports - rocktownadventures.com JigMasters Jigs- https://jigmasters.com Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices
This episode of the Tell Us Something podcast was recorded live in person in front of a sold-out crowd at The Wilma in Missoula, MT. Four storytellers share their true personal stories live without notes on the theme “Stone Soup”. Four storytellers share their true personal stories live without notes on the theme “Stone Soup”. A dramatic river rescue, bullets confiscated at TSA, a middle-aged woman cookin’ up an incredible stew and a man, a porcupine, a jar of pickles, and a little birdie. Our podcast today was recorded in front of a live audience on March 30, 2022, at The Wilma in Missoula, MT. 8 storytellers shared their true personal stories on the theme “Stone Soup”. Today we hear from 4 of those storytellers. Our first story comes to us from Tess Sneeringer. After her friend falls down a hill on rock scree, Tess Sneeringer puts her training to work. She, along with several of her friends, paddle through the night to bring their injured friend to safety. Tess calls her story “All Aboard the River Ambulance ”. Tess Sneeringer grew up escaping the suits and the stress of Washington, DC by following her older brother down the current of the Potomac River every summer. She is now settled in Missoula and works for Parks and Recreation. Our next storyteller is a Tell Us Something storyteller alumni. You can listen to all of the stories that she’s shared right here. Joyce Gibbs has some very special hunting bullets confiscated at TSA, she resolves to get them back. Joyce calls her story “Only in Missoula. Only on Christmas.” or “If You Don't Ask, You Can't Hear Yes.” (Hat tip to Chris LaTray) Joyce Gibbs is a resilient, creative, and adventurous woman who was raised in Missoula. After a brief stint in New York City and then in New Orleans, she bought a dilapidated railroad house on Missoula's Northside and spent the next 15 years remodeling it and making it her own. Joyce loves being in nature on Montana's abundant rivers, and hiking and hunting in the woods. When she is not busy building beautiful spaces with her tile installation at Joyce of Tile, you can find her riding her motorcycle, gardening, going for neighborhood walks with her husband of 12 years, Marc (that’s me!), and their kitten Ziggy. In our next story, Lizzie Juda finds awakening after middle age in a story that she calls “Something's Cookin' in My Pot”. Lizzi Juda has been a proud resident of the westside of Missoula for nearly 33 years. She is the founder and co-director of Turning the Wheel Missoula and has over 25 years of experience teaching improvisational movement classes, expressive arts groups, and ceremonial rituals. She is passionate about providing opportunities for people of all ages and abilities to play, move and connect deeply with themselves and express their creative spark. She is an absolutely avid advocate for accordion and alliteration artistry and is a wannabe beat poet. She considers movement and touch her first languages and is finding her way with words. She identifies most with being a mojo sprinkling pixie Rounding out this episode of the Tell Us Something podcast, Brent Ruby buys a jar of pickles for a gathering with friends. No one ever opens the jar of pickles, so he brings it home. The hitchhiker he picks up along the way is very happy to learn about this magic pickle jar.”Paws, Claws, Pickles and a Little Birdie” Brent Ruby is a research professor at the University of Montana and has been on a nearly 30-year quest to do good science. He also is committed to writing his own brand of ornery poetry during his relentless study of applied human physiology. One of Brent’s research goals is to effectively share his research findings to improve the health and performance of wildland firefighters. Brent spends time outside of his research in the great outdoors of Montana with his wife Jo and their border collies, Wrango and Banjo. Brent also enjoys building hollow wood stand-up paddleboards, woodwork, art, and writing children's books. Check out his books, download free coloring book pages, and more at wrangoandbanjo.com.
Pearl Corens disappeared on February 13, 1945. Over the next two weeks mysterious notes perplexed police as they searched for the missing war department employee. Then came a shocking discovery on the Virginia side of the Potomac River. Want more Southern Mysteries? Hear the Southern Mysteries show archive and immediately access exclusive content when you become a patron of the show. Join now at patreon.com/southernmysteries Connect Website: southernmysteries.com Facebook: Southern Mysteries Podcast Twitter: @southernpod_ Instagram: @explorethesouth Email: email@example.com Episode Sources Justice and the Case of the Corpseless Head. New York Daily News. March 24, 1946 Judge is Grim in Weird Case. The Spokesman-Review. May 29, 1945. Wife's Head Found; Husband Held. The New York Daily News. March 1, 1945 Corens Offers Alibi for Bloodstains in Bethesda Home. The Evening Star. May 25, 1945 Rice, C. (2018). 45 Murderers: A Collection of True Crime Stories. United States: MysteriousPress.com/Open Road. Episode Music Falling Rain by Kevin MacLeod. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Source: http://incompetech.com Theme Song “Dark & Troubled” by Pantherburn. Special thanks to Phillip St Ours for permission for use
University of Maryland Women's basketball team is in the Sweet Sixteen, playing against number 1 seed Stanford on Friday night. There is a petition for Mayor Bowser to get the Potomac River to be deemed safe for swimming. DC is getting ready for the annual Cherry Blossom kite festival, Tommy does deep dive on the history of kite flying - it used to be illegal in DC? Jose Andres is going to space! He has developed a paella in collaboration with NASA that will travel to the International Space Station. Join us at Freedom Plaza on March 27, 2022 to run or walk the DC ScopeItOut 5K. Register today, fundraise and build your team, and get ready to run during colorectal cancer awareness month. Tix On Sale for DC Central Kitchen #CapFoodFight Tom Colicchio, Andrew Zimmern, Spike Mendelsohn will be at The Anthem on April 7 for the annual fundraiser for DC Central Kitchen. Four of DC's best chefs battle head-to-head on stage while you enjoy food and drinks from dozens of your favorite restaurants! Tickets are now on sale. The National Gallery of Art will open its West Building after-hours from 6 to 9 p.m. for “National Gallery Nights”, kicking off April 14th. Registration required and limited capacity. LINKS: Illegal to Fly A Kite: https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/until-1970-it-was-illegal-to-fly-a-kite-in-washington-hippies-got-the-law-changed/2020/04/04/b339f68a-750d-11ea-a9bd-9f8b593300d0_story.html https://www.nps.gov/nama/learn/management/superintendent-s-compendium.htm Petition To Swim in the Potomac https://www.change.org/p/dc-mayor-muriel-bowser-lift-ban-on-swimming-in-dc?utm_content=cl_sharecopy_32701729_en-US%3A3&recruiter=1254444865&utm_source=share_petition&utm_medium=copylink&utm_campaign=share_petition Jose Andres Goes to Space: https://www.fastcompany.com/90730272/from-ukrainians-to-astronauts-on-the-iss-jose-andres-is-feeding-anyone-in-need-and-well The National Gallery of Art https://www.nga.gov/calendar/community-events/nights.html Scope It Out Race: https://impact.ccalliance.org/event/2022-dc-scopeitout-5k/e364416 Food Fight tickets and info: www.capitalfoodfight.org
On March 23, 1913 the rain started falling across the Mid-west and it didn't stop for 4 days and 4 nights. The deluge resulted in epic flooding unequaled in American history before and after. Known as the Great Flood. The storm system that produced the flood in late March 1913 began with a typical winter storm pattern, but developed characteristics that promoted heavy rain and at times sleet and snow. As the storm gained strength on Sunday, March 23, high winds, hail, sleet, and tornadoes settled in across a vast swath of the nation's mid-section. Major tornadoes hit Omaha, Nebraska where 94 died; also hit were Lone Peach, Arkansas; and Terre Haute, Indiana. On Monday and Tuesday, March 24 and 25, 3 to 8 inches of rain fell in Ohio, Indiana, and southern Illinois. Major rivers in Indiana and Ohio experienced heavy runoff. Downstream, where the Ohio River enters the Mississippi River, the water level broke record highs. By Tuesday, March 25, the Ohio River and its tributaries flooded cities such as Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Youngstown and Columbus. Dayton, Ohio, was particularly hard-hit. On Wednesday, March 26, the storm moved east into Pennsylvania and New York, while heavy rain continued in the Ohio valley. The heaviest rainfall, 6 to 9, covered an area from southern Illinois into northwestern Pennsylvania. As the storm continued eastward, flooding began in New York, Massachusetts, Vermont, and Virginia. The Potomac River overflowed its banks in Maryland. 467 died in the floods and damage reached $147 million or almost $4 billion in 2022 dollars. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
Every once and a while, I fire up a retro game that I missed back in its heyday, and it rocks my world so hard that I spend the next week kicking myself for not playing it sooner. Shadow of the Colossus is one of those games. Its controls leave a little to be desired, but everything else about it is just, beautiful. The story, bosses, music, graphics are all spectacular, and there's no fat to be found. 'Less is more' should be this game's motto. It's a legitimate work of art. This week's episode was sponsored by RTG community member JohnnyCCDC over on Patreon, and I can't thank him enough for the support, and for showing me the error of my non-Colossi battling ways. We have a nice chat about why this game scratches him where he itches, and then my buddy Miklos manipulated his way back onto the podcast (and by that, I mean I called him), and we broke it down for another hour or so. All kind of Colossus goodness over here this week! And before we talk about Colossus shadows, I drop another steaming edition of the 'Remember The Game? Infamous Intro' on ya! This week, we talk about our hopes for Sony's rumoured 'PlayStation Spartacus' service. We talk about the legendary Bebop and Rocksteady, and which iteration of them is best. And how much longer will physical video games be a thing? PLUS, we have another round of 'Play One, Remake One, Erase One', featuring three of the PS2's best: GTA: San Andreas, Metal Gear Solid 3, and Silent Hill 2. Are you on social media? Of course you are. So follow us! Twitter: @MemberTheGame Instagram: @MemberTheGame Twitch.tv/MemberTheGame And if you want access to over 200 bonus podcasts, along with multiple new shows EVERY WEEK, consider showing us some love over at Patreon. Subscriptions start at just $2/month! Patreon.com/RememberTheGame And check out JohnnyCCDC's deets here: Instagram: @JohnnyCCDC Twitter: NextRoundsOnMe Instagram & Twitter @CatoctinCreek CatoctinCreekDistilling.com BuyVirginiaRye.com Catoctin Creek Distilling Company 120 W Main St, Purcellville VA 20132 540-751-8404 The Virginia Rye™️ “Catoctin Creek® was founded by Becky and Scott Harris in 2009 as the first legal distillery in Loudoun County since before Prohibition. We are located in Purcellville, Virginia, in the heart of the Loudoun Valley. Virginia is the birthplace of American whiskey, and at Catoctin Creek, we faithfully dedicate ourselves to that tradition, producing Virginia's most awarded whisky—Roundstone Rye! The name "Catoctin" is a regional name. Pronounced Ka-TOCK-tin, the name derives from the Indian tribal name "Kittocton" which, legend has it, meant "place of many deer". Catoctin describes a range of mountains and the eponymous creek which flows picturesquely past the distillery and into the Potomac River and Chesapeake Watershed. At Catoctin Creek, we believe in high quality food and spirits. We source our grain and fruit from local sources, free of pesticides and chemical additives that would come through in the spirits we produce. The results are the finest, cleanest spirits possible, with the greatest attention to detail in every single bottle we produce.”
CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:37).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 2-18-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of February 21, 2022. This revised episode from February 2018 is part of a series this year of winter-relatedepisodes. MUSIC – ~15 sec - Lyrics: “Mama, oh mama, it was out by the water's edge.”This week, that excerpt of “Waters Edge,” from the Harrisonburg and Rockingham County, Va.-based band, The Steel Wheels, sets the stage for going to a water body's edge to explore freezing water. Have a listen for about 15 seconds to the following mystery sounds, and see if you can guess what cold-water experience was taking place. And here's a hint: the speaker and the water were both running. SOUNDS - ~15 sec If you guessed, wading into an icy river, you're right! You heard me at the edge of the New River in Giles County, Va., on January 1, 2018, wading—very quickly!—into the partially iced-over river. After nighttime temperatures in the teens or lower for several days, about half of the river's surface in some locations on that New Year's morning was covered in ice.Rivers throughout Virginia will freeze during notably cold winter spells, but it's not a routine occurrence. River freeze-ups are really noteworthy in the tidal sections of the James, Rappahannock, and other Commonwealth rivers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed; in those sections, the water is somewhat salty, called brackish, so it has a lower freezing point. When rivers do freeze, ice typically forms first at the river edges, where in slow currents surface water can lose heat to colder air while not being mixed with warmer water. This border ice can also form in slower currents around rocks or other obstacles well away from shore. In stronger currents that keep the water mixed, if the whole water column drops just below the freezing point, ice can form around tiny particles; this type of ice is called frazil. Sometimes frazil gets transported to the river bottom and attaches there, forming what's known as anchor ice. If the water keeps losing heat to colder air, these and other kinds of ice can accumulate horizontally and vertically, eventually covering the river and perhaps filling much of its depth.Ice may also be carried along by the current, particularly after warming temperatures break up a solid ice cover. If these ice floes get blocked by natural or human-made structures, ice jams can occur. Ice jams can block a river's flow, leading possibly to upstream flooding. And when an ice jam eventually breaks, it can suddenly release large amounts of water and ice, causing possible hazards downstream. Thanks to Blacksburg friends for recording the New Year's Day New River wade-in. Thanks also to The Steel Wheels for permission to use this week's music, and we close with about 15 more seconds of “Waters Edge.” MUSIC - ~16 sec – Lyrics: “Mama, oh mama, it was out by the water's edge.” SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment. For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624. Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close this episode. In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 406, 2-5-18. “Waters Edge,” from the 2013 album “No More Rain,” is copyright by The Steel Wheels, used with permission. More information about The Steel Wheels is available online at http://www.thesteelwheels.com/. This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio in Episode 529, 6-15-20. The New River wade-in sounds were taken from a video recording on January 1, 2018, below McCoy Falls in Giles County, Va. Thanks to Virginia Water Radio friends Sarah, John, and Alan for making the recording possible. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode. More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGESVirginia Water Radio host Alan Raflo in the New River in Giles County, Va., January 1, 2018. Photo courtesy of John Imbur.Ice on the New River at McCoy Falls in Montgomery County, Va., January 1, 2018.Ice on Goose Creek in Loudoun County, Va., January 20, 2018.Ice jam in the Potomac River near Washington, D.C., February 1918. Photo from the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, accessed online at https://www.loc.gov/item/npc2008011359/, as of 2-22-22. For more historic Potomac River ice photos in the Library of Congress, see https://www.loc.gov/photos/?q=Potomac+River+Ice. EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT ICE IN FLOWING WATERThe seriousness of the threats river ice can pose is highlighted in the following information from the National Weather Service, Chicago Forecast Office, “Volunteer River Ice Spotter Network,” online at https://www.weather.gov/lot/river_ice_spotter_network, accessed 2/17/22: “The National Weather Service (NWS) Chicago/Rockford, IL, office uses information from volunteer spotters along area rivers to monitor the development of river ice which may lead to flooding. Ice jams are often localized and may occur away from river gauges. River ice spotters share important information such as extent of ice cover, ice cover trends, and location of ice jams which is very important for issuing timely warnings. “River ice can be a serious problem during some winters. Chronic ice jam locations on the Rock, Fox, and Kankakee Rivers have up to a 1-in-2 chance of experiencing an ice jam in any given year, and almost a 1-in-3 chance of experiencing ice jam flooding in a given year.” The Chicago office is one of several NWS offices that seek river ice spotters in winter.SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION Kevin Ambrose, The Potomac River has a history of disastrous ice floes during a rapid thaw, Washington Post, January 10, 2018. Spyros Beltaos, ed., River Ice Jams, Water Resources Publications LLC, Highlands Ranch, Colo., 1995. Spyros Beltaos, ed., River Ice Breakup, Water Resources Publications LLC, Highlands Ranch, Colo., 2008. Tamara Dietrich, Arctic blast not enough to freeze James, York rivers, [Newport News, Va.] Daily Press, February 19, 2015. Don M. Gray and Terry D. Prowse, “Snow and Floating Ice,” Chapter 7 of Handbook of Hydrology, David R. Maidment, ed., McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1993. Erica Leayman, Frozen Potomac River, Lakes Show Just How Cold It Is; From boats stuck on the ice to people skating on reflecting pools, here's a visual reminder of the bitter cold around the DC area, Old Town Alexandria [Va.] Patch, January 3, 2018. National Weather Service, Blacksurg, Va., Forecast Office, “Observed Weather Reports/Preliminary Monthly Climate Data for Blacksburg,” online at https://www.weather.gov/wrh/climate?wfo=rnk. National Weather Service, Chicago, Illinois, “River Ice Guide,” online (as a PDF) at https://www.weather.gov/media/lot/hydro/outreach/NWS_River_Ice_Guide_2020.pdf. University of Minnesota-Duluth/Minnesota Sea Grant, “Lake and River Ice: Formation and Classification,” by John A. Downing, February 25, 2021, online at https://seagrant.umn.edu/news-information/directors-column/lake-river-ice-formation-classification. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html). See particularly the “Weather/Climate/Natural Disasters” subject categories. Following are links to several other winter-related episodes, including episodes (listed separately) on some birds that reside in Virginia typically only in winter. Frost – Episode 597, 10-4-21.Freezing and ice – Episode 606, 12-6-21 (especially for grades K-3).Ice on ponds and lakes – Episode 404, 1-22-18(especially for grades 4-8).Polar Plunge®for Special Olympics – Episode 356, 2-20-17.Snow physics and chemistry – Episode 407, 2-12-18 (especially for high school grades).Snow, sleet, and freezing rain – Episode 613, 1-24-22.Snow terms – Episode 612, 1-17-22.Surviving freezing – Episode 556, 12-21-20.Winter precipitation and water supplies – Episode 567, 3-8-21.Winter weather preparedness – Episode 605, 11-29-21.Water thermodynamics – Episode 610, 1-3-22. Bird-related Episodes for Winter Audubon Society Christmas Bird Count – Episode 607, 12-13-21.American Avocet – Episode 543, 9-21-20.Brant (goose) – Episode 615, 2-7-22.Canvasback (duck) – Episode 604, 11-22-21.Common Goldeneye (duck) – Episode 303, 2-15-16.Green-winged Teal (duck) – Episode 398, 12-11-17.Grebes (Horned and Red-necked) – Episode 233, 9-29-14.Loons – Episode 445, 11-5-18.Fall migration – Episode 603, 11-15-21.Northern Harrier – Episode 561, 1-25-21.Snow Goose – Episode 507, 1-13-20.Tundra Swan – Episode 554, 12-7-20.Winter birds sampler from the Chesapeake Bay area – Episode 565, 2-22-21. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post.
In 1805 the nations' capitol had only been established at its current site on the Potomac for a few years, having moved from Philadelphia. Originally know during its construction as Federal City, Congress met in newly named Washington City, as it was then known, for the first time in November 1800, the man for whom the city was named had died in December of the previous year, and in February 1801 the District of Columbia, which at the time also included the cities of Alexandria and Georgetown, was placed under the control of Congress. In January 1791, President George Washington had announced his choice for the federal district: 100 square miles of land ceded by Maryland and Virginia, in 1846, the Virginia land was returned to the state, shrinking the district by a third. The Potomac River, at that time, especially in the area around Washington, was shallow and its shores consisted of large areas of mud flats, where the water was only inches deep. During harsh winters the shallow waters easily froze putting an end to navigation until the spring. On February 20, 1805, after being frozen over for more than 2 months, leaving those in Washington City in desperate straits because of lack of supplies the Potomac River was once again deemed fit for navigation as the ice jams broke and commerce resumed. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit podcastchoices.com/adchoices
CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (5:35).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments Image Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 2-11-22.TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of February 14, 2022. This week's episode –the third in a series of episodes on water in U.S. civil rights history—explores water access and use in African-American civil rights history. The episode particularly focuses on a May 2018 essay, “The Role of Water in African American History,” written by Tyler Parry, of the University of Nevada-Las Vegas, for the blog Black Perspectives, published by the African American Intellectual History Society. We set the stage with three water sounds related to different aspects of African American and civil rights history. Have a listen for about 30 seconds and see what connections you think these sounds have to that history. SOUNDS – ~32 sec. You heard Chesapeake Bay waves, children swimming at a public pool, and water coming out of a fire hose. These represent three broad themes in African Americans' relationships with water: 1) uses of natural water bodies for livelihoods, recreation, transportation, repression, and resistance; 2) access, or lack thereof, to officially segregated water facilities, as occurred with swimming pools, water fountains, river ferries, and other facilities prior to the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964; and 3) water used as a weapon against citizens demonstrating for civil rights, as in the use of fire hoses on demonstrators in Birmingham, Alabama; Danville, Virginia; and other places. In his essay on water in African American history, Tyler Parry notes these and several other ways that, quote, “water was often present at key moment in the Black experience. Here are some other examples from Dr. Parry's essay: the location of African societies near water; the Atlantic transport of enslaved Africans to American colonies and then the United States; use of American waterways—including the James and other Virginia rivers—in the movement of enslaved people; rivers and other waters providing routes of escape from slavery; segregation of African Americans into areas susceptible to flooding; and the importance of water in culture and spiritual practices. Viewing these examples collectively, Dr. Parry's essay states, quote, “One finds that water holds a dual role in the history of Black culture and intellectual thought. In one sense, water is an arena for resistance that liberates, nourishes, and sanctifies a people, but it can also be weaponized by hegemonic forces seeking to degrade, poison, or eliminate rebellious populations,” unquote. Thanks to Tyler Parry for his scholarship on this topic and for assisting Virginia Water Radio with this episode. We close with some music for the role of water in African American history. Here's a 50-second arrangement of “Wade in the Water,” an African American spiritual dating back to the time of slavery in the United States and connected to the history of the Underground Railroad and the modern Civil Rights Movement. This arrangement was composed by and is performed here by Torrin Hallett, a graduate student at the Yale School of Music. MUSIC - ~ 50 sec – instrumental. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment. For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624. Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this episode. In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Virginia Water Radio thanks Dr. Tyler Parry, University of Nevada-Las Vegas, for his help with this episode. The sounds heard in this episode were as follows:Chesapeake Bay waves on Kent Island, Md., recorded by Virginia Water Radio on June 22, 2010;swimmers at Blacksburg Aquatic Center in Blacksburg, Va., recorded by Virginia Water Radio in July 2019;fire hose sound recorded by user bigroomsound, made available for use by purchase on Pond5, online at https://www.pond5.com/sound-effects/item/5499472-watersprayfireman-hosevarious. The arrangement of “Wade in the Water” (a traditional hymn) heard in this episode is copyright 2021 by Torrin Hallett, used with permission. Torrin is a 2018 graduate of Oberlin College and Conservatory in Oberlin, Ohio; a 2020 graduate in Horn Performance from Manhattan School of Music in New York; and a 2021 graduate of the Lamont School of Music at the University of Denver. He is currently a graduate student at the Yale School of Music. More information about Torrin is available online at https://www.facebook.com/torrin.hallett. Thanks very much to Torrin for composing this arrangement especially for Virginia Water Radio. This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio in Episode 566, 3-1-21, the introduction to Virginia Water Radio's series on water in U.S. civil rights history. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode. More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGE Sculpture in Birmingham, Alabama's, Kelly Ingram Park, recalling fire hoses being used on civil rights protestors in the 1960s. Photo by Carol M. Highsmith, March 3, 2010. Accessed from the Library of Congress, online at https://www.loc.gov/item/2010636978/, 2/15/22. SOURCES Used for AudioJeff Adelson, “New Orleans segregation, racial disparity likely worsened by post-Katrina policies, report says,” Nola.com (New Orleans Times-Picayune and New Orleans Advocate), April 5, 2018. Taylor Branch, Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years, 1963-65, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1998. Waldo E. Martin, Jr., and Patricia Sullivan, Civil Rights in the United States, Vol. One, Macmillian Reference USA, New York, 2000. Middle Passage Ceremonies and Port Markers Project, Transport on James River: “African Presence in Virginia,” undated, online at https://www.middlepassageproject.org/2020/04/29/african-presence-in-virginia/. National Civil Rights Museum (Memphis, Tenn.), “Jim Crow Water Dippers,” online at https://www.civilrightsmuseum.org/from-the-vault/posts/water-dippers. Tyler Parry, “The Role of Water in African American History,” Black Perspectives, African American Intellectual History Society, May 4, 2018, online at https://www.aaihs.org/the-role-of-water-in-african-american-history/. James Patterson, Grand Expectations: The United States, 1945-1974, Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, and New York, N.Y., 1996. Donald M. Sweig, “The Importation of African Slaves to the Potomac River, 1732-1772,” The William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. 42, No. 4 (October 1985), pages 507-524; online at https://www.jstor.org/stable/1919032?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents. Virginia Commission to Examine Racial Inequity in Virginia Law, “Identifying and addressing the vestiges of inequity and inequality in Virginia's laws,” November 15, 2020, online at https://www.governor.virginia.gov/racial-inequity-commission/reports/, as of August 2021. As of February 2022, this report is no longer available at this URL. A description of the project is available in a February 10, 2021, news release from then Virginia Gov. Ralph Northam, online at https://www.governor.virginia.gov/newsroom/all-releases/2021/february/headline-892615-en.html. Victoria W. Wolcott, “The forgotten history of segregated swimming pools and amusement parks,” UB NOW, University of Buffalo, July 11, 2019. Ed Worley, “Water fountains symbolize 1960s civil rights movement,” U.S. Army blog (unnamed), February 22, 2018, online at https://www.army.mil/article/200456/water_fountains_symbolize_1960s_civil_rights_movement. Water Citizen LLC, “Until Justice Rolls Down Like Waters—Water & the Civil Rights Movement,” Water Citizen News, January 16, 2014, online at http://watercitizennews.com/until-justice-rolls-down-like-water-water-the-civil-rights-movement/. Howard Zinn, A People's History of the United States, HarperCollins, New York, N.Y., 2003. For More Information about Civil Rights in the United States British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), “The Civil Rights Movement in America,” online at https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/guides/zcpcwmn/revision/1. Georgetown Law Library, “A Brief History of Civil Rights in the United States,” online at https://guides.ll.georgetown.edu/civilrights. Howard University Law Library, “A Brief History of Civil Rights in the United States,” online at https://library.law.howard.edu/civilrightshistory/intro. University of Maryland School of Law/Thurgood Marshall Law Library, “Historical Publications of the United States Commission on Civil Rights,” online at https://law.umaryland.libguides.com/commission_civil_rights. U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, online at https://www.usccr.gov/. U.S. House of Representatives, “Constitutional Amendments and Major Civil Rights Acts of Congress Referenced in Black Americans in Congress,” online at https://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Historical-Data/Constitutional-Amendments-and-Legislation/. U.S. National Archives, “The Constitution of the United States,” online at https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/constitution. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html). See particularly the “History” subject category. This episode is part of the series, Exploring Water in U.S. Civil Rights History. As of February 14, 2022, other episodes in the series are as follows: Episode 566, 3-1-21 – series overview.Episode 591, 8-23-21 – water symbolism in African American civil rights history. Following are links to some other previous episodes on the history of African Americans in Virginia. Episode 459, 2-11-19 – on Abraham Lincoln's arrival in Richmond at the end of the Civil War.Episode 128, 9-17-12 – on Chesapeake Bay Menhaden fishing crews and music.Episode 458, 2-4-19 – on Nonesuch and Rocketts Landing in Richmond. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATIONFollowing are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2015 Social Studies SOLs Grades K-3 History Theme1.2 – Virginia history and life in present-day Virginia.Grades K-3 Civics Theme3.12 – Importance of government in community, Virginia, and the United States, including government protecting rights and property of individuals.3.13 – People of America's diversity of ethnic origins, customs, and traditions, under a republican form of government with respect for individual rights and freedoms.Virginia Studies CourseVS.7 – Civil War issues and events, including the role of Virginia and the role of various ethnic groups.VS.8 – Reconstruction era in Virginia, including “Jim Crow” issues and industrialization.VS.9 – How national events affected Virginia and its citizens. United States History to 1865 CourseUSI.5 – Factors that shaped colonial America and conditions in the colonies, including how people interacted with the environment to produce goods and service.USI.9 – Causes, events, and effects of the Civil War. United States History: 1865-to-Present CourseUSII.3 – Effects of Reconstruction on American life.USII.4 – Developments and changes in the period 1877 to early 1900s.USII.6 – Social, economic, and technological changes from the 1890s to 1945.USII.8 – Economic, social, and political transformation of the United States and the world after World War II.USII.9 – Domestic and international issues during the second half of the 20th Century and the early 21st Century. Civics and Economics Course CE.2 – Foundations, purposes, and components of the U.S. Constitution. CE.3 – Citizenship rights, duties, and responsibilities. CE.6 – Government at the national level.CE.7 – Government at the state level.CE.8 – Government at the local level.CE.10 – Public policy at local, state, and national levels. World Geography CourseWG.2 – How selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth's surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.WG.3 – How regional landscapes reflect the physical environment and the cultural characteristics of their inhabitants.Virginia and United States History CourseVUS.6 – Major events in Virginia and the United States in the first half of the 19th Century.VUS.7 – Knowledge of the Civil War and Reconstruction eras.VUS.13 – Changes in the United States in the second half of the 20th Century.VUS.14 – Political and social conditions in the 21st Century.Government CourseGOVT.4 – Purposes, principles, and structure of the U.S. Constitution.GOVT.5 – Federal system of government in the United States.GOVT.7 – National government organization and powers.GOVT.8 – State and local government organization and powers.GOVT.9 – Public policy process at local, state, and national levels.GOVT.11 – Civil liberties and civil rights. Virginia's SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels. Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school.Episode 524, 5-11-20 – on sounds by water-related animals, for elementary school through high school.Episode 531, 6-29-20 – on various ways that animals get water, for 3rd and 4th grade.Episode 539, 8-24-20 – on basic numbers and facts about Virginia's water resources, for 4th and 6th grade.