Podcasts about Crusader

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  • 558PODCASTS
  • 930EPISODES
  • 48mAVG DURATION
  • 5WEEKLY NEW EPISODES
  • Nov 26, 2021LATEST

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Best podcasts about Crusader

Show all podcasts related to crusader

Latest podcast episodes about Crusader

Cars Yeah with Mark Greene
1954: Steve Holter

Cars Yeah with Mark Greene

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 26, 2021 39:44


Steve Holter has been a race car driver, engineer, and worked in television. In his new book he unravels the true story of Crusader, his book about John Cobb's Ill-fated quest for speed on water. 

The Hardcore Closer Podcast
Zuby- International Rapper and Social Crusader: The Greedy Have Arrived; It's Time to Be Fearful | THC Podcast 241

The Hardcore Closer Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 25, 2021 53:21


BROUGHT TO YOU BY: PhoneSites There's a saying Warren Buffet is known for: "When people are greedy, be fearful, and when people are fearful, be greedy." Today is that day.  Zuby is an international Rapper, and rising social activist.  As a musician, author, podcaster, public speaker, fitness expert and life coach; Zuby doesn't shy away from expressing himself, with a refreshing and compelling level of honesty.  He commands quite a bit of influence with millions of views on YouTube and over 1 million followers on social media. In this episode, Ryan and Zuby talk about the importance of why being fearful is a normal reaction in today's cancel culture.  They talk cancel culture, fast money, fleeting finances and how to leverage what you're doing today by making investments in tomorrow.  They sew things up discussing business, and why being the truest version of who you are will be the one superpower you have to remove any and all fear in this life. You'll be empowered to follow a higher calling on your life after this episode.  WHAT YOU'LL LEARN: How Zuby approaches his career which spans beyond rapping The ultimate liars when it comes to "Keeping it Real" Why the United States is blessed with an abundance of opportunity Triggers that set off those who love you and hate you Prime spot for entrepreneurs in the world right now The difference between the UK and the US when it comes to celebrating  Zuby talks about "the chain" found in the US that doesn't exist in the rest of the world  How powerful connections start by simply speaking the truth Zuby's main mission on this planet that involves a minimum of 10 million+ people  Ryan shares the game on how to build a company from the inside up The book Zuby gave away for free during the pandemic to help people And much more truth spitting, mic-dropping wisdom FAVORITE QUOTE:  "My mission and goal with everything I do is to positively impact, inspire, and influence as many people as I can without compromising my own values and integrity." - Zuby  HOW TO CONNECT WITH ZUBY: Instagram Team Zuby HOW TO GET INVOLVED:  This planet is based on an algorithm and with every positive action, there is an adverse reaction.  Ryan Stewman rose and overcame a life of addiction, imprisonment, divorce, and circumstances that would break the spirit of the average human being.  He went on to create a powerful network of winners and champions in life and business creating a movement quickly changing lives one day at a time.  The Hardcore Closer Podcast is brought to you by PhoneSites It's the fastest, easiest way to build a dynamic landing page or website in minutes from your mobile or desktop. Get a Free Trial Here--> PhoneSites Learn more at: www.JoinTheApex.com   Follow Ryan's killer sales blog at: HardCore Closer Check out this show and previous killer episodes of The Hardcore Closer Podcast in Apple Podcasts.  

RNZ: Nine To Noon
Film and TV: Yellowjackets, Scribe: Return of the Crusader

RNZ: Nine To Noon

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 24, 2021 9:02


Film and TV correspondent Tamar Munch looks at new drama-horror series Yellowjackets (Neon, Soho), in which a girls' soccer team survive a plane crash but are still living with the trauma of being stuck in the wild 25 years later. The series stars New Zealand actress Melanie Lynskey. She'll also preview a new 8-part documentary series about Scribe (TVNZ OnDemand) and Honeyland (Maori Television), a Sundance Film Festival favourite.

Wheelbarrow Profits Podcast: Multifamily Real Estate Investment
How to Win Friends and Influence Enemies W/ Will Witt

Wheelbarrow Profits Podcast: Multifamily Real Estate Investment

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 23, 2021 32:16


On this episode, Julia and Gino Barbaro interview Will Witt, a media personality, national speaker, short film director, cultural commentator, and host of the show Will Witt Live. A college dropout, Will Witt moved to Los Angeles to pursue a career in media and politics. In the span of a year and a half, Will Witt has amassed over 500 million views on his online videos and is one of the most viewed conservative media personalities in America.   Will Witt's first mini documentary, Fleeing California, has been viewed over 7 million times. He has made frequent appearances on Fox News, The Daily Wire, and Blaze Media. He was featured on the cover of the NY Times, which discussed the massive impact he and PragerU have had on America.   Key Insights: 00:00 Introduction 01:00 The Creature from Jekyll Island By G. Edward Griffin 01:25 The Crusader gene 03:45 “We can't help everyone, but everyone can help someone.” –Ronald Reagan 05:51 "“We see the world, not as it is, but as we are──or, as we are conditioned to see it.” ― Stephen R. Covey 09:08 The power of asking the right questions 12:36 You are the tip of the spear 13:30 Will Witt's vision and catalyzing statement 17:55 Gino Barbaro's story 20:30 Taking responsibility and making the right choices 24:29 The VISION for America 26:20 The need to create values and follow them too 27:35 Becoming the person you want to be 29:26 Five years from now   Get the book "How to Win Friends and Influence Enemies: Taking On Liberal Arguments with Logic and Humor": https://amz.run/544K    About Jake and Gino Jake & Gino are multifamily investors, operators, and mentors who have created a vertically integrated real estate company that controls over $100,000,000 in assets under management. They have created the Jake & Gino community to teach others their three-step framework: Buy Right, Finance Right and Manage Right®, and to become multifamily entrepreneurs.   Subscribe to this channel: https://ytube.io/3McA    Sign up for free training: https://jakeandgino.mykajabi.com/freetraining   Apply for Mentorship: https://jakeandgino.com/apply/    #parentingtips #financialeducationforkids #financialintelligenceforkids #parentingbooks   Jake & Gino Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/jakeandgino/ Jake & Gino Twitter: https://twitter.com/JakeandGino Jake & Gino Linkedin: https://www.linkedin.com/company/jake-and-gino-llc/ Jake & Gino Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/jakeandgino/

Gone Medieval
Who Decides What Is Treasure?

Gone Medieval

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 23, 2021 34:41


Discoveries are becoming quite common in today's society, from the Crusader's Sword Lost at Sea to the small gold bible recently discovered by a metal detectorist which we recently covered on Gone Medieval. Many of these finds are categorised as treasures and therefore belong to the Crown. But what makes an object treasure, and what are the processes behind it? In today's episode, Cat travels to The British Museum. Joined by Professor Michael Lewis, head of the Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS) and Treasure at The British Museum. Learning more about the PAS and the work involved, we explore the Medieval objects and their importance to our understanding of the past. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

ClassCast Podcast
Ep.081 -- Tyler Rablin -- Anti-Grading Crusader on Fixing Feedback

ClassCast Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 22, 2021 98:28


ClassCast Podcast Ep.081 features Mr. Tyler Rablin, an instructional technology coach, high school English teacher, and anti-grading crusader in Washington, sharing his perspectives and research on grading and assessment with host Ryan Tibbens.  This is among the all-time best episodes of the ClassCast Podcast because Tyler offers insights and ideas that challenge conventional wisdom, that put students first, and that show listeners a path to better formal education.  By reforming grading, we can increase learning, boost confidence, improve culture, and help teachers to handle the burden of feedback.This is an instant-classic. Listen on the podcast service of your choice, and be sure to like, follow, subscribe, write a review, and share with friends! You can hear more from Tyler Rablin on  Twitter @Mr_Rablin, LinkedIn, and his website.Table of Contents (*highlights)0:00-11:31 -- Intro to Tyler Rablin & Crusading Against Grading *11:31-15:27 -- How Teachers & Parents React to Grading Innovation15:27-22:48 -- Ungrading: How It Works ** 22:48-29:38 -- Gender in Grading & Student Self-Assessment29:38-42:31 -- Grading's Impact on Confidence & Growth **42:31-55:59 -- Is Grading a Culture Problem? **55:59-1:10:12 -- The Purpose of School According to Tyler Rablin *1:10:12-1:17:32 -- Tyler's Ideal School1:17:32-1:28:14 -- Why Is 2021 So Hard? *1:28:14-1:38:29 -- Tyler's Book/Movie Recs & Final Wrap-Up​​​The ClassCast Podcast streams on all major platforms, including iTunes/Apple Podcasts, Spotify, iHeartRadio, Pandora, Google Podcasts, Amazon Music, Audible, Stitcher, and more.  You can also find us on YouTube and at www.ClassCastPodcast.com.  Be sure to like, subscribe, follow, share, and comment wherever you listen.  Leave a comment below to let us know what you think of the discussion and if you have any questions!Support the show (http://paypal.me/TibbensEST)! ​Donations -- large and small -- help keep this podcast independent!Support the show (http://paypal.me/TibbensEST)

Too Posh Podcast
#259: Michelle Jewsbury, "BUT I LOVE HIM" A True Story Of Love, Pain And Domestic Violence

Too Posh Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 16, 2021 49:58


WHAT A SHOW - WHAT A STORY WOW!!!!! Michelle is an International Philanthropist, Author, Speaker and Crusader against domestic violence, sexual abuse and human trafficking. Her story is beyond words - she suffered from extreme domestic violence for 4 years and she shares her gripping story and gives us all the details of the abuse that included severe beatings, that left her near death as well as sexual abuse, financial abuse and psychological manipulation. A mind boggling 1 in 4 women and 1 in 7 men in the United States of America experience this injustice. This is a horrible epidemic and we need to do everything in our power to stop this. Michelle is so open and honest and when she talks you feel like you are there and you experience the unbelievable pain she lived through. This incredible women finally was able to escape her torture and hell and sued her abuser who is a very successful business man. All the while afraid for her families life as well as her own. She wrote a play about her experience and started a non profit foundation that is called Unsilenced Voices. There is a big event coming up on December 8 in Las Vegas and we hope lots of you will join her there. Michelle has been speaking all around the world and published a book called "BUT I LOVE HIM". She says that right after the assault there is always the apology stage and that is the circle of domestic violence. She wants every victim to know that "NO MATTER WHAT YOU HAVE DONE, IT IS NEVER YOUR FAULT." It takes a domestic violence victim 7 to 9 times before they actually really leave for good. Please follow Michelle on her social media platforms and reach out to her with any questions https://www.instagram.com/michellejewsbury/?hl=enhttps://www.instagram.com/unsilencedvoices/?hl=enhttps://www.amazon.com/But-Love-Him-domestic-violence/dp/179054243X

The Jaipur Dialogues
Salman Khurshid - The Anti India Crusader | Sanjay Dixit

The Jaipur Dialogues

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 13, 2021 21:55


According to Salman Khurshid in his new book, 'Sunrise Over Ayodhya: Nationhood in Our Times', Hindutva is a political ideology akin to ISIS and Boko Haram. He also terms the Ayodhya Judgement as wrong. Sanjay Dixit teaches Salman Khurshid the basics of Jihad, and why thousands of temples were razed, and continue to be vandalised.

The History of Byzantium
Episode 230 - The Sack of Edessa

The History of Byzantium

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 13, 2021 24:56


John II Komnenos' youngest son Manuel takes charge of the Empire. After securing the capital and punishing Raymond of Antioch the new Emperor goes on campaign against the Turks. After chasing the Sultan of Iconium to his capital Manuel realises that fighting on the plateau is no easy business. Meanwhile the Crusader city of Edessa falls and the Byzantines don't appreciate the significance of this event. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

The Jeff Ward Show
Rittenhouse the Crusader?

The Jeff Ward Show

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 12, 2021 29:22


Jeff Ward's experience, insight, and unique perspective on football is always in demand. The audience starves for his fearless, agenda-free, and irreverent take on the teams and storylines that matter most. Now, fans can get a steady diet of his football knowledge with regular segments titled “Six Minutes of Football." Follow The Jeff Ward Show on social media: Twitter Instagram Facebook   Jeff Ward is a highly decorated former NCAA football player with extensive ties to the University of Texas. He's been nominated as an Outstanding Young Texas Ex, and while a student at The University of Texas, he was a four-year Letterman in football, a football team captain, a member of the Athletics Director's Academic Honor Roll, a three-time all-conference football player, and a two-time All-American football player. He's among the top five all-time leading scorers at The University of Texas, and he's the NCAA record holder for game-winning field goals. He was selected in the 1988 NFL Draft to play football professionally. The podcast market is oversaturated with NCAA and NFL football content but with Jeff, you get the educated perspective of someone who's lived it.    Jeff has been appearing on both national news and local (Texas-based) news platforms to discuss sports, politics and economics for over 20 years. Jeff's time at The University of Texas provided him with knowledge of worldwide economics, marketing strategies and the economics of sports, particularly with NCAA Football. With the NCAA always finding itself involved in hot-button issues, Jeff Ward explains what's going on behind the scenes.  See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

War And Conquest
{12.1} Knights Hospitaller: The Elite Warrior Monks

War And Conquest

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 7, 2021 36:37


1097-1291: A brief introduction to the Knights Hospitaller, their mission and expulsion from the Holy Land Song: Crusades by August Burns Red- Constellations www.warandconquest.comwarandconquestpcast@gmail.comhttps://www.youtube.com/channel/UCdUOD52RBg1BBm_zndE-DdAhttps://www.patreon.com/warandconquesthttps://www.facebook.com/warandconquestpcast https://www.instagram.com/warandconquestpcast/https://twitter.com/warandconquest1Venmo: @Warand Conquesthttps://www.twitch.tv/theproslayer7

CRUSADE Channel Previews
The CRUSADE Channel Newscast For November 1st 2021

CRUSADE Channel Previews

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 1, 2021 7:39


The CRUSADE Channel Newscast For November 1st 2021 News Anchor Rod Stafford brings you CRUSADE Channel Newscasts for Monday, November 1st 2021. Includes today's Saint of the Day and Quote of the Day! The CRUSADE Channel depends on its subscribers and supporters. Join the conversation and become a CRUSADER today. www.crusadechannel.com/chat Click here to make a donation. Click here to subscribe to The CRUSADE Channel's Founders Pass Member Service.  www.crusadechannel.com/go Our Readers And Listeners Keep Us In Print & On The Air! Click here to subscribe to The CRUSADE Channel's Founders Pass Member Service & Gain 24/7 Access to Our Premium, New Talk Radio Service. www.crusadechannel.com/go What Is The Crusade Channel? The CRUSADE Channel, The Last LIVE! Radio Station Standing begins our LIVE programming with our all original CRUSADE Channel News hosted by Ron Staffard. Coupled with Mike “The King Dude” Church entertaining you during your morning drive and Rick Barrett giving you the news of the day and the narrative that will follow during your lunch break! We've interviewed over 300 guests, seen Brother Andre Marie notch his 200th broadcast of Reconquest; The Mike Church Show over 1200 episodes; launched an original LIVE! News Service; written and produced 4 Feature Length original dramas including The Last Confession of Sherlock Holmes and set sail on the coolest radio product ever, the 5 Minute Mysteries series! We were the ONLY RADIO outlet to cover the Impeachment Trials of President Trump from gavel to gavel! Now that you have discovered The Crusade, get 30 days for FREE of our premium News-Talk Radio service just head to: http://crusadechannel.com OR download our FREE app: https://apps.appmachine.com/theveritasradionetworkappIti- If you are interested in supporting small business, be sure to check out the official store of the Crusade Channel, the Founders Tradin Post! Not to mention our amazing collection of DVD's, Cigars, T-Shirts, bumper stickers and other unique selection of items selected by Mike Church! November 1st 2021

CRUSADE Channel Previews
The CRUSADE Channel Newscast For October 29th 2021

CRUSADE Channel Previews

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 29, 2021 4:26


The CRUSADE Channel Newscast For October 29th 2021 News Anchor Rod Stafford brings you CRUSADE Channel Newscasts for Friday, October 29th 2021. Includes today's Saint of the Day and Quote of the Day! The CRUSADE Channel depends on its subscribers and supporters. Join the conversation and become a CRUSADER today. www.crusadechannel.com/chat Click here to make a donation. Click here to subscribe to The CRUSADE Channel's Founders Pass Member Service.  www.crusadechannel.com/go Our Readers And Listeners Keep Us In Print & On The Air! Click here to subscribe to The CRUSADE Channel's Founders Pass Member Service & Gain 24/7 Access to Our Premium, New Talk Radio Service. www.crusadechannel.com/go What Is The Crusade Channel? The CRUSADE Channel, The Last LIVE! Radio Station Standing begins our LIVE programming with our all original CRUSADE Channel News hosted by Ron Staffard. Coupled with Mike “The King Dude” Church entertaining you during your morning drive and Rick Barrett giving you the news of the day and the narrative that will follow during your lunch break! We've interviewed over 300 guests, seen Brother Andre Marie notch his 200th broadcast of Reconquest; The Mike Church Show over 1200 episodes; launched an original LIVE! News Service; written and produced 4 Feature Length original dramas including The Last Confession of Sherlock Holmes and set sail on the coolest radio product ever, the 5 Minute Mysteries series! We were the ONLY RADIO outlet to cover the Impeachment Trials of President Trump from gavel to gavel! Now that you have discovered The Crusade, get 30 days for FREE of our premium News-Talk Radio service just head to: http://crusadechannel.com OR download our FREE app: https://apps.appmachine.com/theveritasradionetworkappIti- If you are interested in supporting small business, be sure to check out the official store of the Crusade Channel, the Founders Tradin Post! Not to mention our amazing collection of DVD's, Cigars, T-Shirts, bumper stickers and other unique selection of items selected by Mike Church! October 29th 2021

Haaretz Weekly
Can Israeli climate tech undo decades of neglect?

Haaretz Weekly

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 29, 2021 28:42


Haaretz's Ruth Schuster joins host Simon Spungin to discuss Israel, the COP26 conference and pie-in-the-sky climate tech; the lost Church of the Apostles and Crusader camps; and the scientific truth about benefits of intermittent fasting – for mice. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

CRUSADE Channel Previews
The CRUSADE Channel Newscast For October 28th 2021

CRUSADE Channel Previews

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 28, 2021 5:50


The CRUSADE Channel Newscast For October 28th 2021 News Anchor Ron Stafford brings you CRUSADE Channel Newscasts for Thursday, October 28th 2021. Includes today's Saint of the Day and Quote of the Day! The CRUSADE Channel depends on its subscribers and supporters. Join the conversation and become a CRUSADER today. www.crusadechannel.com/chat Click here to make a donation. Click here to subscribe to The CRUSADE Channel's Founders Pass Member Service.  www.crusadechannel.com/go Our Readers And Listeners Keep Us In Print & On The Air! Click here to subscribe to The CRUSADE Channel's Founders Pass Member Service & Gain 24/7 Access to Our Premium, New Talk Radio Service. www.crusadechannel.com/go What Is The Crusade Channel? The CRUSADE Channel, The Last LIVE! Radio Station Standing begins our LIVE programming with our all original CRUSADE Channel News hosted by Ron Staffard. Coupled with Mike “The King Dude” Church entertaining you during your morning drive and Rick Barrett giving you the news of the day and the narrative that will follow during your lunch break! We've interviewed over 300 guests, seen Brother Andre Marie notch his 200th broadcast of Reconquest; The Mike Church Show over 1200 episodes; launched an original LIVE! News Service; written and produced 4 Feature Length original dramas including The Last Confession of Sherlock Holmes and set sail on the coolest radio product ever, the 5 Minute Mysteries series! We were the ONLY RADIO outlet to cover the Impeachment Trials of President Trump from gavel to gavel! Now that you have discovered The Crusade, get 30 days for FREE of our premium News-Talk Radio service just head to: http://crusadechannel.com OR download our FREE app: https://apps.appmachine.com/theveritasradionetworkappIti- If you are interested in supporting small business, be sure to check out the official store of the Crusade Channel, the Founders Tradin Post! Not to mention our amazing collection of DVD's, Cigars, T-Shirts, bumper stickers and other unique selection of items selected by Mike Church! October 28th 2021

You, Inspired
Being a Global Citizen with Sujata Tiwari

You, Inspired

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 27, 2021 46:50


Interview with Author, Entrepreneur and Consultant Sujata Tiwari and meditation on being a global citizen. Sujata Tiwari is an Author, Life Mentor, Writer, Consultant, Investigation, detection and surveillance consultant. Brand protection and Anti-Counterfeiting specialist. Podium Speaker and Entreprenuer. Social Activist, Crusader of human rights, women's rights, Animal rights. Staunch advocator of natural, organic, chemical and preservatives free products. Sujata Tiwari's journey serves as inspiration to those who seek to turn challenges into opportunities, wealth into health, injustice into justice and darkness into light.

CRUSADE Channel Previews
The CRUSADE Channel Newscast For October 27th 2021

CRUSADE Channel Previews

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 27, 2021 8:34


The CRUSADE Channel Newscast For October 27th 2021 News Anchor Ron Stafford brings you CRUSADE Channel Newscasts for Wednesday, October 27th 2021. Includes today's Saint of the Day and Quote of the Day! The CRUSADE Channel depends on its subscribers and supporters. Join the conversation and become a CRUSADER today. www.crusadechannel.com/chat Click here to make a donation. Click here to subscribe to The CRUSADE Channel's Founders Pass Member Service.  www.crusadechannel.com/go Our Readers And Listeners Keep Us In Print & On The Air! Click here to subscribe to The CRUSADE Channel's Founders Pass Member Service & Gain 24/7 Access to Our Premium, New Talk Radio Service. www.crusadechannel.com/go What Is The Crusade Channel? The CRUSADE Channel, The Last LIVE! Radio Station Standing begins our LIVE programming with our all original CRUSADE Channel News hosted by Ron Staffard. Coupled with Mike “The King Dude” Church entertaining you during your morning drive and Rick Barrett giving you the news of the day and the narrative that will follow during your lunch break! We've interviewed over 300 guests, seen Brother Andre Marie notch his 200th broadcast of Reconquest; The Mike Church Show over 1200 episodes; launched an original LIVE! News Service; written and produced 4 Feature Length original dramas including The Last Confession of Sherlock Holmes and set sail on the coolest radio product ever, the 5 Minute Mysteries series! We were the ONLY RADIO outlet to cover the Impeachment Trials of President Trump from gavel to gavel! Now that you have discovered The Crusade, get 30 days for FREE of our premium News-Talk Radio service just head to: http://crusadechannel.com OR download our FREE app: https://apps.appmachine.com/theveritasradionetworkappIti- If you are interested in supporting small business, be sure to check out the official store of the Crusade Channel, the Founders Tradin Post! Not to mention our amazing collection of DVD's, Cigars, T-Shirts, bumper stickers and other unique selection of items selected by Mike Church! October 27th 2021

CRUSADE Channel Previews
The CRUSADE Channel Newscast For October 26th 2021

CRUSADE Channel Previews

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 26, 2021 8:41


The CRUSADE Channel Newscast For October 26th 2021 News Anchor Ron Stafford brings you CRUSADE Channel Newscasts for Tuesday, October 26th 2021. Includes today's Saint of the Day and Quote of the Day! The CRUSADE Channel depends on its subscribers and supporters. Join the conversation and become a CRUSADER today. www.crusadechannel.com/chat Click here to make a donation. Click here to subscribe to The CRUSADE Channel's Founders Pass Member Service.  www.crusadechannel.com/go Our Readers And Listeners Keep Us In Print & On The Air! Click here to subscribe to The CRUSADE Channel's Founders Pass Member Service & Gain 24/7 Access to Our Premium, New Talk Radio Service. www.crusadechannel.com/go What Is The Crusade Channel? The CRUSADE Channel, The Last LIVE! Radio Station Standing begins our LIVE programming with our all original CRUSADE Channel News hosted by Ron Staffard. Coupled with Mike “The King Dude” Church entertaining you during your morning drive and Rick Barrett giving you the news of the day and the narrative that will follow during your lunch break! We've interviewed over 300 guests, seen Brother Andre Marie notch his 200th broadcast of Reconquest; The Mike Church Show over 1200 episodes; launched an original LIVE! News Service; written and produced 4 Feature Length original dramas including The Last Confession of Sherlock Holmes and set sail on the coolest radio product ever, the 5 Minute Mysteries series! We were the ONLY RADIO outlet to cover the Impeachment Trials of President Trump from gavel to gavel! Now that you have discovered The Crusade, get 30 days for FREE of our premium News-Talk Radio service just head to: http://crusadechannel.com OR download our FREE app: https://apps.appmachine.com/theveritasradionetworkappIti- If you are interested in supporting small business, be sure to check out the official store of the Crusade Channel, the Founders Tradin Post! Not to mention our amazing collection of DVD's, Cigars, T-Shirts, bumper stickers and other unique selection of items selected by Mike Church! October 26th 2021

CRUSADE Channel Previews
The CRUSADE Channel Newscast For October 25th 2021

CRUSADE Channel Previews

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 25, 2021 7:57


The CRUSADE Channel Newscast For October 25th 2021 News Anchor Ron Stafford brings you CRUSADE Channel Newscasts for Monday, October 25th 2021. Includes today's Saint of the Day and Quote of the Day! The CRUSADE Channel depends on its subscribers and supporters. Join the conversation and become a CRUSADER today. www.crusadechannel.com/chat Click here to make a donation. Click here to subscribe to The CRUSADE Channel's Founders Pass Member Service.  www.crusadechannel.com/go Our Readers And Listeners Keep Us In Print & On The Air! Click here to subscribe to The CRUSADE Channel's Founders Pass Member Service & Gain 24/7 Access to Our Premium, New Talk Radio Service. www.crusadechannel.com/go What Is The Crusade Channel? The CRUSADE Channel, The Last LIVE! Radio Station Standing begins our LIVE programming with our all original CRUSADE Channel News hosted by Ron Staffard. Coupled with Mike “The King Dude” Church entertaining you during your morning drive and Rick Barrett giving you the news of the day and the narrative that will follow during your lunch break! We've interviewed over 300 guests, seen Brother Andre Marie notch his 200th broadcast of Reconquest; The Mike Church Show over 1200 episodes; launched an original LIVE! News Service; written and produced 4 Feature Length original dramas including The Last Confession of Sherlock Holmes and set sail on the coolest radio product ever, the 5 Minute Mysteries series! We were the ONLY RADIO outlet to cover the Impeachment Trials of President Trump from gavel to gavel! Now that you have discovered The Crusade, get 30 days for FREE of our premium News-Talk Radio service just head to: http://crusadechannel.com OR download our FREE app: https://apps.appmachine.com/theveritasradionetworkappIti- If you are interested in supporting small business, be sure to check out the official store of the Crusade Channel, the Founders Tradin Post! Not to mention our amazing collection of DVD's, Cigars, T-Shirts, bumper stickers and other unique selection of items selected by Mike Church! October 25th 2021

The Smart 7
Ep. 496. The Sunday 7 - Asteroid collisions, lab grown Coffee, Pig to Human kidney transplants and the 900 year old Crusader's Sword...

The Smart 7

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 24, 2021 19:24


The Smart 7 is a daily podcast that gives you everything you need to know in 7 minutes, at 7am, 7 days a week...With over 8 million downlaods and consistently charting, including as No. 1 News Podcast on Spotify, we;re a trusted source for people every day.If you're enjoying it, please follow, share, or even post a review, it all helps...Today's episode includes the following guestsDr. Robert Montgomery, director of NYU Langone's Transplant InstituteSara Ozanne Toschi, Senior VP of Engineering at Iron OxBrandon Alexander, CEO at Iron OxYaakov Sharvit, Director of the Marine Archaeology at the Israel Antiquity AuthorityJohan Jakobsson PhD, Professor of Neuroscience at Lund University and Director of Lund Stem Cell CenterNancy Chabot, Chief Scientist and DART Coordination Lead at John Hopkins Applied Physics LaboratoryHeiko Rischer, Research team leader, VTT technical Research Centre of Finland Dr Aaron David,Senior Research Leader of Plant Resources and Head of Coffee Research at Royal Botanic Gardens, KewDave Goulson, Professor of Biology at the University of Sussex In Ireland? Why not try our Ireland Edition?Contact us over at Twitter or visit www.thesmart7.comPresented by Jamie East, written by Liam Thompson, reserached by Olivia Davis and produced by Daft Doris. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

Crusader Sports Talk
This Week in Crusader Sports Oct. 22

Crusader Sports Talk

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 22, 2021 2:30


CRUSADE Channel Previews
The CRUSADE Channel Newscast For October 22nd, 2021

CRUSADE Channel Previews

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 22, 2021 8:49


The CRUSADE Channel Newscast For October 22nd, 2021 News Anchor Ron Stafford brings you CRUSADE Channel Newscasts for Friday, October 22nd, 2021. Includes today's Saint of the Day and Quote of the Day! The CRUSADE Channel depends on its subscribers and supporters. Join the conversation and become a CRUSADER today. www.crusadechannel.com/chat Click here to make a donation. Click here to subscribe to The CRUSADE Channel's Founders Pass Member Service.  www.crusadechannel.com/go Our Readers And Listeners Keep Us In Print & On The Air! Click here to subscribe to The CRUSADE Channel's Founders Pass Member Service & Gain 24/7 Access to Our Premium, New Talk Radio Service. www.crusadechannel.com/go What Is The Crusade Channel? The CRUSADE Channel, The Last LIVE! Radio Station Standing begins our LIVE programming with our all original CRUSADE Channel News hosted by Ron Staffard. Coupled with Mike “The King Dude” Church entertaining you during your morning drive and Rick Barrett giving you the news of the day and the narrative that will follow during your lunch break! We've interviewed over 300 guests, seen Brother Andre Marie notch his 200th broadcast of Reconquest; The Mike Church Show over 1200 episodes; launched an original LIVE! News Service; written and produced 4 Feature Length original dramas including The Last Confession of Sherlock Holmes and set sail on the coolest radio product ever, the 5 Minute Mysteries series! We were the ONLY RADIO outlet to cover the Impeachment Trials of President Trump from gavel to gavel! Now that you have discovered The Crusade, get 30 days for FREE of our premium News-Talk Radio service just head to: http://crusadechannel.com OR download our FREE app: https://apps.appmachine.com/theveritasradionetworkappIti- If you are interested in supporting small business, be sure to check out the official store of the Crusade Channel, the Founders Tradin Post! Not to mention our amazing collection of DVD's, Cigars, T-Shirts, bumper stickers and other unique selection of items selected by Mike Church! October 22nd, 2021

Roast Mortem Cast
204 - Richard the Lionheart: The English* Crusader King

Roast Mortem Cast

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 21, 2021 102:37


We continue our trip down the Plantagenet line of royal sucksession, with Richard the Lionheart. This anal rapist, fought his way onto the English thronewith the help of his butt-buddy Philip II of France. Before heading off to the 3rd Crusade in the Holy Land committing war crimes and political disasters in his wake. Plus we take a dive into the REAL Order of the Assassins.

CRUSADE Channel Previews
The CRUSADE Channel Newscast For October 21st 2021

CRUSADE Channel Previews

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 21, 2021 7:42


The CRUSADE Channel Newscast For October 21st 2021 News Anchor Ron Stafford brings you CRUSADE Channel Newscasts for Thursday, October 21st 2021. Includes today's Saint of the Day and Quote of the Day! The CRUSADE Channel depends on its subscribers and supporters. Join the conversation and become a CRUSADER today. www.crusadechannel.com/chat Click here to make a donation. Click here to subscribe to The CRUSADE Channel's Founders Pass Member Service.  www.crusadechannel.com/go Our Readers And Listeners Keep Us In Print & On The Air! Click here to subscribe to The CRUSADE Channel's Founders Pass Member Service & Gain 24/7 Access to Our Premium, New Talk Radio Service. www.crusadechannel.com/go What Is The Crusade Channel? The CRUSADE Channel, The Last LIVE! Radio Station Standing begins our LIVE programming with our all original CRUSADE Channel News hosted by Ron Staffard. Coupled with Mike “The King Dude” Church entertaining you during your morning drive and Rick Barrett giving you the news of the day and the narrative that will follow during your lunch break! We've interviewed over 300 guests, seen Brother Andre Marie notch his 200th broadcast of Reconquest; The Mike Church Show over 1200 episodes; launched an original LIVE! News Service; written and produced 4 Feature Length original dramas including The Last Confession of Sherlock Holmes and set sail on the coolest radio product ever, the 5 Minute Mysteries series! We were the ONLY RADIO outlet to cover the Impeachment Trials of President Trump from gavel to gavel! Now that you have discovered The Crusade, get 30 days for FREE of our premium News-Talk Radio service just head to: http://crusadechannel.com OR download our FREE app: https://apps.appmachine.com/theveritasradionetworkappIti- If you are interested in supporting small business, be sure to check out the official store of the Crusade Channel, the Founders Tradin Post! Not to mention our amazing collection of DVD's, Cigars, T-Shirts, bumper stickers and other unique selection of items selected by Mike Church! October 21st 2021

Ray Appleton
Hour 2 - Shipping Containers That Spent Weeks Aboard Ships Stuck At Ports Now Being Dumped In Nearby Neighborhoods. Sharp-Eyed Israeli Scuba Diver Uncovers Ancient Crusader Sword. Fresno Council District Boundaries Will Change.

Ray Appleton

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 20, 2021 38:09


With the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach now running 24/7 operations, a new problem has occurred. Many of the shipping containers that spent weeks onboard ships waiting to be unloaded are now being dumped in nearby neighborhoods once they're emptied. An amateur Israeli scuba diver has made the find of a lifetime at the bottom of the Mediterranean, where he discovered a sword that experts say dates back to the Crusaders almost 1,000 years ago. Nearly 9,000 Fresno residents could have a new city councilmember without going to the polls.That's because under redistricting — the every-10-year process to redraw political maps based on U.S. Census figures — the seven Fresno City Council districts need approximately the same population. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

Deadbeats Radio with Zeds Dead
Sam Lamar Halloween Mix | 10 Days of Dead Treats

Deadbeats Radio with Zeds Dead

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 20, 2021 54:22


JOIN OUR OFFICIAL DISCORD SERVER: https://discord.com/wearedeadbeats www.facebook.com/deadbeats  www.instagram.com/deadbeats  www.twitter.com/deadbeats www.deadbeatsofficial.com Sam Lamar - Infinity (Sam Lamar VIP) Redline (virtual Riot) vs Them (Eliminate) vs Wiz Kid vs Marauda Tune vs Firewall VIP vs Sam Lamar ID Torque (Space Laces) vs Purple Lamborghini (skrillex) vs Zoom Sam Lamar EDIT vs Walls Cave In vs Waters of Styx Satisfaction (RL Grime Remix) vs Wack (Barely Alive) vs Eclipse (Sam Lamar) NGHTMRE Mosh (Stoned Level remix) Rl Grime G Jones - In Your Head Sam Lamar x Space Wizard ID Leotrix Sight Sam Lamar ID [Underground] Sam Lamar ERA Clout vs Campers vs Ball Licker Chassi Remix HOL! & AFK Critical Break it Down vs Irrational (Sam Lamar Edit) Nightmare vs. Make A Move vs. Bugbass vs. ID Sam Lamar NEW Sam Lamar x Stoned Level ID Sam Lamar ID [Justice] Sam Lamar ID Sam Lamar Dark Power VIP Look at Me vs. Hardcore vs. The Biterz vs. Can You Hear Me Whistle Wars Slusshii Bootleg vs Sam Lamar ID Hairitage Freeway Lazers vs Lightsabers Fuck Ur Style SYZY Remix Sam Lamar BAD Blood vs Wanted Maazel x Sam Lamar Sam Lamar ID Mercy vs Cruise Control vs Griztronics vs Chaos vs The unburnt SL EDIT Sam Lamar The Magician VIP Sam Lamar ID Bite your Lips vs Death Juice vs Lockdown vs Deathmatch vs ID Sam Lamar Broken Computer Antidote vs KAlpa Rockafeller Skank vs. Nuclear Life vs. Burial (Skrillex & Trollphace) vs. Jagerwomb vs. Wompum The Devils back vs FOCUS Sam Lamar ID M.A.A.D City vs. BOSS (PhaseOne Remix) vs. Future Doctor P - Sweet Shop (Sam Lamar Remake) Sam Lamar ID Sam Lamar ID Get Ur Freak On vs Levels vs Ghost Machine vs Crusader vs Smoke (Ivory Remix) vs Run the Riddim One Two vs Railbreaker vs Sam Lamar ID PLUR Police vs. Like A Bitch vs. Body n Mind (VIP) Hungry Ham vs. Club Action vs. RKO (Mvrda & Samplifire Remix) HOL! Somewhere Leotrix JUMP Sam Lamar The Rat

Crusader Sports Talk
Crusader Coaches Show Monday, Oct. 18

Crusader Sports Talk

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 19, 2021 31:53


Join Aaron West and Head Football Coach Steve Warner for the Crusader Coaches Show, Monday nights at 6:30 on 95.9 HK FM.

Crusader Sports Talk
Crusader Coaches Show Monday, Oct. 11

Crusader Sports Talk

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 19, 2021 31:21


Join Aaron West and Head Football Coach Steve Warner for the Crusader Coaches Show, Monday nights at 6:30 on 95.9 HK FM.

Crusader Sports Talk
Crusader Coaches Show Monday, Oct. 4

Crusader Sports Talk

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 19, 2021 29:21


Join Aaron West and Head Football Coach Steve Warner for the Crusader Coaches Show, Monday nights at 6:30 on 95.9 HK FM.

Crusader Sports Talk
Crusader Coaches Show Monday, Sept. 27

Crusader Sports Talk

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 19, 2021 32:17


Join Aaron West and Head Football Coach Steve Warner for the Crusader Coaches Show, Monday nights at 6:30 on 95.9 HK FM.

Crusader Sports Talk
Crusader Coaches Show Monday, Sept. 20

Crusader Sports Talk

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 19, 2021 29:02


Join Aaron West and Head Football Coach Steve Warner for the Crusader Coaches Show, Monday nights at 6:30 on 95.9 HK FM.

Crusader Sports Talk
Crusader Coaches Show Monday, Sept. 13

Crusader Sports Talk

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 19, 2021 32:19


Join Aaron West and Head Football Coach Steve Warner for the Crusader Coaches Show, Monday nights at 6:30 on 95.9 HK FM.

Crusader Sports Talk
Crusader Coaches Show Monday, Sept. 6

Crusader Sports Talk

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 19, 2021 31:10


Join Aaron West and Head Football Coach Steve Warner for the Crusader Coaches Show, Monday nights at 6:30 on 95.9 HK FM.

The John Batchelor Show
1774: 3500-year-old ghost of Babylon. "Indiana" Hoenlein @Conf_of_pres @mhoenlein1 ; @ThadMcCotter @theamgreatness

The John Batchelor Show

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 19, 2021 6:40


Photo:  A falchion (Old French: fauchon; Latin: falx, "sickle") is a one-handed, single-edged sword of European origin. Falchions are found in different forms from around the 13th century up to and including the 16th century. In some versions the falchion looks rather like the seax and later the sabre, and in other versions more like a machete with a crossguard. 3500-year-old ghost of Babylon.  "Indiana" Hoenlein @Conf_of_pres @mhoenlein1  ; @ThadMcCotter @theamgreatness https://www.theguardian.com/culture/2021/oct/16/figures-of-babylon-oldest-drawing-of-a-ghost-found-in-british-museum-vault Where to find a Crusader sword  https://www.telegraph.co.uk/business/2021/10/18/ftse-100-index-markets-live-news-energy-tax-rates/

Crusader Sports Talk
This Week in Crusader Sports, Oct. 15

Crusader Sports Talk

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 15, 2021 4:54


Crusader Athletes prepare for the post-season. Hear thoughts from soccer senior Cooper Taylor and tennis senior Kacey Lehl.

This Week in America with Ric Bratton
Episode 2286: William Gabriel author of "Beth's Song", "Women in Wars of the Future" and "Twenty First Century Crusader"

This Week in America with Ric Bratton

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 14, 2021 26:23


BETH'S SONG by William GabrielOn Destrire, a far-flung planet at the edge of the Humanity's galactic empire, a sleepy little colony is slowly being forgotten by its imperial guardians. Life on the colony continues, as the human colonials and their new alien neighbors find ways to build a peaceful home for all. But trouble brews on the other side of the continent, thanks to a secret, centuries-old program to form a covert prison on Destrire. There, unknown by the colonists, the empire has an established a dumping ground for political prisoners. Stripped of the basic necessities, the prisoners have evolved into a barbaric frontier civilization, eager for ways to improve their quality of life—at any cost. And now that the prisoners know the location of the thriving colony, plans are made to make its resources their own. The prisoners begin a brutal series of raids on the colony, and life will never be the same. Caught in the conflict are one church-going human family and their alien friend. In a desperate attempt to reunite with her family, one woman must turn to her alien friend for support. Equally torn by the recent exposure to the horrors that humanity willingly unleashes upon its own, the aliens must now make a choice. Will this intergalactic culture clash strain existing relationships and loyalties to the breaking point? Will the brutality of the prisoners' attacks finally crush the faith and culture of the sparsely populated colony? And in the end, can the family survive—even in victory?William Gabriel was born in Los Angeles, California in 1958. He first read Asimov's Foundation trilogy when he was seventeen and started to search for methods of applying psychodynamic thought. At twenty seven he first started writing science fiction and reached the million word mark in 1998. At thirty one he tried out for and qualified as a Special Forces soldier in 1990 and spent the next decade serving on A-Teams and was a peacekeeper in Haiti in 1996. He went on to serve in B-Team and C-Team elements. He studied International Studies at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock in 2010 and moved back to California where he graduated from the University of California at Riverside on the Chancellor's Honor List with a degree in Global Studies. After three decades of writing he published his first science fiction work in 2013. He now has three books in print: “Beth's Song”, “Twenty First Century Crusader”, and “Women in Wars of the Future”.https://books.gotopublish.com/product/beths-song/http://www.bluefunkbroadcasting.com/root/twia/wmgabrielec.mp3  WOMEN IN WARS OF THE FUTURE by William GabrielFour centuries from now mankind will have expanded into the Solar System with the most adventurous and capable of society. Our world of twelve billion people will have their best and brightest reach for the planets. By this time nearly two million people will live and develop the colonies of outer space. An Earth bound power has built their first warship to ply the planets and establish hegemony where ever they travel. Earth bound politics rears its ugly head in interplanetary conflicts between this rising power and the more established national powers in space.Into this maelstrom three heroines must face off against this new menace launched from Earth. The planetary system is self sufficient, yet very fragile when confronted by military might. As civilians caught in the crossfire of political infighting, they must use all their wits and abilities to survive the presence of that warship's maiden voyage. These women prove their metal in the high stakes game of military confrontation and intrigue. Theirs is a world of mercantile uplift while they must now face the forceful onslaught of this new space power.Most technologies portrayed within this work are already developed or on the drawing board and will be part of mankind's future in space. Only a couple are not yet within our grasp, yet would be stepping stones to interstellar travel at faster than light. The three heroines each are well versed in survival in space and have carved out their own entrepreneurial niche to gain wealth and return to Earth with millions in today's currency. The planets hold near infinite wealth to be exploited in the 25th century. This is the new world in which they live.https://books.gotopublish.com/product/women-in-wars-of-the-future/TWENTY FIRST CENTURY CRUSADER by William GabrielWhat most people need to understand is that the Holy Land was in military occupation by the Romans during Christ's time. Not far from where he grew up had been a town of about 10,000 inhabitants that threw out the tax collectors, much like what happened in Falujah. The Romans responded by sending in the legion and killing every mature man, not just those that hurt the tax collectors. They then sold all women and children into slavery.So it was his teachings to tell us how to live under occupation. I lead off with the Beatitudes because of this, and then go into present day tools on how to engender peaceful resolution of situations involving conflict. I have put forth the basic building blocks of activities and messaging that can bring a society towards tranquility. As a Special Forces soldier I learned how important that cultural peace was needed for a vibrant society. For thirty years I have been developing the tools of ‘Psychodynamics' represented in Asimov's Foundation series. This work delves into the mechanics of creating a peaceful, more prosperous society. Questions of how many peacekeepers, messaging, developing culturally effective tools, and social dynamics of these differing cultures are addressed. All these facets must be organized and readied before an invasion occurs so as to have an ‘exit strategy'.Also in this work are the repercussions and calculations of social change due to migration, natural disasters, and nation state competition. New applications of the Cognitive Therapy model are developed to get into the mindset of the people of a culture. How to guide them into a more interactive element in the global environment. This is not the psychology of an individual, but of cultural movements. How did the internet take off so suddenly, or why did the economic bottom fall out from a nation's economy? The fact that societies are more prosperous when all elements (men, women, etc.) of society compete on equal footing in the job market. How do insurgencies develop? Will the subculture compete economically or pick up the rifle and fight? All these are psychodynamic questions and this work presents the building blocks to form and understand these things.So I ask you to read past the first chapter and start on the second if you are not into the Bible. This work is designed for all people so that they can formulate an effective campaign to bring about the social change they want. The first chapter shows that classical Rome was not easy to live under, much like any occupation. The second through to the end gives modern day tools to develop your own psychodynamic plan. It is in the format of an easy to read textbook. I hope and pray that it gives you insight into the opportunities that psychodynamic theory presents.https://books.gotopublish.com/product/twenty-first-century-crusader/ 

CitizenCast
The musician who is also a wellness crusader

CitizenCast

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 14, 2021 6:46


Sudan Green brings community-based yoga, mindfulness and peace to Black Philadelphians, who are still underserved by the wellness community. It is a revolutionary act for our times, which makes him part of Generation Change Philly.

Gunfighter Life.  Be Strong & Courageous
Guns of Ruger; the Classics

Gunfighter Life. Be Strong & Courageous

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 13, 2021 28:41


The Guns of Ruger Classic American Guns for Classic Americans goodshepherdtraining.com

Kings and Generals: History for our Future
2.59. History of the Mongols: Franco-Mongol Alliance

Kings and Generals: History for our Future

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 11, 2021 23:37


    The Mongols were famous for their ultimatums of destruction and submission. No shortage of thirteenth century states received demands for their unconditional surrender to the Great Khan granted divine mandate to rule by Eternal Blue Heaven. Initially, the Mongol imperial ideology was extremely black and white: you could submit to Mongol rule, or face total annihilation. There was no room for other relationships, for the Great Khan had no allies, only subjects. But as the thirteenth century went on and the dream of Chinggisid world hegemony slipped away as the divisions of the Mongol Empire went their separate ways, the Mongol Khans in the west began to seek not the capitulation, but the cooperation of western Europe to aid in their wars against Mamluks. For the Ilkhanate's sixty-year struggle against the Mamluk Sultanate, the Il-Khans sought to bring the Popes and Monarchs of Europe to a new crusade to assist in the defeat of the Mamluks, an ultimately fruitless endeavour, and the topic of today's episode. I'm your host David, and this is Kings and Generals: Ages of Conquest.       The first Mongol messages to the Kings of Europe came in the late 1230s and 40s, accompanying Batu and Sube'edei's western invasion, asking the Hungarians how they possibly could hope to flee the grasp of the Mongols. We know the Mongols sent a number of envoys to European monarchs and dukes, and employed a variety of peoples in this enterprise, including at least one Englishman. Over the 1240s and 50s, European envoys like John de Plano Carpini or William of Rubrucks to the Mongol Empire returned from Karakorum with orders for the Kings and Popes to come to Mongolia and submit in person.While Rus' and Armenian lords and kings did do so, there is little indication that European rulers even responded to these demands. For the Mongols, who seemed poised to dominate everything under the Eternal Blue Sky, there was little reason to adopt more conciliatory language. From their point of view, the Europeans were only stalling the inevitable: soon Mongol hoofbeats would certainly be heard in Paris and Rome. The Mongols treated the European states as their diplomatic inferiors, subjects basically in a state of rebellion by fact that they had not already submitted. Cruel, threatening and demanding letters were the norm, and it's safe to say any future efforts at alliance were greatly hampered by this opening salvo. The rare diplomatic exception was an embassy sent to King Louis IX of France during his stay in Cyprus in 1248 just before the 7th Crusade. There, messengers came from the Mongol commander in the west, Eljigidei, an ally to the reigning Great Khan, Guyuk. Headed by two Christians in Eljigidei's service, the embassy bore letters from Eljigidei. These letters called Louis ‘son,' and had no demand of submission, but mentioned Mongol favouritism to Christians, urged the French King not to discriminate between Latin and non-Latin Christians as all were equal under Mongol law, and wished him well in his crusade. The two Christian representatives of Eljigidei asserted that he was a Christian and that Guyuk himself had already been baptised. The urged Louis to attack Egypt, and prevent its Ayyubid prince from sending forces to aid the Caliph in Baghdad, who the Mongols were soon to attack.     Louis, is should be noted, almost certainly had not been anticipating any cooperation from the Mongols; he had  been well aware of their attacks on Hungary only a few years before, learned of Mongol demands and treatment of foreign powers from travellers like Carpini, and apparently received Mongol ultimatums for his submission in 1247. Further, a devout Christian, it is unlikely he would have gone looking for allies among “pagans,” even for fighting against Muslims. Still, he reacted well to Eljigidei's messengers and sent a return embassy with gifts with them back to Eljigidei which were to be sent on to Guyuk, while the initial letter was forwarded back to France and ultimately to King Henry III of England. Ultimately, it was for naught. Guyuk was dead even before Louis received Eljigidei's letter, and  Eljigidei himself was soon put to death in the following political turmoil. Little is known of the embassy Louis sent back with Eljigdei's representatives, but from the little heard of it through William of Rubruck a few years later, it seems to have achieved nothing beyond meeting Guyuk's widow and the regent, Oghul Qaimish, who portrayed Louis' gifts as tokens of the French King's submission.  Following the meeting on Cypress, Louis IX suffered a humiliating defeat in Egypt at Mansura, captured and was ransomed by the newly emerging Mamluks. By the time he returned to France and received Oghul Qaimish's reply, not only was she dead, but the responding letter was essentially another demand for his surrender. This first non-threatening Mongol embassy succeeded only in making the King of France feel like he had been tricked, especially since the new Great Khan, Mongke, sent a letter back with William of  Rubruck that disavowed Eljigidei's embassy. It has been speculated that Eljigidei was using the embassy to spy on Louis, as he was wary of the sudden arrival of Louis' army in Cyprus, and a desire to find out his military intentions, rather than any genuine interest in cooperation at this point.  His hope may have been to ensure that this new army attacked Mongol enemies, rather than get in the way of the Mongols.       The halting of the Mongol advance at Ayn Jalut by the Mamluks, and fracturing of the Empire into independent Khanates after Great Khan Mongke's death left the new Ilkhanate in a precarious position. Surrounded by enemies on all sides, the only direction they could expand not at the expense of fellow Mongols was against the Mamluks, who fortified their shared border with the Ilkhans. Even a small raid could trigger the arrival of the full Mamluk army, a dangerous prospect against such deadly warriors. Yet the Ilkhans could not bring their full might to bear on the shared border with the Mamluks in Syria, as it would leave their other borders open to attacks from the Golden Horde, Chagatais or Neguderis, in addition to the trouble of provisioning an army in the tough, hot and dry conditions of the Levantine coastline, a route the Mamluks secured and fortified. Opening a new front against the Mamluks was necessary, and there were already convenient beachheads established  in the form of the remaining Crusader States.   A shadow of their former selves, the Crusader states were represented by a few major coastal holdings like Antioch, Tripoli, and Acre, and inland fortifications like Krak de Chevaliers and Montfort, as well as the Kingdom of Cyprus, whose ruler, Hugh III of Cyprus, took the title King of Jerusalem in 1268. The Crusader States had shown neutrality to the Mongols, or even joined them such as the County of Tripoli did in 1260 after the Mongols entered Syria. In early 1260, the papal legate at Acre sent an embassy to Hulegu, most likely to discourage him from attacking the Crusader holdings. Along with information from the Kings of Armenian Cilicia, their most important regional vassals, the Mongols would have had a vague knowledge of western Europe and their crusading history. The Ilkhanate's founder, Hulegu, sent the first letter to the west in 1262, intended once more for King Louis IX, though this embassy was turned back in Sicily. This letter was friendlier terms than most Mongol missives, but still contained threats, if rather subdued. Pope Urban IV may have learned of the attempt, and the next year sent a letter to Hulegu, apparently having been told that the Il-Khan had become a Christian.  Delighted at the idea, the Pope informed Hulegu that if he was baptised, he would receive aid from the west. In reality, Hulegu never converted to Christianity, and died in 1265 without sending any more letters.       His son and successor, Abaqa, was the Il-Khan most dedicated to establishing a Franco-Mongol alliance and came the closest to doing so. Due to conflict on his distant  borders with the Golden Horde and Chagatayids, as well as the troubles of consolidating power as new monarch in a new realm, for the 1260s he was unable to commit forces to the Mamluk frontier. As a good Mongol, Abaqa was unwilling to allow the enemy total respite, and made it his mission to encourage an attack from the west on the Mamluks. His first embassy was sent in 1266, shortly after becoming Il-Khan, contacting the Byzantines, Pope Clement IV and King James I of Aragon, hoping for a united Christian front to combine efforts with the Mongols against the Mamluks, inquiring which route into Palestine the Christian forces would take. The responses were generally positive, Pope Clement replying that as soon as he knew which route, he would inform Abaqa.       Abaqa sent a message again in 1268, inquiring about this progress. James of Aragon found himself the most motivated by the Il-Khans requests, encouraged by the promises of Abaqa's logistical and military support once they reached the mainland. James made his preparations, and launched a fleet in September 1269. An unexpected storm scattered the fleet, and only two of James' bastard children made it to Acre, who stayed only briefly, accomplishing little there.        Not long after, King Louis IX set out for Crusade once more, making the inexplicable choice to land in Tunis in 1270. Despite his well planned efforts, the Crusade was an utter disaster, and Louis died of dysentery outside the walls of Tunis in August 1270. Prince Edward of England with his army landed in Tunis shortly before the evacuation of the crusaders, and disgusted by what he saw, set his fleet for the Holy Land, landing at Acre in May 1271, joined by Hugh of Lusignan, King of Cyprus.  Edward's timing was good, as Abaqa had returned from a great victory over the Chagatai Khan Baraq at Herat in July 1270, though had suffered a major hunting accident that November.       The Mamluk Sultan Baybars was campaigning in Syria in spring 1271, the famous Krak des Chevaliers falling to him that April. Tripoli would have fallen next, had Baybars not retreated back to Damascus hearing of the sudden arrival of a Crusader fleet, and was wary of being caught between European heavy cavalry and Mongol horse archers. Soon after landing Edward made his preparations for an offensive, and reached out to Abaqa. Abaqa was delighted, and sent a reply and orders for Samaghar, the Mongol commander in Anatolia, to head to Syria. Edward did not wait for Abaqa's reply, and there is no indication he ever responded to Abaqa's letter. He set out in mid-July, ensuring his army suffered the most from the summer heat, while missing the Mongols who preferred to campaign in the winter. Suffering high casualties and accomplishing little, he withdrew back to Acre. In mid-October Samaghar arrived with his army, raiding as far as to the west of Aleppo while an elite force of Mongols scouted ahead, routing a large group of Turkmen between Antioch and Harim, but was soon forced to retreat with the advance of the Mamluk army under Baybars.       Missing Samagahr by only a few weeks, in November Edward marched south from Acre at the head of a column of men from England, Acre, Cyprus, with Templars, Hospitallers and Teutonic Knights. They ambushed some Turkmen on the Sharon plain, forced the local Mamluk governor to withdraw, but with the arrival of large Mamluk reinforcements the Crusaders fled, losing their prisoners and booty.  That was the closest the Mongols and the Franks came to proper coordination. Edward helped oversee a peace treaty between the Mamluks and the Kingdom of Jersualem, but the heat, difficulties campaigning, political infighting and an assassination attempt on his life permanently turned him off of crusading. By September 1272, Edward set sail for England. A  few weeks after his departure the Mongols again invaded, besieging al-Bira but were defeated by the Mamluks in December.        Edward's brief effort in Syria demonstrated the difficulties prefacing any Mongol-Frankish cooperation. The Mamluks were a cohesive, unified force, well accustomed to the environment and working from a well supplied logistic system and intelligence network, while the Franks and Mongols were unable to ever develop a proper timetable for operations together. The European arrivals generally had unrealistic goals for their campaigns, bringing neither the men, resources or experience to make an impact.       Abaqa continued  to organize further efforts, and found many willing ears at the Second Council of Lyons in France in 1274, a meeting of the great powers of Christendom intended to settle doctrinal issues, the division of the Catholic and Orthodox Churches, and plan the reconquest of the Holy land. Abaqa's delegation informed the Council that the Il-Khan had secured his borders, that peace had been achieved between all the Mongols Khanates, and he could now bring his full might against the Mamluks, and urged the Christian powers to do likewise. The current Pope, Gregory X, fully supported this and made efforts to set things in motion, but his death in 1276 killed whatever momentum this process had had. Abaqa sent another round of envoys, who reached the King of France and the new King of England, Edward. The envoys brought the Il-khan's apologies for failing to cooperate properly during Edward's crusade, and asked him to return. Edward politely declined. This was the final set of envoys Abaqa sent west. Perhaps frustrated, he finally organized a proper invasion of Syria, only an army under his brother Mongke-Temur to be defeated by the Mamluks at Homs, and Abaqa himself dying soon after in 1282. His successors were to find no more luck that he had.        The most interesting envoy to bring the tidings of the Il-Khan to Europe did not originate in the Ilkhanate, but in China: Rabban Bar Sawma, born in 1220 in what is now modern day Beijing, was a Turkic Nestorian priest who had set out on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem before being conscripted to act as a messenger for the Il-Khan, in a journey which is a fascinating contrast to that of his contemporary Marco Polo. Even given him his own dedicated episode in this podcast series, but we'll give here a brief recount of his journey. Writing his accounts down upon his return to Baghdad later in life, he described how he brought messages and gifts to the Byzantine Emperor Andronicos II Palaiologus, marvelled at the Hagia Sophia, then landed in Sicily and made his way to Rome, having just missed the death of Pope Honorius IV. Travelling on to France, he was warmly welcomed by King Phillip IV, and then on to Gascony where he met the campaigning King Edward of England, who again responded kindly to the Il-khan's envoy.  On his return journey, he met the new Pope Nicholas IV in 1288 before returning to the Ilkhanate.    Despite the generous receptions Rabban Sauma was given by the heads of Europe, and despite the Il-khan's promises to return Jerusalem to Christian hands, the reality was there was no ruler in the west interested, or capable of, going on Crusade. By now, the act of Crusading in the Holy land had lost its lustre, the final crusades almost all disasters, and costly ones at that. With the final Crusader strongholds falling to the Mamluks in the early 1290s, there was no longer even a proper beachhead on the coast for a Crusading army. The sheer distance and cost of going on Crusade, especially with numerous ongoing issues in their own Kingdoms at hand, outweighed whatever perceived benefit there might have been in doing so. Further, while Rabban Sauma personally could be well received, the Mongols themselves remained uncertain allies. From 1285 through to 1288, Golden Horde attacks on eastern Europe had recommenced in force. Even the new Khan of the Golden Horde, Tele-Buqa, had led an army into Poland. For the Europeans, the distinctions between the Mongol Khanates were hard to register; how could messages of peace from some Mongols be matched with the open war other Mongols were undertaking? All evidence seems to suggest that the western Franks did not understand that the Golden Horde and Ilkhanate were separate political entities. Recall earlier the conflicting letters Louis IX had received in the 1240s, where one Mongol general offered friendship, only to be tricked in seemingly submitting to the Mongols and then receive letters in the 1250s telling him to discount the previous envoys. Together these encouraged unease over perceiving the Mongols as allies, and served to further dampen interest to pursue these alliances.       In contrast, the Mamluks had somewhat greater success in their own overseas diplomacy: in the 1260s Baybars initiated contact with the Golden Horde, ruled by the Muslim Berke Khan, encouraging him to keep up his warfare with his Ilkhanid cousins. Sultan Baybars also kept good relations with the Byzantine Empire and the Genoese, allowing him to keep the flow of Turkic slave soldiers from the steppes of the Golden Horde open, the keystone of the Mamluk military. There is also evidence they undertook some limited diplomacy with Qaidu Khan during the height of his rule over Central Asia and the Chagatayids. While the Mamluks and Golden Horde never undertook any true military cooperation, the continuation of their talks kept the Ilkhanate wary of enemies on all borders, never truly able to bring the entirety of its considerable might against one foe least another strike the Il-Khan's exposed frontiers. But, did the Golden Horde, in the 1260s, perceive this as an alliance? We only have Mamluk accounts of the relationship, but scholarship often supposes that the Golden Horde Khans perceived this as the submission of the Mamluks, and any cooperation was the cooperation between overlord and subject. As many of the Mamluk ruling class were Qipchaqs, so the Mongols had come to see as their natural slaves, it may well be that Berke saw the submission of the Mamluks as a natural part of their relationship, especially since he already ruled the Qipchaq homeland. This alliance, alongside never resulting in direct cooperation, was also never always amicable. When the Jochid Khans grew annoyed with the Mamluks, they would halt the trade of Qipchaq slaves and threaten to deprive the Mamluks of their greatest source of warriors. During the long reign of Mamluk Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad, a daughter of the Golden Horde Khan Ozbeg was wed to him, in an effort to cement the relationship after a rocky start to the 1300s. Al-Nasir soon accused her of not actually being a Chinggisid, insulting her and infuriating Ozbeg. Yet the relationship survived until the invasions of Emir Temur at the close of the fourteenth century, when the Mamluks and Golden Horde once again took part in a doomed west-Asian effort to ally against Temur.       Ilkhanid-European contacts continued into the 14th century, but with somewhat less regularity after Rabban bar Sawma's journey. An archbishopric was even founded in the new Ilkhanid capital of Sultaniyya in 1318, and Papal envoys would travel through the Ilkhanate to the Yuan Dynasty in China until the 1330s. A few envoys came from the Il-Khans still hoping to achieve military cooperation; Ghazan Il-Khan continued to send them before his invasions, including the only one that actually defeated the Mamluk army and led to a brief Mongol advance down the coast, occupying Damascus. News of Ghazan's successes did spread rapidly, for the Spanish Franciscan Ramon Llull learned of it and promptly sailed all the way across the Mediterranean, hoping to be among the first missionaries to land in the newly reclaimed Holy Land. But upon arriving in Cypress, Llull learned of Ghazan's equally quick withdrawal. The combined news of a Mongol victory followed by sudden Mongol withdrawal must have only affirmed the opinion of many of the futility of taking part in any more crusades with the Mongols.  Military operations against the Mamluks mostly ceased after Ghazan's death, until a formal peace was achieved between them and the Ilkhanate at the start of the 1320s. Naturally, no further messages for alliances with the powers of Europe were forth coming, and consequently putting an almost total end to European interest and contacts with the Middle East for the next five centuries. European-Mongol relations would continue for some time longer in the territory of the Golden Horde, where the attention of our podcast moves next, so be sure to subscribe to the Kings and Generals podcast for more. If you enjoyed this and would like to help us continue bringing you great content, then consider supporting us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals. This episode was researched and written by our series historian, Jack Wilson. I'm your host David, and we'll catch you on the next one.   

Crusader Sports Talk
This Week in Crusader Sports, Oct. 8

Crusader Sports Talk

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 8, 2021 4:37


Aaron West reviews the past week in Crusader athletics. Tyler Adams catches up with senior golfer Callie Cooper and junior runner Lindsey Warner.

History Unplugged Podcast
The Normans: A History of Conquest

History Unplugged Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 7, 2021 40:08


The Norman's conquering of the known world was a phenomenon unlike anything Europe had seen up to that point in history. Although best known for the 1066 Conquest of England, they have left behind a far larger legacy.They emerged early in the tenth century but had disappeared from world affairs by the mid-thirteenth century. Yet in that time they had conquered England, Ireland, much of Wales and parts of Scotland. They also founded a new Mediterranean kingdom in southern Italy and Sicily, as well as a Crusader state in the Holy Land and in North Africa. Moreover, they had an extraordinary ability to adapt as time and place dictated, taking on the role of Norse invaders to Frankish crusaders, from Byzantine overlords to feudal monarchs. Today's guest, Trevor Rowley, author of The Normans: A History of Conquest, offers a comprehensive picture of the Normans and argues that despite the short time span of Norman ascendancy, it is clear that they were responsible for a permanent cultural and political legacy.

Gunfighter Life.  Be Strong & Courageous
Skill vs Stuff find the Balance

Gunfighter Life. Be Strong & Courageous

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 5, 2021 27:57


Warriors Crusaders should be all in for GOD and find a balance in skill vs gear.goodshepherdtraining.com

Longbox Crusade: Crusader Chronicles
Crusader Chronicles - Episode 056: October 1979

Longbox Crusade: Crusader Chronicles

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 2, 2021


Crusader ChroniclesEpisode 056: October 1979Issues: Amazing Spider-Man #200, Spider-Woman #22Listen Here: Crusader Chronicles - Episode 056: October 1979We made it!  Spidey 200! Come join us for old bits, new bits, songs, laughs, and for the first time on the show…SPIDER-WOMAN for this milestone episode of Crusader Chronicles!Opening [0:00:53]Podcast promo - DCOCD podcast - [0:06:08]1st Comic Issue Review/Discussion [0:08:14]Podcast promo - Strangers In Paradise Audio Adaption - [0:54:10]2nd Comic Issue Review/Discussion [0:55:02]Podcast promo - For All Mankind - [1:29:32]Crusader Comments [1:30:05]Closing [1:39:04]Outtakes [1:41:58]Let us know what you think!Leave a comment by sending an email to: contact@longboxcrusade.comThis podcast is a member of the LONGBOX CRUSADE NETWORK:Visit the WEBSITE: https://longboxcrusaderchronicles.blogspot.com/ or http://www.longboxcrusade.com/Follow on TWITTER: https://twitter.com/LongboxCrusadeLike the FACEBOOK page: https://www.facebook.com/LongboxCrusadeSubscribe to the YOUTUBE Channel: https://goo.gl/4LkhovSubscribe to the podcast on iTunes at: https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/longbox-crusade-crusader-chronicles/id1271614264?mt=2Or the main Longbox Crusade podcast on iTunes at:https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-longbox-crusade/id1118783510?mt=2Thank you for listening and we hope you have enjoyed this episode of the Longbox Crusade: Crusader Chronicles.Please join us for the next episode as we continue on the crusade to "Read Them All!"All songs, sound clips, and characters discussed are copyright of their respective copyright holders, and no infringement is intended, it is for entertainment purposes only.

Crusader Sports Talk
This Week in Crusader Sports, Oct. 1

Crusader Sports Talk

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 1, 2021 5:10


Craftsmanship Quarterly
Argentina's Textile Crusader

Craftsmanship Quarterly

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 1, 2021 27:45


If you want an unusually cozy scarf or sweater made of natural fiber, merino wool or alpaca are the usual choices. But what about the guanaco, the alpaca's little-known cousin, which grows even finer fleece? For Adriana Marina, the guanaco's time has come to be South America's finest source for sustainable textiles. "Argentina's Textile Crusader" written and narrated by Alden Wicker, originally appeared in Craftsmanship Quarterly, a multimedia online magazine about artisans, innovators, and the architecture of excellence. You'll find many more stories, videos, audio recordings, and other resources on our site — all free of charge and free of advertising. Written by ALDEN WICKER Introduction by CHRIS EGUSA Narrated by ALDEN WICKER Produced by CHRIS EGUSA Music by MIKE SNOWDEN / BLUE DOT SESSIONS Alden Wicker is an award-winning journalist and sustainable fashion expert.

Alaska Story Project
ASP 16, Jonathan White, "Tides"

Alaska Story Project

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 23, 2021 63:26


Jonathan White is a writer, surfer, sailor and educator.  His work has been published in Orion, The Sun, Fine Homebuilding, and Natural History.  His first book, Talking on the Water, (Sierra Club, 1993),  explores creativity and the natural world.  It grew out of "Seminars Afloat" with writers Gretel Ehrlich, Ursula Le Guin, and Peter Matthiessen, along with other visionaries, activists and artists, such as poet Gary Snyder, whale biologist Roger Payne, and Gaia hypothesis co-founder Lynn Margulis.His most recent book, Tides, The Science and Spirit of the Ocean, (Trinity University Press, 2017), takes the reader around the world to where the tide is most dramatically at play.  He goes to the arctic, Panama, Chile, Europe, China, and Alaska, among other far corners, to explore the cultural and scientific stories of the tide.  “White goes deep beneath the surface with the grace of a poet,” writes Susan Casey, author of The Wave.  “Be prepared for some serious magic when you read these pages.”Dan and Jonathan discuss:Building a sloop and sailing it offshore in the Atlantic. Surviving a hurricane. Working with innovative theatre director and theorist, Jerzy Grotowski. Founding the “Seminars Afloat” on the schooner Crusader. Aground in Kalinin Bay north of Sitka. Saving the boat, and returning Crusader to ship shape in three days. Beginning research for Tides. Discussing the science, complexity, and intrigue of tidal forces. Stories from visiting the most dramatic tides. His current project in the Sea of Cortez, retracing the 1940 voyage of Ed Ricketts and John Steinbeck, from which came The Log from the Sea of Cortez.

Kings and Generals: History for our Future
2.56. History of the Mongols: Mongol-Mamluk Wars

Kings and Generals: History for our Future

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 20, 2021 35:29


“Ket Buqa Noyan kept attacking left and right with all zeal. Some encouraged him to flee, but he refused to listen and said, “Death is inevitable. It is better to die with a good name than to flee in disgrace. In the end, someone from this army, old or young, will reach the court and report that Ket Buqa, not wanting to return in shame, gave his life in battle. The padishah should not grieve over lost Mongol soldiers. Let him imagine that his soldiers' wives have not been pregnant for a year and the mares of their herds have not folded. [...]The life or death of servants like us is irrelevant.” Although the soldiers left him, he continued to struggle in battle like a thousand men. In the end his horse faltered, and he was captured. [...] After that, Ket Buqa was taken before Quduz with his hands bound. “Despicable man,” said Quduz, “you have shed so much blood wrongfully, ended the lives of champions and dignitaries with false assurances, and overthrown ancient dynasties with broken promises. Now you have finally fallen into a snare yourself.”[...]     “If I am killed by your hand,” said Ket Buqa, “I consider it to be God's act, not yours. Be not deceived by this event for one moment, for when the news of my death reaches Hülägü Khan, the ocean of his wrath will boil over, and from Azerbaijan to the gates of Egypt will quake with the hooves of Mongol horses. They will take the sands of Egypt from there in their horses' nose bags. Hülägü Khan has three hundred thousand renowned horsemen like Ket Buqa. You may take one of them away.”       So the great Ilkhanid vizier and historian Rashid al-Din records the heroic, and certainly greatly dramatized, account of Kitbuqa Noyan's final stand at the battle of Ayn Jalut in September 1260. This was the famous Mongol defeat at the newly established, and rather fragile, Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. The Mongols however, did not see it as an irreversible cataclysm, but the defeat of a small force which would soon be avenged, for Heaven demanded nothing less. The  defeat of the Mongols at Ayn Jalut in 1260 was not the end of the war between the Mongols and the Mamluks, and over the next 50 years Hulegu's successors, the Ilkhans, tried repeatedly to avenge their losses only to be halted by the Mamluks' valiant resistance.  Here, we will look at the efforts by the Mongol Ilkhanate to bring their horses to the Nile. I'm your host David, and this is Kings and Generals: Ages of Conquest.       First, we should note that for anyone wishing to read more about the war between the Mongols and the Mamluks, the most detailed work on the subject can be found in Reuven Amitai-Preiss' Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, released in 1995. No other work details the entire conflict and its sources so fully, and is an absolute must read for anyone desiring the most effective overview on the subject possible.       With the death of Grand Khan Mongke in 1259, the Mongol Empire was irrevocably broken: while Hulegu and his successors stayed on good terms with his brother Khubilai, the nominal Great Khan, Hulegu was independent, ruler of  vast domain stretching from Anatolia to the Amu Darya, known as the Ilkhanate. Hulegu's cousins in the neighbouring Golden Horde, Chagatai Khanate and the Neguderis were almost immediately antagonistic to the Ilkhans, who found themselves defending their distant frontiers from all three, in addition to internal revolts. For the Ilkhans, the Mamluks were but one frontier amongst several, one they could turn to only when the threat from the other Khanates was low. More often than not, this simple fact prevented any great Ilkhanid invasion of the Mamluk state.   For the Mamluks though, their border with the Ilkhanate along the Euphrates river was of utmost importance. In the aftermath of Ayn Jalut, the Mamluk Sultan Qutuz was assassinated by the energetic Baybars, who had fought alongside Qutuz against Kitbuqa. We introduced Baybars back in episode 30 of this podcast. While much credit can be given to Qutuz and the quality of the Mamluk soldiery for the victory at Ayn Jalut, the reason for continued Mamluk successes against the Mongols can be attributed to Baybars. A Qipchaq from the great Eurasian steppe, as a young boy Baybars had been sold into slavery to the Ayybuid Sultan of Egypt. There, Baybars was converted to Islam and received extensive training in all matter of military affairs. An excellent soldier, coupled with  immense ambition, endurance and drive, Baybars understood clearly the danger the Mongols posed, and set up his entire kingdom to defend against them.    The new Sultan greatly expanded the Mamluk regiments, encouraging good relations with the Golden Horde, Genoese and Byzantine Empire to keep up the flow of Turkic slave soldiers from the Eurasian steppe, over the Mediterranean to the ports of Egypt. He established a sophisticated intelligence network to inform him on the Ilkhanate and spread misinformation within it, supported by a system of signal towers, messenger pigeons, improved roads, bridges and relay stations to rapidly send messages. This was the barid, which served as the Mamluks' answer to the Mongol yam system. Its riders reported directly to the Mamluk Sultan.  Frontier fortifications along the Euphrates River like al-Bira and al-Rahba were strengthened, and they served as the first line of defence when the armies of the Ilkhanate advanced. When messengers raced down from Syria to Egypt with news of a Mongol assault,  Baybars would immediately march with an army from Cairo to meet them head on. More often than not, the Mongol attack party would return to the Ilkhanate rather than face Baybars head on. His swift reaction kept border officials loyal, feeling their Sultan would soon be there to assist them, or to punish defections. Rather than face the Mongols in battle, garrisons of cities in Syria past the Euphrates border were ordered to withdraw and regrouped at designated locations during invasions, facing the Mongols with united forces or awaiting the Sultan.  Baybars would not allow the Mongols to overrun his empire piecemeal, as they had the Khwarezmian Empire some forty years prior.   Baybars cultivated relations with bedouin nomads across Syria, who provided valuable auxiliaries, intelligence and also to keep them from allying with the Mongols.  Finally, he strengthed his position domestically, controlling the economy and  appointing his own Caliphs to legitimize himself, presenting himself as the defender of Islam. Baybars prepared his entire kingdom for Mongol attacks, a highly effective system the Ilkhanate struggled against. For the Ilkhans, the theater with the Mamluks was a sideshow, one to attack only when other frontiers were secured. The Mamluk Sultanate itself had no hope of conquering the Ilkhanate or seriously threatening it, so the various Ilkhans felt no great rush to overwhelm the Mamluks. In contrast, for the Mamluks the Ilkhanid border was of utmost importance: Baybars had to levy almost entirety of the Mamluk army to repel the Mongols, and thus not even a single defeat could be afforded for it would allow the Mongols to overrun Egypt, and the remainder of the Islamic west. Thus did Baybars finetune a system that proved remarkably successful at defending against the house of Hulegu, although it demanded great personal ability on the part of the monarch, and Baybars' successors struggled to compare to his vision.    Soon after Ayn Jalut in September 1260, a Mongol force of about 6,000 returned to Syria that December. Commanded by Baydar, an officer of Kitbuqa who had escaped Qutuz and Baybars' great advance earlier that year, it was a serious threat. At that time Sultan Baybars had not tightened his hold over Syria, attacks by the Crusader states had wrought further confusion, and some of Qutuz's loyalists had rebelled against Baybars' rule, one of whom even declared himself sultan. There is implication in the Mamluk sources that the attack was not launched on Hulegu's order, but Baydar's own initiative to avenge Kitbuqa. As his army marched, they found that the garrisons of Syria had retreated before them. Placing a governor in Aleppo and other major cities, as the Mongols neared Homs they found the combined garrisons of Homs, Hama and Aleppo had retreated there and rallied before them. Greatly outnumbering the Syrian forces, perhaps 6,000 troops under Baydar to 1,400 under the Syrians, Baydar was ultimately defeated in battle, the Syrians aided by thick fog and the timely flanking of local Bedouin. Coincidentally, it was fought near the grave of Khalid ibn al-Walid, the great commander of the early Islamic conquests and victor at Yarmouk, which earned it double the symbolic value. This first battle of Homs, as it was to become known, strengthened the feeling that the Mongols were not invincible. The Mongol army outnumbered the Mamluk garrisons, and keenly demonstrated the importance of unified defense rather than each garrison hiding behind city walls. For many Mamluk writers, it was the first battle of Homs that stood as the great victory over the Mongols, rather than Ayn Jalut. It was also the last major Mongol offensive into Syria in the 1260s.    Hulegu spent the next years fighting with Berke Khan of the Golden Horde over the valuable territory of Azerbaijan, which Berke believed belonged to the house of Jochi. With Hulegu's death in February 1265, he was succeeded by his son Abaqa, who was distracted by Jochid attacks and the efforts of setting up a new empire. By then, the most entrenched Sultan Baybars could solidify his defences, and turn to the isolated Crusader strongholds. By this time, little remained of the former Crusader Kingdoms, baring some coastal cities like Antioch, Tripoli and Acre and a few inland fortresses like Krak des Chevaliers and Montfort. The Crusader States had shown neutrality to the Mongols, or even joined them such as the County of Tripoli in 1260 after the Mongols entered Syria. Their neutrality or allegiance to the Mongols, in addition to the possibility of them acting as a foothold to further European troops, meant that the Mamluks would unleash bloody vengeance on them whenever the opportunity arose. From February to April 1265 in the immediate aftermath of Hulegu's  death, Baybars conquered Caesarea, Haifa, Arsuf, Galilee and raided Cilician Armenia, the vassals of the Ilkhanate. In 1268 Baybars took Antioch, and in 1270-71 when Abaqa was fighting with Chagatayid and Neguderi armies in the far east, Baybars took the fortresses of Krak des Chevaliers and Montfort, and planned to attack Tripoli, another Ilkhanid vassal. Though it remains popular in some circles to portray the Mamluk conquest of the Crusader holdouts as titanic clashes, they were side affairs, undertaken by the Mamluks whenever the Ilkhans were occupied.  Such was the slow and humiliating coup de grace which ended the Crusader states.   The Mamluks' ending of the Crusader kingdoms certainly served them strategically, for it was the most effective way to prevent any link up between European and Mongol forces. Hulegu and his successors sent letters to the Kings and Popes of Europe, encouraging them to take up crusade against the Mamluks and together defeat them, offering to return Jerusalem and other holy sites back into Christian hands, but this almost always fell on deaf ears or were greeted with empty promises. Louis IX's highly organized crusades had resulted in utter debacles at Mansura in 1250 and Tunis in 1270, which dampened whatever minor enthusiasm for crusade was left in Europe. Few European monarchs ever seriously took up Mongol offers at military alliances, with two exceptions. King James I of Aragon found himself the most motivated by the Il-Khan Abaqa's requests, encouraged by the promises of the Ilkhanate's logistical and military support once they reached the mainland. James made his preparations, and launched a fleet in September 1269. An unexpected storm scattered the fleet, and only two of James' bastard children made it to Acre, who stayed only briefly, accomplishing little there before departing. This was soon followed by the arrival of prince Edward of England, the future King Edward I, at Acre in May 1271 with a small force, and Abaqa sent an army under Samaghar, the Mongol commander in Rum, to assist him: but Samaghar's force withdrew with the arrival of Baybars. Edward's troops performed poorly on their own minor raids, and set sail for England in September 1272.    One of the commanders who took part in Samaghar's raid was Mu'in al-Din Sulaiman, better known as the Pervane, from sahib pervana, the keeper of the seals, though it literally means “butterfly.” The Pervane was the dominant figure of the rump state of the Seljuqs of Rum: when the previous Mongol installed Seljuq Sultan, Kilij Arlan IV, had challenged the Pervane, he succeeded in getting Abaqa to execute the Sultan and instate Arslan's young son, a toddler enthroned as Ghiyath al-Din Kaykhusraw III. Thus did the Pervane, in coordination with Samaghar Noyan, act as the master of Anatolia. Essentially co-governors, Samaghar and the Pervane had a stable relationship, enriching themselves along the way. But when Abaqa appointed his younger brother Ejei to oversee the Pervana and Samaghar. The Pervane chafed under the increased financial burden and supervision, and asked Abaqa to recall his brother, claiming Ejei was in cooperation with Baybars. Abaqa promised to recall him, but delayed. In his frustration, the Pervane himself  reached out to Baybars. The Sultan's curiosity was piqued, but didn't commit; by the time his response reached the Pervane in 1274, Ejei and Samaghar had been replaced by Toqa Noyan, and the Pervane didn't respond. Under Toqa Noyan, Mongol pressure was even greater in Anatolia, and the Pervane's powers were more limited than ever.    What followed was a terrible mess of political machinations. The Pervane got Toqa Noyan removed, Ejei was reinstated, the Pervane's efforts to remove Ejei again frustrated Abaqa, who removed Ejei, killed some of his followers and reinstated the Pervane and Toqa Noyan. In November 1275, the Mongols besieged al-Bira, but Baybars had learned of it in advance allegedly due to contacts with the Pervane. After this, the Pervane was careful to rebuild trust with Abaqa, bringing him the Seljuq Sultan's sister to wed. At the same time, with or without the Pervane's support a group of Rumi amirs met with Baybars in July 1276, urging him to attack. Judging there was enough support in Rum for him he agreed, and Baybars mobilized his army over winter 1276, setting out in February 1277.   As Baybars sped up the Levantine coast, the Pervane rapidly lost control of Rum as various Turkmen rebelled and a new Mongol army under Tudawan cracked down on the amirs who had contacted Baybars. In Syria, Baybars sent a diversionary force from Aleppo over the Euphrates, while his main army entered Anatolia in early April. After pushing off a Mongol advance force of 3,000 in the Taurus Mountains, news reaches Baybars that Tudawun was camped close by on a plain near the town of Abulustayn (Elbistan) and set out for them, the armies meeting on the 15th of April 1277.   Tudawan's army was about 14,000 Mongols, Turk and heavily armoured Georgian cavalry was joined by an army of Rumi troops similar size under the Pervane, but Tudawan distrusted them, and kept them away from his lines. Tudawan's scouts had failed to judge the size of the Mamluk army, which he believed to be smaller and lacking Baybars. In reality, the Mamluks outnumbered the Mongols by a few thousand. As the Mamluks entered the plain at the narrow end they were unable to properly form up, and their centre was positioned before their left wing.  The Mongol left flank began the battle, sending arrows into the Mamluk standard bearers in the centre before charging them. The Mamluk centre buckled under the charge, and the more exposed Mamluk left wing was similarly pounded by the Mongol right.   The situation was critical for the Mamluks: likely at this stage, their bedouin irregulars fled. Baybars sent in his reserve, the garrison of Hama, to reinforce his left, and succeeded in forcing back the Mongols. A brief respite allowed the Mamluks to better deploy their lines, and counterattack. The Mongols fought fiercely, but the greater number of the Mamluks made the difference. Gradually forced back over the course of the day, their horses exhausted and unable to access remounts, the Mongols dismounted, signalling they were fighting to the death. With great struggle, the Mamluks defeated them and killed their commanders. The Rumi army took little part in the battle and dispersed, the Pervane escaping, with one of his sons captured by Baybars. The next day the Mamluk Sultan marched for Kayseri, reaching it on April 20th.   Baybars ordered the Pervane and the Seljuq Sultan to him, but the Pervane held out in his own castle. Both realized that Baybars would not be able to hold this position, deep in enemy territory, supplies low and the rest of his kingdom unprotected while a furious Abaqa rallied his army. 5 days after entering Kayseri, Baybars was en route back to Syria and though his vanguard deserted to the Mongols, by June he was in Damascus. Abaqa arrived in Rum too late to catch Baybars, and in his fury was only narrowly persuaded out of massacring everything between Kayseri and Erzerum, while the summer heat kept him from invading Syria. He was able to catch the Pervane though, and put him to death: allegedly, his flesh was eaten by Abaqa and the senior Mongols.   Thus ended one of Baybars' most skillfully executed campaigns: lightning quick and devastating, creating a terrible mess for the Ilkhanate, though in itself brought no strategic gain or shift in the status quo. It was a great shock when the Lion of Egypt suddenly died at the beginning of July 1277 soon after his return. Baybars had hoped to establish a dynasty: he was seamlessly succeeded by his older son, named al-Sa'id Berke. The new Sultan quickly antagonized the Mamluk emirs through his efforts to limit their powers, and was forced to abdicate in favour of his younger brother, the 7 year old Sulamish. The boy was nothing but a puppet, and his guardian, one of the late Baybars' Mamluks named Qalawun, soon forced the boy out and took power himself in November 1279.  Like Berke, Qalawun had been taken from the Qipchap steppe and sold as a Mamluk. He had loyally served Baybars and proven himself an able commander, though something of a schemer. Though Qalawun's line came to dominate the Mamluk Sultanate for essentially the next century, initially Qalawun faced stiff opposition in attempting to assert his authority.    This disruption in the Sultanate was a golden opportunity for Abaqa, who decided it was time to press the Mamluk frontier. To this, he decided to put his younger brother Mongke-Temur to the task. Prince Mongke-Temur first  raided Syria in November 1280 with King Lewon III of Armenian Cilicia, Bohemond VII of Tripoli and a contingent of Knights Hospitaller. In September 1281, Mongke-Temur returned again, a large force of perhaps 40-50,000 Mongols, Armenians under Lewon III, Georgians, Franks and troops from Seljuq Rum. Abaqa initially followed with another army, but may have been forced to hold due to rumours of an attack by the Golden Horde at Derbent.   The Mongol invasion provided a common enemy to unite the Mamluk factions fighting for power, and under Qalawun they advanced, reinforced by Syrian garrisons and bedouins. They reached Homs a few days before the Mongols in late October, giving Qalawun's troops a chance to dig in and rest on the plain north of the city. Their preparations were improved as a Mongol defector informed them of Mongke-Temur's battle plan. Most of the Mongol army was to be placed in the center with the right wing also strong, intending to overpower the Mamluk left and centre where the Sultan's banners would be. Qalawun thus reinforced his left wing, and positioned himself on a hill behind the vanguard to oversee the battle and act as reserve.    Marching through the night, the Mongols arrived early on the 29th of October, 1281. It was a massive front, over 24 kilometres in length due to the size of both armies. The wings of both forces, so far apart, had little knowledge of what was occurring on the other side. While tired from the night march, the Mongols were eager: the battle was initiated when the Mongol right under Alinaq charged forth. The Mamluk left and part of their centre crumpled  and routed under the onslaught. Alinaq continued his pursuit, and here Mongke-Temur's inexperience and the scale of the battlefield began to tell. Proper communication with the command seemingly absent, Alinaq pursued the fleeing Mamluks off the battlefield, as far as the Lake of Homs where they dismounted to rest, evidently anticipating the rest of the army would soon arrive.   A similar charge by the Mongol left wing lacked the numbers of the Mongol right, so the Mamluk right and centre were able to hold and counterattack. Qalawun's actual role in this counterattack isn't clear: some sources have him personally lead the attack, while in others he kept his position hidden, not even raising his banners so as to avoid Mongol arrows. The Mamluks pushed back the Mongol right and the bedouin came around to hit the Mongol flank. The Mongol right fell back to the centre, which under Mongke-Temur was being held in reserve. In the resulting confusion, perhaps thrown by his horse, Mongke-Temur was injured and unable to command. Most of the Mongols then dismounted to make a final stand around the prince, and ultimately routed under the Mamluk assault.    The Mamluks chased the fleeing Mongols right to the border with the Ilkhanate, many drowning in the Euphrates or dying in the desert: so deadly was this rout that  Mamluk authors said more Mongols were killed in flight than in the actual battle. Qalawun and a small guard remained on the battlefield: they were forced to hide their banners and stay silent when the Mongol right wing finally returned to the battlefield, too late to turn the tide. It seems it was able to take an orderly retreat back into the Ilkhanate.       Abaqa was furious at this loss, and intended to return the next year, but died in April 1282. As we have covered in our previous episodes, Abaqa's successors were not blessed with his same longevity or stability, and until 1295 the Ilkhanate saw a succession of short lived monarchs and infighting, internal revolts and renewed attacks by the Golden Horde. Though the succeeding Ilkhans continued to demand Mamluk submission, send threatening letters and continue to attempt an alliance with European powers, nothing materialized beyond border raids and skirmishes in both directions. For the time being, the immediate Mongol threat to the Mamluks had ended, and Sultan Qalawun turned to the remaining Frankish strongholds, all possible beachheads for European armies coming to assist the Ilkhans. Armenian Cilicia was pillaged, remaining inland Crusader strongholds were taken, and in April 1289 the Mongols' vassal Tripoli fell. After the death of Abaqa's son Arghun Il-Khan in March 1291, the Mamluks used the resulting distraction in the Ilkhanate to take the final major Frankish city in the Holy Land, Acre, leaving them with but miniscule holdings which fell in the following years. So ended 200 years of Crusader Kingdoms.       Following Qalawun's death in 1290, he was succeeded by his son al-Ashraf Khalil. A fearsome military commander, it was he who led the push to seize Acre and the final Crusader holdings of note. Yet he did not long to enjoy the throne, and was assassinated in the last days of 1293 due to his efforts to curb the power of the existing Mamluk emirs. With his assassination, the Mamluks entered a period of political instability over the Sultanate. Initially his younger brother al-Nasir Muhammad was placed on the throne, still a child and without any real power. After a year as Sultan he was forced out by his guardian and regent, a Mamluk named, of all things, Kitbuqa. Apparently of Mongol origin, he had been taken captive by the Mamluks at the first battle of Homs in 1260, and made in turn a Mamluk, that is, a slave soldier. Kitbuqa's reign as Sultan was not particularly notable, mostly marked by intense political infighting and machinations. There was, however, a large body of Oirats who deserted the Ilkhanate to join the Mamluks Sultanate. Kitbuqa's generous treatment of this body of nomadic troops, with whom it appeared he shared kinship, angered a number of the other Mamluk emirs and undermined his power. He was soon forced to flee as one of al-Ashraf Khalil's assassins, the Emir Lajin, seized power. When Lajin was murdered in 1299, al-Ashraf Khalil's young brother al-Nasir Muhammad was recalled to take the throne. Only 14 years old, al-Nasir Muhammad had no real power and was still a puppet for the emirs competing for power.   In comparison, 1295 saw the beginning of the reign of the powerful Ghazan Khan, son of Arghun. Ghazan, as we have covered, was not the first Muslim Ilkhan but by his reign a majority of the Mongols within the Ilkhanate had converted, and made the Ilkhanate an Islamic state. Ghazan consolidated his position early on, executing a number of potential challengers to the throne and restabilizing the  Ilkhanid economy, though you can listen to our episode dedicated to Ghazan for more on the internal matters of his reign. While Ghazan was a Muslim, this did not change Ilkhanid policy to the Mamluk. He continued to send letters to western Europe urging them to land an army behind enemy lines. In late 1298, while Mamluk armies ravaged the Ilkhan's vassal Cilician Armenia, the na'ib of Damascus, Sayf al-Din Qibjaq and a few other top Mamluks deserted to the Ilkhanate during a particularly violent stretch within the Sultanate. Fearing for their lives, they inform Ghazan of Sultan Lajin and his vice-Sultan Manketamur's purges and unstable positions. Then in summer 1299 a Mamluk raid into the Ilkhanate sacked Mardin, violating Muslim women and descretating a mosque during Ramadan. Ghazan was thus able to easily obtain a fatwa against the Mamluks for this, presenting himself not as an invader, but a holy warrior coming to avenge atrocities against Islam to encourage dissent among Mamluk ranks. Indeed, the ruler of Hama, a top Mamluk ally, believed the accusations.        By December 1299, Ghazan and his army of Mongols, Georgians and Armenians under their King Het'um II, had crossed the Euphrates. By then, Sultan Lajin had been replaced by a al-Nasir Muhammad who was nearly toppled by the Oirat refugees to the Sultanate. Ghazan bypassed Aleppo and Hama, and hunted for the Mamluk army. While encamped on the edge of the Syrian desert, Ghazan learned the Mamluks were gathering at Homs, where they had defeated Mongke-Temur 18 years prior. Rather than fall into their trap, Ghazan chose to outflank them, crossing the Syrian desert and coming out onto a stream some 16 kilometres north of Homs on the 22nd of December. To the Mamluks, it appeared that Ghazan was retreating, and advanced out of their favourable position to pursue. In a reverse of the 2nd Battle of Homs, now the Mamluks were forced to cross the desert, exhausting themselves to reach Ghazan early the next morning, while his own troops rested, quenched their thirst and formed up. Crucially, the Ilkhanid army was under the firm control of Ghazan and his commander Qutlugh-Shah, while the young al-Nasir Muhammad could not control his senior emirs.        On the morning of December 23rd, 1299, the Mamluks found Ghazan's army was drawn up. Ghazan commanded the centre, while his general Qutlugh-Shah commanded the right.  Qutlugh-Shah's beating of  war drums made the Mamluks believe Ghazan to be located there, and to him they charged, forcing the Mongol right back. Ghazan led the counterattack against them, and Qutlugh-Shah rallied what forces he could and rejoined the Il-Khan. From 11 a.m until nightfall, the battle raged, but finally the Mamluks broke and fled.  Ghazan pursued them past Homs before encamping, not wishing to be drawn into a false retreat in the dark. Homs surrendered without a fight and Ghazan took the Sultan's treasure, distributing it among his nokod, keeping for himself a sword, the title deeds to the Mamluk Sultanate and the muster roll of its army. Next Ghazan marched onto Damascus, which also surrendered without a fight, though its citadel held out. It seems almost the entire Mamluk garrison of Syria had retreated, perhaps recalled to defend the capital. Mongol raiding parties were making it as far as Gaza, with one source reporting they even entered Jerusalem, and the Sultanate seemed poised to fall.       But on February 5th, 1300, Ghazan withdrew from Damascus, returning to the Ilkhanate. Qutlugh-Shah had been left to take the Citadel of Damascus, but he soon followed the Il-Khan. By the end of May, the Mamluks had retaken Syria. Exactly why Ghazan withdrew is unclear: possibly reports of a Neguderi invasion in the east of his realm demanded his attention, or he feared there would not be sufficient pasturage for his large army to make the trip to Egypt: the Mamluks were known to burn grassland and destroy supply depots on the routes they suspected the Mongols to take.  Likely he was unaware of how dire the situation really was for the Mamluks, and suspected further armed resistance along the route would make the already treacherous crossing over the Sinai even harder on his army. Whatever the reason, Ghazan had lost the greatest chance to destroy the Mamluks. Ghazan did cross the Euphrates at the end of December 1300, reaching as far as Aleppo, but heavy rains rendered military operations untenable. In 1303 Ghazan ordered Qutlugh-Shah back into Syria, but he was defeated at Marj al-Suffar near Damascus in April. Ghazan's death the next year, only 34 years old, prevented his next assault. His brother and successor, Oljeitu, ordered the final Ilkhanid attack on the Sultanate, an embarrassing effort in winter 1312 which saw the army retreat not from the Royal Mamluks, but the stiff resistance of ordinary townsfolk. Oljeitu's son, Abu Sa'id, ultimately organized peace with the Mamluks in the early 1320s, ending the sixty years of warfare between the Mongols and the Mamluks. The Ilkhanate did not long outlive this treaty. Abu Sa'id death in 1335 without an heir saw the Ilkhanate torn apart by regional commanders -the Jalayirids, Chobanids, Muzaffarids and Injuids, among others- who appointed their own puppet Khans or abandoned the pretense entirely.       For the Mamluks, they were unable to take advantage of the Ilkhanate's disintegration as when al-Nasir Muhammad died in 1341, they entered their own period of anarchy: 8 of al-Nasir's children and 4 of his grandsons would in turn become Sultan between 1341 and 1382, a period which culminated in the rise of the Circassian Burji Mamluk Dynasty. Whereas the Sultans from Qutuz, Baybars through Qalawun and his descendants were men of Qipchaq-Cuman or even Mongol origin,  over the late thirteenth and first half of the fourteenth century a growing number of the Mamluks were sourced no longer from the Qipchaq steppe, but Circassia, a region along the Black Sea's northeastern coastline. With the end of the Qalawunid Dynasty, Mamluks of Circassian origin took power and established their own dynasty. The Bahri and Burji distinction refers to the parts of Cairo each Mamluk garrison had been based. It was this Mamluk dynasty who would face the wrath of Temur-i-lang at the beginning of the fifteenth century.       These post-Ilkhanid events will be the topic for a forthcoming episode, so be sure to subscribe to the Kings and Generals podcast to follow for that. If you enjoyed this and would like to help us continue bringing you great content, please consider supporting us on patreon at www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals. This episode was researched and written by our series historian, Jack Wilson.  I'm your host David, and we'll catch you on the next one. 

Bolton Ebikes - The Podcast
Fat Tire Folding Ebikes | EP 86

Bolton Ebikes - The Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 14, 2021 18:46


Hey Everybody! Welcome back to another episode of the Bolton e-bikes podcast.  Recently, on the YouTube Channel, we've shared some amazing ebike models that can go just about anywhere you want to. They fold nicely, ride like a dream, and will be sure to leave you with that feeling of freedom and joy that only ebikes can. The Avenger and Crusader Models are waiting for you to get out there and ride.  I'm Jessica, with Bolton Ebikes and this is The Bolton Ebikes Podcast.  In today's episode you'll learn more about: Why having fat tires on a folding bike would be beneficial What about our Crusader and Avenger models are so great especially when it comes to traveling. What makes our models better than other folding ebikes you may have seen Are these powerful and why it's important to know what you're buying before you get it.  How fast can these go? Why these ebike models are easy to get on and off and why that is important for you.  And so much more!  Thank you so much for listening today to another episode of The Bolton Ebikes Podcast!  The Avenger and Crusader Models are perfect for traveling in your RV, heading out to a friends place, commuting, and just getting out there and having fun!  Before you get on the road, you'll want to make sure you have checked your ebike over and are ready to ride safely. One of those ways is to prevent flat tires. We actually tested flat tire prevention products against the others and we have a final winner! Want to see what happened? Check out The Bolton Ebikes YouTube Channel for the video titled, Put a STOP to flat tires - 5 things to know for your ebike. You won't believe what happened when we finally found the winner.   I bet you'll share your excitement with your friends and family via text messaging - and that is actually something we want to share with you too!  Go to Bolton Ebikes Dot Com to sign up to win a free ebike, get updates from us, and to learn more about what we have coming in the future. It's a great way to get what you need quickly on your cell phone.  If you're looking for an amazing ebike, check out BoltonEbikes.Com We're looking forward to having you join us on another Tuesday! Thanks again for listening to The Bolton eBikes Podcast.  Links from Bolton Ebikes Get on our text messaging list to be notified news, enter to win an ebike, get updates, and more: https://www.boltonebikes.com  Sign up for Upcoming Podcast Episodes: www.ebikepodcast.com Find your perfect Bolton Ebike: https://www.boltonebikes.com Buy or Sell your Ebike: https://www.ebikesearch.com Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/boltonebikes Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/boltonebikes Subscribe to The Bolton Ebikes YouTube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/c/boltonebikes?sub_confirmation=1 Facebook Group: https://www.facebook.com/groups/868947773245145/ Who do you want me to interview for The Bolton Ebikes Podcast? Let us know! Submit the contact information and stories about those ebike adventures to the team at info@boltonebikes.com and let us know you want to be on the show!

The Rugby Bricks Podcast
#52: Wayne Smith | Creating a Winning Formula In The All Blacks Environment & Becoming A Tactical Genius

The Rugby Bricks Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 1, 2021 82:47


Wayne Smith is a New Zealand rugby union coach and former player, currently the Director of Rugby for the Japanese Top League club, the Kobelco Steelers. Smith's first significant coaching role was for the Crusaders in the 1997 season and went on to win back to back titles in 1998 and 1999, before being appointed the head coach of the All Blacks in 2000. Smith is regarded as one of the greatest rugby coaches in history. Nicknamed “The Professor”, Smith is considered to be the All Blacks tactical genius who helped engineer two Rugby World Cup victories in 2011 and 2015. He is one of two coaches to win back to back Rugby World Cups. Along with the Crusader's championships, he also helped the Chiefs secure their first Super Rugby title in 2012 and then went back to back again in 2013. Smith has had one of the most decorated careers of any coach and in this episode of the podcast, we learn what it takes to create the results he has. We dive into:    How Smith handled the public pressure of being an All Blacks coach and dealing with adversity when things didn't go his way.   The importance of speaking your mind in a close coaching unity, even though the other coaches opinions may differ from your own.   How Sonny Bill Williams changed the game with his offloading ability and how Smith added his skillset into the strike moves.   The importance of having high-quality game sense and thinking on your feet instinctively when on the counter-attack and in high-stakes moments.   How Smith approaches each team he's involved in with a different mindset and culture, as each franchise will vary in its values, ethos and strategy. From grassroots rugby to the All Blacks, this episode has it all. If you are a player, coach or supporter, this podcast is for you. It gives insights and secrets into the All Blacks camp and how they prepare. We take a look at being creative with new innovative tactics on the field and not shying away from strategies that haven't been done or seen. Please enjoy this in-depth and enlightening episode with none other than Wayne Smith.

Creating Wealth Real Estate Investing with Jason Hartman
1730: Robert Barnes, Champion Of The Underdog, A Crusader For The Constitution And An Equalizer Of Odds!

Creating Wealth Real Estate Investing with Jason Hartman

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 25, 2021 43:23


In today's 10th episode, we have Robert Barnes, founder of Barnes Law. He is a champion of the underdog, a crusader for the constitution and an equalizer of odds! He talks about taking on the Federal Reserve through the FOIA or Freedom Of Information Act. The WEALTH TRANSFER is happening FAST! Protect your financial future now! Did you know that 25% to 40% of all dollars ever created were dumped into the economy last year???  This will be devastating to some and an opportunity to others, be sure you're on the right side of this massive wealth transfer. Learn from our experiences, maximize your ROI and avoid regrets. ** LIVE ORLANDO CONFERENCE ** Join us for Empowered Investor LIVE: https://www.EmpoweredInvestor.com Free Mini-Book on Pandemic Investing: https://www.PandemicInvesting.com Jason's TV Clips: https://vimeo.com/549444172  Asset Protection, Tax Savings & Estate Planning: http://JasonHartman.com/Protect  What do Jason's clients say? http://JasonHartmanTestimonials.com Easily get up to $250,000 in funding for real estate, business or anything else  http://JasonHartman.com/Fund  Call our Investment Counselors at: 1-800-HARTMAN (US) or visit www.JasonHartman.com  Guided Visualization for Investors: http://jasonhartman.com/visualization