Podcasts about Edo

Former city in Musashi, Japan

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Loose Screws - The Elite Dangerous Podcast
Episode 169 - Recreationally Indignant

Loose Screws - The Elite Dangerous Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 31, 2023 95:31


http://loosescrewsed.com Join us on discord! And check out the merch store! PROMO CODES https://discord.io/LooseScrews Support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/LooseScrewsED Squad Update: War in Bagalis (0-0) and Yingo (1-0) Expansion from 7 Andromedae went to Bagalis - invasion war underway Oya Maelstrom (#9) updates: Current targets: Jeng (42%), Benanekpeno (COMPLETE) Overall: 606 Thargoid controlled, 33 Invasions, 66 Alert, 23 systems in Recovery Oya: 53 controlled, 6 invasion, 8 alert, 7 recovery All details in the #standing-orders and/or the #loose-screws-factions channels of the Discord. In-Game News: Size 3 AX weapons stabilizer is available Dev news: From the stream; U 14.02 - Was supposed to be today; Delayed War Map to show “most-influenced” systems, per state (to draw players) 100% system removed from list the moment they complete New activities, salvage black boxes, tissue samples; handed in at rescue ships count towards the system they are collected in. Confirmed: unpopulated system have smaller target values for completion Confirmed: distance from maelstrom lowers target value for completion Adding: “front line”; new USS in systems on the edge of the thargoid bubbles Recovery: players can reboot EDO settlements to shorten recovery time. Change incoming on thargoid pushback, they have a “strong idea” what the change will be Adding: new ways to progress systems If you like the show please rate and review on your podcast player, which helps people find the show. Join us on Discord at discord.io/loosescrews and check out the merch store at loosescrewsed.com for mugs, t-shirts, hoodies, and more. And you can support us on patreon! http://patreon.com/loosescrewsed

Father Hoods
To the Amusement Park

Father Hoods

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 31, 2023 34:36


On this week's episode of the Father Hoods Pod, join DJ EFN and Manny Digital as they discuss the importance of men seeking professional mental health services and their perspectives on having a different parenting approach with their spouse. BONUS! You'll also hear some tips and advice on how you can deal with your kids when they're currently at their “Terrible Twos” phase. We got you covered! Tap in and get your weekly dose of that #FatherHood real!  You'll hear about…

History of Japan
Episode 470 - The Vaccinators, Part 2

History of Japan

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 27, 2023 39:22


If the first translation of a text on smallpox vaccination in Japan was finished in 1820, how did it take another 29 years for the first mass vaccination campaigns to begin? The answers involve everything from a German doctor accused of being a spy to networks of physicians trying to navigate obscure bureaucracy. And they might remind you more of the last few years than you'd think. Show notes here.

The Mo'Kelly Show
Later, with Mo'Kelly: ‘Authentic' Splash Mountain Water, Jeremy Renner & The Razzies

The Mo'Kelly Show

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 26, 2023 46:19


ICYMI: Later, with Mo'Kelly Presents – Thoughts on eBay selling ‘authentic' Splash Mountain water after the ride closes at Walt Disney World…PLUS – The “full-ish” story regarding actor Jeremy Renner's “snowplow” accident has come to light AND the Razzies have issued an apology for their nomination of 12 year old 'Firestarter' actress Ryan Kiera Armstrong on KFI AM 640 – Live everywhere on the iHeartRadio app

Father Hoods
Dad Makes the Rules feat. Tonio Skits

Father Hoods

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 24, 2023 38:05


Back with a BANGER! What if you became a social media rockstar and your kids' were now some of the most popular kids in school on account of you? On this episode, we explore that and so much more with special guest: comedian/actor/singer and TMZ HipHop TV host, Tonío Skits!!! Join Manny Digital, DJ EFN, and KGB with guest Tonio Skits on this week's episode of the Father Hoods Pod! Listen to the gang discuss their views on having more kids. Tonio also shares with us his fatherhood experiences in raising his now grown-up kids and how he and his ex-partner made co-parenting work as teenage parents! Tap in and get your weekly dose of that #FatherHood real!  You'll hear about…

The Unfinished Print
Paul Binnie - Printmaker : An Aesthetic World

The Unfinished Print

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 22, 2023 63:47


When looking for inspiration, when looking for someone you can look up to in your craft, I look to Paul Binnie. Paul is an artist who has carved a living from their craft, and has been a large part of the greater mokuhanga community. His work has touched on so many themes, concepts and ideas. His mokuhanga takes the past and brings it firmly into the future.  On this episode of The Unfinished Print, I speak with mokuhanga printmaker Paul Binnie. Paul speaks about his life and career, how he uses pigments, paper, and wood for his work. We discuss the fantasy and reality of an historical past. We look at shin-hanga, and sōsaku hanga, observing kabuki, as well as taking a look at his other work such as oil painting and his drawings.  This interview was recorded during Paul Binnie's solo show at Scholten Japanese Art in June, 2022. There may be some background noise during the interview. I apologize for any inconvenience.  Please follow The Unfinished Print and my own mokuhanga work on Instagram @andrezadoroznyprints or email me at theunfinishedprint@gmail.com  Notes: may contain a hyperlink. Simply click on the highlighted word or phrase. Artists works follow after the note. Pieces are mokuhanga unless otherwise noted. Paul Binnie - while Paul doesn't have a singular website he does have his Instagram. There is the "Binnie Catalogue," which is produced by a third party which digitally collects his work, past and present. This can be found, here.  Protest March - from the Flowers of a Hundred Years Series (2016) New Year Card - called nengajo (年賀状) in Japanese, these cards have been traditionally passed from person to person since the Heian Period (794-1185). Mokuhanga practitioners make them as well, creating a new one every year focusing on the zodiac sign of the year as a theme. Scholten Japanese Art - is a mokuhanga focused art gallery located in midtown Manhattan. It was founded by René Scholten, an avid collector of the Japanese print. More info can be found, here. intaglio printing - is a printing method, also called etching, using metal plates such as zinc, and copper, creating “recessed” areas which are printed with ink on the surface of these "recesses.” More info, here. The MET has info, here.  Yoshida Hiroshi (1876-1950) - a watercolorist, oil painter, and woodblock printmaker. Is associated with the resurgence of the woodblock print in Japan, and in the West. It was his early relationship with Watanabe Shōzaburō, having his first seven prints printed by the Shōzaburō atelier, that made Hiroshi believe that he could hire his own carvers and printers and produce woodblock prints, which he did in 1925.  Yoshida Tōshi (1911-1995) - eldest son of Hiroshi Yoshida. Having been affected by polio, and the pressure of continuing his fathers legacy, Tōshi Yoshida made prints and paintings which gradually became expressive, avant garde and abstract. Later in life he focused on birds and mammals. Seki Kenji - is a woodblock printmaker based in Tokyo. He was head printer, and produced prints, for Doi Hangaten as well as making his own pieces.  Late Fall (ca 1990's) Western Representational realism - is an attempt to represent the subject in art in the most realistic way possible. Interchangeable with naturalism in European art of the 19th Century.  kabuki - is a traditional form of Japanese theatre which started in Kyoto on the banks of the Kamo River in the 17th Century. Today it is a multi million dollar business and is almost exclusively run, professionally, by The Shochiku Company. Kabuki, the word, is separated into three different sounds; ka - meaning to sing, bu - meaning to dance, and ki- meaning skill. There are various families in kabuki which generate actors, passing down tradition throughout the lineage. For more information please read this fine article from Nippon.com. There are many books written on the subject of kabuki, but in my opinion, to begin, one needs to read Leonard Pronko's work Theatre East & West, Kawatake Toshio's Kabuki, and Earl Ernst's The Kabuki Theatre. Online, please visit Kabuki21.com, who's site is unparalleled. On YouTube there is the new(ish) Kabuki In-Depth which is updated regularly on kabuki information and history, and is very well done.  Hiroo/Roppongi -  is an upscale area of Tōkyō, Japan. It has a thriving international community, museums, galleries and the like. More info can be found, here.  Nakamura Utaemon VI (1917-2001) - was a kabuki actor who focused primarliy on female roles, or onnagata. He is considered one of the best actors in this kind of role, and was designated a Living National Treasure in Japan, in 1968.  From, A Great Mirror of the Actors of the Heisei Period: Nakamura Utaemon as Agemaki in Sukeroku by Paul Binnie (1997) Agemaki - is a character from the celebrated story Sukeroku, a story about love and revenge. It was first staged in kabuki in 1713. Agemaki is a famous courtesan who is in love with Sukeroku.  Edo Wonderland Nikko Mura - is an Edo stylized theme park based on the architecture of Edo Period (1603-1868) Japan, and is located in Tochigi Prefecture. There are other areas in Japan which contain Edo Period architecture and events, such as the Dutch Trading Post located on Dejima Island in Nagasaki. More info regarding Edo Wonderland, here.  More info on the Dejima, Dutch Trading Post, here.  nō - is a traditional Japanese theatre based on ghost and mythological stories. It, like kabuki, uses dance, music, and drama to tell its story. It is older than kabuki and was patronized by the aristocratic class in Japan. Kabuki was the oppoosite, where the everyperson could enjoy kabuki, the aristrocrats enjoyed nō. Like kabuki, the stage is set in a traditional way, and the roles are played by men. For a more detailed descriptor of nō, you can find it at Japan-Guide.com, here. Takarazuka -  is an all female musical theatre troupe, based in Hyōgo Prefecture, and founded in 1914. The revue has become a popular Kansai tourist attraction. For a detailed description of the Takarazuka, their website in English can be found, here. A Crib's Notes descriptor can be found, here.  kappazuri-e - is the method of stencil printing, usually atributed to the sōsaku hanga artists of the 1950's and 1960's. Artists such as Yoshitoshi Mori (1898-1992), used stencil's to make elaborate prints. It can be quite an interesting and complicated process. More information can be found, here, from Viewing Japanese Prints.    Yoshitoshi Mori : Street Vendors (1970)    German Expressionism - focused on emotional expression rather than realistic expression. German Expressionists  explored their works with colour and shape searching for a “primitive aesthetic” through experimentation. More info can be found, here, on Artsy.net    Max Pechstein - Angler am Lebastrom (1936) watercolour on paper   Edvard Munch (1863-1944) - was a Norweigan artist, who initially was a painter, but also ventured into printmaking making 850 images. His print medium was etching, lithography, and woodcut. More information can be found here, at Christie's.      The Girls on The Bridge (1918) woodcut printed in blue with lithograph and pale green on wove paper.    Ralph Kiggell (1960-2022) -  was one of the most important mokuhanga practitioners. Originally from England, Ralph lived and worked in Thailand. Ralph pushed the boundaries of mokuhanga with extremely large pieces, jigsaw carving, and by using fantastic colour. He also worked with the International Mokuhanga Conference to promote mokuhanga around the world. He will be greatly missed. Ralph's work can be found, here. His obituary in The Guardian can be found, here. His interview with The Unfinished Print can be found, here.     Jackfruit (2018)   Tama Art University - is an arts university located in various campuses in Tōkyō. It has various departments such as Architecture, Product and Textile Design, and Art Studies.    Ban Hua: Chinese woodblock prints - the history of Chinese woodblock goes back centuries, longer than the Japanese method. Modern Chinese printmaking began after Mao's Cultural Revolution, strongly connected  by the writings and work of philosopher, academic, and artist Lu Xun (1881-1936) who established the Modern Woodcut Movement. There is a lot of information regarding Chinese woodblock printing. To begin, check out the Muban Educational Trust based in England and their work. More info can be found, here.  And here at artelino, For the history of Lu Xun, this can be found, here.    powdered pigments - are an option when producing your mokuhanga. They are pigments which are made of powder, and when mixed with certain binders can be used as gouache, or water colours.    nihonga - was a Japanese artistic movement based on going back to a “traditional” form of Japanese aesthetic in painting, away form the new Western influences which were coming into Japan during the later 19th Century. More info can be found, here.      Tetsu Katsuda (1896-1980) - Evening (1934)   Uemura Shōen (1875-1949) -  was the pseudonym of Uemura Tsune, who was supported by her mother to pursue painting, at a time when female painters were rare. Her work focused on various themes such as nō, the four seasons, and nationalist paintings during World War 2.      Daughter Miyuki (1914) painting   kozo paper -  is paper made from mulberry bark and is commonly used in woodblock printmaking.   shina - is a type of Japanese plywood used in mokuhanga. Not all shina is made equally, buyer beware.    Wood Like Matsumura - is an online and brick and mortar store, for woodblock printmaking, located in Nerima City, Tōkyō. website.   Nihon no Hanga - is a mokuhanga museum located in Amsterdam, Netherlands. It focuses on many types of mokuhanga in history and publishes various catalogues of their exhibitions, which are top notch. More info, here.     The John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art - This museum is dedicated to the arts, Western and “non-Western”from all periods of human history, focusing on education, and conservation. More info, here.    Kabuki Earphone Guide -  is and was an audio guide in Japanese for Japanese, and English for English speaking tourists coming to watch kabuki. It hired English speaking academics to narrate the action as you watched. In 2015 the English version of the audio guide was replaced with the GMARK or GMARC captioning guide. GMARK stands for Graphic Multilingual Advanced Real-time Captioning system.    Kabuki-za - is the main theatre in Tōkyō which shows kabuki performances. It was opened in 1889 and has been rebuilt several times in its history.    Okubi-e -  are woodblock prints of close-up human heads, which came into prominence in the late 19th Century. For me, the best mokuhanga designer of okubi-e is Toyohara Kunichika (1835-1900). His okubi-e of kabuki actors is unparalleled, showing the actors in various positions with intricate backgrounds and poses.      Kawarazaki Gonjuro I as Sato Masakiyo (1869)     Ichikawa Ennosuke IV as Nikki Danjō (1996) by Paul Binnie   Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890) - was a Dutch post-Impressionist painter. He began to collect Japanese woodblock prints around the winter of 1886-1887 from the art dealer Siegfried Bing. he used to collect and to sell for a profit, although he didn't sell very many. This collection would go on to influence much of his work.  Rebecca Salter - is the President of The Royal Academy of Arts, in London, England. She is also an artist who has written two books about Japanese woodblock printing, Japanese Woodblock Printing (2001), and Japanese Popular Prints (2006). She worked with the Satō Woodblock Print Workshop, documenting their process. Her interview with The Unfinished Print can be found, here.  into the light II (2011) Akira Kurosaki 黒崎彰 (1937-2019) - was one of the most influential woodblock print artists of the modern era. His work, while seemingly abstract, moved people with its vibrant colour and powerful composition. He was a teacher and invented the “Disc Baren,” which is a great baren to begin your mokuhanga journey with. At the 2021 Mokuhanga Conference in Nara, Japan there was a tribute exhibit of his life works. Azusa Gallery has a nice selection of his work, here. W- 396, Wandering Heart (2017) Wimbledon, England - is a district located in South West London. Considered an affluent neighbourhood, it is the home of the Wimbledon tennis tournament. More info can be found here, at Visit London.    Stockwell, London - located in the burough of Lambeth, in London, England. It is a diverse neighbourhood, close to Brixton, with shopping, and restaurants. It's a great area to stay and enjoy a different side of London.    International Mokuhanga Conference - is a bi-yearly conference dedicated to mokuhanga which started in 2011 by the International Mokuhanga Association. Each conference is themed. The latest conference was in 2021, delayed a year because of the pandemic. More information can be found, here.       Hiroshi Yoshida - Fishes of Honolulu at The Honolulu Aquarium (1925)     Summer Canyon - Black's Beach: Sunrise   © Popular Wheat Productions opening and closing musical credit - Yazoo: Too Pieces. From their 1982 album Upstairs At Eric's logo designed and produced by Douglas Batchelor and André Zadorozny  Disclaimer: Please do not reproduce or use anything from this podcast without shooting me an email and getting my express written or verbal consent. I'm friendly :) Слава Україну If you find any issue with something in the show notes please let me know. ***The opinions expressed by guests in The Unfinished Print podcast are not necessarily those of André Zadorozny and of Popular Wheat Productions.***            

KNPR's State of Nevada
Culinary Quickie: Anima by EDO in Las Vegas

KNPR's State of Nevada

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 20, 2023 12:12


Anima by EDO, a local restaurant that's been open for about a year, is already at the top of many dining lists.

Father Hoods
Dad Is Serious

Father Hoods

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 17, 2023 37:32


You down with chatGPT? Yea you know me! Tune in to this week's episode of Father Hoods Pod with DJ EFN, Manny Digital and KGB as the fellas discuss the rapid evolution of technology, how school can affect the decision-making process of kids in choosing career paths, and more! Keeping the conversation going, Manny also talks a bit about his family vacation and how he felt comfortable letting his kids roam around the resort by themselves. Tap in and get your weekly dose of that #FatherHood real!  You'll hear about…

Sengoku Daimyo's Chronicles of Japan

This episode we look at some of the physical evidence from this period.  In particular, since we are talking about the sovereign known as Ankan Tenno, we will look at a glass bowl, said to have come from his tomb, which appears to have made its way all the way from Sassanid Persia to Japan between the 5th and 6th centuries CE.  Along the way we'll take a brief look at the route that such an item may have taken to travel across the Eurasian continent all the way to Japan. For more on this episode, check out https://sengokudaimyo.com/podcast/episode-79 Rough Transcript: Welcome to Sengoku Daimyo's Chronicles of Japan.  My name is Joshua, and this is Episode 79:  Ankan's Glass Bowl. We are currently in the early part of the 6th century.  Last episode was our New Year's wrapup, but just before that we talked about the reign of Magari no Ōye, aka Ohine, aka Ankan Tennō.   According to the Chronicles, he was the eldest son of Wohodo, aka Keitai Tennō, coming to the throne in 534.  For all of the various Miyake, or Royal Grannaries, that he granted, his reign only lasted about two years, coming to an unfortunate end in the 12th month of 535.  The Chronicles claim that Ohine was 70 years old when he died, which would seem to indicate he was born when his father, Wohodo, was only 13 years of age.  That seems rather young, but not impossibly so. It is said that Ankan Tennō was buried on the hill of Takaya, in the area of Furuichi.  And that is where my personal interest in him and his short reign might end, if not for a glass bowl that caught my eye in the Tokyo National Museum. Specifically, it was the Heiseikan, which is where the Tokyo National Museum hosts special exhibitions, but it also hosts a regular exhibition on Japanese archaeology.  In fact, if you ever get the chance, I highly recommend checking it out.  I mean, let's be honest, the Tokyo National Museum is one of my favorite places to visit when I'm in Tokyo.  I think there is always something new—or at least something old that I find I'm taking a second look at. The Japanese archaeology section of the Heiseikan covers from the earliest stone tools through the Jomon, Yayoi, Kofun, and up to about the Nara period.  They have originals or replicas of many items that we've talked about on the podcast, including the gold seal of King Na of Wa, the Suda Hachiman mirror, and the swords from Eta Funayama and Inariyama kofun, which mention Wakatakiru no Ōkimi, generally thought to be the sovereign known as Yuuryaku Tennō.  They also have one of the large iron tate, or shields, on loan from Isonokami Shrine, and lots of bronze mirrors and various types of haniwa. Amongst this treasure trove of archaeological artifacts, one thing caught my eye from early on.  It is a small, glass bowl, round in shape, impressed throughout with a series of round indentations, almost like a giant golf ball.  Dark brown streaks crisscross the bowl, where it has been broken and put back together at some point in the past.  According to the placard, this Juuyo Bunkazai, or Important Cultural Property, is dated to about the 6th century, was produced somewhere in West Asia, and it is said to have come from the tomb of none other than Ankan Tennō himself. This has always intrigued me.  First and foremost there is the question of provenance—while there are plenty of tombs that have been opened over the years, generally speaking the tombs of the imperial family, especially those identified as belonging to reigning sovereigns, have been off limits to most archaeological investigations.  So how is it that we have artifacts identified with the tomb of Ankan Tennō, if that is the case? The second question, which almost trumps the first, is just how did a glass bowl from west Asia make it all the way to Japan in the 6th century?  Of course, Japan and northeast Asia in general were not strangers to glassmaking—glass beads have a long history both on the Korean peninsula and in the archipelago, including the molds used to make them.  However, it is one thing to melt glass and pour it into molds, similar to working with cast bronze.  These bowls, however, appear to be something different.  They were definitely foreign, and, as we shall see, they had made quite the journey. So let's take a look and see if we can't answer both of these questions, and maybe learn a little bit more about the world of 6th century Japan along the way. To start with, let's look at the provenance of this glass bowl.  Provenance is important—there are numerous stories of famous “finds” that turned out to be fakes, or else items planted by someone who wanted to get their name out there.  Archaeology—and its close cousin, paleontology—can get extremely competitive, and if you don't believe me just look up the Bone Wars of the late 19th century.  Other names that come to mind:  The infamous Piltdown man, the Cardiff Giant, and someone we mentioned in one of our first episodes, Fujimura Shin'ichi, who was accused of salting digs to try to claim human habitation in Japan going back hundreds of thousands of years. This is further complicated by the fact that, in many cases, the situation behind a given find is not necessarily well documented.  There are Edo period examples of Jomon pottery, or haniwa, that were found, but whose actual origins have been lost to time.  Then there are things like the seal of King Na of Wa, which is said to have been discovered by a farmer, devoid of the context that would help to otherwise clear the questions that continue to surround such an object.  On top of this, there are plenty of tombs that have been worn down over the ages—where wind and water have eroded the soil, leaving only the giant stone bones, or perhaps washing burial goods into nearby fields or otherwise displacing them. So what is the story with the tomb of Ankan Tennō, and this glass bowl? To answer this, let's first look at the tomb attributed to Ankan Tennō.  The Nihon Shoki tells us in the 8th century that this tomb was located at Takaya, in the area of Furuichi.  This claim is later repeated by the Engi Shiki in the 10th century.  Theoretically, the compilers of both of these works had some idea of where this was, but in the hundreds of years since then, a lot has happened.  Japan has seen numerous governments, as well as war, famine, natural disaster, and more.  At one point, members of the royal household were selling off calligraphy just to pay for the upkeep of the court, and while the giant kofun no doubt continued to be prominent features for locals in the surrounding areas, the civilian and military governments of the intervening centuries had little to no budget to spare for their upkeep.  Records were lost, as were many details. Towards the end of the Edo period, and into the early Meiji, a resurgence in interest in the royal, or Imperial, family and their ancient mausoleums caused people to investigate the texts and attempt to identify mausoleums for each of the sovereigns, as well as other notable figures, in the Kojiki and the Nihon Shoki.  Given that many of those figures are likely fictional or legendary individuals, one can see how this may be problematic.  And yet, the list that eventually emerged has become the current list of kofun protected by the Imperial Household Agency as imperial mausolea. Based on what we know, today, some of these official associations seem obviously questionable.  Some of them, for instance, are not even keyhole shaped tombs—for instance, some are circular, or round tombs, where the claim is often made that the other parts of the tomb were eroded or washed away.  Still others engender their own controversy, such as who, exactly, is buried in Daisen-ryō, the largest kofun, claimed to be the resting place of Ōsazaki no Mikoto, aka Nintoku Tennō.  Some people, however, claim that it is actually the sovereign Woasatsuma Wakugo, aka Ingyō Tennō, who is buried there, instead.  What is the truth?  Well, without opening up the main tomb, who is to say, and even then it is possible that any evidence may have already been lost to the acidic soils of the archipelago, which are hardly kind to organic matter. By the way, quick divergence, here—if you look up information on Daisen-ryō, aka Daisen Kofun, you may notice that there are drawings of a grave, including a coffin, associated with it.  That might get you thinking, as I did at one point, that Daisen kofun had already been opened, but it turns out that was a grave on the slopes of the square end of the kofun, and not from the main, circular burial mound.  Theoretically this may have been an important consort, or perhaps offspring or close relative of the main individual interred in the kofun, but most likely it is not for the person for whom the giant mound was actually erected.  So, yes, Daisen kofun remains unopened, at least as far as we know. As for the kofun identified for Ankan Tennō, today that is the tomb known as Furuichi Tsukiyama Kofun, aka Takaya Tsukiyama Kofun.  While the connection to Ankan Tennō may be somewhat unclear, the kofun has had its own colorful history, in a way.  Now most of the reports I could find, from about '92 up to 2022, place this kofun, which is a keyhole shaped kofun, in the correct time period—about the early to mid-6th century, matching up nicely with a 534 to 535 date for the reign given to Ankan Tennō.  But what is fascinating is the history around the 15th to 16th centuries.  It was just after the Ounin War, in 1479, when Hatakeyama Yoshihiro decided to build a castle here, placing the honmaru, the main enclosure, around the kofun, apparently incorporating the kofun and its moats into the castle design.  The castle, known as Takaya Castle, would eventually fall to Oda Nobunaga's forces in 1575, and most of the surrounding area was burned down in the fighting, bringing the kofun's life as a castle to an end. Some of the old earthworks still exist, however, and excavations in the area have helped determine the shape of the old castle, though there still have not been any fulsome excavations of the mound that I have found.  This makes sense as the kofun is designated as belonging to a member of the imperial lineage. There are, however, other keyhole shaped kofun from around the early 6th century that are also found in the same area, which also could be considered royal mausolea, and would seem to fit the bill just as well as this particular tomb.  In addition, there are details in the Chronicles, such as the fact that Magari no Ohine, aka Ankan Tennō, was supposedly buried with his wife and his younger sister.  This is, however, contradicted by records like the 10th century Engi Shiki, where two tombs are identified, one for Ankan Tennō and one for his wife, Kasuga no Yamada, so either the Chronicles got it wrong, or there were already problems with tomb identification just two centuries later.  So we still aren't entirely sure that this is Ankan Tennō's tomb. But at least we know that the glass bowl came from a 6th century kingly tomb, even if that tomb was only later identified as belonging to Ankan Tennō, right? Well, not so fast. The provenance on the bowl is a bit more tricky than that.  You see, the bowl itself came to light in 1950, when a private individual in Fuse, Ōsaka invited visiting scholar Ishida Mosaku to take a look.  According to his report at the time, the bowl was in a black lacquered box and wrapped in a special cloth, with a written inscription that indicated that the bowl had been donated to a temple in Furuichi named Sairin-ji. There are documents from the late Edo period indicating that various items were donated to Sairin-ji temple between the 16th to the 18th centuries, including quote-unquote “utensils” said to have been washed out of the tomb believed to be that of Ankan Tennō.  Ishida Mosaku and other scholars immediately connected this glass bowl with one or more of those accounts.  They were encouraged by the fact that there is a similar bowl found in the Shōsōin, an 8th century repository at Tōdai-ji temple, in Nara, which houses numerous artifacts donated on behalf of Shōmu Tennō.  Despite the gulf of time between them—two hundred years between the 6th and 8th centuries—this was explained away in the same way that Han dynasty mirrors, made in about the 3rd century, continued to show up in burials for many hundreds of years afterwards, likewise passed down as familial heirlooms. Still, the method of its discovery, the paucity of direct evidence, and the lack of any direct connection with where it came from leaves us wondering—did this bowl really come from the tomb of Ankan Tennō?  Even moreso, did it come from a 6th century tomb at all?  Could it not have come from some other tomb? We could tie ourselves up in knots around this question, and I would note that if you look carefully at the Tokyo National Museum's own accounting of the object they do mention that it is quote-unquote “possibly” from the tomb of Ankan Tennō. What does seem clear, however, is that its manufacture was not in Japan.  Indeed, however it came to our small group of islands on the northeastern edge of the Eurasian continent, it had quite the journey, because it does appear to be genuinely from the Middle East—specifically from around the time of the Sassanian or Sassanid empire, the first Iranian empire, centered on the area of modern Iran. And it isn't the only one.  First off, of course, there is the 8th century bowl in the Shousoin I just mentioned, but there are also examples of broken glass found on Okinoshima, an island deep in the middle of the strait between Kyushu and the Korean peninsula, which has a long history as a sacred site, mentioned in the Nihon Shoki, and attached to the Munakata shrine in modern Fukuoka.  Both Okinoshima and the Shōsōin—at least as part of the larger Nara cultural area—are on the UNESCO register of World Heritage sites, along with the Mozu-Furuichi kofun group, of which the Takaya Tsukiyama kofun is one.. Okinoshima is a literal treasure trove for archaeologists. However, its location and status have made it difficult to fully explore.  The island is still an active sacred site, and so investigations are balanced with respect for local tradition.  The lone occupant of the island is a Shinto priest, one of about two dozen who rotate spending 10 days out at the island, tending the sacred site.  Women are still not allowed, and for centuries, one day a year they allowed up to 200 men on the island after they had purified themselves in the ocean around the island.  Since then, they have also opened up to researchers, as well as military and media, at least in some instances. The island is apparently littered with offerings.  Investigations have demonstrated that this island has been in use since at least the 4th century.  As a sacred site, guarding the strait between Kyushu and the Korean peninsula, fishermen and sailors of all kinds would make journeys to the island and leave offerings of one kind or another, and many of them are still there: clay vessels, swords, iron ingots, bronze mirrors, and more.  The island's location, which really is in the middle of the straits, and not truly convenient to any of the regular trading routes, means that it has never really been much of a strategic site, just a religious one, and one that had various religious taboos, so it hasn't undergone the centuries of farming and building that have occurred elsewhere. Offerings are scattered in various places, often scattered around or under boulders and large rocks that were perhaps seen as particularly worthy of devotion.  Since researchers have been allowed in, over 80,000 treasures have been found and catalogued.  Among those artifacts that have been brought back is glass, including glass from Sassanid Persia.  Pieces of broken glass bowls, like the one said to have come from Ankan's tomb, as well as what appear to be beads made from broken glass pieces, have been recovered over the years, once more indicating their presence in the trade routes to the mainland, although when, exactly, they came over can be a little more difficult to place. That might be helped by two other glass artifacts, also found in the archaeological exhibit of the Heiseikan in the Tokyo National Museum: a glass bowl and dish discovered at Niizawa Senzuka kofun Number 126, in Kashihara city, in Nara. This burial is believed to date to the latter half of the 5th century, and included an iron sword, numerous gold fittings and jewelry, and even an ancient clothes iron, which at the time looked like a small frying pan, where you could put hot coals or similar items in the pan and use the flat bottom to help iron out wrinkles in cloth.  Alongside all of this were also discovered two glass vessels.  One was a dark, cobalt-blue plate, with a stand and very shallow conical shape.  The other was a round glass bowl with an outwardly flared lip.  Around the smooth sides, the glass has been marked with three rows of circular dots that go all the way around, not dissimilar from the indentations in the Ankan and Shōsōin glass bowls. All of these, again, are believed to have come from Sassanid Persia, modern Iran, and regardless of the provenance of the Ankan bowl, it seems that we have clear evidence that Sassanian glassworks were making their way to Japan.  But how?  How did something like glass—hardly known for being the most robust of materials—make it all the way from Sassanid Persia to Yamato between the 5th and 8th centuries? To start with, let's look at Sassanid Persia and its glass. Sassanid Persia—aka Sassanid or Sassanian Iran—is the name given to the empire that replaced the Parthian empire, and is generally agreed to have been founded sometime in the early 3rd century.  The name “Sassanid” refers to the legendary dynastic founder, Sassan, though the first historical sovereign appears to be Ardeshir I, who helped put the empire on the map. Ardeshir I called his empire “Eran sahr”, and it is often known as an Iranian or Persian empire, based on their ties to Pars and the use of the Middle Persian, or Farsi, language.   For those not already well aware, Farsi is one of several Iranian languages, though over the years many of the various Iranian speaking peoples would often be classified as “Persian” in English literature.  That said, there is quite a diversity of Iranian languages and people who speak them, including Farsi, Pashto, Dari, Tajik, and the ancient Sogdian language, which I'm sure we'll touch on more given their importance in the ancient silk road trade.  Because of the ease with which historical “Iranian” ethnic groups can be conflated with the modern state, I am going to largely stick with the term Persian, here, but just be aware that the two words are often, though not always, interchangeable. The Sassanid dynasty claimed a link to the older Achaemenid dynasty, and over the subsequent five centuries of their rule they extended their borders, dominating the area between the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf, eastward to much of modern Afghanistan and Pakistan, running right up to the Hindu Kush and the Pamir mountains.  They held sway over much of Central Asia, including the area of Transoxiana.  With that they had access to both the sea routes, south of India and the overland routes through the Tianshan mountains and the northern and southern routes around the great Taklamakan desert – so, basically, any trade passing between Central and East Asia would pass through Sassanid territory. The Persian empire of the Sassanids was pre-Islamic—Islamic Arab armies would not arrive until about the 7th century, eventually bringing an end to the Sassanid dynasty.  Until that point, the Persian empire was largely Zoroastrian, an Iranian religion based around fire temples, restored after the defeat of the Parthians, where eternal flames were kept burning day and night as part of their ritual practice.  The Sassanids inherited a Persian culture in an area that had been dominated by the Parthians, and before that the Hellenistic Seleucids, and their western edge bordered with the Roman empire.  Rome's establishment in the first century BCE coincided with the invention of glassblowing techniques, and by the time of the Sassanid Empire these techniques seem to have been well established in the region. Sassanid glass decorated with patterns of ground, cut, and polished hollow facets—much like what we see in the examples known in the Japanese islands—comes from about the 5th century onward.  Prior to that, the Sassanian taste seems to have been for slightly less extravagant vessels, with straight or slightly rounded walls. Sassanid glass was dispersed in many different directions along their many trade routes across the Eurasian continent, and archaeologists have been able to identify glass from this region not just by its shape, but by the various physical properties based on the formulas and various raw materials used to make the glass. As for the trip to Japan, this was most likely through the overland routes.  And so the glass would have been sold to merchants who would take it up through Transoxiana, through passes between the Pamirs and the Tianshan mountains, and then through a series of oasis towns and city-states until it reached Dunhuang, on the edge of the ethnic Han sphere of influence. For a majority of this route, the glass was likely carried by Sogdians, another Iranian speaking people from the region of Transoxiana.  Often simply lumped in with the rest of the Iranian speaking world as “Persians”, Sogdians had their own cultural identity, and the area of Sogdia is known to have existed since at least the ancient Achaemenid dynasty.  From the 4th to the 8th century, Sogdian traders plied the sands of Central Eurasia, setting up a network of communities along what would come to be known as the Silk Road. It is along this route that the glassware, likely packed in straw or some other protective material, was carried on the backs of horses, camels, and people along a journey of several thousand kilometers, eventually coming to the fractious edge of the ethnic Han sphere.  Whether it was these same Sogdian traders that then made their way to the ocean and upon boats out to the Japanese islands is unknown, but it is not hard imagining crates being transferred from merchant to merchant, east, to the Korean Peninsula, and eventually across the sea. The overland route from Sogdia is one of the more well-known—and well-worn—routes on what we modernly know as the Silk Road, and it's very much worth taking the time here to give a brief history of how this conduit between Western Asia/Europe and Eastern Asia developed over the centuries.  One of the main crossroads of this area is the Tarim Basin, the area that, today, forms much of Western China, with the Tianshan mountains in the north and the Kunlun Mountains, on the edge of the Tibetan plateau, to the south.  In between is a large desert, the Taklamakan desert, which may have once been a vast inland sea.  Even by the Han dynasty, a vast saltwater body known as the Puchang Sea existed in its easternmost regions.  Comparable to some of the largest of the Great Lakes, and fed by glacial run-off, the lake eventually dwindled to become the salt-marshes around Lop Nur.  And yet, researchers still find prominent boat burials out in what otherwise seems to be the middle of the desert. Around the Tarim basin were various cultures, often centered on oases at the base of the mountains.  Runoff from melting ice and snow in the mountains meant a regular supply of water, and by following the mountains one could navigate from watering hole to watering hole, creating a natural roadway through the arid lands.  In the middle of the Basin, however, is the great Taklamakan desert, and even during the Han dynasty it was a formidable and almost unpassable wasteland.  One could wander the sands for days or weeks with no water and no indication of direction other than the punishing sun overhead.  It is hardly a nice place and remains largely unpopulated, even today. While there were various cultures and city-states around the oasis towns, the first major power that we know held sway, at least over the northern route, were the Xiongnu.  Based in the area of modern Mongolia, the Xiongnu swept down during the Qin and early Han dynasties, displacing or conquering various people. An early exploration of the Tarim basin and its surroundings was conducted by the Han dynasty diplomat, Zhang Qian.  Zhang Qian secretly entered Xiongnu territory with the goal of reaching the Yuezhi—a nomadic group that had been one of those displaced by the Xiongnu.  The Yuezhi had been kicked out of their lands in the Gansu region and moved all the way to the Ferghana valley, in modern Tajikistan, a part of the region known as Transoxiana.  Although Zhang Qian was captured and spent 10 years in service to the Xiongnu, he never forgot his mission and eventually made his way to the Yuezhi.  By that time, however, the Yuezhi had settled in to their new life, and they weren't looking for revenge. While Zhang Qian's news may have been somewhat disappointing for the Han court, what was perhaps more important was the intelligence he brought back concerning the routes through the Tarim basin, and the various people there, as well as lands beyond.  The Han dynasty continued to assert itself in the area they called the “Western Regions”, and General Ban Chao would eventually be sent to defeat the Xiongnu and loosen their hold in the region, opening up the area all the way to modern Kashgar.  Ban Chao would even send an emissary, Gan Ying, to try to make the journey all the way to the Roman empire, known to the Han court as “Daqin”, using the name of the former Qin dynasty as a sign of respect for what they had heard.  However, Gan Ying only made it as far as the land of Anxi—the name given to Parthia—where he was told that to make it to Rome, or Daqin, would require crossing the ocean on a voyage that could take months or even years.  Hearing this, Gan Ying decided to turn back and report on what he knew. Of course if he actually made it to the Persian Gulf—or even to the Black Sea, as some claim—Gan Ying would have been much closer to Rome than the accounts lead us to believe. It is generally thought that he was being deliberately mislead by Parthian merchants who felt they might be cut out if Rome and the Han Dynasty formed more direct relations.  Silks from East Asia, along with other products, were already a lucrative opportunity for middlemen across the trade routes, and nobody wanted to be cut out of that position if they could help it. That said, the Parthians and, following them the Sassanid Persians, continued to maintain relationships with dynasties at the other end of what we know as the Silk Road, at least when they could.  The Sassanid Persians, when they came to power, were known to the various northern and southern dynasties as Bosi—possibly pronounced something like Puasie, at the time, no doubt their attempt to render the term “Parsi”.  We know of numerous missions in both directions between various dynasties, and Sassanian coins are regularly found the south of modern China. And so we can see that even in the first and second centuries, Eurasia was much more connected than one might otherwise believe.  Goods would travel from oasis town to oasis town, and be sold in markets, where they might just be picked up by another merchant.  Starting in the fourth century, the Sogdian merchants began to really make their own presence known along these trade routes.  They would set up enclaves in various towns, and merchants would travel from Sogdian enclave to Sogdian enclave with letters of recommendation, as well as personal letters for members of the community, setting up their own early postal service.  This allowed the Sogdian traders to coordinate activities and kept them abreast of the latest news.     I'm not sure we have a clear indication how long this trip would take.  Theoretically, one could travel from Kashgar to Xi'an and back in well under a year, if one were properly motivated and provisioned—it is roughly 4,000 kilometers, and travel would have likely been broken up with long stays to rest and refresh at the various towns along the way. I've personally had the opportunity to travel from Kashgar to Turpan, though granted it was in the comfort of an air conditioned bus.  Still, having seen the modern conditions, the trip would be grueling, but not impossible back in the day, and if the profits were lucrative enough, then why not do it—it is not dissimilar to the adventurers from Europe in the 16th century who went out to sea to find their own fortunes.  And so the glass bowl likely made its way through the markets of the Tarim basin, to the markets of various capitals in the Yellow River or Yangzi regions—depending on who was in charge in any given year—and eventually made its way to the Korean peninsula and from there to a ship across the Korean strait. Of course, those ships weren't simply holding a single glass vessel.  Likely they were laden with a wide variety of goods.  Some things, such as fabric, incense, and other more biodegradable products would not be as likely to remain, and even glass breaks and oxidizes, and metal rusts away.  Furthermore, many of the goods had likely been picked over by the time any shipments arrived in the islands, making things such as these glass bowls even more rare and scarce. Still, this bowl, whether it belonged to Ankan or not, tells us a story.  It is the story of a much larger world, well beyond the Japanese archipelago, and one that will be encroaching more and more as we continue to explore this period.  Because it wasn't just physical goods that were being transported along the Silk Road.  The travelers also carried with them news and new ideas.  One of these ideas was a series of teachings that came out of India and arrived in China during the Han dynasty, known as Buddhism.  It would take until the 6th century, but Buddhism would eventually make its way to Japan, the end of the Silk Road. But that is for another episode.  For now, I think we'll close out our story of Ankan and his glass bowl.  I hope you've enjoyed this little diversion, and from here we'll continue on with our narrative as we edge closer and closer to the formal introduction of Buddhism and the era known as the Asuka Period. Until then, thank you for listening and for all of your support.  If you like what we are doing, tell your friends and feel free to rate us wherever you listen to podcasts.  If you feel the need to do more, and want to help us keep this going, we have information about how you can donate on Patreon or through our KoFi site, ko-fi.com/sengokudaimyo, or find the links over at our main website, SengokuDaimyo.com/Podcast, where we will have some more discussion on topics from this episode. Also, feel free to Tweet at us at @SengokuPodcast, or reach out to our Sengoku Daimyo Facebook page.  You can also email us at the.sengoku.daimyo@gmail.com.  And that's all for now.  Thank you again, and I'll see you next episode on Sengoku Daimyo's Chronicles of Japan.      

Disaster
16: Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami

Disaster

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 15, 2023 18:15


Tokyo is the largest city and capital of Japan. The area has been inhabited since ancient times. From the small fishing village of Edo to the capital of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1603, by the 19th century, Edo was the largest city in the world with a population exceeding one million. Under the Meiji Restoration, in 1868, Tokyo was given the name it has today and became the imperial capital of Japan. Although not the subject of today's podcast, Tokyo has gone through plenty of disasters, both natural and manmade. In 1923, a massive earthquake shook the region and destroyed most of the city—killing at least one hundred thousand people. However, within seven years, the city had mostly been rebuilt only to be devastated again by the US bombings in World War II. Japan is a country of resilience, as is its capital. Even so, the tragedies to come is what no one was prepared for. Visit us online.

Sách Nói Chất Lượng Cao
Sách nói Năm Người Đàn Bà Si Tình - Ihara Saikaku | Voiz FM

Sách Nói Chất Lượng Cao

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 12, 2023 26:03


Nghe trọn nội dung sách nói Năm Người Đàn Bà Si Tình trên ứng dụng Voiz FM: https://voiz.vn/play/2213 Sự đen tối của tâm hồn con người trước cám dỗ của sắc dục được miêu tả rất tinh tế trong Năm Người Đàn Bà Si Tình. Nhưng không có tội lỗi nào mà không bị trừng phạt, chỉ là vấn đề sớm hay muộn mà thôi. Motiv tội ác và trừng phạt được khắc họa sắc nét trong tác phẩm qua các truyện tiêu biểu “Chuyện về nàng Oshichi si tình”, “Chuyện về vị phu nhân đa tình” và “Chuyện nàng Osen đa tình”. Oshichi vốn là con gái duy nhất của một người buôn trái cây tên là Hachibei ở Edo. Vào đêm Hai mươi tám Tết, khu phố phát hỏa và mọi người phải đến chùa Kichijo trong vùng tạm trú. Nơi đây, nàng gặp một chàng thiếu niên võ sĩ anh tuấn tên là Kichisaburo. Hai người lén viết thư từ qua lại cho nhau. Và rồi dịp may đến vào đêm mười lăm tháng Giêng khi các nhà sư phải đi chuẩn bị tang lễ cho Hachizaemon, một người bán gạo trong vùng. Oshichi lén đi gặp Kichisaburo và hai người tình tự. Bà mẹ biết chuyện mới lôi Oshichi về nhà, không cho tạm trú ớ chùa nữa. Nhớ nhung, Kichisaburo mới giả làm một người nhà quê tìm đến nhà Oshichi xin ngủ trọ vào một đêm mưa tuyết và “ái ân cũng lặng lẽ như hình những con thiên nga vẽ trên bức bình phong rực rỡ phía sau”. Bình minh đến chia cách đôi lứa rồi đêm ngày Oshichi nhớ mong. Trong một đêm mưa “nàng bỗng nhớ lại cái đêm xảy ra hỏa hoạn làm nàng phải đến trú ngụ trong chùa và nàng nghĩ rằng một tai họa như thế sẽ đem cho nàng dịp may gặp lại Kichisaburo. Ý tưởng điên rồ này đưa nàng đến một hành động vô phương cứu chữa. Nàng châm lửa đốt nhà nhưng dân chúng lần theo dấu khói và bắt gặp Oshichi ở đúng địa điểm gây hỏa hoạn”. Oshichi bị xử tử hình. Trong khi đó, Kichisaburo đêm ngày thương nhớ Oshichi, không hay nàng đã chết. Người thân, bạn bè không dám báo tin cho chàng, sợ chàng tự sát. Nhưng rồi chàng cũng biết và sau khi được các vị sư khuyên giải, Kichisaburo quyết định xuất gia. Truyện kết thúc bằng lời nhận định: “Câu chuyện này được kể lại - đầy tình và khổ - cốt để chỉ cho thấy cuộc đời bất trắc và hư ảo dường nào, giống hệt như một giấc mộng hoang dã và hoang đường.” “Chuyện về vị phu nhân đa tình” bắt đầu bằng một cuộc tranh luận mỹ nhân thú vị. Bốn chàng công tử nổi tiếng ở kinh thành sau khi đi xem hát về ghé trà thất ngắm người qua lại và tìm kiếm người phụ nữ đẹp nhất. Đầu tiên có “một người phụ nữ trạc hăm ba, hăm bốn đi ngang qua, sắc đẹp hiếm có, cặp mắt tinh anh, chiếc cổ thon thả yêu kiều... Nàng bước đi uyển chuyền nhịp nhàng, hông lác lư một cách rất tự nhiên”. Thế là “một trong mấy chàng trai kêu lên: “Ôi, thật đáng giá ngàn vàng!”, nhưng lời nói chưa kịp thốt ra thì vị phu nhân quay đầu lại nói điều gì đó với người theo hầu, vừa hé môi ra đã lộ chiếc răng sún, làm cho bốn chàng tan hết ảo mộng”. Có nàng thì trên gương mặt đẹp có một vết sẹo dài, có nàng kiêu kỳ thanh thoát nhưng lại mang theo ba đến bốn đứa con, giả vờ như không quan tâm gì đến chúng. Cuối cùng bốn chàng mới tìm được vị phu nhân Osan, được mệnh danh là Tân Komachi mà “chỉ về sau người ta mới hiểu ra rằng biết bao tai ương ẩn giấu dưới cái sắc đẹp yêu kiều ấy”. Nàng là vợ của một viên quan làm lịch. Trong suốt ba năm từ ngày về nhà chồng Osan phục vụ tận tình chu đáo. Nhưng rồi viên quan có công chuyện phải lên Edo. Phụ thân Osan lo lắng cho sức khỏe con gái mình nên mới chọn một chàng trẻ tuổi là Moenon đến phụ giúp. Người hầu gái của Osan là Rin có tình ý với Moemon nhưng không biết chữ nên nhờ Osan viết thư giùm mình, Moemon trả lời lại rất xấc xược. Vì tức giận thay cho Rin, Osan lên kế hoạch hẹn Moemon đến gặp Rin vào đêm mười bốn tháng Năm.

Father Hoods
Emotional

Father Hoods

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 10, 2023 42:00


New Year, Brand NEW episode for that @$$! On this week's episode of the Father Hoods Pod, the gang's finally complete! Join Manny Digital, DJ EFN, and KGB rap about their 2023 #dadgoals. They also share their perspectives on how they would want their kids to see the world in a positive way. BONUS! Listen to KGB as he shares with us how their flu sickness turned out to be a “blessing in disguise” as it presented an opportunity for them to teach their son to become more independent. You'll hear about…

The Dan Rayburn Podcast
Episode 46: Industry Layoffs; Latest ARPU Data; Fragmented Video Advertising Metrics

The Dan Rayburn Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 9, 2023 36:17


This week we highlight some of the layoffs across the industry (Vimeo, Amazon, Kaltura, Amdocs, JWP) and why getting to positive cash flow for vendors is and should be the number one goal in 2023. We also detail the latest ARPU numbers from OTT services and some TV news from CES, with Roku announcing the first-ever smart TV designed and built by Roku and a still unnamed partner. Finally, we discuss the extremely fragmented landscape for video advertising metrics, the news of Nielsen ONE and how every major media company has struck deals with measurement firms like VideoAmp, EDO, Comscore, and iSpot to replace or supplement Nielsen. Companies and services mentioned: Vimeo, Kaltura, JPW, Amazon, Netflix, Disney, Nielsen, Videoamp, Amdocs, Transmit Live, Warner Bros. Discovery, Roku, Samsung, Google TV, EDO, Comscore, iSpot.Questions or feedback? Contact: dan@danrayburn.com

Africa Today
Nigeria: 30 train passengers abducted

Africa Today

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 9, 2023 24:12


In Nigeria, 30 train passengers have been abducted in Edo state, with police hunting for the perpetrators. Insecurity is a huge problem in many parts of the country, and a key concern for voters ahead of next month's general elections. Plus, after a peace deal ended the civil war and as essential services begin to be restored, young Tigrayans say they're being blocked from flying to Ethiopia's capital Addis Ababa. And we have a special report from Namibia, where the government decriminalised baby abandonment three years ago, and now wants to relaunch the campaign.

The Michigan Opportunity
S2 Ep.47 - Ara Topouzian, Executive Director, Michigan Venture Capital Association

The Michigan Opportunity

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 4, 2023 26:36


The Michigan Venture Capital Association: More than 400 individual members representing 100+ organizations across the nation, from angel funds and VCs to universities and EDO's. Join our guest Ara Topouzian and host Ed Clemente, as they explore the complicated but fascinating world of Venture Capital. The MVCA's goal is to increase the amount of capital and talent available to venture and angel investors so they can fund Michigan's most innovative entrepreneurs as well as working closely with them to transform breakthrough ideas into new companies and industries that drive Michigan job creation and economic growth. Ara walks us through the many moving parts of this ecosystem. Listen to a great discussion about VC, angels, EDO's, universities and tech transfer. You can also read the transcript from our conversation.

MONDO Podcast
ŠESTA LIČNA: S5A06 – Nova Godina, Stari Jadran!

MONDO Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 3, 2023 61:25


CAPTION SOCIAL Srećna nova godina i božićni praznici! E tako, sad kad smo pregurali taj obavezni deo, dobrodošli u prvu ovogodišnju ABA Šestu Ličnu! Na tanjiru, osim ruske salate i kiflica, standardni meni – večiti i njihove (ne)zgode, te ostatak regiona koji pokušava da se priključi... Crvena Zvezda nikako da se kompletira, ili makar da se kompletira u onom stanju koji bi oni hteli. Luka Vildosa odsustvovaće mesec dana nakon doživljene povrede u meču protiv Barselone, pridruživši se tako Nikoli Ivanoviću i Hasanu Martinu u klupskom dispanzeru. Sa druge strane, očekuje se da Faku Kampaco ubrzo „prebrodi“ papirološku bravuru koja je bila neophodna da bi zaigrao za crveno-bele u Evroligi, a šupka se ponešto i o novom centru, ali o tome malo preciznije u samoj emisiji! Zvezda, inače, rezultatski gura odlično – poraz brotiv Barse je boleo, ali oporavak je stigao u vidu rutinske pobede u Splitu. Što se Partizana tiče, i tamo stvari napreduju stabilno. Crno-beli su nakon crne serije isplivali na površinu i vezali tri pobede u Evroligi – u ABA, takođe, sve ide svojim prirodnim tokom. Zadar je rutiniran u Areni, a i iz ovog tabora se sve jače čuje neki žubor tračeva o novom pojačanju...koje možda već i bude u dresu dok vi ovo slušate? U smiraj 2022. proradio je i Janis Papapetru, koji pruža sve bolje partije. A šta reći o Danteu Egzamu, koji možda igra i sezonu karijere? Nisu male reči za nekoga ko je bio visok draft pik. Ostali? Budućnost je za praznike malo renovirala sastav – otišli su Eron Vajt i Fil But (kome je dva dana pred odlazak, u bizarnom obrtu, zvanični nalog kluba čestitao rođendan), obojica u Tursku, a stigli su Džej Džej O'Brajen i Erik Grin, nekada vrlo atraktivno ime evropske košarke na najvišem nivou. Zanimljiv transfer viđen je i u Laktašima, koji su umesto deda Mraza dočekali Gagija Milosavljevića. U ligu se vratio i Đorđe Gagić, koji je pojačao Borac iz Čačka. Pali su i neki rekordi...ma, bilo je stvari. A o stvarima, mi – dabome – pričamo! Pa se lepo uvalite i poslušajte šta još imamo da kažemo o regionalnim zbivanjima, jer desilo se ponešto u ovih par nedelja dok je Edo bio u Denveru. Uživajte, pa se vidimo u četvrtak za NBA apdejt! I još jednom – srećni praznici!

The Unfinished Print
Katherine Martin of Scholten Japanese Art and Paul Binnie - Printmaker

The Unfinished Print

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 1, 2023 39:23


The relationships made in mokuhanga can last a long time. Whether it's a friendship based on collecting, creating, or its long and vibrant history; mokuhanga has the ability to bring people together.  On this episode of The Unfinished Print I have the pleasure of speaking to two people who's friendship is based on mutual respect, business, and the love of mokuhanga. Katherine Martin is the managing director of Scholten Japanese Art of New York City. She has overseen the galleries multiple exhibitions, written several catalogues published by Scholten, and is the heart of what goes on at the gallery. Paul Binnie is an acclaimed mokuhanga printmaker, painter and artist. He has collaborated with Katherine at Scholten Japanese art for almost fifteen years.  We first discuss Katherine's background, and her work with the gallery. Then, Katherine and Paul talk about the relationship between the gallery and the artist, the legacy of shin-hanga, how prints draw people in, and pricing Paul's work. We also discuss about editioning prints and the issues that may arise, nudity and social media, and we end on Katherine and Paul's unique friendships and how it works. This interview was recorded during Paul Binnie's solo show at Scholten Japanese Art in June, 2022. There may be some background noise during the interview. I apologize for any inconvenience.  Please follow The Unfinished Print and my own mokuhanga work on Instagram @andrezadoroznyprints or email me at theunfinishedprint@gmail.com  Notes: may contain a hyperlink. Simply click on the highlighted word or phrase. Artists works follow after the note. Pieces are mokuhanga unless otherwise noted. Scholten Japanese Art - website Paul Binnie - while Paul doesn't have a singular website he does have his Instagram. There is the "Binnie Catalogue," which is produced by a third party which digitally collects his work, past and present. This can be found, here.  Flowers of a Hundred Years: A Thousand Stitch Belt (2014) shin hanga - is a style of Japanese woodblock printmaking which began during the end of the Ukiyo-e period of Japanese printmaking, in the early 20th Century. Focusing on the foreign demand for “traditional” Japanese imagery and motifs such as castles, bridges, famous landscapes, bamboo forests, to name just a few.  Shin hanga was born in 1915 by Watanabe Shōzaburō (1885-1962) when he found Austrian artist Frtiz Capelari (1884-1950) and commissioned Capelari to design some prints for Watanabe's feldgling printing house . From there shin-hanga evolved into its own distinct “new” style of Japanese woodblock printing. It lasted as this distinct style until its innevitable decline after the Second World War (1939-1945). Kawase Hasui (1883-1957) - a designer of more than six hundred woodblock prints, Kawase Hasui is one of the most famous designers of the shin-hanga movement of the early twentieth century. Hasui began his career with the artist and woodblock designer Kaburaki Kiyokata (1878-1971), joining several artistic societies along the way early in his career. It wasn't until he joined the Watanabe atelier in 1918 that he really began to gain recognition. Watanabe Shōzaburō (1885-1962) had Hasui design landscapes of the Japanese country-side, small towns, and everyday life. Hasui also worked closely with the carvers and printers of his prints to reach the level Hasui wanted his prints to be.  Late Fall by Lake Yamanaka (1947) Tsuchiya Kōitsu (1870 - 1949) - apprenticed under artist and print designer Kobayashi Kiyochika (1847-1915), and worked as a lithographer. Kōitsu then joined the Watanabe atelier in 1935. Kōitsu also collaborated with Doi Sadachi publishers, amongst others.  Cormorant Fishing in Nagawa River (1940) Itō Shinsui (1898-1972) - Nihon-ga, and woodblock print artist and designer who worked for print publisher Watanabe Shōzaburō (1885-1962). Shinsui designed some of our most famous shin hanga, or “new” prints of the early 20th century. One of my favorites is “Fragrance of a Bath” 1930. Twelve Images of Modern Beauties: Cotton Kimono (1922) Hiroaki Takahashi Shōtei (1871-1945) - was a Japanese printmaker, illustrator and painter. He is commonly associated with the shin-hanga movement of printmaking in Japan, working with Watanabe Shōzaburō. His work touched on many subjects, such as landscapes, beautiful women and still-life.  Evening Sun at Nagareyama (1924-27) Yamamura  Koka (1885-1942) - was a Japanese woodblock printer and painter who trained under Ogata Gekkō (1859-1920). He worked with Watanabe and other publishers in his lifetime, and self published. His themes ranged from actor prints, lasdscape, and still-life.  Flowers of the Theatrical World: Nakamura Utaemon V as Owasa (1921) Natori Shunsen (1886-1960) - was a Japanese woodblock printer who focused much of his work on kabuki actor prints. He too worked with Watanabe.  Bando Mitsugoro VII (1950's) Yoshida Hiroshi (1876-1950) - a watercolorist, oil painter, and woodblock printmaker. Is associated with the resurgence of the woodblock print in Japan, and in the West. It was his early relationship with Watanabe Shōzaburō, having his first seven prints printed by the Shōzaburō atelier, that made Hiroshi believe that he could hire his own carvers and printers and produce woodblock prints, which he did in 1925.  Ishiyama Temple (ca. 1946) Sotheby's -  established in 1774 in London, England by bookseller Samuel Baker. It is the oldest auction house in the world, with offices located around the world. More info can be found, here.    Watanabe's foray into exhibting Japanese prints abroad can be read in this fine article by The Asian Art Newspaper, online, here. The article discusses Watanabe';s relationship with Itō Shinsui.    bokashi -  is a Japanese term associated with the gradation of water into ink. There are several types of bokashi. For more information regarding these types of bokashi please check out Professor Claire Cuccio's lecture called “A Story in Layers,” for the Library of Congress, and the book Japanese Printmaking by Tōshi Yoshida, and Rei Yuki. Below are the following types of bokashi. This is from the Yoshida book: ichimonji bokashi - straight line gradation ichimonji mura bokashi - straight line gradation with an uneven edg. Ō-bokashi - a gradual shading over a wide area atenashi bokashi - gradation without definition futairo bokashi - two tone gradation bijin-ga - (美人画) is the Japanese term for beautiful women in mokuhanga.  The Second Collection of Modern Beauties: Red Blossoms by Itō Shinsui (1933) kabuki - is a traditional form of Japanese theatre which started in Kyoto on the banks of the Kamo River in the 17th Century. Today it is a multi million dollar business and is almost exclusively run, professionally, by The Shochiku Company. Kabuki, the word, is separated into three different sounds; ka - meaning to sing, bu - meaning to dance, and ki - meaning skill. There are various families in kabuki which generate actors, passing down tradition throughout the lineage. For more information please read this fine article from Nippon.com. There are many books written on the subject of kabuki, but in my opinion, too begin, one needs to read Leonard Pronko's work Theatre East & West, Kawatake Toshio's Kabuki, and Earl Ernst's The Kabuki Theatre. Online please visit Kabuki21.com, who's site is unparalleled. On YouTube there is the new(ish) Kabuki In-Depth which is updated regularly on kabuki information and history, and is very well done.  giclee -  is a type of reporoductive process in printmaking. It means, “to spray,” which is the description of how the ink is laid into the paper. It is by using high quality scanners and printers to produce your print that giclee prints are made. More info can be found, here, at artworkarchive.com.  The Sun and Moon of Black's Beach - is a mokuhanga series produced by mokuhanga printmaker Paul Binnie. He is currently, at the time of this writing, working on the 7th and 8th edition of this series.  Summer Canyon, Black's Beach: Moon Before Dawn (2022) Black's Beach - is located in Torrey Pines, near San Diego, California. It is a secluded beach. It is known for it's allowing of naturist patrons, surfing, and various trails.  Asia Week - is an art festival which started in New York City in 2009. It brings together various art galleries to participate. These galleries specifically, and the festival in general through events, attempts to bring people from all over the world in order to promote Asian art to collectors and aficionados.  More information about Asia Week New York, can be found, here.    A Hundred Shades of Ink of Edo - is a mokuhanga series by Paul Binnie. Each print is of a figure who has an historical tattoo based on a woodblock print by a famous Japanese print designer. For instance, the print below, is of Katsushika Hokusai's (1760-1849) print design from his A Journey to the Waterfalls in all the Provinces series from 1832. As Paul informs in our interview there is a tattooed version and non-tattoo version of these particular prints.    Utagawa Kunisada (1786-1865) - arguably one of the more important woodblock print designers, Kunisada designed many types of prints, from landscape, books, erotica, sumo etc.  Kunisada worked during the period of ukiyo-e history with Andō Hiroshige (1797-1858), Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849), and the above mentioned Kuniyoshi. Defintely a rich and abundant period in Japanese woodblock print history.  Mirrors as Stylish Collage Pictures: Ichikawa Ichizo III as Dekiboshi no Sankichi (1859) Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849) - is one of the most famous Japanese artists to have ever lived. Hokusai was an illustrator, painter and woodblock print designer. His work can be found on paper, wood, silk, and screen. His woodblock print design for Under The Wave off Kanagawa (ca. 1830-32) is beyond famous. His work, his manga, his woodblocks, his paintings, influence artists from all over the world.  The Hundred Poems [By the Hundred Poets] as Told by the Nurse: Fujiwara no Yoshitaka (1835-36) Saru Gallery - is a mokuhanga gallery, from ukiyo-e to modern prints, and is located in Uden, The Netherlands. Their website can be found, here.   © Popular Wheat Productions opening and closing musical credit - Hyacinth Blues by The Constantines. From their self titled album The Constantines (Three Gut Records) logo designed and produced by Douglas Batchelor and André Zadorozny  Disclaimer: Please do not reproduce or use anything from this podcast without shooting me an email and getting my express written or verbal consent. I'm friendly :) Слава Україну If you find any issue with something in the show notes please let me know. ***The opinions expressed by guests in The Unfinished Print podcast are not necessarily those of André Zadorozny and of Popular Wheat Productions.***      

Father Hoods
#Throwback: Power of Dad Voice feat. Jacques Webster

Father Hoods

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 27, 2022 48:51


Back at it again with another #throwback episode with special guest: Jacques Webster a.k.a Big Jack, the father of superstar Travis Scott! On this week's episode of the Father Hoods Pod, join the dads DJ EFN, Manny Digital, and KGB as they tackle their thoughts and opinions about school bullying. Keeping the conversation going, Big Jack gives us a glimpse into his life as the Dad to a celebrity. He also drops a gem about supporting your children's passion in the best way possible. Tap in and get your weekly dose of #FatherHood realness! You'll hear about…

WGN - The Hamp, O'B and Koz Podcast
Hamp & O'B: Bears remain cold, like the weather – tying franchise record 8th straight loss

WGN - The Hamp, O'B and Koz Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 25, 2022


Dan Hampton, Ed O’Bradovich, and Andy Masur react to the Bears franchise-tying eighth straight loss to AFC’s east-leading Buffalo Bills 35-13. In one of the coldest games ever played on Soldier Field, The Chicago Bears squandered yet another lead going into halftime against the Buffalo Bills. The Bears failed on the run, only rushing for […]

The Unfinished Print
Carol Dorman - Stuart Jackson Gallery and the LIFE Institute

The Unfinished Print

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 24, 2022 70:21


The importance of passion cannot be understated.  It can be a wonderful and beautiful thing, and if it's made into a positive part of not only one's own life but for others as well; it's a passion worth pursuing.  On this episode of The Unfinished Print I speak with mokuhanga collector, self taught scholar and instructor, Carol Dorman. Having seen her work and lectures with the Japan Foundation Toronto, on various topics on ukiyo-e history and culture, I found her knowledge and story to be of great interest. I speak with Carol about her journey from working at the CBC for the national news, to working side by side with Stuart Jackson, a mokuhanga gallery owner here in Toronto. Carol speaks on her love of the ukiyo-e period of Japanese woodblock prints, her collecting, how that world has changed dramatically during her time at The Stuart Jackson Gallery, and we discuss her work at the LIFE Institute of Toronto where she teaches and instructs age 50+ students about ukiyo-e history.  Please follow The Unfinished Print and my own mokuhanga work on Instagram @andrezadoroznyprints or email me at theunfinishedprint@gmail.com  Notes: may contain a hyperlink. Simply click on the highlighted word or phrase. Artists works follow after the note. Pieces are mokuhanga unless otherwise noted. Regina, Saskatchewan - is the capital of the Canadian Province of Saskatchewan. Located on the land of the Cree, Saulteaux, Dakota, Nakota, Lakota, and Métis peoples, it is the 16th most populace city in Canada.  The city has many restaurants, museums, and other places of interest. More info can be found at Tourism Regina, here.  University of Toronto -  considered a public research university, U of T is located in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and was founded in 1827. It has educated any number of famous Canadian authors, scientists, politicians, and the like. More info, here.  Stuart Jackson Gallery - is a ukiyo-e specific gallery located at 882 Queen Street W. in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It has been doing business in Toronto for almost fifty years. More info, here.  The Royal Ontario Museum - also known as The ROM, is an art, world culture, and natural history museum in the city of Toronto, and is one of the oldest museums in the city. More info, here.  The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation - also known as the CBC, is a Canadian Federal Crown corporation and is the oldest broadcasting network in Canada. Founded in 1936, the CBC broadcasts news, original programming, and sports throughout Canada and the world. They broadcast via various digital platforms as well as terrestrial platforms such as television and radio.  More info, here. Meiji Period of Japan (1868-1912)- the Meiji Period in Japanese history is synonymous with turmoil and regime change. The Meiji Period is named after Prince Mutsuhito (1852-1912), who became Emperor after his fathers death, Emperor Kōmei (1846-1867). Mutsuhito's reign came at the end of the Keiō Era, (1865-1868), until his own death in 1912.    Utagawa Kuniyoshi (1798-1861) - is considered one of the last “masters” of the ukiyo-e genre of Japanese woodblock printmaking. His designs range from landscapes, samurai and Chinese military heroes, as well as using various formats for his designs such as diptychs and triptychs.    Tsuzoku Suikoden Goketsu Hyakuhachi-nin no Hitori (津属水滸伝後けつ百八人にの一人 ca. 1827)   Utagawa Kunisada (1786-1865) - arguably one of the more important woodblock print designers, Kunisada designed many types of prints, from landscape, books, erotica, sumo etc.  Kunisada worked during the period of ukiyo-e history with Andō Hiroshige (1797-1858), Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849), and the above mentioned Kuniyoshi. Defintely a rich and abundant period in Japanese woodblock print history.  Oni Azami Seikichi (鬼あざみ清吉) 1859   Yorkville, Toronto - Yorkville is a neighbourhood located in the heart of Toronto. It has a rich history, politically and culturally. It has become a high end neighbourhood in the city, with many expensive shops,  luxury homes and condos. It is famous for once being the hotbed of folk music in the world, outside of New York City, in the 1960's. Performers such as Neil Young, Joni Mitchell, Bob Dylan amongst others performed in the various clubs in the neighbourhood.    2008 Financial Crisis - was a world wide financial crisis which started in 2007 and lasted throughout 2008 and onwards. This crisis affected housing, mortgages, the automotive industry, and world economic markets.    David Kutcher is the owner and operator of Moonlit Sea Prints, located in Easthampton, Massachusetts. His interview with The Unfinished Print can be found, here.    Fading of Japanese woodblock prints - certain colours, especialy in ukiyo-e period prints (beni), are known to fade over time. Since pigments in mokuhanga are generally water based, they will fade naturally, but more quickly if located near sunlight. There are many reasons why your print will fade, so the website Viewing Japanese Prints has written a fine article regarding those very reasons, amongst other ways you can protect your mokuhanga collection. You can find that article, here.    The Kentler International Drawing Space - is an art gallery located in Red Hook, Brooklyn, New York. It has hosted several mokuhanga centred exhibitions. The most recent was Between Worlds as hosted by The Mokuhanga Sisters, from July 17 - July 31, 2022. More info, here.    Red Hook, Brooklyn, NY - is a neighbourhood in Brooklyn, New York. Once called South Brooklyn and once an industrial area, Red Hook has evolved over time to house many New Yorkers who are looking to be close to Manhattan and still be able to afford a home. There is a great New York Times article, here, which explores the history of this fascinating area.    Doi Hangaten -  is a mokuhanga print publisher located in Tōkyō, Japan. Once a publisher of prints associated with the shin-hanga movement of the ealry twentieth century, the company continues to publish reproductions of famous Japanese prints, in the old ways. Most recently, the Doi family have collaborated with David Bull and Mokuhankan to publish new verions of some of the old blocks from almost 100 years ago. More info about the Doi Hangaten can be found here, here and here. The collaboration videos produced by Mokuhankan regarding the Doi family and the subsequant collaboration can be found, here.    LIFE Institute - is a learning facility for adults age 50+.  The LIFE Institute began in 1991, and has a membership of 2500 today. The institute offers high quality education in the Arts, Humanities, Science and Technology, amongst others. Courses are conducted in person or online. More info can be found, here.    The National Gallery of Art - is a free art gallery located in Washington D.C. Founded by financier Andrew W. Mellon. The West building was constructed in 1941. The gallery houses more than 150,000 pieces of art and is dedicated to education and culture. More info can be found, here.    Itō Jackuchū (1716-1800) - was a Japanese painter who painted in silk. His work can be seen in scrolls (kakemono), sliding doors (fusuma), and folding screens (byōbu). Known for his wild style of painting, Jackuchū's most popular theme is of birds. There are many books wirtten about Jackuchū and his life and times. More info can be found, here , to get you started.  Rooster (18th Century)   Nishiki-e (錦絵) - is the Japanese phrase for colour woodblock prints, otherwise known as brocade pictures.    Ogata Gekkō (1859-1920) - was a painter, illustrator and mokuhanga designer. Gekkō's work has a delightful water colour style, where the subjects seem to be floating and light, regardless of whether the subject is a beautiful woman or a ghostly fox. Gekkō's subject matter ranged from landscapes, to mythology. Ogata Gekkō had a full career, from working with many publishers for his print designs to founding various art associations. More information about the life and career of Ogata Gekkō can be found, here, on David Humphries' fantastic website about the artist.  Drawing Water from Yoro Waterfall — 養老孝子瀧を汲の図 (1896)   Prussian Blue - is a dark blue pigment, which has been used by painters, and mokuhanga printmakers. The pigment has been used in Europe since the 18th Century, and in Japan since around 1820, having been imported by Europeans into Japan.    Evolution of Pigments in Mokuhanga - the evolution of pigments in mokuhanga began with hand painting in the later 17th Century, to the multi coloured prints of ukiyo-e, shin hanga, and sōsaku hanga. More info regarding the pigment evolution can be found, here, at the Library of Congress.    The Japan Foundation - is a not for profit organization established in 1972, with many offices located around the world. The Japan Foundation Toronto has been active in the city since 1990. More info, here for the JF worldwide, and here for Toronto.    Elizabeth Forrest - is an award-winning Canadian artist and mokuhanga prinmaker. She has been producing mokuhanga since the late 1980's when she lived and studied in Kyoto. She has studied with the late Akira Kurosaki (1937-2019).  More info about Elizabeth's work can be found, here.  And It Began To Rain (2014)   Akira Kurosaki 黒崎彰 (1937-2019) - one of the most influential woodblock print artists of the modern era. His work, while seemingly abstract, moved people with its vibrant colour and powerful composition. He was a teacher and invented the “Disc Baren,” which is a great baren to begin your mokuhanga journey with. At the 2021 Mokuhanga Conference in Nara, Japan there was a tribute exhibit of his life works. Azusa Gallery has a nice selection of his work, here. Taurus (1973)   Barbara Wybou - is a Canadian mokuhanga artists who lived, worked, and studied in Japan for twenty years. Her home these days is Toronto where she continues to work on her mokuhanga. Notably she studied with the late Tōshi Yoshida (1911-1995). Her work can be found, here.  Rats 3   Toyohara Kunichika (1835-1900) -  was a Japanese woodblock designer of the Utagawa School of artists. His work flourished in the Meiji Period (1868-1912) of Japanese history, a period of immense change politically, economically, and industrially. Some of Kunichika's works can be found, here.    Onoe Kikugorō V as The British Spencer (1894)   War prints & Japanese Imperialism - as Japan entered the Pacific Theatre of war (1941-1945) with the United States, the fascist military government had complete power in Japan at the time, and used woodblock prints, as well as other mediums such as lithography and photography, to propagandize their war effort. Printmakers such as Kawase Hasui (1883-1957) even got involved in producing prints that helped the war effort. He designed several war prints during this time period. Prints such as The Red Setting Sun, is a prime example of how the times and aesthetic show a relatively innocuous scene of figures (Japanese soldiers) riding on horses with a setting sun back drop. For more detailed information regarding war time prints I suggest, Conflicts of Interest: Art and War in Modern Japan, ed. Philip K. Hu w/ Rhiannon Paget, and The Politics of Painting by Asato Ikeda. My interview with Rhiannon Paget PhD can be found, here.    Russo-Japanese War (February 8, 1904 - September 5, 1905) - was a war between two colonial powers, the Imperial Russian and Imperial Japanese military, taking place in China. Information about its background can be found here at history.com, and here.    bijin-ga - (美人画) is the Japanese term for beautiful women in mokuhanga.  Itō Shinsui (1898-1972) After Washing Her Hair (1936)   yakusha-e - (役者絵) is the Japanese term for actor prints in mokuhanga.  Utagawa Yoshiiku (1833-1904) Oyama Doll - Ichikawa Udanji (1893)   Taishō Period  (1912-1926) - a short lived period of Japanese modern history but an important one in world history. This is where the militarism of fascist Japan began to take seed, leading to The Pacific War (1931-1945). More info can be found, here.   hanmoto system - is the Edo Period (1603-1868) collaboration system of making woodblock prints in Japan. The system was about using, carvers, printers, and craftsmen by various print publishers in order to produce woodblock prints. The system consisted of the following professions; publisher, artist, carver, and printer.   Yamato Take no Mikoto with His Sword Kusanagi - is the print by Ogata Gekkō which Carol mentions as one of her favourite prints.     Oliver Statler (1915-2002) -  was an American author and scholar and collector of mokuhanga. He had been a soldier in world war 2, having been stationed in Japan. After his time in the war Statler moved back to Japan, where he wrote about Japanese prints. His interests were of many facets of Japanese culture such as acoomodation, and the 88 Temple Pilgrammage of Shikoku. Oliver Statler, in my opinion, wrote one of the most important books on the sōsaku-hanga movement, “Modern Japanese Prints: An Art Reborn.”   John Stevenson -  is an American author who has written extenisvely on Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1839-1892).    Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (月岡 芳年) was a mokuhanga designer who is famous for his prints depicting violence and gore. His work is powerful, colourful, and one of the last vibrant moments of the ukiyo-e genre of woodblock prints. More information about Yoshitoshi's life and his copious amount of work can be found, here.    The Flower of Edo (1858) Utagawa Kuniyoshi (歌川 國芳) - was a print designer and painter known for his triptychs, yoko-e (horizontal landscape prints), Yokohama-e (prints with Yokohama as its subject), and yakusha-e (actor prints). Considered as one of the last of the "golden age" print designers of the ukiyo-e genre.  Ichikawa Kodanji IV as the ghost of Asakura Togo (possibly 1851) Kunisada/Kuniyoshi Exhibit - was an art exhibition held at the Museum of Fine Arts Boston from August 11 - December 10, 2017. There was also an excellent catalogue printed for this show and would add to any woodblock print fan's library. more info, here. The book I reference about Toyohara Kunichika is "Time Present and Time Past of a Forgotten Master: Toyohara Kunichika 1835-1900"  There are various online print collections that the aspiring mokuhanga scholar can seek out to help in their studies. The Library of Congress has their collection online, as does ukiyo-e.org, who have various impressions af their prints throughout their website.  Scholten Japanese Art - is a mokuhanga focused art gallery located in midtown Manhattan. It was founded by René Scholten, an avid collector of the Japanese print. More info can be found, here. Acadia Books - is a vintage and unique used bookstore located at Sherbourne and Queent St. East in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. In my opinion it is one of the best bookstores I have had the priviledge to visit. More info, here.  © Popular Wheat Productions opening and closing musical credit - intro music is Spill Yer Lungs and outro music is Tailor  both by Julie Doiron from her album I Can Wonder What You Did With Your Day (2009) on Jagjaguar Records logo designed and produced by Douglas Batchelor and André Zadorozny  Disclaimer: Please do not reproduce or use anything from this podcast without shooting me an email and getting my express written or verbal consent. I'm friendly :) Слава Україну If you find any issue with something in the show notes please let me know. ***The opinions expressed by guests in The Unfinished Print podcast are not necessarily those of André Zadorozny and of Popular Wheat Productions.***                

Father Hoods
#Throwback: Holiday Business feat. Gil Green

Father Hoods

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 20, 2022 63:06


Lock in for another #THROWBACK episode! On this episode of the Father Hoods Pod, join your favorite podcasting dads, DJ EFN, Manny Digital and KGB as they rap about how they struggle with the guilt that comes with parenting. Joining us is critically acclaimed music video, commercial, and film director, Gil Green, talking about the challenges he's been through as a single dad and how he managed to find the balance between his career and his kids. Don't miss a beat and tap in for your weekly dose of #FatherHood real! You'll hear about…

WGN - The Hamp, O'B and Koz Podcast
Hamp & O'B: This one Hurts; Bears drop 7th straight

WGN - The Hamp, O'B and Koz Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 19, 2022


Dan Hampton, Ed O’Bradovich, and Andy Masur react to the Bears seventh straight loss, this one to the NFL’s best team record-wise, the Philadelphia Eagles. The Bears offense and defense came ready to play this week – holding the NFL’s best team, the Eagles, to just ten points in the first half. Two interceptions in […]

Father Hoods
F.O.M.O. feat. @vfxshawn

Father Hoods

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 13, 2022 47:40


After 2 back-to-back throwback episodes, we're finally here with a NEW one! And this week, we are joined by one of our long-time Father Hoods listeners and visual effects artist, Shawn Ewashko! On this episode, Manny Digital, KGB, together with Shawn, take their seats to discuss their perspectives when it comes to trusting other people to look after their kids, and also, the struggles of moving someplace new and starting over with no close family/friends to help. BONUS! Hear one of Shawn's favorite parenting apps that could also help you survive the modern parenting world. You'll hear about…

Ghost in the Attic Bodies in the Basement
Why are There So Many Demons in Anime?! (Yokai in Japanse Folklore, Art, and Anime)

Ghost in the Attic Bodies in the Basement

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 9, 2022 45:08


We all know that Lindsey loves anime (just look at the Shinigami episode!). This episode, Lindsey seeks out the answer she's been wondering for a while: Why are there always demons attacking villages in anime?! To put it simply, yokai art! What are yokai? How does it go from yokai, to Edo era art, to modern day animes like Inuyasha and Demon Slayer? Listen and find out! Follow Dani on Twitch! Visit Permian Basin Comic Con (GABB is in no way affiliated with the con. Lindsey just likes to attend.) Follow us on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter! Email your stories to GABBPodcast@gmail.com BUY MERCH HERE SOURCES: https://japanobjects.com/features/yokai https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Y%C5%8Dkai https://www.cbr.com/yokai-japanese-culture-anime/ https://www.cbr.com/demon-slayer-creatures-characters-based-real-life-japanese-folklore/ --- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/gabb-podcast/support

New Books in History
Ayelet Zohar, "The Curious Case of the Camel in Modern Japan: (De)Colonialism, Orientalism, and Imagining Asia" (Brill, 2022)

New Books in History

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 7, 2022 99:10


Ayelet Zohar's The Curious Case of the Camel in Modern Japan: (De)Colonialism, Orientalism, and Imagining Asia (Brill, 2022) traces the use of camels in the visual vocabulary of Japan's definition of itself in the world―especially vis-à-vis “Asia―from the Edo period to the present.” In other words, Zohar uses representations of camels as a lens to view the ways in which Japan has both attempted to leave or conquer Asia on the one hand and to find solidarity in a shared Oriental/Asian identity on the other.  The core of The Curious Case of the Camel is the last two centuries, beginning with the introduction of a pair of live camels in 1821. Zohar shows that camels quickly became objects of popular fascination, polyvalent symbols understood in different ways in different contexts, but that they took on a particularly political dimension in the context of modern Japanese imperialism. In the latter half of the nineteenth century, as Japan sought to define its position in the world vis-à-vis Asia on the one hand and “the West” on the other, camels became one part of a visual vocabulary of Orientalism. This function of the camel imaginary is in some ways unchanged today, even if the political valences of camel iconography is new and different. Nathan Hopson is an associate professor of Japanese language and history in the University of Bergen's Department of Foreign Languages. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/history

New Books Network
Ayelet Zohar, "The Curious Case of the Camel in Modern Japan: (De)Colonialism, Orientalism, and Imagining Asia" (Brill, 2022)

New Books Network

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 7, 2022 99:10


Ayelet Zohar's The Curious Case of the Camel in Modern Japan: (De)Colonialism, Orientalism, and Imagining Asia (Brill, 2022) traces the use of camels in the visual vocabulary of Japan's definition of itself in the world―especially vis-à-vis “Asia―from the Edo period to the present.” In other words, Zohar uses representations of camels as a lens to view the ways in which Japan has both attempted to leave or conquer Asia on the one hand and to find solidarity in a shared Oriental/Asian identity on the other.  The core of The Curious Case of the Camel is the last two centuries, beginning with the introduction of a pair of live camels in 1821. Zohar shows that camels quickly became objects of popular fascination, polyvalent symbols understood in different ways in different contexts, but that they took on a particularly political dimension in the context of modern Japanese imperialism. In the latter half of the nineteenth century, as Japan sought to define its position in the world vis-à-vis Asia on the one hand and “the West” on the other, camels became one part of a visual vocabulary of Orientalism. This function of the camel imaginary is in some ways unchanged today, even if the political valences of camel iconography is new and different. Nathan Hopson is an associate professor of Japanese language and history in the University of Bergen's Department of Foreign Languages. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/new-books-network

New Books in East Asian Studies
Ayelet Zohar, "The Curious Case of the Camel in Modern Japan: (De)Colonialism, Orientalism, and Imagining Asia" (Brill, 2022)

New Books in East Asian Studies

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 7, 2022 99:10


Ayelet Zohar's The Curious Case of the Camel in Modern Japan: (De)Colonialism, Orientalism, and Imagining Asia (Brill, 2022) traces the use of camels in the visual vocabulary of Japan's definition of itself in the world―especially vis-à-vis “Asia―from the Edo period to the present.” In other words, Zohar uses representations of camels as a lens to view the ways in which Japan has both attempted to leave or conquer Asia on the one hand and to find solidarity in a shared Oriental/Asian identity on the other.  The core of The Curious Case of the Camel is the last two centuries, beginning with the introduction of a pair of live camels in 1821. Zohar shows that camels quickly became objects of popular fascination, polyvalent symbols understood in different ways in different contexts, but that they took on a particularly political dimension in the context of modern Japanese imperialism. In the latter half of the nineteenth century, as Japan sought to define its position in the world vis-à-vis Asia on the one hand and “the West” on the other, camels became one part of a visual vocabulary of Orientalism. This function of the camel imaginary is in some ways unchanged today, even if the political valences of camel iconography is new and different. Nathan Hopson is an associate professor of Japanese language and history in the University of Bergen's Department of Foreign Languages. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/east-asian-studies

New Books in Japanese Studies
Ayelet Zohar, "The Curious Case of the Camel in Modern Japan: (De)Colonialism, Orientalism, and Imagining Asia" (Brill, 2022)

New Books in Japanese Studies

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 7, 2022 99:10


Ayelet Zohar's The Curious Case of the Camel in Modern Japan: (De)Colonialism, Orientalism, and Imagining Asia (Brill, 2022) traces the use of camels in the visual vocabulary of Japan's definition of itself in the world―especially vis-à-vis “Asia―from the Edo period to the present.” In other words, Zohar uses representations of camels as a lens to view the ways in which Japan has both attempted to leave or conquer Asia on the one hand and to find solidarity in a shared Oriental/Asian identity on the other.  The core of The Curious Case of the Camel is the last two centuries, beginning with the introduction of a pair of live camels in 1821. Zohar shows that camels quickly became objects of popular fascination, polyvalent symbols understood in different ways in different contexts, but that they took on a particularly political dimension in the context of modern Japanese imperialism. In the latter half of the nineteenth century, as Japan sought to define its position in the world vis-à-vis Asia on the one hand and “the West” on the other, camels became one part of a visual vocabulary of Orientalism. This function of the camel imaginary is in some ways unchanged today, even if the political valences of camel iconography is new and different. Nathan Hopson is an associate professor of Japanese language and history in the University of Bergen's Department of Foreign Languages. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/japanese-studies

New Books in Intellectual History
Ayelet Zohar, "The Curious Case of the Camel in Modern Japan: (De)Colonialism, Orientalism, and Imagining Asia" (Brill, 2022)

New Books in Intellectual History

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 7, 2022 99:10


Ayelet Zohar's The Curious Case of the Camel in Modern Japan: (De)Colonialism, Orientalism, and Imagining Asia (Brill, 2022) traces the use of camels in the visual vocabulary of Japan's definition of itself in the world―especially vis-à-vis “Asia―from the Edo period to the present.” In other words, Zohar uses representations of camels as a lens to view the ways in which Japan has both attempted to leave or conquer Asia on the one hand and to find solidarity in a shared Oriental/Asian identity on the other.  The core of The Curious Case of the Camel is the last two centuries, beginning with the introduction of a pair of live camels in 1821. Zohar shows that camels quickly became objects of popular fascination, polyvalent symbols understood in different ways in different contexts, but that they took on a particularly political dimension in the context of modern Japanese imperialism. In the latter half of the nineteenth century, as Japan sought to define its position in the world vis-à-vis Asia on the one hand and “the West” on the other, camels became one part of a visual vocabulary of Orientalism. This function of the camel imaginary is in some ways unchanged today, even if the political valences of camel iconography is new and different. Nathan Hopson is an associate professor of Japanese language and history in the University of Bergen's Department of Foreign Languages. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/intellectual-history

Econ Dev Show
75: The Equity in Economic Development Fellowship Program with Chanell Hasty

Econ Dev Show

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 7, 2022 14:41


In this episode, Dane talks with Chanell Hasty about the IEDC's 2023 Equity in Economic Development Fellowship Program. In summer 2023, the International Economic Development Council is hosting a second cohort of their Equity in Economic Development Fellowship Program. If you're an EDO, and would like to participate in this 8-week program to host an Equity in Economic Development Fellow between June 5th and August 4th of 2023, please apply. The deadline was recently extended to December 16, 2022. For more information, please see the links below. Special Guest: Chanell Hasty.

New Books in Early Modern History
Ayelet Zohar, "The Curious Case of the Camel in Modern Japan: (De)Colonialism, Orientalism, and Imagining Asia" (Brill, 2022)

New Books in Early Modern History

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 7, 2022 99:10


Ayelet Zohar's The Curious Case of the Camel in Modern Japan: (De)Colonialism, Orientalism, and Imagining Asia (Brill, 2022) traces the use of camels in the visual vocabulary of Japan's definition of itself in the world―especially vis-à-vis “Asia―from the Edo period to the present.” In other words, Zohar uses representations of camels as a lens to view the ways in which Japan has both attempted to leave or conquer Asia on the one hand and to find solidarity in a shared Oriental/Asian identity on the other.  The core of The Curious Case of the Camel is the last two centuries, beginning with the introduction of a pair of live camels in 1821. Zohar shows that camels quickly became objects of popular fascination, polyvalent symbols understood in different ways in different contexts, but that they took on a particularly political dimension in the context of modern Japanese imperialism. In the latter half of the nineteenth century, as Japan sought to define its position in the world vis-à-vis Asia on the one hand and “the West” on the other, camels became one part of a visual vocabulary of Orientalism. This function of the camel imaginary is in some ways unchanged today, even if the political valences of camel iconography is new and different. Nathan Hopson is an associate professor of Japanese language and history in the University of Bergen's Department of Foreign Languages. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

Father Hoods
#Throwback: Dad Already Knows feat. Amin Joseph

Father Hoods

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 7, 2022 43:27


We're back with another #throwback episode for this week with special guest, actor and producer, Amin Joseph of The Expendables, G.I. Joe, Baywatch, and Snowfall! On this episode, DJ EFN, Manny Digital, KGB, and Amin talk about how our words and actions can have an impact on kids as well as who is more in charge of disciplining the kids at home. Keeping the conversation going, Amin also shared his experience being a family man from an actor's perspective, and why he started having a family later than many. You'll hear about…

Sunday
The future for Christianity, Benin Bronzes, Otis Williams and Silent Night

Sunday

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 4, 2022 43:52


The British raid of 1897 on Benin City in the Southern Nigerian State of Edo, saw thousands of looted items end up in galleries and Museums across the UK. One recipient was the Horniman Museum and Gardens in South-East London. Only this week, they returned six out of seventy-two items, to Nigeria's National Commission for Museums and Monuments. The remainder will remain on loan for now. Among those items returned are two Benin Bronze Plaques from the Royal Palace of Benin. The BBC's Peter Macjob tells William Crawley about the spiritual significance of these Plaques for the community of Benin. This week's Census results drew out some surprising revelations including a ten-fold rise in those identifying themselves as Shaman. But one particular statistic which grabbed a lot of media attention was that for the first time, fewer than half of people in England and Wales described themselves as Christian. William asks what determines whether Britain is or is not a Christian country with guests Dr Scot Peterson, Lecturer in Politics at the University of Oxford, and Rt Revd Dr. Helen-Ann Hartly, Bishop of Ripon. All through Advent we are teaming up with BBC Radio 3 Saturday Breakfast to bring you some of the nation's favourite Christmas Carol's. This week Presenter Elizabeth Alker meets with one of the original members of The Temptations, Otis Williams, to discuss ‘Silent Night'. And we want to hear from you, what's your favourite Carol and why is it so important to you. Email us at Sunday@bbc.co.uk Photo: Benin Bronze plaque of Oba Orhogbua (circa 1550-1578) holding a staff representing authority and power and with Iwu, royal tattoos. Photo Credit: Horniman Museum and Gardens Producers: Jill Collins and Helen Lee Editor: Tim Pemberton

Screaming in the Cloud
The Rapid Rise of Vector Databases with Ram Sriharsha

Screaming in the Cloud

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 2, 2022 31:41


About RamDr. Ram Sriharsha held engineering, product management, and VP roles at the likes of Yahoo, Databricks, and Splunk. At Yahoo, he was both a principal software engineer and then research scientist; at Databricks, he was the product and engineering lead for the unified analytics platform for genomics; and, in his three years at Splunk, he played multiple roles including Sr Principal Scientist, VP Engineering and Distinguished Engineer.Links Referenced: Pinecone: https://www.pinecone.io/ XKCD comic: https://www.explainxkcd.com/wiki/index.php/1425:_Tasks TranscriptAnnouncer: Hello, and welcome to Screaming in the Cloud with your host, Chief Cloud Economist at The Duckbill Group, Corey Quinn. This weekly show features conversations with people doing interesting work in the world of cloud, thoughtful commentary on the state of the technical world, and ridiculous titles for which Corey refuses to apologize. This is Screaming in the Cloud.Corey: This episode is sponsored in part by our friends at Chronosphere. Tired of observability costs going up every year without getting additional value? Or being locked into a vendor due to proprietary data collection, querying, and visualization? Modern-day, containerized environments require a new kind of observability technology that accounts for the massive increase in scale and attendant cost of data. With Chronosphere, choose where and how your data is routed and stored, query it easily, and get better context and control. 100% open-source compatibility means that no matter what your setup is, they can help. Learn how Chronosphere provides complete and real-time insight into ECS, EKS, and your microservices, wherever they may be at snark.cloud/chronosphere that's snark.cloud/chronosphere.Corey: This episode is brought to you in part by our friends at Veeam. Do you care about backups? Of course you don't. Nobody cares about backups. Stop lying to yourselves! You care about restores, usually right after you didn't care enough about backups. If you're tired of the vulnerabilities, costs, and slow recoveries when using snapshots to restore your data, assuming you even have them at all living in AWS-land, there is an alternative for you. Check out Veeam, that's V-E-E-A-M for secure, zero-fuss AWS backup that won't leave you high and dry when it's time to restore. Stop taking chances with your data. Talk to Veeam. My thanks to them for sponsoring this ridiculous podcast.Corey: Welcome to Screaming in the Cloud. I'm Corey Quinn. Today's promoted guest episode is brought to us by our friends at Pinecone and they have given their VP of Engineering and R&D over to suffer my various sling and arrows, Ram Sriharsha. Ram, thank you for joining me.Ram: Corey, great to be here. Thanks for having me.Corey: So, I was immediately intrigued when I wound up seeing your website, pinecone.io because it says right at the top—at least as of this recording—in bold text, “The Vector Database.” And if there's one thing that I love, it is using things that are not designed to be databases as databases, or inappropriately referring to things—be they JSON files or senior engineers—as databases as well. What is a vector database?Ram: That's a great question. And we do use this term correctly, I think. You can think of customers of Pinecone as having all the data management problems that they have with traditional databases; the main difference is twofold. One is there is a new data type, which is vectors. Vectors, you can think of them as arrays of floats, floating point numbers, and there is a new pattern of use cases, which is search.And what you're trying to do in vector search is you're looking for the nearest, the closest vectors to a given query. So, these two things fundamentally put a lot of stress on traditional databases. So, it's not like you can take a traditional database and make it into a vector database. That is why we coined this term vector database and we are building a new type of vector database. But fundamentally, it has all the database challenges on a new type of data and a new query pattern.Corey: Can you give me an example of what, I guess, an idealized use case would be of what the data set might look like and what sort of problem you would have in a vector database would solve?Ram: A very great question. So, one interesting thing is there's many, many use cases. I'll just pick the most natural one which is text search. So, if you're familiar with the Elastic or any other traditional text search engines, you have pieces of text, you index them, and the indexing that you do is traditionally an inverted index, and then you search over this text. And what this sort of search engine does is it matches for keywords.So, if it finds a keyword match between your query and your corpus, it's going to retrieve the relevant documents. And this is what we call text search, right, or keyword search. You can do something similar with technologies like Pinecone, but what you do here is instead of searching our text, you're searching our vectors. Now, where do these vectors come from? They come from taking deep-learning models, running your text through them, and these generate these things called vector embeddings.And now, you're taking a query as well, running them to deep-learning models, generating these query embeddings, and looking for the closest record embeddings in your corpus that are similar to the query embeddings. This notion of proximity in this space of vectors tells you something about semantic similarity between the query and the text. So suddenly, you're going beyond keyword search into semantic similarity. An example is if you had a whole lot of text data, and maybe you were looking for ‘soda,' and you were doing keyword search. Keyword search will only match on variations of soda. It will never match ‘Coca-Cola' because Coca-Cola and soda have nothing to do with each other.Corey: Or Pepsi, or pop, as they say in the American Midwest.Ram: Exactly.Corey: Yeah.Ram: Exactly. However, semantic search engines can actually match the two because they're matching for intent, right? If they find in this piece of text, enough intent to suggest that soda and Coca-Cola or Pepsi or pop are related to each other, they will actually match those and score them higher. And you're very likely to retrieve those sort of candidates that traditional search engines simply cannot. So, this is a canonical example, what's called semantic search, and it's known to be done better by these other vector search engines. There are also other examples in say, image search. Just if you're looking for near duplicate images, you can't even do this today without a technology like vector search.Corey: What is the, I guess, translation or conversion process of existing dataset into something that a vector database could use? Because you mentioned it was an array of floats was the natural vector datatype. I don't think I've ever seen even the most arcane markdown implementation that expected people to wind up writing in arrays of floats. What does that look like? How do you wind up, I guess, internalizing or ingesting existing bodies of text for your example use case?Ram: Yeah, this is a very great question. This used to be a very hard problem and what has happened over the last several years in deep-learning literature, as well as in deep-learning as a field itself, is that there have been these large, publicly trained models, examples will be OpenAI, examples will be the models that are available in Hugging Face like Cohere, and a large number of these companies have come forward with very well trained models through which you can pass pieces of text and get these vectors. So, you no longer have to actually train these sort of models, you don't have to really have the expertise to deeply figured out how to take pieces of text and build these embedding models. What you can do is just take a stock model, if you're familiar with OpenAI, you can just go to OpenAIs homepage and pick a model that works for you, Hugging Face models, and so on. There's a lot of literature to help you do this.Sophisticated customers can also do something called fine-tuning, which is built on top of these models to fine-tune for their use cases. The technology is out there already, there's a lot of documentation available. Even Pinecone's website has plenty of documentation to do this. Customers of Pinecone do this [unintelligible 00:07:45], which is they take piece of text, run them through either these pre-trained models or through fine-tuned models, get the series of floats which represent them, vector embeddings, and then send it to us. So, that's the workflow. The workflow is basically a machine-learning pipeline that either takes a pre-trained model, passes them through these pieces of text or images or what have you, or actually has a fine-tuning step in it.Corey: Is that ingest process something that not only benefits from but also requires the use of a GPU or something similar to that to wind up doing the in-depth, very specific type of expensive math for data ingestion?Ram: Yes, very often these run on GPUs. Sometimes, depending on budget, you may have compressed models or smaller models that run on CPUs, but most often they do run on GPUs, most often, we actually find people make just API calls to services that do this for them. So, very often, people are actually not deploying these GPU models themselves, they are maybe making a call to Hugging Face's service, or to OpenAI's service, and so on. And by the way, these companies also democratized this quite a bit. It was much, much harder to do this before they came around.Corey: Oh, yeah. I mean, I'm reminded of the old XKCD comic from years ago, which was, “Okay, I want to give you a picture. And I want you to tell me it was taken within the boundaries of a national park.” Like, “Sure. Easy enough. Geolocation information is attached. It'll take me two hours.” “Cool. And I also want you to tell me if it's a picture of a bird.” “Okay, that'll take five years and a research team.”And sure enough, now we can basically do that. The future is now and it's kind of wild to see that unfolding in a human perceivable timespan on these things. But I guess my question now is, so that is what a vector database does? What does Pinecone specifically do? It turns out that as much as I wish it were otherwise, not a lot of companies are founded on, “Well, we have this really neat technology, so we're just going to be here, well, in a foundational sense to wind up ensuring the uptake of that technology.” No, no, there's usually a monetization model in there somewhere. Where does Pinecone start, where does it stop, and how does it differentiate itself from typical vector databases? If such a thing could be said to exist yet.Ram: Such a thing doesn't exist yet. We were the first vector database, so in a sense, building this infrastructure, scaling it, and making it easy for people to operate it in a SaaS fashion is our primary core product offering. On top of that, this very recently started also enabling people who have who actually have raw text to not just be able to get value from these vector search engines and so on, but also be able to take advantage of traditional what we call keyword search or sparse retrieval and do a combined search better, in Pinecone. So, there's value-add on top of this that we do, but I would say the core of it is building a SaaS managed platform that allows people to actually easily store as data, scale it, query it in a way that's very hands off and doesn't require a lot of tuning or operational burden on their side. This is, like, our core value proposition.Corey: Got it. There's something to be said for making something accessible when previously it had only really been available to people who completed the Hello World tutorial—which generally resembled a doctorate at Berkeley or Waterloo or somewhere else—and turn it into something that's fundamentally, click the button. Where on that, I guess, a spectrum of evolution do you find that Pinecone is today?Ram: Yeah. So, you know, prior to Pinecone, we didn't really have this notion of a vector database. For several years, we've had libraries that are really good that you can pre-train on your embeddings, generate this thing called an index, and then you can search over that index. There is still a lot of work to be done even to deploy that and scale it and operate it in production and so on. Even that was not being, kind of, offered as a managed service before.What Pinecone does which is novel, is you no longer have to have this pre-training be done by somebody, you no longer have to worry about when to retrain your indexes, what to do when you have new data, what to do when there is deletions, updates, and the usual data management operations. You can just think of this is, like, a database that you just throw your data in. It does all the right things for you, you just worry about querying. This has never existed before, right? This is—it's not even like we are trying to make the operational part of something easier. It is that we are offering something that hasn't existed before, at the same time, making it operationally simple.So, we're solving two problems, which is we building a better database that hasn't existed before. So, if you really had this sort of data management problems and you wanted to build an index that was fresh that you didn't have to super manually tune for your own use cases, that simply couldn't have been done before. But at the same time, we are doing all of this in a cloud-native fashion; it's easy for you to just operate and not worry about.Corey: You've said that this hasn't really been done before, but this does sound like it is more than passingly familiar specifically to the idea of nearest neighbor search, which has been around since the '70s in a bunch of different ways. So, how is it different? And let me of course, ask my follow-up to that right now: why is this even an interesting problem to start exploring?Ram: This is a great question. First of all, nearest neighbor search is one of the oldest forms of machine learning. It's been known for decades. There's a lot of literature out there, there are a lot of great libraries as I mentioned in the passing before. All of these problems have primarily focused on static corpuses. So basically, you have a set of some amount of data, you want to create an index out of it, and you want to query it.A lot of literature has focused on this problem. Even there, once you go from small number of dimensions to large number of dimensions, things become computationally far more challenging. So, traditional nearest neighbor search actually doesn't scale very well. What do I mean by large number of dimensions? Today, deep-learning models that produce image representations typically operate in 2048 dimensions of photos [unintelligible 00:13:38] dimensions. Some of the OpenAI models are even 10,000 dimensional and above. So, these are very, very large dimensions.Most of the literature prior to maybe even less than ten years back has focused on less than ten dimensions. So, it's like a scale apart in dealing with small dimensional data versus large dimensional data. But even as of a couple of years back, there hasn't been enough, if any, focus on what happens when your data rapidly evolves. For example, what happens when people add new data? What happens if people delete some data? What happens if your vectors get updated? These aren't just theoretical problems; they happen all the time. Customers of ours face this all the time.In fact, the classic example is in recommendation systems where user preferences change all the time, right, and you want to adapt to that, which means your user vectors change constantly. When even these sort of things change constantly, you want your index to reflect it because you want your queries to catch on to the most recent data. [unintelligible 00:14:33] have to reflect the recency of your data. This is a solved problem for traditional databases. Relational databases are great at solving this problem. A lot of work has been done for decades to solve this problem really well.This is a fundamentally hard problem for vector databases and that's one of the core focus areas [unintelligible 00:14:48] painful. Another problem that is hard for these sort of databases is simple things like filtering. For example, you have a corpus of say product images and you want to only look at images that maybe are for the Fall shopping line, right? Seems like a very natural query. Again, databases have known and solved this problem for many, many years.The moment you do nearest neighbor search with these sort of constraints, it's a hard problem. So, it's just the fact that nearest neighbor search and lots of research in this area has simply not focused on what happens to that, so those are of techniques when combined with data management challenges, filtering, and all the traditional challenges of a database. So, when you start doing that you enter a very novel area to begin with.Corey: This episode is sponsored in part by our friends at Redis, the company behind the incredibly popular open-source database. If you're tired of managing open-source Redis on your own, or if you are looking to go beyond just caching and unlocking your data's full potential, these folks have you covered. Redis Enterprise is the go-to managed Redis service that allows you to reimagine how your geo-distributed applications process, deliver and store data. To learn more from the experts in Redis how to be real-time, right now, from anywhere, visit snark.cloud/redis. That's snark dot cloud slash R-E-D-I-S.Corey: So, where's this space going, I guess is sort of the dangerous but inevitable question I have to ask. Because whenever you talk to someone who is involved in a very early stage of what is potentially a transformative idea, it's almost indistinguishable from someone who is whatever the polite term for being wrapped around their own axle is, in a technological sense. It's almost a form of reverse Schneier's Law of anyone can create an encryption algorithm that they themselves cannot break. So, the possibility that this may come back to bite us in the future if it turns out that this is not potentially the revelation that you see it as, where do you see the future of this going?Ram: Really great question. The way I think about it is, and the reason why I keep going back to databases and these sort of ideas is, we have a really great way to deal with structured data and structured queries, right? This is the evolution of the last maybe 40, 50 years is to come up with relational databases, come up with SQL engines, come up with scalable ways of running structured queries on large amounts of data. What I feel like this sort of technology does is it takes it to the next level, which is you can actually ask unstructured questions on unstructured data, right? So, even the couple of examples we just talked about, doing near duplicate detection of images, that's a very unstructured question. What does it even mean to say that two images are nearly duplicate of each other? I couldn't even phrase it as kind of a concrete thing. I certainly cannot write a SQL statement for it, but I cannot even phrase it properly.With these sort of technologies, with the vector embeddings, with deep learning and so on, you can actually mathematically phrase it, right? The mathematical phrasing is very simple once you have the right representation that understands your image as a vector. Two images are nearly duplicate if they are close enough in the space of vectors. Suddenly you've taken a problem that was even hard to express, let alone compute, made it precise to express, precise to compute. This is going to happen not just for images, not just for semantic search, it's going to happen for all sorts of unstructured data, whether it's time series, where it's anomaly detection, whether it's security analytics, and so on.I actually think that fundamentally, a lot of fields are going to get disrupted by this sort of way of thinking about things. We are just scratching the surface here with semantic search, in my opinion.Corey: What is I guess your barometer for success? I mean, if I could take a very cynical point of view on this, it's, “Oh, well, whenever there's a managed vector database offering from AWS.” They'll probably call it Amazon Basics Vector or something like that. Well, that is a—it used to be a snarky observation that, “Oh, we're not competing, we're just validating their market.” Lately, with some of their competitive database offerings, there's a lot more truth to that than I suspect AWS would like.Their offerings are nowhere near as robust as what they pretend to be competing against. How far away do you think we are from the larger cloud providers starting to say, “Ah, we got the sense there was money in here, so we're launching an entire service around this?”Ram: Yeah. I mean, this is a—first of all, this is a great question. There's always something that's constantly, things that any innovator or disrupter has to be thinking about, especially these days. I would say that having a multi-year head, start in the use cases, in thinking about how this system should even look, what sort of use cases should it [unintelligible 00:19:34], what the operating points for the [unintelligible 00:19:37] database even look like, and how to build something that's cloud-native and scalable, is very hard to replicate. Meaning if you look at what we have already done and kind of tried to base the architecture of that, you're probably already a couple of years behind us in terms of just where we are at, right, not just in the architecture, but also in the use cases in where this is evolving forward.That said, I think it is, for all of these companies—and I would put—for example, Snowflake is a great example of this, which is Snowflake needn't have existed if Redshift had done a phenomenal job of being cloud-native, right, and kind of done that before Snowflake did it. In hindsight, it seems like it's obvious, but when Snowflake did this, it wasn't obvious that that's where everything was headed. And Snowflake built something that's very technologically innovative, in a sense that it's even now hard to replicate. Plus, it takes a long time to replicate something like that. I think that's where we are at.If Pinecone does its job really well and if we simply execute efficiently, it's very hard to replicate that. So, I'm not super worried about cloud providers, to be honest, in this space, I'm more worried about our execution.Corey: If it helps anything, I'm not very deep into your specific area of the world, obviously, but I am optimistic when I hear people say things like that. Whenever I find folks who are relatively early along in their technological journey being very concerned about oh, the large cloud provider is going to come crashing in, it feels on some level like their perspective is that they have one weird trick, and they were able to crack that, but they have no defensive mode because once someone else figures out the trick, well, okay, now we're done. The idea of sustained and lasting innovation in a space, I think, is the more defensible position to take, with the counterargument, of course, that that's a lot harder to find.Ram: Absolutely. And I think for technologies like this, that's the only solution, which is, if you really want to avoid being disrupted by cloud providers, I think that's the way to go.Corey: I want to talk a little bit about your own background. Before you wound up as the VP of R&D over at Pinecone, you were in a bunch of similar… I guess, similar styled roles—if we'll call it that—at Yahoo, Databricks, and Splunk. I'm curious as to what your experience in those companies wound up impressing on you that made you say, “Ah, that's great and all, but you know what's next? That's right, vector databases.” And off, you went to Pinecone. What did you see?Ram: So, first of all, in was some way or the other, I have been involved in machine learning and systems and the intersection of these two for maybe the last decade-and-a-half. So, it's always been something, like, in the in between the two and that's been personally exciting to me. So, I'm kind of very excited by trying to think about new type of databases, new type of data platforms that really leverages machine learning and data. This has been personally exciting to me. I obviously learned very different things from different companies.I would say that Yahoo was just the learning in cloud to begin with because prior to joining Yahoo, I wasn't familiar with Silicon Valley cloud companies at that scale and Yahoo is a big company and there's a lot to learn from there. It was also my first introduction to Hadoop, Spark, and even machine learning where I really got into machine learning at scale, in online advertising and areas like that, which was a massive scale. And I got into that in Yahoo, and it was personally exciting to me because there's very few opportunities where you can work on machine learning at that scale, right?Databricks was very exciting to me because it was an earlier-stage company than I had been at before. Extremely well run and I learned a lot from Databricks, just the team, the culture, the focus on innovation, and the focus on product thinking. I joined Databricks as a product manager. I hadn't played the product manager hat before that, so it was very much a learning experience for me and I think I learned from some of the best in that area. And even at Pinecone, I carry that forward, which is think about how my learnings at Databricks informs how we should be thinking about products at Pinecone, and so on. So, I think I learned—if I had to pick one company I learned a lot from, I would say, it's Databricks. The most [unintelligible 00:23:50].Corey: I would also like to point out, normally when people say, “Oh, the one company I've learned the most from,” and they pick one of them out of their history, it's invariably the most recent one, but you left there in 2018—Ram: Yeah.Corey: —then went to go spend the next three years over at Splunk, where you were a Senior Principal, Scientist, a Senior Director and Head of Machine-Learning, and then you decided, okay, that's enough hard work. You're going to do something easier and be the VP of Engineering, which is just wild at a company of that scale.Ram: Yeah. At Splunk, I learned a lot about management. I think managing large teams, managing multiple different teams, while working on very different areas is something I learned at Splunk. You know, I was at this point in my career when I was right around trying to start my own company. Basically, I was at a point where I'd taken enough learnings and I really wanted to do something myself.That's when Edo and I—you know, the CEO of Pinecone—and I started talking. And we had worked together for many years, and we started working together at Yahoo. We kept in touch with each other. And we started talking about the sort of problems that I was excited about working on and then I came to realize what he was working on and what Pinecone was doing. And we thought it was a very good fit for the two of us to work together.So, that is kind of how it happened. It sort of happened by chance, as many things do in Silicon Valley, where a lot of things just happen by network and chance. That's what happened in my case. I was just thinking of starting my own company at the time when just a chance encounter with Edo led me to Pinecone.Corey: It feels from my admittedly uninformed perspective, that a lot of what you're doing right now in the vector database area, it feels on some level, like it follows the trajectory of machine learning, in that for a long time, the only people really excited about it were either sci-fi authors or folks who had trouble explaining it to someone without a degree in higher math. And then it turned into—a couple of big stories from the mid-2010s stick out at me when we've been people were trying to sell this to me in a variety of different ways. One of them was, “Oh, yeah, if you're a giant credit card processing company and trying to detect fraud with this kind of transaction volume—” it's, yeah, there are maybe three companies in the world that fall into that exact category. The other was WeWork where they did a lot of computer vision work. And they used this to determine that at certain times of day there was congestion in certain parts of the buildings and that this was best addressed by hiring a second barista. Which distilled down to, “Wait a minute, you're telling me that you spent how much money on machine-learning and advanced analyses and data scientists and the rest have figured out that people like to drink coffee in the morning?” Like, that is a little on the ridiculous side.Now, I think that it is past the time for skepticism around machine learning when you can go to a website and type in a description of something and it paints a picture of the thing you just described. Or you can show it a picture and it describes what is in that picture fairly accurately. At this point, the only people who are skeptics, from my position on this, seem to be holding out for some sort of either next-generation miracle or are just being bloody-minded. Do you think that there's a tipping point for vector search where it's going to become blindingly obvious to, if not the mass market, at least more run-of-the-mill, more prosaic level of engineer that haven't specialized in this?Ram: Yeah. It's already, frankly, started happening. So, two years back, I wouldn't have suspected this fast of an adoption for this new of technology from this varied number of use cases. I just wouldn't have suspected it because I, you know, I still thought, it's going to take some time for this field to mature and, kind of, everybody to really start taking advantage of this. This has happened much faster than even I assumed.So, to some extent, it's already happening. A lot of it is because the barrier to entry is quite low right now, right? So, it's very easy and cost-effective for people to create these embeddings. There is a lot of documentation out there, things are getting easier and easier, day by day. Some of it is by Pinecone itself, by a lot of work we do. Some of it is by, like, companies that I mentioned before who are building better and better models, making it easier and easier for people to take these machine-learning models and use them without having to even fine-tune anything.And as technologies like Pinecone really mature and dramatically become cost-effective, the barrier to entry is very low. So, what we tend to see people do, it's not so much about confidence in this new technology; it is connecting something simple that I need this sort of value out of, and find the least critical path or the simplest way to get going on this sort of technology. And as long as it can make that barrier to entry very small and make this cost-effective and easy for people to explore, this is going to start exploding. And that's what we are seeing. And a lot of Pinecone's focus has been on ease-of-use, in simplicity in connecting the zero-to-one journey for precisely this reason. Because not only do we strongly believe in the value of this technology, it's becoming more and more obvious to the broader community as well. The remaining work to be done is just the ease of use and making things cost-effective. And cost-effectiveness is also what the focus on a lot. Like, this technology can be even more cost-effective than it is today.Corey: I think that it is one of those never-mistaken ideas to wind up making something more accessible to folks than keeping it in a relatively rarefied environment. We take a look throughout the history of computing in general and cloud in particular, were formerly very hard things have largely been reduced down to click the button. Yes, yes, and then get yelled at because you haven't done infrastructure-as-code, but click the button is still possible. I feel like this is on that trendline based upon what you're saying.Ram: Absolutely. And the more we can do here, both Pinecone and the broader community, I think the better, the faster the adoption of this sort of technology is going to be.Corey: I really want to thank you for spending so much time talking me through what it is you folks are working on. If people want to learn more, where's the best place for them to go to find you?Ram: Pinecone.io. Our website has a ton of information about Pinecone, as well as a lot of standard documentation. We have a free tier as well where you can play around with small data sets, really get a feel for vector search. It's completely free. And you can reach me at Ram at Pinecone. I'm always happy to answer any questions. Once again, thanks so much for having me.Corey: Of course. I will put links to all of that in the show notes. This promoted guest episode is brought to us by our friends at Pinecone. Ram Sriharsha is their VP of Engineering and R&D. And I'm Cloud Economist Corey Quinn. If you've enjoyed this podcast, please leave a five-star review on your podcast platform of choice, whereas if you've hated this podcast, please leave a five-star review on your podcast platform of choice along with an angry, insulting comment that I will never read because the search on your podcast platform is broken because it's not using a vector database.Corey: If your AWS bill keeps rising and your blood pressure is doing the same, then you need The Duckbill Group. We help companies fix their AWS bill by making it smaller and less horrifying. The Duckbill Group works for you, not AWS. We tailor recommendations to your business and we get to the point. Visit duckbillgroup.com to get started.Announcer: This has been a HumblePod production. Stay humble.

Pinocchio
Puntata del 30/11/2022

Pinocchio

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 30, 2022 89:31


Oggi Giornata del Centrotavola, parte ufficialmente la stagione dei lavoretti di Natale. La madrina di quest'anno è il nostro Edo, ormai mascotte del programma.

Father Hoods
#Throwback: Parental Stage feat. Black Moon

Father Hoods

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 29, 2022 53:59


This week's going to be another #Throwback episode from 2019 where we went “semi-live” together with our in-studio guests: Black Moon's rap trio DJ Evil Dee, Buckshot, and 5FT! On this episode, join DJ EFN, Manny Digital, and KGB together with these Hip Hop icons as they share Dad biz and tell some dope stories about how they managed their ascent in music while juggling parenting. Tap in and get your weekly dose of fatherhood realness! You'll hear about…

The Daily Gardener
November 28, 2022 The Royal Society of London, Matsuo Basho, Gottlieb Haberlandt, Stefan Zweig, English Cottage by Andrew Sankey, and William Blake

The Daily Gardener

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 28, 2022 19:02


Subscribe Apple | Google | Spotify | Stitcher | iHeart   Support The Daily Gardener Buy Me A Coffee    Connect for FREE! The Friday Newsletter |  Daily Gardener Community   Historical Events 1660 On this day, the first meeting occurred of what would become The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge. The Royal Society's Latin motto, 'Nullius in verba,' translates to "Take nobody's word for it." The motto reminded the Society's members to verify information through experiments and not just based on authority.   1694 Death of Matsuo Basho ("Bash=oh"), Japanese poet. He is remembered as the most famous poet of the Edo period and the greatest master of haiku.  In one verse, Matsuo wrote, The temple bell stops But I still hear the sound coming out of the flowers.   And in another poem from his book on traveling, he wrote, Many things of the past Are brought to my mind, As I stand in the garden Staring at a cherry tree.   1854 Birth of Gottlieb Haberlandt, Austrian botanist. His father was a pioneer in 'soybean' work, and his physiologist son is now regarded as the grandfather of the birth control pill. As for Gottlieb, he grew plant cells in tissue culture and was the first scientist to point out the possibility of the culture of Isolated & Plant Tissues. In 1902 he shared his original idea called totipotentiality ("to-'ti-pe-tent-chee-al-it-tee"), which Gottlieb defined as "the theory that all plant cells can give rise to a complete plant." Today we remember Gottlieb as the father of plant tissue culture. During the 1950s scientists proved Gottlieb's totipotentiality. Indeed, any part of a plant grown in nutrient media under sterile conditions can create a whole new plant. Today, the technique of tissue culture is a very efficient tool for propagating improved plants for food, hardiness, and beauty.    1881 Birth of Stefan Zweig, Austrian writer. During the 1920s and 1930s, at the peak of his career, Stefan was one of the most widely translated writers in the world.  In The Post-Office Girl, Stefan wrote, For this quiet, unprepossessing, passive man who has no garden in front of his subsidised flat, books are like flowers. He loves to line them up on the shelf in multicoloured rows: he watches over each of them with an old-fashioned gardener's delight, holds them like fragile objects in his thin, bloodless hands.   Grow That Garden Library™ Book Recommendation English Cottage by Andrew Sankey  This book came out in 2022, and it is a master guide to cottage-style gardening. The chapters in this book cover: The History of the Cottage Garden, Creating the "Cottage Garden Style, Cottage Planting Style, Cottage Flowers, Companion Planting, Green Structure, and Traditional Features. In the Preface, Andrew shares a bit about his background and how he came to master English Cottage Gardening. My first introduction to the style of the English cottage garden came when I was given a copy of Margery Fish's book, We Made a Garden. Having been enthralled with the book, I then traveled down to Somerset to see her wonderful cottage garden at East Lambrook Manor. Shortly after this, Geoff Hamilton started to construct his cottage gardens for the BBC Gardeners' World programs and it soon became apparent that this was the style of gardening I myself wished to adopt. Not long after this I moved to Lincolnshire and started my own garden design/landscaping business, and I soon realized it was difficult to obtain the more unusual plants required for number of my garden designs, in particular plants for dry shade positions. This encouraged me to look for a larger garden with the potential to run a small specialist nursery. This resulted in purchasing Grade II listed cottage (built in 1852) with a good-sized old cottage garden. Although the original garden (like many in Lincolnshire) had once been an extremely long strip stretching back to the village pond, the plot that came with the cottage was much reduced. Nevertheless, at almost half an acre it was more than enough for me to manage. Luckily the garden was pretty much a blank canvas, having a couple of large old fruit trees, a vegetable patch, various outbuildings and a chicken hut; and this afforded me the opportunity to make something special of the garden. It was here that my love for cottage gardens blossomed. Over time I re-designed the garden, I created different rooms/areas, spring and summer borders, and began experimenting with colour schemes and companion planting. I joined the Cottage Garden Society and then helped form the Lincolnshire branch, eventually becoming chairman. Within a few years I opened the garden under the National Gardens Scheme; I then started writing articles and lecturing on different aspects of the cottage garden. This book is the culmination of my years working on my own cottage gardens, designing and creating cottage gardens for clients, experimenting with companion planting and lecturing widely on the subject. I very much hope you enjoy it. This book is 192 pages of cottage garden style in all its glory, with many lovely and inspiring photographs.  You can get a copy of English Cottage by Andrew Sankey and support the show using the Amazon link in today's show notes for around $25.   Botanic Spark 1757 Birth of William Blake, English poet. During his lifetime, William wrote in relative obscurity. Today, he is an essential poet of the Romantic Age. He wrote, In seed-time learn, in harvest teach, in winter enjoy.   In his poem, Auguries of Innocence, he wrote, To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower, Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour.   In his poem, A Poison Tree, William wrote about anger as a tree that grows as it gets tended. I was angry with my friend: I told my wrath, my wrath did end. I was angry with my foe; I told it not, my wrath did grow. And I water'd it in fears, Night & morning with my tears; And I sunned it with smiles And with soft deceitful wiles. And it grew both day and night, Till it bore an apple bright; And my foe beheld it shine, And he knew that it was mine, And into my garden stole, When the night had veiled the pole: In the morning glad I see My foe outstretched beneath the tree.    Thanks for listening to The Daily Gardener And remember: For a happy, healthy life, garden every day.