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Midnight Train Podcast
The Shocking History of Execution.

Midnight Train Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 18, 2022 122:40


Tonight we are going to tell you a tale. A superb tale. A tale as old as time that takes us from the beginnings of civilization until today. This tale will thrill you and chill you. It may elicit feelings of dread and sadness. It may make you angry.  At times it may make you uneasily laugh like the friend at school that was kicked in the balls but couldn't show his weakness. It's a subject that people continually argue about and debate with savage ferocity. Tonight we are talking about executions! We'll talk about the methods and the reasons behind executions throughout the years. Then we'll talk about some famous executions, as well as some of the more fucked up ones. And by fucked up, we mean botched. Bad stuff. This episode isn't meant to be a debate for or against executions but merely to discuss them and the crazy shit surrounding them. So with all that being said, Let's rock and roll!           Capital punishment has been practiced in the history of virtually all known societies and places. The first established death penalty laws date as far back as the Eighteenth Century B.C. in the Code of King Hammurabi of Babylon, which codified the death penalty for 25 different crimes.  The Code of Hammurabi was one of the earliest and most complete written legal codes and was proclaimed by the Babylonian king Hammurabi, who reigned from 1792 to 1750 B.C. Hammurabi expanded the city-state of Babylon along the Euphrates River to unite all of southern Mesopotamia. The Hammurabi code of laws, a collection of 282 rules, established standards for commercial interactions and set fines and punishments to meet the requirements of justice. Hammurabi's Code was carved onto a massive, finger-shaped black stone stele (pillar) that was looted by invaders and finally rediscovered in 1901. The text, compiled at the end of Hammurabi's reign, is less a proclamation of principles than a collection of legal precedents, set between prose celebrating Hammurabi's just and pious rule. Hammurabi's Code provides some of the earliest examples of the doctrine of “lex talionis,” or the laws of retribution, sometimes better known as “an eye for an eye the greatest soulfly song ever!   The Code of Hammurabi includes many harsh punishments, sometimes demanding the removal of the guilty party's tongue, hands, breasts, eye, or ear. But the code is also one of the earliest examples of an accused person being considered innocent until proven guilty. The 282 laws are all written in an “if-then form.” For example, if a man steals an ox, he must pay back 30 times its value. The laws range from family law to professional contracts and administrative law, often outlining different standards of justice for the three classes of Babylonian society—the propertied class, freedmen, and slaves.   A doctor's fee for curing a severe wound would be ten silver shekels for a gentleman, five shekels for a freedman, and two shekels for a slave. So, it was less expensive when you were a lower-class citizen. Penalties for malpractice followed the same scheme: a doctor who killed a wealthy patient would have his hands cut off, while only financial restitution was required if the victim was a slave. Crazy!   Some examples of the death penalty laws at this time are as follows:         If a man accuses another man and charges him with homicide but cannot bring proof against him, his accuser shall be killed. Holy shit.         If a man breaks into a house, they shall kill him and hang him in front of that same house.          The death penalty was also part of the Hittite Code in the 14th century B.C., but only partially. The most severe offenses typically were punished through enslavement, although crimes of a sexual nature often were punishable by death. The Hittite laws, also known as the Code of the Nesilim, constitute an ancient legal code dating from c. 1650 – 1500 BCE. The Hittite laws were kept in use for roughly 500 years, and many copies show that other than changes in grammar, what might be called the 'original edition' with its apparent disorder, was copied slavishly; no attempt was made to 'tidy up' by placing even apparent afterthoughts in a more appropriate position.    The Draconian constitution, or Draco's code, was a written law code enforced by Draco near the end of the 7th century BC; its composition started around 621BC. It was written in response to the unjust interpretation and modification of oral law by Athenian aristocrats. Aristotle, the chief source for knowledge of Draco, claims that he was the first to write Athenian laws and that Draco established a constitution enfranchising hoplites, the lower class soldiers. The Draconian laws were most noteworthy for their harshness; they were written in blood rather than ink. Death was prescribed for almost all criminal offenses. Solon, who was the magistrate in 594 BCE, later repealed Draco's code and published new laws, retaining only Draco's homicide statutes.   In the 5th century B.C., the Roman Law of the Twelve Tables also contained the death penalty. Death sentences were carried out by such means as beheading, boiling in oil, burying alive, burning, crucifixion, disembowelment, drowning, flaying alive, hanging, impalement, stoning, strangling, being thrown to wild animals, and quartering. We'll talk more about that later. The earliest attempt by the Romans to create a code of law was the Laws of the Twelve Tables. A commission of ten men (Decemviri) was appointed (c. 455 B.C.) to draw up a code of law binding on patrician and plebeian and which consuls would have to enforce. The commission produced enough statutes to fill ten bronze tablets.    Mosaic Law codified many capital crimes. There is evidence that Jews used many different techniques, including stoning, hanging, beheading, crucifixion (copied from the Romans), throwing the criminal from a rock, and sawing asunder. The most infamous execution of history occurred approximately 29 AD with the crucifixion of that one guy, Jesus Christ, outside Jerusalem. About 300 years later, Emperor Constantine, after converting to Christianity, abolished crucifixion and other cruel death penalties in the Roman Empire. In 438, the Code of Theodosius made more than 80 crimes punishable by death.    Britain influenced the colonies more than any other country and has a long history of punishment by death. About 450 BC, the death penalty was often enforced by throwing the condemned into a quagmire, which is not only the character from Family Guy, and another word for dilemma but in this case is a soft boggy area of land. By the 10th Century, hanging from the gallows was the most frequent execution method. William the Conqueror opposed taking life except in war and ordered no person to be hanged or executed for any offense. Nice guy, right? However, he allowed criminals to be mutilated for their crimes.    During the middle ages, capital punishment was accompanied by torture. Most barons had a drowning pit as well as gallows, and they were used for major as well as minor crimes. For example, in 1279, two hundred and eighty-nine Jews were hanged for clipping coins. What the fuck is that you may be wondering. Well, Clipping was taking a small amount of metal off the edge of hand-struck coins. Over time, the precious metal clippings could be saved up and melted into bullion (a lump of precious metal) to be sold or used to make new coins. Under Edward I, two gatekeepers were killed because the city gate had not been closed in time to prevent the escape of an accused murderer. Burning was the punishment for women's high treason, and men were hanged, drawn, and quartered. Beheading was generally accepted for the upper classes. One could be burned to death for marrying a Jew. Pressing became the penalty for those who would not confess to their crimes—the executioner placed heavy weights on the victim's chest until death. On the first day, he gave the victim a small quantity of bread, on the second day a small drink of bad water, and so on until he confessed or died. Under the reign of Henry VIII, the number of those put to death is estimated as high as 72,000. Boiling to death was another penalty approved in 1531, and there are records to show some people cooked for up to two hours before death took them. When a woman was burned, the executioner tied a rope around her neck when she was connected to the stake. When the flames reached her, she could be strangled from outside the ring of fire. However, this often failed, and many were burnt alive.   In Britain, the number of capital offenses continually increased until the 1700's when two hundred and twenty-two crimes were punishable by death. These included stealing from a house for forty shillings, stealing from a shop the value of five shillings, robbing a rabbit warren, cutting down a tree, and counterfeiting tax stamps. However, juries tended not to convict when the penalty was significant, and the crime was not. Reforms began to take place. In 1823, five laws were passed, removing about a hundred crimes from the death penalty. Between 1832 and 1837, many capital offenses were swept away. In 1840, there was a failed attempt to abolish all capital punishment. Through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, more and more capital punishments were abolished, not only in Britain but also all across Europe; until today, only a few European countries retain the death penalty.   The first recorded execution in the English American colonies was in 1608 when officials executed George Kendall of Virginia for supposedly plotting to betray the British to the Spanish. In 1612, Virginia's governor, Sir Thomas Dale, implemented the Divine, Moral, and Martial Laws that made death the penalty for even minor offenses such as stealing grapes, killing chickens, killing dogs or horses without permission, or trading with Indians. Seven years later, these laws were softened because Virginia feared that no one would settle there. Well, no shit.   In 1622, the first legal execution of a criminal, Daniel Frank, occurred in, of course, Virginia for the crime of theft. Some colonies were very strict in using the death penalty, while others were less so. In Massachusetts Bay Colony, the first execution was in 1630, but the earliest capital statutes did not occur until later. Under the Capital Laws of New England that went into effect between 1636-1647, the death penalty was set forth for pre-meditated murder, sodomy, witchcraft, adultery, idolatry, blasphemy, assault in anger, rape, statutory rape, manstealing, perjury in a capital trial, rebellion, manslaughter, poisoning, and bestiality. A scripture from the Old Testament accompanied early laws. By 1780, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts only recognized seven capital crimes: murder, sodomy, burglary, buggery, arson, rape, and treason. And for those wondering, The Buggery Act of 1533, formally An Act for the punishment of the vice of Buggerie, was an Act of the Parliament of England that was passed during the reign of Henry VIII. It was the country's first civil sodomy law.   The Act defined buggery as an unnatural sexual act against the will of God and Man. This term was later determined by the courts to include only anal penetration and bestiality.   The New York colony instituted the so-called Duke's Laws of 1665. This list of laws directed the death penalty for denial of the true God, pre-meditated murder, killing someone who had no weapon of defense, killing by lying in wait or by poisoning, sodomy, buggery, kidnapping, perjury in a capital trial, traitorous denial of the king's rights or raising arms to resist his authority, conspiracy to invade towns or forts in the colony and striking one's mother or father (upon complaint of both). The two colonies that were more lenient concerning capital punishment were South Jersey and Pennsylvania. In South Jersey, there was no death penalty for any crime, and there were only two crimes, murder, and treason, punishable by death. Way to go, Jersey Raccoons!   Some states were more severe. For example, by 1837, North Carolina required death for the crimes of murder, rape, statutory rape, slave-stealing, stealing banknotes, highway robbery, burglary, arson, castration, buggery, sodomy, bestiality, dueling where death occurs, (and this insidious shit), hiding a slave with intent to free him, taking a free Negro out of state to sell him, bigamy, inciting slaves to rebel, circulating seditious literature among slaves, accessory to murder, robbery, burglary, arson, or mayhem and others. However, North Carolina did not have a state prison and, many said, no suitable alternative to capital punishment. So, instead of building a fucking prison to hold criminals, they just made the penalty for less severe crimes punishable by death. What the shit, North Carolina?!?   The first reforms of the death penalty occurred between 1776-1800. Thomas Jefferson and four others, authorized to undertake a complete revision of Virginia's laws, proposed a law that recommended the death penalty for only treason and murder. After a stormy debate, the legislature defeated the bill by one vote. The writing of European theorists such as Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Bentham had a significant effect on American intellectuals, as did English Quaker prison reformers John Bellers and John Howard.   Organizations were formed in different colonies for the abolition of the death penalty and to relieve poor prison conditions. Dr. Benjamin Rush, a renowned Philadelphia citizen, proposed abolishing capital punishment. William Bradford, Attorney General of Pennsylvania, was ordered to investigate capital punishment. In 1793 he published “An Enquiry How Far the Punishment of Death is Necessary” in Pennsylvania. Bradford strongly insisted that the death penalty be retained but admitted it was useless in preventing certain crimes. He said the death penalty made convictions harder to obtain because in Pennsylvania, and indeed in all states, the death penalty was mandatory. Juries would often not return a guilty verdict because of this fact, which makes sense. In response, in 1794, the Pennsylvania legislature abolished capital punishment for all crimes except murder “in the first degree,” the first time murder had been broken down into “degrees.” In New York, in 1796, the legislature authorized construction of the state's first prison, abolished whipping, and reduced the number of capital offenses from thirteen to two. Virginia and Kentucky passed similar reform bills. Four more states reduced their capital crimes: Vermont in 1797 to three; Maryland in 1810, to four; New Hampshire in 1812, to two and Ohio in 1815 to two. Each of these states built state penitentiaries. A few states went in the opposite direction. Rhode Island restored the death penalty for rape and arson; Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Connecticut raised death crimes from six to ten, including sodomy, maiming, robbery, and forgery. Many southern states made more crimes capital, especially for slaves. Assholes.   The first profound reform era occurred between 1833-1853. Public executions were attacked as cruel. Sometimes tens of thousands of eager viewers would show up to view hangings; local merchants would sell souvenirs and alcohol. Which, I'm not sure if I hate or absolutely love. Fighting and pushing would often break out as people jockeyed for the best view of the hanging or the corpse! Onlookers often cursed the widow or the victim and would try to tear down the scaffold or the rope for keepsakes. Violence and drunkenness often ruled towns far into the night after “justice had been served.” People are fucking weird, dude. Many states enacted laws providing private hangings. Rhode Island (1833), Pennsylvania (1834), New York (1835), Massachusetts (1835), and New Jersey (1835) all abolished public hangings. By 1849, fifteen states were holding private hangings. This move was opposed by many death penalty abolitionists who thought public executions would eventually cause people to cry out against execution itself. For example, in 1835, Maine enacted what was in effect a moratorium on capital punishment after over ten thousand people who watched a hanging had to be restrained by police after they became unruly and began fighting. All felons sentenced to death would have to remain in prison at hard labor and could not be executed until one year had elapsed and then only on the governor's order. No governor ordered an execution under the “Maine Law” for twenty-seven years. Though many states argued the merits of the death penalty, no state went as far as Maine. The most influential reformers were the clergy, of course. Ironically, the small but influential group that opposed the abolitionists was the clergy.    Ok, let's talk about electrocution. Want to know how the electric chair came to be? Well, Electrocution as a method of execution came onto the scene in an implausible manner. Edison Company, with its DC (direct current) electrical systems, began attacking Westinghouse Company and its AC (alternating current) electrical systems as they were pressing for nationwide electrification with alternating current. To show how dangerous AC could be, Edison Company began public demonstrations by electrocuting animals. People reasoned that if electricity could kill animals, it could kill people. In 1888, New York approved the dismantling of its gallows and the building of the nation's first electric chair. It held its first victim, William Kemmler, in 1890, and even though the first electrocution was clumsy at best, other states soon followed the lead.   Between 1917 and 1955, the death penalty abolition movement again slowed. Washington, Arizona, and Oregon in 1919-20 reinstated the death penalty. In 1924, the first execution by cyanide gas took place in Nevada, when Tong war gang murderer Gee Jon became its first victim. Get this shit. The frigging state wanted to secretly pump cyanide gas into Jon's cell at night while he was asleep as a more humanitarian way of carrying out the penalty. Still, technical difficulties prohibited this, and a special “gas chamber” was hastily built. Other concerns developed when less “civilized” methods of execution failed. In 1930, Mrs. Eva Dugan became the first female to be executed by Arizona. The execution was botched when the hangman misjudged the drop, and Mrs. Dugan's head was ripped from her body. More states converted to electric chairs and gas chambers. During this time, abolitionist organizations sprang up all across the country, but they had little effect. Several stormy protests were held against the execution of certain convicted felons, like Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, who were convicted of spying on behalf of the Soviet Union. The couple was convicted of providing top-secret information about radar, sonar, jet propulsion engines, and valuable nuclear weapon designs. At that time, the United States was supposedly the only country with nuclear weapons. Convicted of espionage in 1951, they were executed by the United States federal government in 1953 in the Sing Sing correctional facility in Ossining, New York, becoming the first American civilians to be executed for such charges and the first to receive that penalty during peacetime. However, these protests held little opposition against the death penalty itself. In fact, during the anti-Communist period, with all its fears and hysteria, Texas Governor Allan Shivers seriously suggested that capital punishment be the penalty for membership in the Communist Party.   The movement against capital punishment revived again between 1955 and 1972.   England and Canada completed exhaustive studies which were largely critical of the death penalty, and these were widely circulated in the U.S.  Death row criminals gave their moving accounts of capital punishment in books and films. Convicted robber, kidnapper, and rapist Caryl Chessman, published “Cell 2455 Death Row” and “Trial by Ordeal.” Barbara Graham's story was utilized in the book and movie “I Want to Live!” after her execution. She was executed in the gas chamber at San Quentin Prison on the same day as two convicted accomplices, Jack Santo and Emmett Perkins. All of them were involved in a robbery that led to the murder of an elderly widow.  Television shows were broadcast on the death penalty. Hawaii and Alaska ended capital punishment in 1957, and Delaware did so the following year. Controversy over the death penalty gripped the nation, forcing politicians to take sides. Delaware restored the death penalty in 1961. Michigan abolished capital punishment for treason in 1963. Voters in 1964 abolished the death penalty in Oregon. In 1965 Iowa, New York, West Virginia, and Vermont ended the death penalty. New Mexico abolished the death penalty in 1969.   The controversy over the death penalty continues today. There is a strong movement against lawlessness propelled by citizens' fears of security. Politicians at the national and state levels are taking the floor of legislatures and calling for more frequent death penalties, death penalties for more crimes, and longer prison sentences. Those opposing these moves counter by arguing that harsher sentences do not slow crime and that crime is slightly or the same as in the past. FBI statistics show murders are now up. (For example, 9.3 persons per 100,000 were murdered in 1973, and 9.4 persons per 100,000 were murdered in 1992, and as of today, it's upwards of 14.4 people per 100,000. This upswing might be because of more advanced crime technology, as well as more prominent news and media.   Capital punishment has been completely abolished in all European countries except for Belarus and Russia, which has a moratorium and has not conducted an execution since September 1996. The complete ban on capital punishment is enshrined in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (EU). Two widely adopted protocols of the European Convention on Human Rights of the Council of Europe are thus considered a central value. Of all modern European countries, San Marino, Portugal, and the Netherlands were the first to abolish capital punishment, whereas only Belarus still practices capital punishment in some form or another. In 2012, Latvia became the last EU member state to abolish capital punishment in wartime.   Ok, so now let's switch gears from the history of capital punishment and executions in general and get into what we know you beautiful bastards come here for. Let's talk about some methods used throughout the years, and then we'll talk about some famous executions and some fucked and messed up ones.   Methods:   We've discussed a few of these before, but some are so fucked up we're going to discuss them again.   Boiling To Death:   A slow and agonizing punishment, this method traditionally saw the victim gradually lowered — feet-first — into boiling oil, water, or wax (although uses of boiling wine and molten lead have also been recorded).   If the shock of the pain did not render them immediately unconscious, the person would experience the excruciating sensation of their outer layers of skin, utterly destroyed by immersion burns, dissolving right off their body, followed by the complete breakdown of the fatty tissue, boiling away beneath.   Emperor Nero is said to have dispatched thousands of Christians in this manner. At the same time, in the Middle Ages, the primary recipients of the punishment were not killers or rapists but coin forgers, particularly in Germany and the Holy Roman Empire. In Britain, meanwhile, King Henry VIII introduced the practice for executing those who used poison to commit murder.   Shockingly, the practice is believed to have been carried out as recently as 2002, when the government of Uzbekistan, led by Islam Karimov, was alleged to have tortured several suspected terrorists to death by boiling.   The Blood Eagle:   A technique ascribed to ancient Norse warriors, the blood eagle, mixed brutality and poetic imagery that only the Vikings could. First, the victim's back would be hacked open, and the skin ripped apart, exposing the spinal column.   The ribs would then be snapped from the spine and forcibly bent backward until they faced outwards from the body, forming a pair of bloody, shattered eagle's wings. As a horrifying finale, the lungs would then be pulled from the body cavity and coated with stinging salt, causing eventual death by suffocation.   There is some question whether this technique was ever actually used as the only accounts come from Norse literature. Odin did this shit, you know it.   Several scholars claim that the act we know of today is simply a result of poor translating and misunderstands the strong association of the eagle with blood and death in Norse imagery. That said, every account is consistent in that in each case, the victim is a nobleman being punished for murdering his father.   The good news for any poor soul who might have suffered this brutal death? The agony and blood loss from the initial wounds would probably have caused them to pass out long before the lungs were removed from their bodies.    Impalement:   Most famously used by Vlad the Impaler, 15th-century ruler of Wallachia (in present-day Romania) and inspiration for Count Dracula, the act of impalement has a long, grim history. While images tend to depict people skewered through the midsection and then held aloft — in a manner that would almost certainly bring about a rapid death — the actual process was a much longer, horrifically drawn-out ordeal.   Traditionally, the stake would be partially sharpened and planted, point up, in the ground. The victim would then be placed over the spike as it was inserted partway into the rectum or vagina.   As their body weight dragged them further onto the pole, the semi-greased wooden stake would force its way up through their body, piercing organs with agonizing slowness as it eventually penetrated the entire torso, finally tearing an exit wound through the skin of the shoulder, neck or throat. Holy shishkabob. Or bill. Or Karen.   The earliest records of the torture come from 1772 B.C. in Babylon, where the aforementioned King Hammurabi ordered a woman be executed in this way for killing her husband. But its use continued until as recently as the 20th century when the Ottoman government employed the technique during the Armenian genocide of 1915-1923. Which is super fucked up.   According to some accounts, it could take the victim — exposed, bleeding, and writhing in tormented agony — as long as eight whole days to die. Oh my hell!   Keelhauling:   Walking the plank might not be the most pleasant of deaths, but it seems moderately more humane than the other favored maritime punishment of keelhauling.   A punishment that often ended in death due to the severity of the wounds sustained (or was simply carried out until the point of death), it saw the victim, legs weighted and suspended from a rope, dropped from the bow of the ship, and then rapidly pulled underwater along the length of the hull — and over the keel (the beam that runs longitudinally down the center of the underside to the stern.   In the age of old, old wooden sailing ships, the hull of a vessel would generally be coated in a thick layer of barnacles, whose shells could be rock hard and razor-sharp.   As the drowning sailor was yanked relentlessly through the saltwater, these barnacles would strip the skin from his body, gouging out raw chunks of flesh and even, by some accounts, tearing off whole limbs or severing the head.   If the sailor was still alive, they might be hung from the mast for 15 minutes before going in again. In some cases, the victim would have an oil-soaked sponge — containing a breath of air — stuffed into their mouth to prevent a “merciful” drowning.   Employed mainly by the Dutch and the French from the 1500s until it was abolished in 1853, accounts of its use date back to Greece in 800 B.C.   The Roman Candle:   Many of the worst execution methods ever devised involve fire — from burning witches at stake in medieval Britain to roasting criminals alive in the hot metal insides of the brazen bull in Ancient Greece — but few match the sheer lack of humanity as the Roman Candle.   A rumored favorite of the mad Roman Emperor Nero, this method saw the subject tied to a stake and smeared with flammable pitch (tree or plant resin), then set ablaze, slowly burning to death from the feet up.   What sets this above the many other similar methods is that the victims were sometimes lined up outside to provide the lighting for one of Nero's evening parties.   Being Hanged, Drawn, And Quartered:   First recorded in England during the 13th century, this unusually extreme — even for the time — mode of execution was made the statutory punishment for treason in 1351. Though it was intended to be an act of such barbarous severity that no one would ever risk committing a treasonous act, there were nevertheless plenty of recipients over the next 500 years.   The process of being hanged, drawn, and quartered began with the victim being dragged to the site of execution while strapped to a wooden panel, which was in turn tied to a horse.   They would then experience a slow hanging, in which, rather than being dropped to the traditional quick death of a broken neck, they would instead be left to choke horribly as the rope tore up the skin of their throat, their body weight dragging them downwards.   Some had the good fortune to die at this stage, including the infamous Gunpowder Plot conspirator Guy Fawkes, who ensured a faster death by leaping from the gallows.   Once half-strangled, the drawing would begin. The victim would be strapped down and then slowly disemboweled, their stomachs sliced open, and their intestines and other significant organs hacked apart and pulled — “drawn” — from the body.   The genitals would often be mutilated and ripped from between their legs. Those unlucky enough to still be alive at this point might witness their organs burned in front of them before they were finally decapitated.   Once death had finally claimed them, the recipient's body would be carved into four pieces — or “quartered” — and the parts sent to prominent areas of the country as a warning to others.   The head would often be taken to the infamous Tower of London, where it would be impaled on a spike and placed on the walls “for the mockery of London.”   Rat Torture:   As recently depicted in that horrible show, Game Of Thrones, rat torture is ingenious in its disgusting simplicity. In its most basic form, a bucket containing live rats is placed on the exposed torso of the victim, and heat is applied to the base of the bucket.   The rats, crazy with fear from the heat, tear and gnaw their way into the abdomen of the victim, clawing and ripping through skin, flesh, organs, and intestines in their quest to escape.   Possessing the most powerful biting and chewing motion of any rodent, rats can make short work of a human stomach. Along with the unimaginable pain, the victim would also suffer the sick horror of feeling the large, filthy creatures writhing around inside their guts as they died.   While associated with Elizabethan England — where the Tower of London was said to have housed a “Dungeon of Rats,” a pitch-black room below high watermark that would draw in rats from the River Thames to torment the room's inhabitants — the practice has been used far more recently.   General Pinochet is said to have employed the technique during his dictatorship of Chile (1973-1990), while reports from Argentina during the National Reorganization Process in the late 1970s and early '80s claimed victims were subjected to a version in which live rats — or sometimes spiders — were inserted into the subject's body via a tube in the rectum or vagina….yep.   Bamboo Torture   Forcing thin shards of bamboo under the fingernails has long been cited as an interrogation method, but bamboo has been used to creatively — and slowly — execute a person, too. Allegedly used by the Japanese on American prisoners of war, it saw the victim tied down to a frame over a patch of newly sprouting bamboo plants.   One of the fastest-growing plants in the world, capable of up to three feet of growth in 24 hours, the sharp-tipped plants would slowly pierce the victim's skin — and then continue to grow. The result was death by gradual, continuous, multiple impalements, the equivalent of being dropped on a bed of sharpened stakes in terrible slow motion.   Despite the practice having roots in the former areas of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and Siam (now Thailand) in the 19th century, there are no proven instances of it being used during WWII.   It's certainly possible, however, and it has been shown that the technique, among the worst execution methods ever, works: A 2008 episode of MythBusters found that bamboo was capable of penetrating a human-sized lump of ballistic gelatin over three days.   https://m.imdb.com/list/ls059738828/

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Puliyabaazi Hindi Podcast
1991 आर्थिक सुधार: एक आंखोदेखा हाल. 1991 Reforms: a close-up.

Puliyabaazi Hindi Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 13, 2022 67:15


In this episode, a well-known politician and historian Jairam Ramesh joins us to discuss the 1991 reforms. This episode is based on his 2015 book To the Brink and Back: India's 1991 Story. Mr. Jairam Ramesh was an officer-on-special duty in Mr. Narasimha Rao's cabinet at the time of the reforms. We discuss the process of reform in India, how narratives matter in economic policymaking, his experience in government, and much more. Do not miss this episode!For more:To the Brink and Back: India's 1991 Story, Jairam Ramesh's book on 1991 reforms1991 आर्थिक सुधारों की राजनीतिक पृष्ठभूमि. The Political Economy of 1991 Reforms, Puliyabaazi episode with Prakhar Misra1991: एक क्रांति. When India Changed Forever, Puliyabaazi episode with Shruti RajagopalanThe 1991 Project The M document -- A paper for internal discussion in government prepared by Montek S Ahluwalia, Special Secretary to the Prime Minister, in May 1990IndiaBefore91.in -- Stories of Life under the License RajArvind Panagariya's book India: The Emerging GiantMontek Singh Ahluwalia's book Backstage: The Story behind India's High Growth YearsPuliyabaazi is on these platforms:Twitter: https://twitter.com/puliyabaaziInstagram: https://www.instagram.com/puliyabaazi/Subscribe & listen to the podcast on iTunes, Google Podcasts, Castbox, AudioBoom, YouTube, Spotify or any other podcast app.

The Greek Current
Rule of law reforms, authoritarianism, and nationalism in the Western Balkans

The Greek Current

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 12, 2022 15:01


EU auditors released a report on Monday that pointed out how the EU has been unsuccessful in its efforts to promote rule-of-law reforms in the Western Balkans. The bloc has spent about €700 million between 2014 and 2020 to help Albania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo make progress on reforms, and many EU governments see establishing high democratic standards in the region as important for the bloc's own stability and security, particularly as these countries aspire to join the EU. Professor Florian Bieber, an expert on the Balkans, joins The Greek Current to break down the key takeaways from this report. We also discuss his latest piece in Foreign Policy, which looks at the nationalist and authoritarian turn Serbia has taken under President Vucic and why this matters for the Western Balkans. Professor Florian Bieber is a Professor of Southeast European History and Politics and Director of the Centre for Southeast European Studies at the University of Graz, Austria. He is also a coordinator at The Balkans in Europe Policy Advisory Group.Read Florian Bieber's latest op-ed in Foreign Policy here: Why Serbia's President Is a Threat to EuropeYou can read the articles we discuss on our podcast here:EU funds have little impact in Western Balkans, auditors sayRape trial of Greek sailing coach begins as #MeToo gains groundUS Ambassador to Greece nominee testifying before Senate committee

The Lead with Jake Tapper
Biden Calls For Changing Senate Rules To Pass Election Reforms

The Lead with Jake Tapper

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 12, 2022 98:19


President Joe Biden delivered a major speech on voting rights while in Atlanta on Tuesday, expressing his frustration at Republicans who blocked voting rights legislation. Rep. Cori Bush joins to discuss Biden's speech and if congress can pass election reform.  CDC director Dr. Rochelle Walensky and NIH director Dr. Anthony Fauci testified in the Senate today about the Biden administration's pandemic response as Covid-19 hospitalizations in the US reach a new record high. To learn more about how CNN protects listener privacy, visit cnn.com/privacy

Global News Podcast
Biden pushes for voting reforms

Global News Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 11, 2022 26:24


President Joe Biden says changing the way elections are held is crucial to saving US democracy. Also, Liberia places an entire ministry under investigation following allegations of corruption, and Palestinian militants accuse Israel of using dolphins for military purposes.

Everything Everywhere Daily History Podcast

Subscribe to the podcast!  https://podfollow.com/everythingeverywhere/ When you hear about ancient battles and wars, the stories are often dominated by famous generals whose names have come down to us through history.  However, military success often relied on more mundane things. In the year 107 BC, a Roman general and statesman by the name of Gaius Marius did exactly such a thing when he overhauled the Roman military.  Learn more about the Marian Reforms and how they set the stage for the Roman Empire, on this episode of Everything Everywhere Daily. -------------------------------- Associate Producers: Peter Bennett & Thor Thomsen   Become a supporter on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/everythingeverywhere Discord Server: https://discord.gg/UkRUJFh   Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/everythingeverywhere/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/everywheretrip Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/EEDailyPodcast/ Website: https://everything-everywhere.com/everything-everywhere-daily-podcast/ Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

The Salt Lake Tribune's Mormon Land
Gordon Monson discusses his 20 church reforms | Episode 215

The Salt Lake Tribune's Mormon Land

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 5, 2022 41:13


Longtime Salt Lake Tribune sports columnist Gordon Monson usually writes about first downs, double-faults, 3-pointers and four-baggers. He is at home commenting on what takes place on basketball courts, football fields and baseball diamonds. Occasionally, though, he enters another arena — that of religion. A practicing member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, he has opined about Sabbath observance, BYU's Honor Code, even how Jesus might behave at a ballgame. In that spirit this past weekend, he offered 20 reforms he would like to see his church undertake. On this week's show, he discusses those suggestions on topics ranging from missions to money, Word of Wisdom to Sunday sports, tithing to temple recommends, women's equality to General Conference talks.

Central Time
Cooking with potatoes, Wrongfully convicted man fighting for criminal justice reforms

Central Time

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 31, 2021


Jarrett Adams served 10 years in Wisconsin prisons for a crime he didn't commit. We talk with him about his journey to becoming a lawyer and where he sees the need for change in the criminal justice system. Plus, a chef shares her favorite ways to use potatoes in the kitchen.

Central Time
Wrongfully convicted man fighting for criminal justice reforms, Good anxiety

Central Time

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 31, 2021


Jarrett Adams served 10 years in Wisconsin prisons for a crime he didn't commit. We talk with him about his journey to becoming a lawyer and where he sees the need for changes in the criminal justice system. We also talk with a neuroscientist about why some anxiety can be good for us.

The Majority Report with Sam Seder
Best Of 2021: The Rise of the Modern Senate and the Crippling of American Democracy & Behind the 'Blue Wall of Silence' with the D.C. Police w/ Adam Jentleson, Rosa Brooks, & David Feldman

The Majority Report with Sam Seder

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 31, 2021 112:22


In the jam-packed FINAL day of the Best Of 2021: Sam hosts Adam Jentleson, former advisor to Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, to discuss his new book Kill Switch: The Rise of the Modern Senate and the Crippling of American Democracy on how the filibuster negatively impacts American democracy. How John C. Calhoun and other Southern Senators pioneered the filibuster to block civil rights legislation during Reconstruction. How it persisted through the Jim Crow era and became normalized. Reforms that could change the majority required to pass legislation in the Senate back to 50%. Then, Sam and Emma host Rosa Brooks, law professor at Georgetown University, to discuss her recent book Tangled Up In Blue: Policing in the American City, and her experiences as a part-time volunteer reserve police officer in Washington, D.C. Professor Brooks discusses how she came to the topic; following her work on “How Everything Became War and The Military Became Everything,” she picks up on the trail of the normalized violence of American policing and looks into the behind-the-scenes elements of how officers grapple with and make sense of their role. Beginning with the academy, Brooks walks through how the culture of policing emphasizes danger, defense, and discipline – exploring how police overstate the threat to their livelihood in the line of duty, encouraging the use of force whenever deemed necessary. Next, she, Sam, and Emma talk about the changes in the academy over the last half-decade, both as reforms slowly trickle in and younger generations begin to take hold of departments, how we can assess the success of reforms and consent decrees during a period in which crime has continued to drop (wow maybe crime CAN be a product of policing), and why even police acting within legal and constitutional guidelines engage in incredibly harmful behavior. They round out the interview with a conversation on why Rosa feels reform must be embraced, and why the conversation on policing should be focused on imagining new systems of safety, rather than on budgetary punishments of police departments. Lastly, Sam and Emma are joined by David Feldman of The David Feldman Show as they discuss his small-government, Ayn Randian approach to Marxism, the neediness of progressives in negotiations, and the intoxicating misogyny of Jimmy Dore. Plus, David gives a spiel on Bernie Sanders' overwhelming kielbasa. Purchase tickets for the live show in Boston on January 16th HERE! https://thewilbur.com/artist/majority-report/ Become a member at JoinTheMajorityReport.com Subscribe to the AMQuickie newsletter here. Join the Majority Report Discord! http://majoritydiscord.com/ Get all your MR merch at our store https://shop.majorityreportradio.com/ (Merch issues and concerns can be addressed here: majorityreportstore@mirrorimage.com) You can now watch the livestream on Twitch Check out today's sponsors: sunsetlakecbd is a majority employee owned farm in Vermont, producing 100% pesticide free CBD products. Great company, great product and fans of the show! Use code Leftisbest and get 20% off at http://www.sunsetlakecbd.com. And now Sunset Lake CBD has donated $2500 to the Nurses strike fund, and we encourage MR listeners to help if they can. Here's a link to where folks can donate: https://forms.massnurses.org/we-stand-with-st-vincents-nurses/ Support the St. Vincent Nurses today as they continue to strike for a fair contract! https://action.massnurses.org/we-stand-with-st-vincents-nurses/ Subscribe to Discourse Blog, a newsletter and website for progressive essays and related fun partly run by AM Quickie writer Jack Crosbie. https://discourseblog.com/ Subscribe to AM Quickie writer Corey Pein's podcast News from Nowhere, at https://www.patreon.com/newsfromnowhere Check out Matt's show, Left Reckoning, on Youtube, and subscribe on Patreon! Subscribe to Matt's other show Literary Hangover on Patreon! Check out The Letterhack's upcoming Kickstarter project for his new graphic novel! https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/milagrocomic/milagro-heroe-de-las-calles Check out Matt Binder's YouTube channel! Subscribe to Brandon's show The Discourse on Patreon! Check out The Nomiki Show live at 3 pm ET on YouTube at patreon.com/thenomikishow Check out Jamie's podcast, The Antifada, at patreon.com/theantifada, on iTunes, or at twitch.tv/theantifada (streaming every Monday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday at 7pm ET!) Follow the Majority Report crew on Twitter: @SamSeder @EmmaVigeland @MattBinder @MattLech @BF1nn @BradKAlsop

A History of Europe, Key Battles
64.2 Russo-Turkish War 1788 and the Reforms of Joseph II

A History of Europe, Key Battles

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 31, 2021 31:02


The Origins of the French Revolutionary Wars can be dated to 17th August 1787, when in Constantinople the Ottomans arrested the Russian ambassador Count Bulgakov in the Topkapi palace, and declared war on St Petersburg. Catherine the Great had deliberately provoked the Turks and now dragged in the reluctant Austrians into the war. The Austrian Emperor was Joseph II, the archetypal enlightened despot, who worked hard to reform his empire but from the top down. His reforms provoked the so-called Brabantine Revolution 1789-90 in the Netherlands which was similar in some ways to the contemporary French Revolution. www.patreon.com/historyeuropewww.historyeurope.netMusic from Joseph Haydn (Symphony 94, 'Surpise'), Christoph Gluck (the opera 'Iphigenie En Tauride') and Mozart (the Turkish March), courtesy of www.musopen.orgPicture - January Suchodolski - the Siege of Ochakov 1788 See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

The Capitol Pressroom
After a decade, pension reforms produce savings for New Yorkers

The Capitol Pressroom

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 30, 2021 22:18


Dec. 30, 2021 - It's been about a decade since the state implemented changes to the state's pension plans, so the Empire Center for Public Policy has examined the cost savings that have been realized from these reforms in the ensuing years. The group's founder, EJ McMahon, joins us to talk dollars and cents and make the case for adding more flexibility to future retirement plans for public employees.

The Neoliberal Podcast
Getting the organs we need ft. Rep. Raja Krishnamoorthi & Jennifer Erickson

The Neoliberal Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 28, 2021 30:59


What exactly are Organ Procurement Organizations? And how are so many of them failing and stopping Americans from getting the organs they need?  Congressman Raja Krishnamoorthi (IL-8) and Jennifer Erickson join the podcast to talk about reforming America's system for organ donation. When 90% of Americans approve of organ donation, why do we still have critical shortages of so many organs? And what can we do to change things?  Listen to find out! Resources: OPO data - https://opodata.org/ Oversight Subcommittee Hearing on Reforms in Organ Transplant Industry - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TnKo8Q-Hemk Rep. Krishnamoorthi op-ed on OPO reform - https://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/healthcare/569398-its-time-to-put-patients-and-taxpayers-ahead-of-transplant   To make sure you hear every episode, join our Patreon at https://www.patreon.com/neoliberalproject. Patrons get access to exclusive bonus episodes, our sticker-of-the-month club, and our insider Slack.  Become a supporter today! Got questions for the Neoliberal Podcast?  Send them to mailbag@neoliberalproject.org Follow us at: https://twitter.com/ne0liberal https://www.instagram.com/neoliberalproject/ https://www.facebook.com/groups/1930401007051265/   Join a local chapter at https://neoliberalproject.org/join

ESV: M'Cheyne Reading Plan
December 19: 2 Chronicles 22–23; Revelation 10; Zechariah 6; John 9

ESV: M'Cheyne Reading Plan

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 19, 2021 15:13


With family: 2 Chronicles 22–23; Revelation 10 2 Chronicles 22–23 (Listen) Ahaziah Reigns in Judah 22 And the inhabitants of Jerusalem made Ahaziah, his youngest son, king in his place, for the band of men that came with the Arabians to the camp had killed all the older sons. So Ahaziah the son of Jehoram king of Judah reigned. 2 Ahaziah was twenty-two1 years old when he began to reign, and he reigned one year in Jerusalem. His mother's name was Athaliah, the granddaughter of Omri. 3 He also walked in the ways of the house of Ahab, for his mother was his counselor in doing wickedly. 4 He did what was evil in the sight of the LORD, as the house of Ahab had done. For after the death of his father they were his counselors, to his undoing. 5 He even followed their counsel and went with Jehoram the son of Ahab king of Israel to make war against Hazael king of Syria at Ramoth-gilead. And the Syrians wounded Joram, 6 and he returned to be healed in Jezreel of the wounds that he had received at Ramah, when he fought against Hazael king of Syria. And Ahaziah the son of Jehoram king of Judah went down to see Joram the son of Ahab in Jezreel, because he was wounded. 7 But it was ordained by2 God that the downfall of Ahaziah should come about through his going to visit Joram. For when he came there, he went out with Jehoram to meet Jehu the son of Nimshi, whom the LORD had anointed to destroy the house of Ahab. 8 And when Jehu was executing judgment on the house of Ahab, he met the princes of Judah and the sons of Ahaziah's brothers, who attended Ahaziah, and he killed them. 9 He searched for Ahaziah, and he was captured while hiding in Samaria, and he was brought to Jehu and put to death. They buried him, for they said, “He is the grandson of Jehoshaphat, who sought the LORD with all his heart.” And the house of Ahaziah had no one able to rule the kingdom. Athaliah Reigns in Judah 10 Now when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the royal family of the house of Judah. 11 But Jehoshabeath,3 the daughter of the king, took Joash the son of Ahaziah and stole him away from among the king's sons who were about to be put to death, and she put him and his nurse in a bedroom. Thus Jehoshabeath, the daughter of King Jehoram and wife of Jehoiada the priest, because she was a sister of Ahaziah, hid him4 from Athaliah, so that she did not put him to death. 12 And he remained with them six years, hidden in the house of God, while Athaliah reigned over the land. Joash Made King 23 But in the seventh year Jehoiada took courage and entered into a covenant with the commanders of hundreds, Azariah the son of Jeroham, Ishmael the son of Jehohanan, Azariah the son of Obed, Maaseiah the son of Adaiah, and Elishaphat the son of Zichri. 2 And they went about through Judah and gathered the Levites from all the cities of Judah, and the heads of fathers' houses of Israel, and they came to Jerusalem. 3 And all the assembly made a covenant with the king in the house of God. And Jehoiada5 said to them, “Behold, the king's son! Let him reign, as the LORD spoke concerning the sons of David. 4 This is the thing that you shall do: of you priests and Levites who come off duty on the Sabbath, one third shall be gatekeepers, 5 and one third shall be at the king's house and one third at the Gate of the Foundation. And all the people shall be in the courts of the house of the LORD. 6 Let no one enter the house of the LORD except the priests and ministering Levites. They may enter, for they are holy, but all the people shall keep the charge of the LORD. 7 The Levites shall surround the king, each with his weapons in his hand. And whoever enters the house shall be put to death. Be with the king when he comes in and when he goes out.” 8 The Levites and all Judah did according to all that Jehoiada the priest commanded, and they each brought his men, who were to go off duty on the Sabbath, with those who were to come on duty on the Sabbath, for Jehoiada the priest did not dismiss the divisions. 9 And Jehoiada the priest gave to the captains the spears and the large and small shields that had been King David's, which were in the house of God. 10 And he set all the people as a guard for the king, every man with his weapon in his hand, from the south side of the house to the north side of the house, around the altar and the house. 11 Then they brought out the king's son and put the crown on him and gave him the testimony. And they proclaimed him king, and Jehoiada and his sons anointed him, and they said, “Long live the king.” Athaliah Executed 12 When Athaliah heard the noise of the people running and praising the king, she went into the house of the LORD to the people. 13 And when she looked, there was the king standing by his pillar at the entrance, and the captains and the trumpeters beside the king, and all the people of the land rejoicing and blowing trumpets, and the singers with their musical instruments leading in the celebration. And Athaliah tore her clothes and cried, “Treason! Treason!” 14 Then Jehoiada the priest brought out the captains who were set over the army, saying to them, “Bring her out between the ranks, and anyone who follows her is to be put to death with the sword.” For the priest said, “Do not put her to death in the house of the LORD.” 15 So they laid hands on her,6 and she went into the entrance of the horse gate of the king's house, and they put her to death there. Jehoiada's Reforms 16 And Jehoiada made a covenant between himself and all the people and the king that they should be the LORD's people. 17 Then all the people went to the house of Baal and tore it down; his altars and his images they broke in pieces, and they killed Mattan the priest of Baal before the altars. 18 And Jehoiada posted watchmen for the house of the LORD under the direction of the Levitical priests and the Levites whom David had organized to be in charge of the house of the LORD, to offer burnt offerings to the LORD, as it is written in the Law of Moses, with rejoicing and with singing, according to the order of David. 19 He stationed the gatekeepers at the gates of the house of the LORD so that no one should enter who was in any way unclean. 20 And he took the captains, the nobles, the governors of the people, and all the people of the land, and they brought the king down from the house of the LORD, marching through the upper gate to the king's house. And they set the king on the royal throne. 21 So all the people of the land rejoiced, and the city was quiet after Athaliah had been put to death with the sword. Footnotes [1] 22:2 See 2 Kings 8:26; Hebrew forty-two; Septuagint twenty [2] 22:7 Hebrew was from [3] 22:11 Spelled Jehosheba in 2 Kings 11:2 [4] 22:11 That is, Joash [5] 23:3 Hebrew he [6] 23:15 Or they made a passage for her (ESV) Revelation 10 (Listen) The Angel and the Little Scroll 10 Then I saw another mighty angel coming down from heaven, wrapped in a cloud, with a rainbow over his head, and his face was like the sun, and his legs like pillars of fire. 2 He had a little scroll open in his hand. And he set his right foot on the sea, and his left foot on the land, 3 and called out with a loud voice, like a lion roaring. When he called out, the seven thunders sounded. 4 And when the seven thunders had sounded, I was about to write, but I heard a voice from heaven saying, “Seal up what the seven thunders have said, and do not write it down.” 5 And the angel whom I saw standing on the sea and on the land raised his right hand to heaven 6 and swore by him who lives forever and ever, who created heaven and what is in it, the earth and what is in it, and the sea and what is in it, that there would be no more delay, 7 but that in the days of the trumpet call to be sounded by the seventh angel, the mystery of God would be fulfilled, just as he announced to his servants the prophets. 8 Then the voice that I had heard from heaven spoke to me again, saying, “Go, take the scroll that is open in the hand of the angel who is standing on the sea and on the land.” 9 So I went to the angel and told him to give me the little scroll. And he said to me, “Take and eat it; it will make your stomach bitter, but in your mouth it will be sweet as honey.” 10 And I took the little scroll from the hand of the angel and ate it. It was sweet as honey in my mouth, but when I had eaten it my stomach was made bitter. 11 And I was told, “You must again prophesy about many peoples and nations and languages and kings.” (ESV) In private: Zechariah 6; John 9 Zechariah 6 (Listen) A Vision of Four Chariots 6 Again I lifted my eyes and saw, and behold, four chariots came out from between two mountains. And the mountains were mountains of bronze. 2 The first chariot had red horses, the second black horses, 3 the third white horses, and the fourth chariot dappled horses—all of them strong.1 4 Then I answered and said to the angel who talked with me, “What are these, my lord?” 5 And the angel answered and said to me, “These are going out to the four winds of heaven, after presenting themselves before the Lord of all the earth. 6 The chariot with the black horses goes toward the north country, the white ones go after them, and the dappled ones go toward the south country.” 7 When the strong horses came out, they were impatient to go and patrol the earth. And he said, “Go, patrol the earth.” So they patrolled the earth. 8 Then he cried to me, “Behold, those who go toward the north country have set my Spirit at rest in the north country.” The Crown and the Temple 9 And the word of the LORD came to me: 10 “Take from the exiles Heldai, Tobijah, and Jedaiah, who have arrived from Babylon, and go the same day to the house of Josiah, the son of Zephaniah. 11 Take from them silver and gold, and make a crown, and set it on the head of Joshua, the son of Jehozadak, the high priest. 12 And say to him, ‘Thus says the LORD of hosts, “Behold, the man whose name is the Branch: for he shall branch out from his place, and he shall build the temple of the LORD. 13 It is he who shall build the temple of the LORD and shall bear royal honor, and shall sit and rule on his throne. And there2 shall be a priest on his throne, and the counsel of peace shall be between them both.”' 14 And the crown shall be in the temple of the LORD as a reminder to Helem,3 Tobijah, Jedaiah, and Hen the son of Zephaniah. 15 “And those who are far off shall come and help to build the temple of the LORD. And you shall know that the LORD of hosts has sent me to you. And this shall come to pass, if you will diligently obey the voice of the LORD your God.” Footnotes [1] 6:3 Or and the fourth chariot strong dappled horses [2] 6:13 Or he [3] 6:14 An alternate spelling of Heldai (verse 10) (ESV) John 9 (Listen) Jesus Heals a Man Born Blind 9 As he passed by, he saw a man blind from birth. 2 And his disciples asked him, “Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents, that he was born blind?” 3 Jesus answered, “It was not that this man sinned, or his parents, but that the works of God might be displayed in him. 4 We must work the works of him who sent me while it is day; night is coming, when no one can work. 5 As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world.” 6 Having said these things, he spit on the ground and made mud with the saliva. Then he anointed the man's eyes with the mud 7 and said to him, “Go, wash in the pool of Siloam” (which means Sent). So he went and washed and came back seeing. 8 The neighbors and those who had seen him before as a beggar were saying, “Is this not the man who used to sit and beg?” 9 Some said, “It is he.” Others said, “No, but he is like him.” He kept saying, “I am the man.” 10 So they said to him, “Then how were your eyes opened?” 11 He answered, “The man called Jesus made mud and anointed my eyes and said to me, ‘Go to Siloam and wash.' So I went and washed and received my sight.” 12 They said to him, “Where is he?” He said, “I do not know.” 13 They brought to the Pharisees the man who had formerly been blind. 14 Now it was a Sabbath day when Jesus made the mud and opened his eyes. 15 So the Pharisees again asked him how he had received his sight. And he said to them, “He put mud on my eyes, and I washed, and I see.” 16 Some of the Pharisees said, “This man is not from God, for he does not keep the Sabbath.” But others said, “How can a man who is a sinner do such signs?” And there was a division among them. 17 So they said again to the blind man, “What do you say about him, since he has opened your eyes?” He said, “He is a prophet.” 18 The Jews1 did not believe that he had been blind and had received his sight, until they called the parents of the man who had received his sight 19 and asked them, “Is this your son, who you say was born blind? How then does he now see?” 20 His parents answered, “We know that this is our son and that he was born blind. 21 But how he now sees we do not know, nor do we know who opened his eyes. Ask him; he is of age. He will speak for himself.” 22 (His parents said these things because they feared the Jews, for the Jews had already agreed that if anyone should confess Jesus2 to be Christ, he was to be put out of the synagogue.) 23 Therefore his parents said, “He is of age; ask him.” 24 So for the second time they called the man who had been blind and said to him, “Give glory to God. We know that this man is a sinner.” 25 He answered, “Whether he is a sinner I do not know. One thing I do know, that though I was blind, now I see.” 26 They said to him, “What did he do to you? How did he open your eyes?” 27 He answered them, “I have told you already, and you would not listen. Why do you want to hear it again? Do you also want to become his disciples?” 28 And they reviled him, saying, “You are his disciple, but we are disciples of Moses. 29 We know that God has spoken to Moses, but as for this man, we do not know where he comes from.” 30 The man answered, “Why, this is an amazing thing! You do not know where he comes from, and yet he opened my eyes. 31 We know that God does not listen to sinners, but if anyone is a worshiper of God and does his will, God listens to him. 32 Never since the world began has it been heard that anyone opened the eyes of a man born blind. 33 If this man were not from God, he could do nothing.” 34 They answered him, “You were born in utter sin, and would you teach us?” And they cast him out. 35 Jesus heard that they had cast him out, and having found him he said, “Do you believe in the Son of Man?”3 36 He answered, “And who is he, sir, that I may believe in him?” 37 Jesus said to him, “You have seen him, and it is he who is speaking to you.” 38 He said, “Lord, I believe,” and he worshiped him. 39 Jesus said, “For judgment I came into this world, that those who do not see may see, and those who see may become blind.” 40 Some of the Pharisees near him heard these things, and said to him, “Are we also blind?” 41 Jesus said to them, “If you were blind, you would have no guilt;4 but now that you say, ‘We see,' your guilt remains. Footnotes [1] 9:18 Greek Ioudaioi probably refers here to Jewish religious leaders, and others under their influence, in that time; also verse 22 [2] 9:22 Greek him [3] 9:35 Some manuscripts the Son of God [4] 9:41 Greek you would not have sin (ESV)

ESV: M'Cheyne Reading Plan
December 17: 2 Chronicles 19–20; Revelation 8; Zechariah 4; John 7

ESV: M'Cheyne Reading Plan

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 17, 2021 17:39


With family: 2 Chronicles 19–20; Revelation 8 2 Chronicles 19–20 (Listen) Jehoshaphat's Reforms 19 Jehoshaphat the king of Judah returned in safety to his house in Jerusalem. 2 But Jehu the son of Hanani the seer went out to meet him and said to King Jehoshaphat, “Should you help the wicked and love those who hate the LORD? Because of this, wrath has gone out against you from the LORD. 3 Nevertheless, some good is found in you, for you destroyed the Asheroth out of the land, and have set your heart to seek God.” 4 Jehoshaphat lived at Jerusalem. And he went out again among the people, from Beersheba to the hill country of Ephraim, and brought them back to the LORD, the God of their fathers. 5 He appointed judges in the land in all the fortified cities of Judah, city by city, 6 and said to the judges, “Consider what you do, for you judge not for man but for the LORD. He is with you in giving judgment. 7 Now then, let the fear of the LORD be upon you. Be careful what you do, for there is no injustice with the LORD our God, or partiality or taking bribes.” 8 Moreover, in Jerusalem Jehoshaphat appointed certain Levites and priests and heads of families of Israel, to give judgment for the LORD and to decide disputed cases. They had their seat at Jerusalem. 9 And he charged them: “Thus you shall do in the fear of the LORD, in faithfulness, and with your whole heart: 10 whenever a case comes to you from your brothers who live in their cities, concerning bloodshed, law or commandment, statutes or rules, then you shall warn them, that they may not incur guilt before the LORD and wrath may not come upon you and your brothers. Thus you shall do, and you will not incur guilt. 11 And behold, Amariah the chief priest is over you in all matters of the LORD; and Zebadiah the son of Ishmael, the governor of the house of Judah, in all the king's matters, and the Levites will serve you as officers. Deal courageously, and may the LORD be with the upright!”1 Jehoshaphat's Prayer 20 After this the Moabites and Ammonites, and with them some of the Meunites,2 came against Jehoshaphat for battle. 2 Some men came and told Jehoshaphat, “A great multitude is coming against you from Edom,3 from beyond the sea; and, behold, they are in Hazazon-tamar” (that is, Engedi). 3 Then Jehoshaphat was afraid and set his face to seek the LORD, and proclaimed a fast throughout all Judah. 4 And Judah assembled to seek help from the LORD; from all the cities of Judah they came to seek the LORD. 5 And Jehoshaphat stood in the assembly of Judah and Jerusalem, in the house of the LORD, before the new court, 6 and said, “O LORD, God of our fathers, are you not God in heaven? You rule over all the kingdoms of the nations. In your hand are power and might, so that none is able to withstand you. 7 Did you not, our God, drive out the inhabitants of this land before your people Israel, and give it forever to the descendants of Abraham your friend? 8 And they have lived in it and have built for you in it a sanctuary for your name, saying, 9 ‘If disaster comes upon us, the sword, judgment,4 or pestilence, or famine, we will stand before this house and before you—for your name is in this house—and cry out to you in our affliction, and you will hear and save.' 10 And now behold, the men of Ammon and Moab and Mount Seir, whom you would not let Israel invade when they came from the land of Egypt, and whom they avoided and did not destroy—11 behold, they reward us by coming to drive us out of your possession, which you have given us to inherit. 12 O our God, will you not execute judgment on them? For we are powerless against this great horde that is coming against us. We do not know what to do, but our eyes are on you.” 13 Meanwhile all Judah stood before the LORD, with their little ones, their wives, and their children. 14 And the Spirit of the LORD came5 upon Jahaziel the son of Zechariah, son of Benaiah, son of Jeiel, son of Mattaniah, a Levite of the sons of Asaph, in the midst of the assembly. 15 And he said, “Listen, all Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem and King Jehoshaphat: Thus says the LORD to you, ‘Do not be afraid and do not be dismayed at this great horde, for the battle is not yours but God's. 16 Tomorrow go down against them. Behold, they will come up by the ascent of Ziz. You will find them at the end of the valley, east of the wilderness of Jeruel. 17 You will not need to fight in this battle. Stand firm, hold your position, and see the salvation of the LORD on your behalf, O Judah and Jerusalem.' Do not be afraid and do not be dismayed. Tomorrow go out against them, and the LORD will be with you.” 18 Then Jehoshaphat bowed his head with his face to the ground, and all Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem fell down before the LORD, worshiping the LORD. 19 And the Levites, of the Kohathites and the Korahites, stood up to praise the LORD, the God of Israel, with a very loud voice. 20 And they rose early in the morning and went out into the wilderness of Tekoa. And when they went out, Jehoshaphat stood and said, “Hear me, Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem! Believe in the LORD your God, and you will be established; believe his prophets, and you will succeed.” 21 And when he had taken counsel with the people, he appointed those who were to sing to the LORD and praise him in holy attire, as they went before the army, and say,   “Give thanks to the LORD,    for his steadfast love endures forever.” 22 And when they began to sing and praise, the LORD set an ambush against the men of Ammon, Moab, and Mount Seir, who had come against Judah, so that they were routed. 23 For the men of Ammon and Moab rose against the inhabitants of Mount Seir, devoting them to destruction, and when they had made an end of the inhabitants of Seir, they all helped to destroy one another. The Lord Delivers Judah 24 When Judah came to the watchtower of the wilderness, they looked toward the horde, and behold, there6 were dead bodies lying on the ground; none had escaped. 25 When Jehoshaphat and his people came to take their spoil, they found among them, in great numbers, goods, clothing, and precious things, which they took for themselves until they could carry no more. They were three days in taking the spoil, it was so much. 26 On the fourth day they assembled in the Valley of Beracah,7 for there they blessed the LORD. Therefore the name of that place has been called the Valley of Beracah to this day. 27 Then they returned, every man of Judah and Jerusalem, and Jehoshaphat at their head, returning to Jerusalem with joy, for the LORD had made them rejoice over their enemies. 28 They came to Jerusalem with harps and lyres and trumpets, to the house of the LORD. 29 And the fear of God came on all the kingdoms of the countries when they heard that the LORD had fought against the enemies of Israel. 30 So the realm of Jehoshaphat was quiet, for his God gave him rest all around. 31 Thus Jehoshaphat reigned over Judah. He was thirty-five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned twenty-five years in Jerusalem. His mother's name was Azubah the daughter of Shilhi. 32 He walked in the way of Asa his father and did not turn aside from it, doing what was right in the sight of the LORD. 33 The high places, however, were not taken away; the people had not yet set their hearts upon the God of their fathers. 34 Now the rest of the acts of Jehoshaphat, from first to last, are written in the chronicles of Jehu the son of Hanani, which are recorded in the Book of the Kings of Israel. The End of Jehoshaphat's Reign 35 After this Jehoshaphat king of Judah joined with Ahaziah king of Israel, who acted wickedly. 36 He joined him in building ships to go to Tarshish, and they built the ships in Ezion-geber. 37 Then Eliezer the son of Dodavahu of Mareshah prophesied against Jehoshaphat, saying, “Because you have joined with Ahaziah, the LORD will destroy what you have made.” And the ships were wrecked and were not able to go to Tarshish. Footnotes [1] 19:11 Hebrew the good [2] 20:1 Compare 26:7; Hebrew Ammonites [3] 20:2 One Hebrew manuscript; most Hebrew manuscripts Aram (Syria) [4] 20:9 Or the sword of judgment [5] 20:14 Or was [6] 20:24 Hebrew they [7] 20:26 Beracah means blessing (ESV) Revelation 8 (Listen) The Seventh Seal and the Golden Censer 8 When the Lamb opened the seventh seal, there was silence in heaven for about half an hour. 2 Then I saw the seven angels who stand before God, and seven trumpets were given to them. 3 And another angel came and stood at the altar with a golden censer, and he was given much incense to offer with the prayers of all the saints on the golden altar before the throne, 4 and the smoke of the incense, with the prayers of the saints, rose before God from the hand of the angel. 5 Then the angel took the censer and filled it with fire from the altar and threw it on the earth, and there were peals of thunder, rumblings,1 flashes of lightning, and an earthquake. The Seven Trumpets 6 Now the seven angels who had the seven trumpets prepared to blow them. 7 The first angel blew his trumpet, and there followed hail and fire, mixed with blood, and these were thrown upon the earth. And a third of the earth was burned up, and a third of the trees were burned up, and all green grass was burned up. 8 The second angel blew his trumpet, and something like a great mountain, burning with fire, was thrown into the sea, and a third of the sea became blood. 9 A third of the living creatures in the sea died, and a third of the ships were destroyed. 10 The third angel blew his trumpet, and a great star fell from heaven, blazing like a torch, and it fell on a third of the rivers and on the springs of water. 11 The name of the star is Wormwood.2 A third of the waters became wormwood, and many people died from the water, because it had been made bitter. 12 The fourth angel blew his trumpet, and a third of the sun was struck, and a third of the moon, and a third of the stars, so that a third of their light might be darkened, and a third of the day might be kept from shining, and likewise a third of the night. 13 Then I looked, and I heard an eagle crying with a loud voice as it flew directly overhead, “Woe, woe, woe to those who dwell on the earth, at the blasts of the other trumpets that the three angels are about to blow!” Footnotes [1] 8:5 Or voices, or sounds [2] 8:11 Wormwood is the name of a plant and of the bitter-tasting extract derived from it (ESV) In private: Zechariah 4; John 7 Zechariah 4 (Listen) A Vision of a Golden Lampstand 4 And the angel who talked with me came again and woke me, like a man who is awakened out of his sleep. 2 And he said to me, “What do you see?” I said, “I see, and behold, a lampstand all of gold, with a bowl on the top of it, and seven lamps on it, with seven lips on each of the lamps that are on the top of it. 3 And there are two olive trees by it, one on the right of the bowl and the other on its left.” 4 And I said to the angel who talked with me, “What are these, my lord?” 5 Then the angel who talked with me answered and said to me, “Do you not know what these are?” I said, “No, my lord.” 6 Then he said to me, “This is the word of the LORD to Zerubbabel: Not by might, nor by power, but by my Spirit, says the LORD of hosts. 7 Who are you, O great mountain? Before Zerubbabel you shall become a plain. And he shall bring forward the top stone amid shouts of ‘Grace, grace to it!'” 8 Then the word of the LORD came to me, saying, 9 “The hands of Zerubbabel have laid the foundation of this house; his hands shall also complete it. Then you will know that the LORD of hosts has sent me to you. 10 For whoever has despised the day of small things shall rejoice, and shall see the plumb line in the hand of Zerubbabel. “These seven are the eyes of the LORD, which range through the whole earth.” 11 Then I said to him, “What are these two olive trees on the right and the left of the lampstand?” 12 And a second time I answered and said to him, “What are these two branches of the olive trees, which are beside the two golden pipes from which the golden oil1 is poured out?” 13 He said to me, “Do you not know what these are?” I said, “No, my lord.” 14 Then he said, “These are the two anointed ones2 who stand by the Lord of the whole earth.” Footnotes [1] 4:12 Hebrew lacks oil [2] 4:14 Hebrew two sons of new oil (ESV) John 7 (Listen) Jesus at the Feast of Booths 7 After this Jesus went about in Galilee. He would not go about in Judea, because the Jews1 were seeking to kill him. 2 Now the Jews' Feast of Booths was at hand. 3 So his brothers2 said to him, “Leave here and go to Judea, that your disciples also may see the works you are doing. 4 For no one works in secret if he seeks to be known openly. If you do these things, show yourself to the world.” 5 For not even his brothers believed in him. 6 Jesus said to them, “My time has not yet come, but your time is always here. 7 The world cannot hate you, but it hates me because I testify about it that its works are evil. 8 You go up to the feast. I am not3 going up to this feast, for my time has not yet fully come.” 9 After saying this, he remained in Galilee. 10 But after his brothers had gone up to the feast, then he also went up, not publicly but in private. 11 The Jews were looking for him at the feast, and saying, “Where is he?” 12 And there was much muttering about him among the people. While some said, “He is a good man,” others said, “No, he is leading the people astray.” 13 Yet for fear of the Jews no one spoke openly of him. 14 About the middle of the feast Jesus went up into the temple and began teaching. 15 The Jews therefore marveled, saying, “How is it that this man has learning,4 when he has never studied?” 16 So Jesus answered them, “My teaching is not mine, but his who sent me. 17 If anyone's will is to do God's5 will, he will know whether the teaching is from God or whether I am speaking on my own authority. 18 The one who speaks on his own authority seeks his own glory; but the one who seeks the glory of him who sent him is true, and in him there is no falsehood. 19 Has not Moses given you the law? Yet none of you keeps the law. Why do you seek to kill me?” 20 The crowd answered, “You have a demon! Who is seeking to kill you?” 21 Jesus answered them, “I did one work, and you all marvel at it. 22 Moses gave you circumcision (not that it is from Moses, but from the fathers), and you circumcise a man on the Sabbath. 23 If on the Sabbath a man receives circumcision, so that the law of Moses may not be broken, are you angry with me because on the Sabbath I made a man's whole body well? 24 Do not judge by appearances, but judge with right judgment.” Can This Be the Christ? 25 Some of the people of Jerusalem therefore said, “Is not this the man whom they seek to kill? 26 And here he is, speaking openly, and they say nothing to him! Can it be that the authorities really know that this is the Christ? 27 But we know where this man comes from, and when the Christ appears, no one will know where he comes from.” 28 So Jesus proclaimed, as he taught in the temple, “You know me, and you know where I come from. But I have not come of my own accord. He who sent me is true, and him you do not know. 29 I know him, for I come from him, and he sent me.” 30 So they were seeking to arrest him, but no one laid a hand on him, because his hour had not yet come. 31 Yet many of the people believed in him. They said, “When the Christ appears, will he do more signs than this man has done?” Officers Sent to Arrest Jesus 32 The Pharisees heard the crowd muttering these things about him, and the chief priests and Pharisees sent officers to arrest him. 33 Jesus then said, “I will be with you a little longer, and then I am going to him who sent me. 34 You will seek me and you will not find me. Where I am you cannot come.” 35 The Jews said to one another, “Where does this man intend to go that we will not find him? Does he intend to go to the Dispersion among the Greeks and teach the Greeks? 36 What does he mean by saying, ‘You will seek me and you will not find me,' and, ‘Where I am you cannot come'?” Rivers of Living Water 37 On the last day of the feast, the great day, Jesus stood up and cried out, “If anyone thirsts, let him come to me and drink. 38 Whoever believes in me, as6 the Scripture has said, ‘Out of his heart will flow rivers of living water.'” 39 Now this he said about the Spirit, whom those who believed in him were to receive, for as yet the Spirit had not been given, because Jesus was not yet glorified. Division Among the People 40 When they heard these words, some of the people said, “This really is the Prophet.” 41 Others said, “This is the Christ.” But some said, “Is the Christ to come from Galilee? 42 Has not the Scripture said that the Christ comes from the offspring of David, and comes from Bethlehem, the village where David was?” 43 So there was a division among the people over him. 44 Some of them wanted to arrest him, but no one laid hands on him. 45 The officers then came to the chief priests and Pharisees, who said to them, “Why did you not bring him?” 46 The officers answered, “No one ever spoke like this man!” 47 The Pharisees answered them, “Have you also been deceived? 48 Have any of the authorities or the Pharisees believed in him? 49 But this crowd that does not know the law is accursed.” 50 Nicodemus, who had gone to him before, and who was one of them, said to them, 51 “Does our law judge a man without first giving him a hearing and learning what he does?” 52 They replied, “Are you from Galilee too? Search and see that no prophet arises from Galilee.” [The earliest manuscripts do not include 7:53–8:11.]7 The Woman Caught in Adultery 53 [[They went each to his own house, Footnotes [1] 7:1 Or Judeans; Greek Ioudaioi probably refers here to Jewish religious leaders, and others under their influence, in that time [2] 7:3 Or brothers and sisters; also verses 5, 10 [3] 7:8 Some manuscripts add yet [4] 7:15 Or this man knows his letters [5] 7:17 Greek his [6] 7:38 Or let him come to me, and let him who believes in me drink. As [7] 7:53 Some manuscripts do not include 7:53–8:11; others add the passage here or after 7:36 or after 21:25 or after Luke 21:38, with variations in the text (ESV)

Building Abundant Success!!© with Sabrina-Marie
Episode 2224: Frm Gov.Don Siegelman ~ Our Future- Building Back a Better Democracy"

Building Abundant Success!!© with Sabrina-Marie

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 15, 2021 27:42


WSJ,TIME,CNN, MSNBC,FOX, NY Times have covered My Guest, Former Governor Don Siegelman a former American politician, lawyer who held several elected offices in the state of Alabama. He is back to talk about his views on  "Building Back Better Plan" Out Future in a Better Infrastructure, Green Fuel, Broadband, Voting Rights, Justice Rights & other Reforms.  the growing Corona-virus/ Omicron Pandemic, Things He has Learned in the last decade Fighting for Justice & the Future. His conviction was questioned by over 100 former Bi-Partisan attorney generals & officials & they petitioned the U.S. Supreme Court to look into his case. National & International media have also covered his case: NY Times, CNN, FOX, TIME just to name a few. His NEW Book: "Stealing Our Democracy: How a Political Assassination of a Governor Threatens Our Nation" in Bookstores NOW.  He served one term as the 51st Governor of Alabama from 1999 to 2003. As of 2020, Siegelman is the last member of the Democratic Party, as well as the only Roman Catholic, to serve as Governor of Alabama. He is the only person in the history of Alabama to be elected to serve in all four of the top statewide elected offices: Secretary of State, Attorney General, Lieutenant Governor and Governor. He served in Alabama politics for 26 years. In a searing political memoir, former Alabama Governor Don Siegelman explodes the myth of an impartial U.S. justice system. He should know. Arguably the most successful and promising politician in modern Alabama history, his three-decade career in public service ran afoul of rival opponents who used the federal judicial system to take him out of contention in Alabama and nationally. Siegelman ultimately was sentenced to 88 months in federal prison and served five years, with long stretches in solitary confinement during which he was a literal political prisoner, cut off from interviews and outside contact. * The views expressed in this interview are that of the guest & author & do not necessarily represent the thoughts & opinions of Building Abundant Success!! & staff.*© 2020 All Rights Reserved © 2020 Building Abundant Success!! Join Me on ~ iHeart Radio @ https://tinyurl.com/iHeartBAS Spot Me on Spotify: https://tinyurl.com/yxuy23baAmazon Music ~ https://tinyurl.com/AmzBAS

Radio Boston
Pandemic voting reforms expected to expire tomorrow

Radio Boston

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 15, 2021 48:00


Plus, we get our coronavirus questions answered on this week's Ask the Docs.

The Country
Cole Groves on the Social Impact Report on freshwater reforms

The Country

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 15, 2021 5:32


We take a look at the findings from the Social Impact Report on freshwater reforms commissioned by the Mid Canterbury Rural Support Trust. Unsurprisingly, the research suggests increasingly adverse impacts on farmers and their families.

Radio Boston
Will the Legislature let pandemic mail-in and early voting reforms expire?

Radio Boston

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 14, 2021 11:36


Many municipalities benefited from reforms like mail-in and expanded early voting, but they're set to expire Wednesday.

RNZ: Morning Report
Three waters: Mayors arrive in Wellington to discuss reforms

RNZ: Morning Report

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 14, 2021 6:00


Twenty-three of the country's mayors are headed to Wellington to voice their opposition to water reforms.   Communities 4 Local Democracy, or He hapori mō te Manapori, is a new local government action group formed to bring what it hails as "fresh ideas" to the Three Waters debate.   The leaders travelling to the capital mainly represent district councils, but the likes of Christchurch and Napier will be there too.  Manawatū District Council mayor Helen Worboys, who helped create the campaign, spoke to Susie Ferguson. 

Good Morning Africa
Africa's Education Reforms; What's the Starting Point?

Good Morning Africa

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 13, 2021 11:04


The COVID Pandemic has fast tracked the conversations on Education Reforms.How do countries go about ensuring their education systems are holistic and tailor made to the needs of the continent?

Join Us in France Travel Podcast
What happened during the Terror? Episode 367

Join Us in France Travel Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 12, 2021 60:20


The Terror (1793-1794) is a confusing part of the French Revolution. What happened? What started it? Why? Historian Suzanne Levin explains and gives us the context we need to understand these events. There is a tendency to talk about the Terror as if it was happening in a vacuum, but it was far from that. It's a little bit complicated, but it makes sense once you learn about it. To see the transcript of this episode, go to the show notes. Patreon | Boutique | Newletter | Booking Discussed in this Episode The Terror is a construct [03:27] Repression linked to crisis [03:59] High-profile people were the victims of the repression in this case [07:14] Recalling Deputies who went against their mandates [09:00] Trouble with provincial bourgeoisie [10:19] This was the age of Revolutions and not just in France [11:55] Reforms made in 1793 and 1794 that were ahead of their time [12:59] The Terror was both the height of repression and of the democratic movement [14:02] Who's a Revolutionary and who's a Counter-Revolutionary? [14:47] Mirabeau and the Pantheon [15:33] The inability to be openly against the Revolution [17:10] The legislative branch over the executive branch [22:23] Revolutionary Tribunal [23:47] Representatives on mission [24:34] Arrests begin [26:17] Law of Prairial [27:15] The law of suspects [29:03] Fourty thousand fell during the Terror [30:33] The role and donwfall of Robespierre [33:44] Why was Robbespierre arrested [37:17] Was Robespierre a dictator? [43:42] Why did the legend of the Terror persist? [44:51]

Camden First United Methodist Church

The Prophet Zephaniah was active in Judah the 135 years between the Assyrian destruction of Israel and the Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem. His active period was prior to the reforms of Josiah. He offered a joyous return to Yahweh but it, like all redemption stories, comes with a price.

Ben Fordham: Highlights
NSW Premier foreshadows ICAC reforms in 2022

Ben Fordham: Highlights

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 9, 2021 7:52


NSW Premier Dominic Perrottet has promised to review ICAC over the course of 2022. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

Alan Jones Daily Comments
NSW Premier foreshadows ICAC reforms in 2022

Alan Jones Daily Comments

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 9, 2021 7:52


NSW Premier Dominic Perrottet has promised to review ICAC over the course of 2022. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

The Money Show
Why is the IMF sending warnings on SA's slow economic reforms and what the treasury doing

The Money Show

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 9, 2021 77:07


George Glynos, head of research at ETM analytic, discusses the International Monetary Fund's recommendation for the SA's economy.  John Loos, property economist at FNB on Evergrande's failure to meet interest payments to international investors. On personal finance, Warren Ingram, personal financial advisor and executive director at Galileo Capital explains whether the events of the past two years were unique and new. And what can we learn from them to be better prepared for the years ahead See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

The Best of the Money Show
Why is the IMF sending warnings on SA's slow economic reforms and what is Treasury doing about it?

The Best of the Money Show

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 9, 2021 5:31


Guest: George Glynos | Head of Research at ETM Analytics  See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

SBS World News Radio
Government mulls payments system reforms

SBS World News Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 8, 2021 6:52


The way consumers pay has changed drastically in recent years, so hear about the government's plans to update the payments system framework; plus Ricardo Gonçalves speaks with Niv Dagan from Peak Asset Management for the latest on the markets.

In Focus by The Hindu
What next on agricultural reforms? | In Focus

In Focus by The Hindu

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 27, 2021 17:07


The sudden televised withdrawal of the three contentious farm laws by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on November 19 was as dramatic as pushing through the three Bills by voice vote in the Rajya Sabha in September last year. Gripped by a still-to-be explained urgency, these three laws were issued as Presidential Ordinances in June 2020. There is little doubt that Mr. Modi's hand was forced by the relentless agitation launched by the farmers of Punjab, Western U.P. and Haryana, who have been sitting on Delhi's borders since November last year, demanding the complete withdrawal of the three laws. The writing on the electoral wall, as many analysts have pointed out, has also been clearly read by the Prime Minister as the states of U.P. and Punjab slip into election mode. Farmer leaders, meanwhile, are firm that minimum support price, or MSP, should be given statutory shape by the Centre even as they have deferred a decision on whether or not to withdraw their agitation to the end of November. We discuss the future of agricultural reforms in this episode. Guest: Ajay Vir Jakhar, Chairman, Bharat Krishak Samaj Host: Amit Baruah, Senior Associate Editor, The Hindu

ESV: Digging Deep into the Bible
November 24: Psalm 115; 2 Kings 23:1–30; Isaiah 15–16; John 15:18–16:15

ESV: Digging Deep into the Bible

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 24, 2021 14:53


Psalms and Wisdom: Psalm 115 Psalm 115 (Listen) To Your Name Give Glory 115   Not to us, O LORD, not to us, but to your name give glory,    for the sake of your steadfast love and your faithfulness! 2   Why should the nations say,    “Where is their God?”3   Our God is in the heavens;    he does all that he pleases. 4   Their idols are silver and gold,    the work of human hands.5   They have mouths, but do not speak;    eyes, but do not see.6   They have ears, but do not hear;    noses, but do not smell.7   They have hands, but do not feel;    feet, but do not walk;    and they do not make a sound in their throat.8   Those who make them become like them;    so do all who trust in them. 9   O Israel,1 trust in the LORD!    He is their help and their shield.10   O house of Aaron, trust in the LORD!    He is their help and their shield.11   You who fear the LORD, trust in the LORD!    He is their help and their shield. 12   The LORD has remembered us; he will bless us;    he will bless the house of Israel;    he will bless the house of Aaron;13   he will bless those who fear the LORD,    both the small and the great. 14   May the LORD give you increase,    you and your children!15   May you be blessed by the LORD,    who made heaven and earth! 16   The heavens are the LORD's heavens,    but the earth he has given to the children of man.17   The dead do not praise the LORD,    nor do any who go down into silence.18   But we will bless the LORD    from this time forth and forevermore.  Praise the LORD! Footnotes [1] 115:9 Masoretic Text; many Hebrew manuscripts, Septuagint, Syriac O house of Israel (ESV) Pentateuch and History: 2 Kings 23:1–30 2 Kings 23:1–30 (Listen) Josiah's Reforms 23 Then the king sent, and all the elders of Judah and Jerusalem were gathered to him. 2 And the king went up to the house of the LORD, and with him all the men of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem and the priests and the prophets, all the people, both small and great. And he read in their hearing all the words of the Book of the Covenant that had been found in the house of the LORD. 3 And the king stood by the pillar and made a covenant before the LORD, to walk after the LORD and to keep his commandments and his testimonies and his statutes with all his heart and all his soul, to perform the words of this covenant that were written in this book. And all the people joined in the covenant. 4 And the king commanded Hilkiah the high priest and the priests of the second order and the keepers of the threshold to bring out of the temple of the LORD all the vessels made for Baal, for Asherah, and for all the host of heaven. He burned them outside Jerusalem in the fields of the Kidron and carried their ashes to Bethel. 5 And he deposed the priests whom the kings of Judah had ordained to make offerings in the high places at the cities of Judah and around Jerusalem; those also who burned incense to Baal, to the sun and the moon and the constellations and all the host of the heavens. 6 And he brought out the Asherah from the house of the LORD, outside Jerusalem, to the brook Kidron, and burned it at the brook Kidron and beat it to dust and cast the dust of it upon the graves of the common people. 7 And he broke down the houses of the male cult prostitutes who were in the house of the LORD, where the women wove hangings for the Asherah. 8 And he brought all the priests out of the cities of Judah, and defiled the high places where the priests had made offerings, from Geba to Beersheba. And he broke down the high places of the gates that were at the entrance of the gate of Joshua the governor of the city, which were on one's left at the gate of the city. 9 However, the priests of the high places did not come up to the altar of the LORD in Jerusalem, but they ate unleavened bread among their brothers. 10 And he defiled Topheth, which is in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom, that no one might burn his son or his daughter as an offering to Molech.1 11 And he removed the horses that the kings of Judah had dedicated to the sun, at the entrance to the house of the LORD, by the chamber of Nathan-melech the chamberlain, which was in the precincts.2 And he burned the chariots of the sun with fire. 12 And the altars on the roof of the upper chamber of Ahaz, which the kings of Judah had made, and the altars that Manasseh had made in the two courts of the house of the LORD, he pulled down and broke in pieces3 and cast the dust of them into the brook Kidron. 13 And the king defiled the high places that were east of Jerusalem, to the south of the mount of corruption, which Solomon the king of Israel had built for Ashtoreth the abomination of the Sidonians, and for Chemosh the abomination of Moab, and for Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites. 14 And he broke in pieces the pillars and cut down the Asherim and filled their places with the bones of men. 15 Moreover, the altar at Bethel, the high place erected by Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin, that altar with the high place he pulled down and burned,4 reducing it to dust. He also burned the Asherah. 16 And as Josiah turned, he saw the tombs there on the mount. And he sent and took the bones out of the tombs and burned them on the altar and defiled it, according to the word of the LORD that the man of God proclaimed, who had predicted these things. 17 Then he said, “What is that monument that I see?” And the men of the city told him, “It is the tomb of the man of God who came from Judah and predicted5 these things that you have done against the altar at Bethel.” 18 And he said, “Let him be; let no man move his bones.” So they let his bones alone, with the bones of the prophet who came out of Samaria. 19 And Josiah removed all the shrines also of the high places that were in the cities of Samaria, which kings of Israel had made, provoking the LORD to anger. He did to them according to all that he had done at Bethel. 20 And he sacrificed all the priests of the high places who were there, on the altars, and burned human bones on them. Then he returned to Jerusalem. Josiah Restores the Passover 21 And the king commanded all the people, “Keep the Passover to the LORD your God, as it is written in this Book of the Covenant.” 22 For no such Passover had been kept since the days of the judges who judged Israel, or during all the days of the kings of Israel or of the kings of Judah. 23 But in the eighteenth year of King Josiah this Passover was kept to the LORD in Jerusalem. 24 Moreover, Josiah put away the mediums and the necromancers and the household gods and the idols and all the abominations that were seen in the land of Judah and in Jerusalem, that he might establish the words of the law that were written in the book that Hilkiah the priest found in the house of the LORD. 25 Before him there was no king like him, who turned to the LORD with all his heart and with all his soul and with all his might, according to all the Law of Moses, nor did any like him arise after him. 26 Still the LORD did not turn from the burning of his great wrath, by which his anger was kindled against Judah, because of all the provocations with which Manasseh had provoked him. 27 And the LORD said, “I will remove Judah also out of my sight, as I have removed Israel, and I will cast off this city that I have chosen, Jerusalem, and the house of which I said, My name shall be there.” Josiah's Death in Battle 28 Now the rest of the acts of Josiah and all that he did, are they not written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah? 29 In his days Pharaoh Neco king of Egypt went up to the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates. King Josiah went to meet him, and Pharaoh Neco killed him at Megiddo, as soon as he saw him. 30 And his servants carried him dead in a chariot from Megiddo and brought him to Jerusalem and buried him in his own tomb. And the people of the land took Jehoahaz the son of Josiah, and anointed him, and made him king in his father's place. Footnotes [1] 23:10 Hebrew might cause his son or daughter to pass through the fire for Molech [2] 23:11 The meaning of the Hebrew word is uncertain [3] 23:12 Hebrew pieces from there [4] 23:15 Septuagint broke in pieces its stones [5] 23:17 Hebrew called (ESV) Chronicles and Prophets: Isaiah 15–16 Isaiah 15–16 (Listen) An Oracle Concerning Moab 15 An oracle concerning Moab.   Because Ar of Moab is laid waste in a night,    Moab is undone;  because Kir of Moab is laid waste in a night,    Moab is undone.2   He has gone up to the temple,1 and to Dibon,    to the high places2 to weep;  over Nebo and over Medeba    Moab wails.  On every head is baldness;    every beard is shorn;3   in the streets they wear sackcloth;    on the housetops and in the squares    everyone wails and melts in tears.4   Heshbon and Elealeh cry out;    their voice is heard as far as Jahaz;  therefore the armed men of Moab cry aloud;    his soul trembles.5   My heart cries out for Moab;    her fugitives flee to Zoar,    to Eglath-shelishiyah.  For at the ascent of Luhith    they go up weeping;  on the road to Horonaim    they raise a cry of destruction;6   the waters of Nimrim    are a desolation;  the grass is withered, the vegetation fails,    the greenery is no more.7   Therefore the abundance they have gained    and what they have laid up  they carry away    over the Brook of the Willows.8   For a cry has gone    around the land of Moab;  her wailing reaches to Eglaim;    her wailing reaches to Beer-elim.9   For the waters of Dibon3 are full of blood;    for I will bring upon Dibon even more,  a lion for those of Moab who escape,    for the remnant of the land.16   Send the lamb to the ruler of the land,  from Sela, by way of the desert,    to the mount of the daughter of Zion.2   Like fleeing birds,    like a scattered nest,  so are the daughters of Moab    at the fords of the Arnon. 3   “Give counsel;    grant justice;  make your shade like night    at the height of noon;  shelter the outcasts;    do not reveal the fugitive;4   let the outcasts of Moab    sojourn among you;  be a shelter to them4    from the destroyer.  When the oppressor is no more,    and destruction has ceased,  and he who tramples underfoot has vanished from the land,5   then a throne will be established in steadfast love,    and on it will sit in faithfulness    in the tent of David  one who judges and seeks justice    and is swift to do righteousness.” 6   We have heard of the pride of Moab—    how proud he is!—  of his arrogance, his pride, and his insolence;    in his idle boasting he is not right.7   Therefore let Moab wail for Moab,    let everyone wail.  Mourn, utterly stricken,    for the raisin cakes of Kir-hareseth. 8   For the fields of Heshbon languish,    and the vine of Sibmah;  the lords of the nations    have struck down its branches,  which reached to Jazer    and strayed to the desert;  its shoots spread abroad    and passed over the sea.9   Therefore I weep with the weeping of Jazer    for the vine of Sibmah;  I drench you with my tears,    O Heshbon and Elealeh;  for over your summer fruit and your harvest    the shout has ceased.10   And joy and gladness are taken away from the fruitful field,  and in the vineyards no songs are sung,    no cheers are raised;  no treader treads out wine in the presses;    I have put an end to the shouting.11   Therefore my inner parts moan like a lyre for Moab,    and my inmost self for Kir-hareseth. 12 And when Moab presents himself, when he wearies himself on the high place, when he comes to his sanctuary to pray, he will not prevail. 13 This is the word that the LORD spoke concerning Moab in the past. 14 But now the LORD has spoken, saying, “In three years, like the years of a hired worker, the glory of Moab will be brought into contempt, in spite of all his great multitude, and those who remain will be very few and feeble.” Footnotes [1] 15:2 Hebrew the house [2] 15:2 Or temple, even Dibon to the high places [3] 15:9 Dead Sea Scroll, Vulgate (compare Syriac); Masoretic Text Dimon; twice in this verse [4] 16:4 Some Hebrew manuscripts, Septuagint, Syriac; Masoretic Text let my outcasts sojourn among you; as for Moab, be a shelter to them (ESV) Gospels and Epistles: John 15:18–16:15 John 15:18–16:15 (Listen) The Hatred of the World 18 “If the world hates you, know that it has hated me before it hated you. 19 If you were of the world, the world would love you as its own; but because you are not of the world, but I chose you out of the world, therefore the world hates you. 20 Remember the word that I said to you: ‘A servant is not greater than his master.' If they persecuted me, they will also persecute you. If they kept my word, they will also keep yours. 21 But all these things they will do to you on account of my name, because they do not know him who sent me. 22 If I had not come and spoken to them, they would not have been guilty of sin,1 but now they have no excuse for their sin. 23 Whoever hates me hates my Father also. 24 If I had not done among them the works that no one else did, they would not be guilty of sin, but now they have seen and hated both me and my Father. 25 But the word that is written in their Law must be fulfilled: ‘They hated me without a cause.' 26 “But when the Helper comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceeds from the Father, he will bear witness about me. 27 And you also will bear witness, because you have been with me from the beginning. 16 “I have said all these things to you to keep you from falling away. 2 They will put you out of the synagogues. Indeed, the hour is coming when whoever kills you will think he is offering service to God. 3 And they will do these things because they have not known the Father, nor me. 4 But I have said these things to you, that when their hour comes you may remember that I told them to you. The Work of the Holy Spirit “I did not say these things to you from the beginning, because I was with you. 5 But now I am going to him who sent me, and none of you asks me, ‘Where are you going?' 6 But because I have said these things to you, sorrow has filled your heart. 7 Nevertheless, I tell you the truth: it is to your advantage that I go away, for if I do not go away, the Helper will not come to you. But if I go, I will send him to you. 8 And when he comes, he will convict the world concerning sin and righteousness and judgment: 9 concerning sin, because they do not believe in me; 10 concerning righteousness, because I go to the Father, and you will see me no longer; 11 concerning judgment, because the ruler of this world is judged. 12 “I still have many things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now. 13 When the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all the truth, for he will not speak on his own authority, but whatever he hears he will speak, and he will declare to you the things that are to come. 14 He will glorify me, for he will take what is mine and declare it to you. 15 All that the Father has is mine; therefore I said that he will take what is mine and declare it to you. Footnotes [1] 15:22 Greek they would not have sin; also verse 24 (ESV)

Grand Tamasha
Modi's Farm Law Reversal, India-China, and Trade Policy

Grand Tamasha

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 24, 2021 44:00


We are nearly done with our sixth season of Grand Tamasha and we have been shamefully overdue in scheduling a news round-up for the Fall.To set things straight and to discuss the latest news coming out of India, Milan is joined on the podcast this week by Grand Tamasha regulars Sadanand Dhume of AEI and the Wall Street Journal and Tanvi Madan of the Brookings Institution. The three discuss the Modi government's abrupt about-turn on the farm law bills, the perilous state of China-India relations, and new murmurs out of Delhi on the trade policy front. Plus, Tanvi, Sadanand, and Milan discuss three stories coming out of India that podcast regulars should be following. Sadanand Dhume, “Farmers Will Reap the Benefits of Modi's Reforms,” Wall Street Journal, October 1, 2020.Sadanand Dhume, “What New Delhi Needs to Stand Up to Beijing,” Wall Street Journal, November 11, 2021.Tanvi Madan, “Major Power Rivalry in South Asia,” Council on Foreign Relations, October 2021.  

The Annie Frey Show Podcast
AFS: Birkmeier says that gratitude reshapes and reforms the lenses

The Annie Frey Show Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 23, 2021 10:35


Author and counselor Gina Birkmeier speaks about how to have a Happy Thanksgiving even though you might not agree with your relative's politics. © 2021 KFTK (Audacy). All rights reserved. |iStock / Getty Images Plus See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

7am
The historic reforms to sexual consent laws

7am

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 23, 2021 17:05


On Tuesday, the NSW Parliament passed historic reforms to sexual consent laws.During the parliamentary debate one MP thanked survivor and campaigner Saxon Mullins who kickstarted the campaign to change the law when she appeared on the ABC's Four Corners program.Now, similar laws are being introduced in Victoria, and advocates are calling for national reform.Today, campaigner and contributor to The Saturday Paper Saxon Mullins, on the push to update Australia's laws around sexual assault, and why it's taking so long.Guest: Campaigner and contributor to The Saturday Paper, Saxon Mullins.Stay in touch with us on Twitter and Instagram See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

RN Drive - Separate stories podcast
New report wants to guarantee reforms for young children and families

RN Drive - Separate stories podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 22, 2021 8:41


More paid parental leave, guaranteed access to low-cost high-quality early childhood education and more child and maternal health visits - these are the cornerstones of a new report which aims to make Australia the best place in the world to raise a child. But what are the costs of these reforms from the Centre for Policy Development and how quickly can they be introduced?

The Seen and the Unseen - hosted by Amit Varma
Ep 252: The State of Our Economy

The Seen and the Unseen - hosted by Amit Varma

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 22, 2021 188:48


Winter is here.The pandemic has receded, but our economy was already in bad shape before Covid struck, which made it plummet further. Where do we stand now? Can we recover? Puja Mehra and Mohit Satyanand join Amit Varma in episode 252 of The Seen and the Unseen to take stock. Also check out: 1. The Lost Decade -- Puja Mehra. 2. Gimme Mo -- Mohit Satyanand's newsletter. 3. India's Lost Decade -- Episode 116 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Puja Mehra). 4. This is All Because of Rupal Ben -- Episode 5 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Mohit Satyanand.) 5. Poker and Stock Markets -- Episode 47 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Mohit Satyanand). 6. Two Economic Crises (2008 & 2019) -- Episode 135 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Mohit Satynanand). 7. India's Start-Up Ecosystem -- Episode 171 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Mohit Satyanand). 8. The Tragedy of Our Farm Bills -- Episode 211 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Ajay Shah). 9. Episodes of The Seen and the Unseen on agriculture (in reverse chronological order): 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. 10. Previous episodes of The Seen and the Unseen on Covid-19: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. 11. The Importance of the 1991 Reforms -- Episode 237 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Shruti Rajagopalan). 12. Taking Stock of Our Economy (May 2021) -- Episode 227 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Ila Patnaik). 13. The Indian Economy in 2019 — Episode 153 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Vivek Kaul). 14. Demystifying GDP -- Episode 130 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Rajeswari Sengupta). 15. The Art and Science of Economic Policy — Episode 154 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Vijay Kelkar & Ajay Shah). 16. In Service of the Republic — Vijay Kelkar and Ajay Shah. 17. The City and the City -- China Miéville. 18. The Gell-Mann Amnesia Effect. 19. On Bullshit -- Harry Frankfurt. 20. India: Redeeming the Economic Pledge -- Bibek Debroy. 21. The Anti-Defection Law -- Episode 13 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Barun Mitra). 22. The Business of Winning Elections -- Episode 247 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Shivam Shankar Singh). 23. We Are Fighting Two Disasters: Covid-19 and the Indian State -- Amit Varma. 24. Pandemonium in India's Banks -- Episode 212 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Tamal Bandyopadhyay.) 25. Goodbye Solo -- Ramin Bahrani. 26. The desire to help, and the desire not to be helped -- Roger Ebert's review of Goodbye Solo. 27. India's Problem is Poverty, Not Inequality -- Amit Varma. 28. Fooled by Randomness -- Nassim Nicholas Taleb. 29. Women at Work -- Episode 132 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Namita Bhandare). 30. Kashi Ka Assi -- Kashinath Singh. 31. The Dharma Forest -- Keerthik Sasidharan. 32. The Better Angels of Our Nature -- Steven Pinker. 33. The Blank Slate -- Steven Pinker. This episode is sponsored by Intel. Please subscribe to The India Uncut Newsletter. It's free! And check out Amit's online course, The Art of Clear Writing.

Bridge Builder Podcast
Dr. Kirk Doran & Brian Boyd on Theology & Economics and the Need for Pro-Productivity Reforms

Bridge Builder Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 19, 2021 30:00


We have two guests on this week's show. Dr. Kirk Doran an associate economics professor at Notre Dame and Brian Boyd a doctoral student at Notre Dame. We'll be discussing how pro-productivity reforms to the labor market could create better wages, why it all matters from a theological standpoint, and what improving human flourishing amidst it all looks like.

World Business Report
India scraps controversial farm reforms

World Business Report

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 19, 2021 26:27


India's leader Narendra Modi has abandoned agricultural reforms after a year of protests. Kavitha Kuruganti of the Alliance for Sustainable and Holistic Agriculture has been campaigning against the changes, and gives us her reaction to the news. Also in the programme, the government of Mali is embarking on a drive to persuade illegal or freelance gold miners to register with the authorities. Through what's called artisanal mining, huge amounts of the precious metal are smuggled out of the country. The BBC's Fergus Nicoll reports on the government's desire to boost national revenues by reining in the informal sector. Plus, we hear from the BBC's Mark Cieslak about new artificial intelligence technology being used to help tackle the illegal wildlife trade. Today's edition is presented by Vishala Sri-Pathma, and produced by Philippa Goodrich and Elizabeth Hotson.

Fidelity Viewpoints: Market Sense
11/16: Potential tax reforms and what they mean to you

Fidelity Viewpoints: Market Sense

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 18, 2021 23:49


This week, Market Sense helps you wade through what President Biden's Build Back Better legislation could mean for you. Fidelity's Jurrien Timmer and Leanna Devinney join host Jim Armstrong for a big-picture view of how the current tax and spending proposals could impact the markets and economy. Plus, a look at how possible changes might affect your finances, and how to better prepare for whatever comes. Read more on this topic. Watch the video replay. Read the full transcript. © 2021 FMR LLC. All rights reserved.

FedSoc Events
Making Sense of Significant Potential Tax Reforms: From Global Minimums to Personal Estates

FedSoc Events

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 18, 2021 84:10


A sharply divided Congress is facing significant challenges in order to raise revenue and meet President Biden’s priorities. While no one pretends to have a crystal ball, some changes are likely coming this fall and winter. Depending upon what compromises can be reached, ideas for reform range from changing step-up-in-basis rules and pass through regulations to significant changes in corporate taxation. Meanwhile in Brussels, a movement is growing among national leaders to establish global minimum corporate taxes and other significant changes to the global tax system. What is a practitioner to make of all this? What do we need to prepare for?Listen to our our panel of experts dissect and explain some of the most impactful potential tax reforms of 2021.

Puliyabaazi Hindi Podcast
1991 आर्थिक सुधारों की राजनीतिक पृष्ठभूमि. The Political Economy of 1991 Reforms.

Puliyabaazi Hindi Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 18, 2021 92:31


In this episode, Prakhar Misra (@PrakharMisra) is back on Puliyabaazi to discuss the political economy of the 1991 reforms. We discussed the dominant economic and political narratives since independence up to the 1991 reform. Prakhar is currently working on the Indian political economy at the Mercatus Center at George Mason University. Prakhar is a part of The 1991 Project that documents essays, data visualizations, oral histories, podcasts, and policy papers demystifying the Indian economy and the 1991 reforms.For more:Puliyabaazi #101 with Shruti RajagopalanThe 1991 Project -- the project portal. Read Prakhar & Shreyas' essay here.The M document -- A paper for internal discussion in government prepared by Montek S Ahluwalia, Special Secretary to the Prime Minister, in May 1990IndiaBefore91.in -- Stories of Life under the License RajArvind Panagariya's book India: The Emerging GiantMontek Singh Ahluwalia's book Backstage: The Story behind India's High Growth YearsJairam Ramesh's book To the Brink and BackPuliyabaazi is on these platforms:Twitter: https://twitter.com/puliyabaaziInstagram: https://www.instagram.com/puliyabaazi/Subscribe & listen to the podcast on iTunes, Google Podcasts, Castbox, AudioBoom, YouTube, Spotify or any other podcast app.

The Grace City Church Podcast
Reforms and Future Hope

The Grace City Church Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 14, 2021 28:39


As the story of Nehemiah ends, the story of God's people continues forward to recognize that Jesus is our hope. 

StudioTulsa
From OK Policy, a new report proposing various tax and budget reforms: "A Better Path Forward"

StudioTulsa

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 12, 2021 28:58


"A Better Path Forward," a new report from OK Policy, proposes a number of tax and budget reforms aimed at fairness, prosperity, improved health, and better education services

ESV: M'Cheyne Reading Plan
November 10: 2 Kings 23; Hebrews 5; Psalm 142; Joel 2

ESV: M'Cheyne Reading Plan

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 10, 2021 15:43


With family: 2 Kings 23; Hebrews 5 2 Kings 23 (Listen) Josiah's Reforms 23 Then the king sent, and all the elders of Judah and Jerusalem were gathered to him. 2 And the king went up to the house of the LORD, and with him all the men of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem and the priests and the prophets, all the people, both small and great. And he read in their hearing all the words of the Book of the Covenant that had been found in the house of the LORD. 3 And the king stood by the pillar and made a covenant before the LORD, to walk after the LORD and to keep his commandments and his testimonies and his statutes with all his heart and all his soul, to perform the words of this covenant that were written in this book. And all the people joined in the covenant. 4 And the king commanded Hilkiah the high priest and the priests of the second order and the keepers of the threshold to bring out of the temple of the LORD all the vessels made for Baal, for Asherah, and for all the host of heaven. He burned them outside Jerusalem in the fields of the Kidron and carried their ashes to Bethel. 5 And he deposed the priests whom the kings of Judah had ordained to make offerings in the high places at the cities of Judah and around Jerusalem; those also who burned incense to Baal, to the sun and the moon and the constellations and all the host of the heavens. 6 And he brought out the Asherah from the house of the LORD, outside Jerusalem, to the brook Kidron, and burned it at the brook Kidron and beat it to dust and cast the dust of it upon the graves of the common people. 7 And he broke down the houses of the male cult prostitutes who were in the house of the LORD, where the women wove hangings for the Asherah. 8 And he brought all the priests out of the cities of Judah, and defiled the high places where the priests had made offerings, from Geba to Beersheba. And he broke down the high places of the gates that were at the entrance of the gate of Joshua the governor of the city, which were on one's left at the gate of the city. 9 However, the priests of the high places did not come up to the altar of the LORD in Jerusalem, but they ate unleavened bread among their brothers. 10 And he defiled Topheth, which is in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom, that no one might burn his son or his daughter as an offering to Molech.1 11 And he removed the horses that the kings of Judah had dedicated to the sun, at the entrance to the house of the LORD, by the chamber of Nathan-melech the chamberlain, which was in the precincts.2 And he burned the chariots of the sun with fire. 12 And the altars on the roof of the upper chamber of Ahaz, which the kings of Judah had made, and the altars that Manasseh had made in the two courts of the house of the LORD, he pulled down and broke in pieces3 and cast the dust of them into the brook Kidron. 13 And the king defiled the high places that were east of Jerusalem, to the south of the mount of corruption, which Solomon the king of Israel had built for Ashtoreth the abomination of the Sidonians, and for Chemosh the abomination of Moab, and for Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites. 14 And he broke in pieces the pillars and cut down the Asherim and filled their places with the bones of men. 15 Moreover, the altar at Bethel, the high place erected by Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin, that altar with the high place he pulled down and burned,4 reducing it to dust. He also burned the Asherah. 16 And as Josiah turned, he saw the tombs there on the mount. And he sent and took the bones out of the tombs and burned them on the altar and defiled it, according to the word of the LORD that the man of God proclaimed, who had predicted these things. 17 Then he said, “What is that monument that I see?” And the men of the city told him, “It is the tomb of the man of God who came from Judah and predicted5 these things that you have done against the altar at Bethel.” 18 And he said, “Let him be; let no man move his bones.” So they let his bones alone, with the bones of the prophet who came out of Samaria. 19 And Josiah removed all the shrines also of the high places that were in the cities of Samaria, which kings of Israel had made, provoking the LORD to anger. He did to them according to all that he had done at Bethel. 20 And he sacrificed all the priests of the high places who were there, on the altars, and burned human bones on them. Then he returned to Jerusalem. Josiah Restores the Passover 21 And the king commanded all the people, “Keep the Passover to the LORD your God, as it is written in this Book of the Covenant.” 22 For no such Passover had been kept since the days of the judges who judged Israel, or during all the days of the kings of Israel or of the kings of Judah. 23 But in the eighteenth year of King Josiah this Passover was kept to the LORD in Jerusalem. 24 Moreover, Josiah put away the mediums and the necromancers and the household gods and the idols and all the abominations that were seen in the land of Judah and in Jerusalem, that he might establish the words of the law that were written in the book that Hilkiah the priest found in the house of the LORD. 25 Before him there was no king like him, who turned to the LORD with all his heart and with all his soul and with all his might, according to all the Law of Moses, nor did any like him arise after him. 26 Still the LORD did not turn from the burning of his great wrath, by which his anger was kindled against Judah, because of all the provocations with which Manasseh had provoked him. 27 And the LORD said, “I will remove Judah also out of my sight, as I have removed Israel, and I will cast off this city that I have chosen, Jerusalem, and the house of which I said, My name shall be there.” Josiah's Death in Battle 28 Now the rest of the acts of Josiah and all that he did, are they not written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah? 29 In his days Pharaoh Neco king of Egypt went up to the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates. King Josiah went to meet him, and Pharaoh Neco killed him at Megiddo, as soon as he saw him. 30 And his servants carried him dead in a chariot from Megiddo and brought him to Jerusalem and buried him in his own tomb. And the people of the land took Jehoahaz the son of Josiah, and anointed him, and made him king in his father's place. Jehoahaz's Reign and Captivity 31 Jehoahaz was twenty-three years old when he began to reign, and he reigned three months in Jerusalem. His mother's name was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. 32 And he did what was evil in the sight of the LORD, according to all that his fathers had done. 33 And Pharaoh Neco put him in bonds at Riblah in the land of Hamath, that he might not reign in Jerusalem, and laid on the land a tribute of a hundred talents6 of silver and a talent of gold. 34 And Pharaoh Neco made Eliakim the son of Josiah king in the place of Josiah his father, and changed his name to Jehoiakim. But he took Jehoahaz away, and he came to Egypt and died there. 35 And Jehoiakim gave the silver and the gold to Pharaoh, but he taxed the land to give the money according to the command of Pharaoh. He exacted the silver and the gold of the people of the land, from everyone according to his assessment, to give it to Pharaoh Neco. Jehoiakim Reigns in Judah 36 Jehoiakim was twenty-five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. His mother's name was Zebidah the daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah. 37 And he did what was evil in the sight of the LORD, according to all that his fathers had done. Footnotes [1] 23:10 Hebrew might cause his son or daughter to pass through the fire for Molech [2] 23:11 The meaning of the Hebrew word is uncertain [3] 23:12 Hebrew pieces from there [4] 23:15 Septuagint broke in pieces its stones [5] 23:17 Hebrew called [6] 23:33 A talent was about 75 pounds or 34 kilograms (ESV) Hebrews 5 (Listen) 5 For every high priest chosen from among men is appointed to act on behalf of men in relation to God, to offer gifts and sacrifices for sins. 2 He can deal gently with the ignorant and wayward, since he himself is beset with weakness. 3 Because of this he is obligated to offer sacrifice for his own sins just as he does for those of the people. 4 And no one takes this honor for himself, but only when called by God, just as Aaron was. 5 So also Christ did not exalt himself to be made a high priest, but was appointed by him who said to him,   “You are my Son,    today I have begotten you”; 6 as he says also in another place,   “You are a priest forever,    after the order of Melchizedek.” 7 In the days of his flesh, Jesus1 offered up prayers and supplications, with loud cries and tears, to him who was able to save him from death, and he was heard because of his reverence. 8 Although he was a son, he learned obedience through what he suffered. 9 And being made perfect, he became the source of eternal salvation to all who obey him, 10 being designated by God a high priest after the order of Melchizedek. Warning Against Apostasy 11 About this we have much to say, and it is hard to explain, since you have become dull of hearing. 12 For though by this time you ought to be teachers, you need someone to teach you again the basic principles of the oracles of God. You need milk, not solid food, 13 for everyone who lives on milk is unskilled in the word of righteousness, since he is a child. 14 But solid food is for the mature, for those who have their powers of discernment trained by constant practice to distinguish good from evil. Footnotes [1] 5:7 Greek he (ESV) In private: Psalm 142; Joel 2 Psalm 142 (Listen) You Are My Refuge A Maskil1 of David, when he was in the cave. A Prayer. 142   With my voice I cry out to the LORD;    with my voice I plead for mercy to the LORD.2   I pour out my complaint before him;    I tell my trouble before him. 3   When my spirit faints within me,    you know my way!  In the path where I walk    they have hidden a trap for me.4   Look to the right and see:    there is none who takes notice of me;  no refuge remains to me;    no one cares for my soul. 5   I cry to you, O LORD;    I say, “You are my refuge,    my portion in the land of the living.”6   Attend to my cry,    for I am brought very low!  Deliver me from my persecutors,    for they are too strong for me!7   Bring me out of prison,    that I may give thanks to your name!  The righteous will surround me,    for you will deal bountifully with me. Footnotes [1] 142:1 Probably a musical or liturgical term (ESV) Joel 2 (Listen) The Day of the Lord 2   Blow a trumpet in Zion;    sound an alarm on my holy mountain!  Let all the inhabitants of the land tremble,    for the day of the LORD is coming; it is near,2   a day of darkness and gloom,    a day of clouds and thick darkness!  Like blackness there is spread upon the mountains    a great and powerful people;  their like has never been before,    nor will be again after them    through the years of all generations. 3   Fire devours before them,    and behind them a flame burns.  The land is like the garden of Eden before them,    but behind them a desolate wilderness,    and nothing escapes them. 4   Their appearance is like the appearance of horses,    and like war horses they run.5   As with the rumbling of chariots,    they leap on the tops of the mountains,  like the crackling of a flame of fire    devouring the stubble,  like a powerful army    drawn up for battle. 6   Before them peoples are in anguish;    all faces grow pale.7   Like warriors they charge;    like soldiers they scale the wall.  They march each on his way;    they do not swerve from their paths.8   They do not jostle one another;    each marches in his path;  they burst through the weapons    and are not halted.9   They leap upon the city,    they run upon the walls,  they climb up into the houses,    they enter through the windows like a thief. 10   The earth quakes before them;    the heavens tremble.  The sun and the moon are darkened,    and the stars withdraw their shining.11   The LORD utters his voice    before his army,  for his camp is exceedingly great;    he who executes his word is powerful.  For the day of the LORD is great and very awesome;    who can endure it? Return to the Lord 12   “Yet even now,” declares the LORD,    “return to me with all your heart,  with fasting, with weeping, and with mourning;13     and rend your hearts and not your garments.”  Return to the LORD your God,    for he is gracious and merciful,  slow to anger, and abounding in steadfast love;    and he relents over disaster.14   Who knows whether he will not turn and relent,    and leave a blessing behind him,  a grain offering and a drink offering    for the LORD your God? 15   Blow the trumpet in Zion;    consecrate a fast;  call a solemn assembly;16     gather the people.  Consecrate the congregation;    assemble the elders;  gather the children,    even nursing infants.  Let the bridegroom leave his room,    and the bride her chamber. 17   Between the vestibule and the altar    let the priests, the ministers of the LORD, weep  and say, “Spare your people, O LORD,    and make not your heritage a reproach,    a byword among the nations.1  Why should they say among the peoples,    ‘Where is their God?'” The Lord Had Pity 18   Then the LORD became jealous for his land    and had pity on his people.19   The LORD answered and said to his people,  “Behold, I am sending to you    grain, wine, and oil,    and you will be satisfied;  and I will no more make you    a reproach among the nations. 20   “I will remove the northerner far from you,    and drive him into a parched and desolate land,  his vanguard2 into the eastern sea,    and his rear guard3 into the western sea;  the stench and foul smell of him will rise,    for he has done great things. 21   “Fear not, O land;    be glad and rejoice,    for the LORD has done great things!22   Fear not, you beasts of the field,    for the pastures of the wilderness are green;  the tree bears its fruit;    the fig tree and vine give their full yield. 23   “Be glad, O children of Zion,    and rejoice in the LORD your God,  for he has given the early rain for your vindication;    he has poured down for you abundant rain,    the early and the latter rain, as before. 24   “The threshing floors shall be full of grain;    the vats shall overflow with wine and oil.25   I will restore4 to you the years    that the swarming locust has eaten,  the hopper, the destroyer, and the cutter,    my great army, which I sent among you. 26   “You shall eat in plenty and be satisfied,    and praise the name of the LORD your God,    who has dealt wondrously with you.  And my people shall never again be put to shame.27   You shall know that I am in the midst of Israel,    and that I am the LORD your God and there is none else.  And my people shall never again be put to shame. The Lord Will Pour Out His Spirit 28   5 “And it shall come to pass afterward,    that I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh;  your sons and your daughters shall prophesy,    your old men shall dream dreams,    and your young men shall see visions.29   Even on the male and female servants    in those days I will pour out my Spirit. 30 “And I will show wonders in the heavens and on the earth, blood and fire and columns of smoke. 31 The sun shall be turned to darkness, and the moon to blood, before the great and awesome day of the LORD comes. 32 And it shall come to pass that everyone who calls on the name of the LORD shall be saved. For in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there shall be those who escape, as the LORD has said, and among the survivors shall be those whom the LORD calls. Footnotes [1] 2:17 Or reproach, that the nations should rule over them [2] 2:20 Hebrew face [3] 2:20 Hebrew his end [4] 2:25 Or pay back [5] 2:28 Ch 3:1 in Hebrew (ESV)

Green Pond Bible Chapel Sermons
Josiah's Reforms [2 Kings 23:1-30] - Kings

Green Pond Bible Chapel Sermons

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 7, 2021 38:27


In 2 Kings 23:1-30 we learn that Jesus rescues sinners so they can respond with faithful submission and obedience.

FedSoc Events
Panel Two: School Choice and Education Reforms During COVID-19

FedSoc Events

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 1, 2021 61:39


The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in over a year of virtual public schooling in some parts of the country, which caused a surge of interest in school choice options as parents sought in-person instruction for their children. About 500,000 students nationally left traditional public schools during the pandemic to move into private schools, charters, and full-time home-schooling. State legislatures across the country thus responded by considering legislation to increase the number of charter schools, offer additional scholarship and tax credit programs, and create education savings account options to increase choice in education.This panel surveyed proposed education reforms to expand school choice and discussed the responses of unions, school boards, and parents to these proposals. Panelists considered changes the Biden Administration may make in education special emphasis on any proposed reforms in Pennsylvania, Delaware, and New Jersey.Featuring:Robert S. Eitel, President, Defense of Freedom InstituteBenjamin A. Field, Attorney, Institute for JusticeModerator: Judge Joshua Wolson, United States District Judge for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania* * * * * As always, the Federalist Society takes no position on particular legal or public policy issues; all expressions of opinion are those of the speaker.

The Bay
Oscar Grant, Rob Bonta, and Upcoming Police Reforms

The Bay

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 1, 2021 19:17


Less than six weeks after our KQED colleagues from On Our Watch published an episode that revealed new information about the police killing of Oscar Grant, California's Attorney General Rob Bonta announced he was opening an external investigation into the 12-year old case, which he says remains unsolved.  KQED's Sukey Lewis spoke with Bonta to discuss systemic issues in California policing, and how he wants them to be addressed. She also covers some upcoming police reforms that could lead to more accountability and transparency. Listen and subscribe to On Our Watch.

New Books Network
David Madland, "Re-Union: How Bold Labor Reforms Can Repair, Revitalize, and Reunite the United States" (Cornell UP, 2021)

New Books Network

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 1, 2021 52:06


In Re-Union: How Bold Labor Reforms Can Repair, Revitalize, and Reunite the United States (Cornell UP, 2021), David Madland explores how labor unions are essential to all workers. Yet, union systems are badly flawed and in need of rapid changes for reform. Madland's multilayered analysis presents a solution--a model to replace the existing firm-based collective bargaining with a larger, industry-scale bargaining method coupled with powerful incentives for union membership. These changes would represent a remarkable shift from the norm, but would be based on lessons from other countries, US history and current policy in several cities and states. In outlining the shift, Madland details how these proposals might mend the broken economic and political systems in the United States. He also uses three examples from Britain, Canada, and Australia to explore what there is yet to learn about this new system in other developed nations. Madland's practical advice in Re-Union extends to a proposal for how to implement the changes necessary to shift the current paradigm. This powerful call to action speaks directly to the workers affected by these policies--the very people seeking to have their voices recognized in a system that attempts to silence them. David Madland is Senior Fellow and Strategic Director of the American Worker Project at the Center for American Progress. He is author of Hollowed Out: Why the Economy Doesn't work without a strong middle class. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/new-books-network

The LA Report
Santa Fe sheriffs shed light on prop gun shooting; Should the unvaccinated pay for their own testing?; Reforms coming to unemployment system after pandemic failures – The A.M. Edition

The LA Report

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 26, 2021 5:28


Here's your morning news: Warrant released by Santa Fe Sheriffs Dept. offers insight into film set shooting; City council will determine whether unvaccinated employees will be required to pay for their own COVID tests; State unemployment agency to implement reforms after pandemic struggles; L.A. group getting $1 million for carbon neutrality plans. This program is made possible in part by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, a private corporation funded by the American people. Support the show: https://support.laist.com/laistnav

The Seen and the Unseen - hosted by Amit Varma
Ep 248: The Decline of the Congress

The Seen and the Unseen - hosted by Amit Varma

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 25, 2021 205:50


The Congress Party once dominated Indian politics. Today, it's on the outside looking in. Rahul Verma joins Amit Varma in episode 248 of The Seen and the Unseen to discuss the complex social and political factors behind this massive decline.  Also check out: 1. Political Ideology in India -- Episode 131 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Rahul Verma). 2. Ideology and Identity: The Changing Party Systems of India -- Pradeep K Chhibber and Rahul Verma. 3. Taking Stock of Our Republic -- Episode 157 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Ramachandra Guha). 4. The Gita Press and Hindu Nationalism -- Episode 139 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Akshaya Mukul). 5. Religion and Ideology in Indian Society — Episode 124 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Suyash Rai). 6. The BJP Before Modi -- Episode 202 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Vinay Sitapati). 7. The BJP's Magic Formula — Episode 45 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Prashant Jha). 8. The First Assault on Our Constitution — Episode 194 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Tripurdaman Singh). 9. Who Broke Our Republic? — Episode 163 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Kapil Komireddi). 10. The Life and Times of Vir Sanghvi -- Episode 236 of The Seen and the Unseen. 11. The Emergency of 1975 -- Episode 103 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Gyan Prakash). 12. India's Lost Decade -- Episode 116 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Puja Mehra). 13. The Business of Winning Elections -- Episode 247 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Shivam Shankar Singh). 14. The Importance of the 1991 Reforms -- Episode 237 of The Seen and the Unseen (w Shruti Rajagopalan and Ajay Shah). 15. The Baptist, the Bootlegger and the Dead Man Walking -- Amit Varma. 16. Caste in Indian Politics -- Rajni Kothari. 17. Politics In India -- Rajni Kothari. 18. Lessons from an Ankhon Dekhi Prime Minister -- Amit Varma. 19. The Burden of Democracy -- Pratap Bhanu Mehta. 20. Myron Weiner, Saadat Hasan Manto, Shivani and Harishankar Parsai on Amazon. 21. Murdahiya -- Dr Tulsiram. 22. Raag Darbari (Hindi) (English) -- Shrilal Shukla. 23. Dynastic parties: Organization, finance and impact -- Pradeep Chhibber. 24. 24 Akbar Road -- Rashid Kidwai. 25.  Congress after Indira: Policy, Power, Political Change -- Zoya Hasan. 26. The future of the Congress party -- A Conversation between Yamini Aiyar, Zoya Hasan and Rahul Verma. 27. Why big companies squander brilliant ideas -- Tim Harford. 28. A Game Theory Problem: Who Will Bell The Congress Cat? -- Amit Varma. 29. Mahua Moitra interviewed by Barkha Dutt. 30. Democracy without Associations -- Pradeep K Chibber. 31. Are You Anchored to the Past? -- Amit Varma. This episode is sponsored by Intel.  Please subscribe to The India Uncut Newsletter. It's free! And check out Amit's online course, The Art of Clear Writing.