Polar region of the Earth's northern hemisphere
#plugintodevin - Your Mark on the World with Devin Thorpe
Devin: What is your superpower?Ben: I'm basically the most humble person you've ever met. (Laughs.)Saving the Great Salt Lake will require “a 30 to 50 percent reduction in our water use in the watershed,” says Dr. Ben Abbott, professor of ecology at Brigham Young University, one of the foremost authorities on the shrinking Great Salt Lake.This isn't just a local problem. Not significantly tied to climate change, salt lakes around the globe (about 120 of them) are drying up for the same reason: humans are using the water before it gets to the salt lakes.AI Summary1. The Great Salt Lake is a keystone ecosystem.2. The lake has experienced a significant decline in water levels over the last hundred years.3. The cause of the decline is mainly due to human water use for agriculture, outdoor vegetation, and mining minerals.4. Climate change plays a small role in the decline; water consumption accounts for 80 to 90 percent of it.5. There needs to be a 30 to 50 percent reduction in water use in the watershed to address the problem.6. Agricultural optimization, urban water use reduction, and targeted fallowing are potential solutions.7. Alfalfa is a major contributor to water depletion.8. Farmers must be compensated for reducing water use to remain economically viable.9. A high percentage, perhaps 95 percent, of indoor water use ends up in the lake.10. Ben Abbott's work is focused on understanding and protecting freshwater ecosystems.Great Salt Lake is a vital part of the ecosystem in Northern Utah. It is the largest of the salt lakes in North America. Losing the lake could create an ecological catastrophe.Ben explains the problem in simple terms: “Great Salt Lake naturally fluctuates. It goes up and down because there's no outlet to the ocean. But what we've seen over the last hundred years is a very steep decline, a decrease in the water level. This is driven overwhelmingly by one thing, extractive human water use.”“The breakdown is approximately 80-10-10. So, 80 percent agriculture, 10 percent mineral extraction from the lake, 10 percent municipal water use the urban areas,” he says, summarizing the use of water that once flowed into the lake.In urban settings, Ben acknowledges that about 95 percent of indoor water uses end up in the lake. After going down the drain, the water is cleaned and flows eventually to where it belongs. The water on urban lawns, however, doesn't end up in the lake.In agriculture, “alfalfa is the predominant crop that is using water in the watershed,” Ben says. He suggests paying farmers to fallow their fields for part of the year.Utah received record-setting snow this past winter; Great Salt Lake has risen several feet. Ben worries this could be a problem. “We can't get distracted this amazing snow year. It's the biggest snow year on record. It's a real gift. It gives us more—maybe a few months more or a year more time to implement these solutions. It doesn't solve the long-term deficit.”Interestingly, Ben notes that humans have lived around what is now Great Salt Lake, for about 20,000 years, since long before it was formed by the receding Lake Bonneville. “It was only in the mid-1900s when we had these big federally subsidized dam projects and canal and pipeline projects that we started to overuse, and we created this artificial surplus of water that nobody locally was paying for,” Ben says.Ben has one overriding concern. “We haven't come to grips with how serious an issue this is and with how hard the solution is going to be.”“The lake responds to how much water flows into it; it doesn't respond to the number of bills that were passed, the number of podcasts that were done on the lake or even the amount of money we spend on it,” he says.Ben's superpower is humility. He's learned to focus on the lakes he cares so much about, not on getting credit for saving them.How to Develop Humility As a SuperpowerBen has learned to remember some critical context for his work. “It isn't about us, and it's not whether our report was taken seriously or if we got credit for the change that was made. It's focusing on solving the problem.”That brand of humility is empowering, he says. “When you try to decenter the ego, it becomes a lot easier to take setbacks and criticisms or personal attacks.”He shared an example to make the point:I got personally sued for $3 million for the education and research work that we were doing. That was really destabilizing to have my livelihood threatened. But again, I felt really supported thinking about, “Hey, this is really about the lake. This is, of course, disruptive to me and my family for a short period of time. But it may be a step toward permanent protection and better management of the lake.”Ben offers advice for developing humility by focusing on finding hope and progress.If you're carrying the weight of the world on your shoulders, and it's just grinding you down, guess what? That's not helping the world, and that's not helping you personally, right? Because you're not going to be in a place that you can have the energy and desire and passion to engage. So being open to unexpected relationships and conversations, being able to see the beauty in everything around us—there is so much beauty. There are so many reasons to be hopeful about the future and to really work for it. Hope comes from action, I believe when I sit at home and look at these numbers for the 2,000 to 8,000 premature deaths due to air pollution just here in Utah—that's ten times as many people as die in all car accidents—that can be crushing.When instead, we're thinking about, “Hey, who can I talk with? Hey, there's this Clean Air caucus in the legislature that's working on this issue. They really care about this issue—bipartisan,” that's where the hope comes in. You start to believe that we can make a difference. And it does.By focusing on action and progress, hope develops and strengthens your ability to decenter yourself.As you move forward, follow Ben's example and advice to develop greater humility, so you can make it a strength that could become a superpower, enabling you to do more good in the world.Guest-Provided ProfileBen Abbott (he/him):Professor of Ecology, The Abbott Lab of Ecosystem Ecology at Brigham Young UniversityAbout The Abbott Lab of Ecosystem Ecology at Brigham Young University: We are a research and outreach lab composed of postdoctoral researchers, graduate students, and undergraduates. Since 2017, we have worked on solving some of the most pressing environmental issues regionally and globally, including air pollution, climate change, renewable energy, wildfire, and the conservation of Utah Lake and Great Salt Lake.Website: benabbott.byu.eduTwitter Handle: @abbottecologyOther URL: gsl.byu.eduBiographical Information: Ben Abbott was born in Nashville, Tennessee, and grew up in Orem, Utah. He got interested in science and nature from watching TV and mountain biking in the foothills of Mount Timpanogos. Near the end of his senior year at Orem High, he slipped on a pamphlet for the Quinney Scholarship at Utah State University and applied to the Watershed and Earth Systems Science program. During his B.S., he worked as an undergraduate researcher in northern Alaska, investigating how fish influence nutrient cycles in Arctic lakes. That led to his Ph.D. at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, where he studied permafrost climate feedbacks using interdisciplinary techniques to quantify how Arctic and Boreal ecosystems respond to climate change. After finishing his Ph.D. in 2014, he worked as a Marie Curie postdoctoral fellow at the French National Science Foundation (CNRS). While in western France, he studied the effects of agriculture and urbanization on aquatic and marine ecosystems.Ben is currently an assistant professor in the Environmental Science & Sustainability program at BYU. He works with a large team of creative and passionate students and postdoctoral researchers to understand and encourage sustainability and reciprocity among all members of the human family and all creation. Specifically, they use methods from ecosystem ecology, evolutionary biology, energy system modeling, and social science to understand and decrease environmental pollution, measure and mitigate the effects of climate change, and protect vulnerable human and nonhuman communities worldwide. He has been married to Rachel Gianni Abbott for twelve years, and they have four children who take after them in their love of animals, TV, and biking. For more information, visit his blog, Approximately Limitless.Twitter Handle: @thermokarstPersonal Facebook Profile:fb.com/BenabboLinkedin: linkedin.com/in/ben-abbott-54437817/Instagram Handle: instagram.com/sawzalls/ Get full access to Superpowers for Good at devinthorpe.substack.com/subscribe
Overheard at National Geographic
On assignment in the canyons of the Gila Wilderness, Nat Geo photographer Katie Orlinsky has a fireside chat with Overheard host Peter Gwin about telling stories through pictures. She chronicles how she found her way—from growing up in New York City to covering workers' rights in rural Mexico to the world's most grueling dogsled race in Alaska. For more information on this episode, visit nationalgeographic.com/overheard. Want more? To see some of Katie's photos from the Gila, take a look at Peter Gwin's article How to visit the Gila Wilderness. In her work on the Yukon Quest sled dog race, you can see what it looks like to cross 1,000 miles of Alaska on dog power. On Katie's personal website, you can see more images, including from her time in Juárez. Also explore: And magazine subscribers can see Katie's photos in our recent story about thawing permafrost. Sometimes that thaw creates pockets of methane under frozen lakes that scientists test by setting on fire. That story was also featured in our podcast episode about how beavers are changing the Arctic. If you like what you hear and want to support more content like this, please consider a National Geographic subscription. Go to natgeo.com/exploremore to subscribe today. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices
Thanks to Richard from NC for suggesting Titanomyrma! Further reading: 'Giant' ant fossil raises questions about ancient Arctic migrations A fossilized queen Titanomyrma ant with a rufous hummingbird (stuffed) for scale: Show transcript: Welcome to Strange Animals Podcast. I'm your host, Kate Shaw. This week we have a suggestion from Richard from North Carolina, who sent me an article about an extinct giant ant called Titanomyrma. This episode is short, but I think you'll find it interesting. We've talked about ants in previous episodes, most recently episode 185. Most ant colonies consist of a single queen ant who lays all the eggs for her colony, seasonally hatched males with wings who fly off as soon as they're grown, and worker ants. The worker ants are all female but don't lay eggs. Army ants have another caste, the soldier ant, which are much larger than the worker ants and have big heads and strong, sharp mandibles. In many species of ant, the worker ants are further divided into castes that are specialized for specific tasks. The biggest species of ant alive today is probably the giant Amazonian ant. The workers can grow over 1.2 inches long, or more than 3 cm, which is huge for an ant. It lives in South America in small colonies, usually containing less than 100 workers, and unlike most ants it doesn't have a queen. Instead, one of the workers mates with a male and lays eggs for the colony. The giant Amazonian ant can sting and its sting contains venom that causes intense pain for up to two days. Fortunately, you will probably never encounter these giant ants, and even if you do they're not very aggressive. Another contender for the biggest species of ant alive today is the Dorylus genus of army ants, also called driver ants, which we talked about in episode 185. It lives in Africa in colonies that have millions of members, and the queen is the largest ant known. A queen army ant can measure 2.4 inches long, or 63 millimeters, but worker ants are much smaller. Around 50 million years ago, giant ants related to modern driver ants lived in both Europe and North America. The genus is Titanomyrma and three species are known so far, found in Germany, England, Canada, and the American states of Tennessee and Wyoming. The Wyoming ant fossil was discovered years ago and donated to the Denver Museum of Nature and Science, where it was stored in a drawer and forgotten about. In 2011 a curator found it and showed it to a paleoentomologist named Bruce Archibald. Dr. Archibald recognized it immediately as a fossilized queen ant even though it was the size of a hummingbird. He also realized it was very similar to a type of giant ant that once lived in Germany. The German discovery was the first Titanomyrma species discovered, and it's also the biggest known so far. The queen Titanomyrma gigantea grew up to 2.8 inches long, or 7 centimeters. Males grew up to 1.2 inches long, or 3 cm. The fossilized queen ants found have wings, with a wingspan of over 6 inches, or 16 cm. The other two known species are generally smaller, although still pretty darn big for ants.While they're not that much bigger than the living Dorylus queens, most of the size of a queen Dorylus ant comes from her enlarged abdomen. Titanomyrma ants were just plain big all over. Titanomyrma didn't have a stinger, so it's possible it used its mandibles to inflict bites, the way modern army ants do. It might also have sprayed formic acid at potential predators, as some ants do today. The biggest ants alive today all live in tropical areas, so researchers thought Titanomyrma probably did too. During the Eocene, the world was overall quite warm and parts of Europe were tropical. The northern hemisphere supercontinent Laurasia was in the process of breaking up, but Europe and North America were still connected by the Arctic. Even though the Arctic was a lot warmer 50 million years ago than it is now,
Antonella Pisani talks about how teamwork and cross-channel collaboration unlock digital marketing growth Episode 954: How Teamwork and Cross-Channel Collaboration Unlock Digital Marketing Growth by Antonella Pisani Antonella brings more than 24 years of digital experience with a focus on e-commerce leadership and digital marketing. Prior to starting Eyeful, she held VP and SVP roles at companies including Proflowers, Guitar Center, JCPenney, and Fossil. Antonella is an avid traveler and photographer, with a particular passion for visiting places off the beaten path including Antarctica, Easter Island, Bhutan and the Arctic. She is fluent in Spanish, Portuguese and knows enough French and Italian to get by with locals. She's based in Dallas, TX, and is a member of both The North Texas Food Bank Advisory Council, and the Dwell with Dignity Board of Directors. The original post can be found here: https://www.eyefulmedia.com/blog/digital-marketing-teamwork Visit Me Online at OLDPodcast.com Interested in advertising on the show? Visit https://www.advertisecast.com/OptimalStartUpDaily Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices
We asked listeners to call in with their thoughts on last night's CNN town hall with Donald Trump. Andy Ihnatko joined to debrief yesterday's Google I/O conference, plus, gave updates on the White House's efforts to reign in on AI. Andrea Cabral covered the George Santos indictment and how former Boston Police Union head Dana Pullman is getting 2.5 years in prison for kickback fraud. She also talked about Boston redistricting, and blowback to the New York Times' profile of Elizabeth Holmes. Juliette Kayyem discussed criticisms of how Texas Gov. Greg Abbott's handled shootings in his state, most recently with the mall shooting in Allen. She'll also weigh in on the E. Jean Carroll case, and a race between the U.S. and Russia over who can have the biggest naval presence in the Arctic. Nick Quah reviews podcasts for Vulture. This week, he shared his thoughts on Stiffed, Mallwalkin', Holy Week, You Didn't See Nothin, and She Wants More. A piece from The Wall Street Journal showed human brains are bad at multi-tasking. And yet, we can't help ourselves. Why? What are your worst multi-tasking habitats? Listeners called in.
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Psalm 119:89 Forever, O Lord, Your word is settled in heaven. To support this ministry financially, visit: https://www.oneplace.com/donate/1232/29
Wildfires and human meddling are transforming the Arctic and its surroundings from a carbon sink into a carbon emitter, exacerbating the climate crisis. Thanks for listening to WIRED. Talk to you next time for more stories from WIRED.com and read this story here.
We continue the story of the tragic Lady Franklin Bay Expedition, also known as the Greely Expedition, in the Canadian Arctic. We pick back up and Camp Clay on Cape Sabine after the crew had fled their previous station when their relief ship had failed to arrive a second year in a row. At their new outpost, the crew finally realized they were on their own for another Arctic winter, one they were not prepared for. Their rations were dwindling and death from starvation came quickly. Most of the crew struggling to survive at Camp Clay would never see home again. When the few survivors returned after their long-awaited rescue, they were met with scandal. Accusations of cannibalism followed them for the remainder of their lives and the data they died for was virtually dismissed. It sat collecting dust for a century until now, when its importance has finally been recognized. The data taken by the Lady Franklin Bay Expedition has been used to help us understand how global warming has impacted our planet, and 140 years later, we've finally come to understand its importance. Join me for the finale on the true story of the Lady Franklin Bay Expedition, as we uncover a 140-year-old legacy that still remains.
Spring has reached the Arctic. Low-growing wildflowers carpet slopes of tundra, and arriving migratory birds begin to sing: Lapland Longspurs, Hoary Redpolls, Snow Buntings, Bluethroats, and more.More info and transcript at BirdNote.org. Want more BirdNote? Subscribe to our weekly newsletter. Sign up for BirdNote+ to get ad-free listening and other perks. BirdNote is a nonprofit. Your tax-deductible gift makes these shows possible.
In this week's episode, we are checking in with Dr. Kate Stafford about the state of the Arctic. Dr. Stafford talks about her latest trip back and what's been going on with the Bowhead whale in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, north and northwest of Alaska. Dr. Stafford talks about the rapid pace of the melting ice, and the impact this is making not only to the sweet Bowhead whale but to the Inupiaq people of Alaska. It's a chilling recounting of what she is seeing out on the melting ice. We are left with more questions than answers but one thing we know, the Bowhead whales are in trouble. We last spoke with Dr. Stafford in our previous episode #11 called The Song Birds of the Ocean. Please listen to that conversation if you haven't already. Lots of Love. Kindred is hosted by Kate Coffin and Jenn Asplundh. Please find out more info and message us at kindredpodcast.co. Follow Us Instagram @thekindredpod Facebook @thekindredpod Support us at Patreon/kindredpodcast Please follow, rate, and review. Thanks.
Since the Industrial Revolution nearly 150 years ago, global average temperatures have increased by more than 1 degree C (1.9 degrees F), with the majority of that warming occurring since 1975. But during these recent decades of accelerated warming, temperatures in the arctic (latitudes above 66 degrees north) have have been rising even faster - nearly four times faster than the average global rate. The most readily observable impact of such intensive localized warming has been the rapid melting of the Greenland ice sheet, which is significant enough to be turning heads of even stalwart climate skeptics. But a less discussed (and perhaps even more dangerous) positive feedback to the warming planet is the rate at which permafrost is melting due to the quickly elevating arctic temperatures.Dr. Susan Natali, Arctic Program Director and senior scientist at the Woodwell Climate Research Center, sat down with Climate Now to teach us about permafrost: what it is, why it is disappearing, and the potentially drastic - and so far barely accounted for - impact it can have on greenhouse gas emissions. Listen to find out why tackling decreasing global greenhouse gas emissions as fast as possible is likely even more urgent than we thought.Follow us on Twitter, LinkedIn, Facebook, and Instagram.Contact us at email@example.comVisit our website for all of our content and sources for each episode.
Today, nearly 2 billion people suffer from vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Labeled as the ‘hidden hunger', this puts them at greater risk of infection, lower cognitive function, and leads to 1 million premature deaths. A new study published in the journal Nature Plants reports that there are 1,044 edible plant species that show promise as key sources of B vitamins. I speak with the lead author of the study, PhD student Aoife Cantwell-Jones, about their findings. She also shares some fun stories from her current work on expedition in the Arctic circle, where she studies bumblebees and plants in the wild! Learn more about her research on Twitter at @aoifecj #PlantDiversity #ClimateChange #bumblebees #Vitamins #Nutrients #Podcast
The cephalosquad goes on a journey to find Jalbreth. Searching the Library of Technology and Engineering, Daisy gets trapped in happiness and Marmo freaks out. Please support Dugongs & Sea Dragons on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/DugongsAndSeadragons
The Willow Project is an oil drilling project set to begin in the National Petroleum Reserve in northern Alaska--albeit in a scaled down version of the original plan. Casey and Sara explore the history of the project, look at the environmental impacts, and discuss the challenges of breaking free from fossil fuels. Resources for this episode: Q&A: Willow oil project and Arctic drilling limits Alaska's Willow oil project is controversial. Here's why. | AP News What is the Willow project? The Alaska oil drilling debate, explained. - The Washington Post The Willow Project and the Race to Pump the “Last Barrel” of Oil - Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Biden Administration Sued Over Willow Oil Project in Alaska's Western Arctic - Center for Biological Diversity Interior Department Substantially Reduces Scope of Willow Project Willow drilling: How will it affect polar bears?
American Shoreline Podcast Network
We're sticking to our theme of featuring ocean expeditions on this month's episode of The Ocean Decade Show! Tune in as Taylor speaks to famous Arctic and Antarctic explorer Dr. Jean-Louis Etienne about his upcoming Ocean Decade-endorsed expedition Polar Pod, an unprecedented maritime exploration of the Southern Ocean, the main driver of the Earth's climate and a huge reserve of marine biodiversity. On a custom-designed, zero-emission ship, this expedition worthy of Jules Verne will provide much-needed information on the understudied Southern Ocean. To follow along before the expedition launches, please visit https://www.polarpod.fr/en/expedition.
The Arctic and the Antarctic are privileged locations for observers interested in understanding how our world is shaped by the forces of nature and the workings of history. These areas have inspired countless humans to undertake epic expeditions of discov
Dr. NoSleep | Scary Horror Stories
China appears to have restarted construction on its fifth Antarctic station for the first time since 2018. It's just one sign that Beijing is trying to increase its footprint in the world's coldest regions. It already calls itself a near-Arctic state and is planning for an ice-free shipping route across the top of the world. This month, to discuss the drivers behind China's polar ambitions, Graeme and Louisa are joined by Eyck Freyman of the Arctic Initiative at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government, the University of Washington's Mia Bennett and Singapore Management University's Nengye Liu.See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
PRI: Science, Tech & Environment
For most species, a changing climate doesn't bode well. But there are examples across the animal kingdom of ones that are finding ways to adapt to a warming world.Scientists all over the globe have been studying the changes in animal physiology and behavior, some going back generations, which they believe is linked to rising temperatures. They say the adaptations are beneficial, but may have limitations in the long term. Cape ground squirrels in South Africa are adjusting to climate change. Their average foot length has increased by 9% in just 18 years. Credit: Courtesy of Miya Warrington In the dry grasslands of South Africa, Miya Warrington, a conservation biologist at the University of Manitoba, first laid eyes on Cape ground squirrels darting about in 2021. “You see the heat and you see all the human activity,” she said. “So immediately, I start thinking about how these animals might be adapting to climate change.”And by adapting, she means altering the size of parts of their bodies. So, Warrington set out to measure the squirrels. The first challenge was to catch them.“They love peanut butter,” she explained. It's “like manna from heaven for them. We put it out in these traps, and they go, ‘Ooh, peanut butter.' And then we take them out of the traps and we do the measurements.”One of these measurements included foot length. “And you take calipers and you just put them on from the toe to the heel,” something her colleagues have been doing for almost two decades.This gave Warrington the ability to look back through time, compare the data to that of today's squirrels, and test out her hunch.What she found was that the average foot length (compared to length) had increased by 9% in just 18 years. Warrington believes that the reason could be because temperatures are getting hotter. Scientists take measurements of Cape ground squirrels to track their changing sizes. Credit: Courtesy of Miya Warrington “When their bodies get hot,” she said, “their heat radiates out of big, big feet. So, it's one way of dissipating heat.”The cause and effect of this needs more research, however, in part because other changes in squirrel dimensions didn't seem to correspond to the hotter temperatures. But her work is part of a growing body of evidence that climate change can cause certain animal species to shape-shift, especially those with rapid reproduction rates, like shrews and birds.In Finland, for instance, as winters have grown milder, the number of brown tawny owls has surged compared to gray ones. That's because the brown owls are better at blending in with less and less snowy environments.Anderson Feijó, a zoologist at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, found that shape-shifting due to climate change is also apparent in fossil records. He studied about a hundred ancient frog species and found that “medium-sized frogs seem to be the most resilient to the climate variation, while those species that are too large or too small are more sensitive” and tended to disappear when temperatures become too hot or too cold.But adaptation doesn't always lead to visible changes. Sometimes, the changes happen inside an animal's body. The ability of the montane horned lizard to perform a task, such as sprinting or digestion, is optimized over a relatively narrow range of temperatures. Credit: Courtesy of Martha Muñoz Martha Muñoz, an evolutionary biologist at Yale University, has studied the montane horned lizard in Mexico. “Their ability to perform a task, such as sprinting or digestion, is optimized over a relatively narrow range of temperatures,” she explained. “And then decreases at higher and lower temperatures until the animal is immobilized.”When their environment in Mexico became slightly warmer, Muñoz was curious if the lizards had adapted. So, she gathered up several dozen of them, and then “systematically cool[ed] or heat[ed] the lizards by one degree per minute, flip[ped] them onto their backs, and then determine[d] the temperature at which they los[t] the ability to flip themselves back over, this being the thermal limit to locomotion.”After crunching the numbers, Muñoz, Saúl Domínguez Guerrero and their colleagues found that the lizards had increased their heat tolerance by about a degree. “They're less comfortable in the cold, and more comfortable in the heat,” she summarized. And that shift happened over a single year.While some of it was temporarily induced by the environment, some of the change was also genetic. The lizards had evolved a higher heat tolerance and were passing it down from one generation to the next. Muñoz said that this is to be expected of species with large populations.This combination of genetic evolution and temporary environmental plasticity is also helping other types of species survive warmer temperatures, including the Acropora coral in American Samoa. Some of the corals have seen variations in their genes, allowing them to tolerate warmer water temperatures. Rachael Bay sampling coral in American Samoa. Credit: Courtesy of Rachael Bay At the same time, it's also true that “corals that have past experience with warm temperatures are better at living at higher temperatures in the future,” said Rachael Bay, an evolutionary biologist at the University of California, Davis. And although they may be protected against warming temperatures in the short term, Bay said, “we have no idea what the limits to that capacity are.”Behavioral changesMeanwhile, some animals are adapting behaviorally, such as pink-footed geese in the Arctic. These birds have developed new migration routes and breeding grounds, with warming temperatures opening up new habitats. Thomas Lameris, an ecologist at the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, said that birds like these benefit from their social environments. “The way they behave is they often learn from their parents or from other geese,” he explained, allowing for any adaptive change in behavior to propagate quickly through a population.He witnessed this firsthand at a remote spot on the tundra in the Western Russian Arctic when studying barnacle geese. The birds winter across western Europe and fly north to the Arctic to breed. They stop along the way, fueling up on fresh, nutritious grass that's just emerged from the melting snow. Scientists traveled to the remote tundra in the Western Russian Arctic to study how the migration behavior of barnacle geese has shifted due to snow melting earlier in the year. Credit: Courtesy of Jasper Koster But Lameris found that in the years when the snow melts early, the geese don't make stops to feed during their migration, making a mad dash, instead, to the breeding grounds. Historically, barnacle geese have stoped along their migratory route, fueling up on fresh, nutritious grass that's just emerged from the melting snow. Credit: Courtesy of Thomas Lameris “They would really speed up their migration,” he explained. “They would be able to make the journey that would otherwise take two weeks … they could do the same thing in four days.”And when they arrived, “they would need a longer time to recover before they could lay their eggs,” he said.But Lameris is heartened by what he sees as an ability for a migratory species to adapt to a warming climate.Still, adaptation — whether genetic or behavioral — can only get a species so far.Lotanna Micah Nneji, a conservation biologist at Princeton University, pointed to the Perret's toad, found only in Idanre Hill in southwestern Nigeria. As rainfall patterns and temperatures shift, the habitat of these toads is shrinking. Nneji has identified other locations in the area where they could live more comfortably. But, unlike birds and mammals that can cover large distances, these toads are pretty much trapped. Those other areas are simply too far from their current range and not within protected areas.Animal adaptations, though remarkable, are sending us a message.... "When you're adapting your physiology ... there's an upper limit to how far that can go ..."Martha Muñoz, evolutionary biologist at Yale University“Everything that organisms do is simply buying time,” said Martha Muñoz of Yale. “But if you're going up a mountain, there's only so far you can go. And if you're going polewards, there's only so far you can go. And when you're adapting your physiology, guess what? There's an upper limit to how far that can go, too. And if we don't reverse action, they are truly running out of options because we're giving them no others.”Related: Bees face many challenges — and climate change is ratcheting up the pressure
The invasion of Ukraine has jeopardized scientific research in Russia's Arctic territory. We talk to Chris Burn, president of the International Permafrost Association; and former U.S. diplomat Evan Bloom, a senior fellow with the Wilson Center, a Washington-based think tank.
Dr. NoSleep | Scary Horror Stories
Dr. Mah-dava Set-tee is a board certified and senior staff anesthesiologist Lawrence General Hospital in the Greater Boston area. He is also a senior science editor for Bobby Kennedy's Children's Health Defense publication The Defender. Madhava received an engineering degree from MIT and later worked for the aerospace and defense industries. This included a research expedition to the Arctic polar cap for US Naval Research. Dissatisfied with the nature and purpose of defense work, he went back to school to receive a medical degree from Baylor University College of Medicine and anesthesiology training at the University of Pennsylvania. With over 20 years experience in the field of anesthesiology, which involves dealing with the most challenging questions about the nature of mind and consciousness, Dr Setty has been challenging modern medicine and neuroscience's fundamental assumptions about the meaning of awareness.
Stories from the Field: Demystifying Wilderness Therapy
Ryan DeLayna shares his life experiences and the journey that led him to co-write his memoir with his father, "Without Restraint." Ryan shares how he spent most of his academic career in therapeutic schools due to behavioral challenges where he experienced various medications and restrictive interventions, including regular physical restraints. After voluntarily committing to a psychiatric hospital, his parents were advised to place him in a group home until adulthood. However, his father began to question the authorities overseeing Ryan's care, and everything changed when they discovered Ryan's dream of becoming a professional ski mountaineer. Ryan shares the mental health impacts of high-risk adventure has been for him and the turning points in his life. He also shares how he and his father co-authored their remarkable book, "Without Restraint: How Skiing Saved My Son's Life," and how he transformed to become a well-known ski mountaineer known as "Extreme Ryan." Season 16 is focused on how high-risk adventure impacts mental health and is underwritten by wmai.org Here is Ryan's bio from his website: Ryan DeLena is currently studying Outdoor Education at Northern Vermont University. For years, he's posted content as “Extreme Ryan” – a nickname given to him by his father, after he became obsessed with skiing. A decade later, Ryan is believed to be the youngest person to ski tour in the Arctic and Antarctic regions, having completed expeditions in Antarctica (2018) and Svalbard (2022). Ryan was featured on the cover of Backcountry Ski Maps, and he's climbed and skied peaks in Oregon, Washington, Utah, California, Nevada, and Wyoming, while also conquering many of the world's signature runs including Super-C Couloir in Chile, Little Couloir in Montana, and Tuckerman Ravine in New Hampshire. When he's not on skis, Ryan is an enthusiastic rock climber, ice climber, and avid hiker, summiting the Grand Teton twice and completing the “Hundred Highest” hiking peaks in New England. He plans to ski and rock guide professionally and has earned advanced certifications from the American Mountain Guides Association and the Professional Ski Instructors of America. If you are unfamiliar with Ryan's struggles as a boy, here is an excerpt from Without Restraint… If I was offered the chance to have my childhood over again, growing up like a normal kid, I'd say no thanks. Despite all the pain and hardship, I now appreciate that I'm strong enough to handle anything. I bet there are not too many eighteen-year-olds who feel that way. So, in a weird way, maybe I am lucky. But, if you ask me whether another child should go through what I went through, I will say no way. In fact, the only reason that I wanted to work on this book with Dad was to help parents learn from my story, so they wouldn't make similar mistakes with their children. If your son or daughter is different from other kids, that is okay. For some reason, we are taught to admire men and women who challenge the status quo, yet, when a child acts differently, parents instinctively try to change them. They even seek out doctors and experts to help break the misbehaving child. Well, take it from me, if you do that, you will not only break your child of bad behavior—you will break them entirely. I came as close to that breaking point as a person can experience. Had Dad decided to take me to Home Depot on January 2, 2009, instead of skiing at Nashoba, I'd be sitting right now in my room at a group home, bloated by medication, staring out a window, watching the world go by. Instead, the world will spend a lifetime watching me go by, as I bring people with me to ski, climb, and explore every inch of this amazing planet.
Complete Human Performance Radio
Ariana sits down with longtime CHP coach and Omnia Owner/Operator Jonny Pain, to discuss his goals this year and step 1 of his 4 part worldwide ultramarathon series. Listen to Jonny chat about the mental process of arriving at this ambitious goal after years of injury and no formal racing, the benefits of handing over the numbers to a coach (Alex Viada), and the wild ride that was the Ice Ultra. Hosted by Beyond the Ultimate, the Ice Ultra is 230km of unsupported racing through the Swedish Laplands. Conditions of whiteouts, -40 degrees Celsius, and the mindgames that can steal your sleep before the race even starts. Listen in and follow Jonny at Instagram: @jonathanpain @omniaperformance @completehumanperformance Want to work with Jonny, or book a consult with him? Head to www.completehumanperformance.com and we'll get you sorted.
The crew try to figure out how to deal with the Ludendorf administrative staff. Please support Dugongs & Sea Dragons on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/DugongsAndSeadragons
Biblical Archaeology Today w/ Steve Waldron
A truly fascinating discovery. Thanks for listening! Please share, subscribe, and leave a 5 star review!
Green Connections Radio - Women Who Innovate With Purpose, & Career Issues, Including in Energy, Sustainability, Responsibil
“At ON Power, we operate three power plants… and combined we produce just under 20% of the energy produced in Iceland…. We are removing carbon from our operations. So… there are low emissions associated with the production ther, from our operations. There's around seven grams of CO2 per produced kilowatt hour, compared to 800, if you produce the electricity using coal.”…Plus, we have been operating a carbon removal station, since then, mineralizing and removing from the atmosphere just over 10,000 tons (of emissions) a year.” Begga Olafsdottir on Electric Ladies Podcast To expand on a CBS News' “60 Minutes” segment this past weekend on how Iceland is capturing CO2 and storing it underground, here is a replay of an in-depth interview I did in Iceland last year about this issue, and how this small Arctic country became an 85% renewable energy economy. Listen to this fascinating interview, live in Reykjavik, Iceland, with Berglind “Begga” Olafdottir, CEO of ON Power , with Electric Ladies Podcast host Joan Michelson. ON Power operates the largest geothermal plant in the country, which produces 20% of the total energy Iceland produces. It's also partnering with its sister company Carbfix to remove CO2 from the air. You'll hear: How ON Power captures the CO2 it emits and mineralizes it. How ON Power is partnering with its sister company Carbfix and with Climeworks to bring ground-breaking technology to market that captures CO2 from the air. not just their own emissions. About their business parks that only take tenants that can share products and byproducts of other tenants, creating a circular economy in each park. How geothermal energy works in Iceland. Plus, great career advice....such as: “Women, we have a tendency of underestimating ourselves in general, and I think my advice would be that, if you're mid- career and you want to take a step up in the corporate ladder…I think it's important for women not to discount their experience and the knowledge. Try to be a bit bold. If you're applying for something that is advertised, don't not submit the application because you don't check all the boxes, because people are also hired on potential….and you might be the right person.” Berglind “Begga” Olafsdottir on Electric Ladies Podcast You'll also like: Halla Hrund Logadottir, Director-General, Iceland's National Energy Authority, on how the country has become 85% renewable energy. Birta Kristin Helgadottir, Director of Green By Iceland, on their unique business parks that are each circular economies. Sarah Golden, VP of Energy at Greenbiz, on how geothermal energy works (Sarah traveled to Iceland with Joan in 2022) Kathryn Pavlovsky, Deloitte Energy, Resources & Industrials, on the energy transformation and ESG Jennifer Gerbi, Ph.D., Deputy Director and Acting Director, ARPA-E, the innovation arm of the Department of Energy Subscribe to our newsletter to receive our podcasts, blog, events and special coaching offers.. Thanks for subscribing on Apple Podcasts or iHeartRadio and leaving us a review! Follow us on Twitter @joanmichelson
In this episode, the we discuss the unique challenges and considerations involved in providing medical care in extreme cold weather conditions. They cover topics such as hypothermia, frostbite, cold injuries, and equipment and supplies needed for arctic operations. They also provide tips and resources for medical personnel preparing for arctic deployments. So, if you're interested in learning more about arctic combat medicine, give this podcast a listen! For more content go to www.prolongedfieldcare.org Consider supporting us: patreon.com/ProlongedFieldCareCollective
...in which we visit one of Lakeland's great historic houses, Lowther Castle, to explore the history of the 'Yellow Earl': Hugh Lowther, 5th Earl of Lonsdale, one of the most extravagant members of the English aristocracy. In the company of Charlotte Fairbairn, seanchaidh of the Lowther family, we rewind in time to the early days of the Lowther dynasty – to the growth of the Whitehaven coalfields and the tyrannies of 'Wicked Jimmy' – to set the scene for Hugh's birth. Never intended to inherit the estate – 75,000 acres and wealth beyond dreams – the young Earl embarked upon a life of opulence and hedonism, spending vast sums and pretty much squandering the family fortune. As we trace the story of a remarkable life – of the Earl's love of animals; of his extra-marital activities; of his temporary banishment to the Arctic; of his hunts with the Kaiser – we ask what kind of man he was; why his grave is so modest; and... why yellow? Finally we consider the Earl's legacy – that stretches from boxing rules to Arsenal FC's away strip and the AA's livery. The Ten Thousand Daffodils installation is running at Lowther Castle until 24 June. To visit Lowther Castle and its exhibits see lowthercastle.org You can find Charlotte at her website here. Charlotte is giving a talk about the Yellow Earl at the Farmers' Arms on 10 May.
This week Erica chatted with biologist Helena Costa about her recent publication Using a consumer drone for the collection of humpback whale blow samples during the Arctic polar . Helena compares the uses of different commercial drones for the analysis of cetacean blows.
In the late 1950s, engineer Herb Ueda Sr. traveled to a remote Arctic military base. His mission? To drill through nearly a mile of ice, and extract the world's first complete ice core.To finish the job, he and his team would endure sub-zero weather, toxic chemicals, and life inside a military base… which was slowly being crushed by the glacier from which it was carved. Producer Daniel Ackerman takes us inside Camp Century, and explains how a foundational moment in climate science is inextricably linked with the story of the United States military. Featuring Curt La Bombard, Julie Brigham-Grette, Herb Ueda Jr., Don Garfield, and Aleqa Hammond. SUPPORTOutside/In is made possible with listener support. Click here to become a sustaining member of the show.Subscribe to our newsletter (it's free!).Follow Outside/In on Instagram or join our private discussion group on Facebook.Submit a question to the “Outside/Inbox.” We answer queries about the natural world, climate change, sustainability, and human evolution. You can send a voice memo to firstname.lastname@example.org or leave a message on our hotline, 1-844-GO-OTTER (844-466-8837). LINKSIf you want to see footage from inside Camp Century, check out this Department of Defense archival film, “Research and Development Progress Report No. 6.”For a little Cold War context, watch this 1951 Civil Defense Film called “Duck and Cover”, featuring Bert the Turtle. Here's a book about the history of Camp Century, which includes a chapter on the ice core drilling project.To see some amazing photos, and read about how scientists are still learning new things from the Camp Century core after rediscovering sediment samples in 2017, check out this blog post from the European Geosciences Union.Learn more about the NSF Ice Core Facility in Colorado, where sections of the Camp Century ice core are currently stored. CREDITSHost: Nate HegyiReported and produced by Daniel AckermanMixed and edited by Taylor QuimbyEditing help from Justine Paradis and Felix PoonRebecca Lavoie is our Executive ProducerSpecial thanks today to Carrie Harris, Holly Ueda, Chester Langway, Nancy Langway, Laura Kissel, and the Polar Archives at The Ohio State University Byrd Polar and Climate Research CenterMusic by Amaranth Cove and Blue Dot SessionsOur theme music is by Breakmaster Cylinder.Outside/In is a production of New Hampshire Public Radio
This SHINE podcast episode is on the importance that water plays in all of our lives. Water is a fundamental resource and life. In this interview, we will speak about why water stewardship is important. We will address three significant challenges in the quality of water on the planet: Red Tide, Microplastics and PFAs. We speak about how these 3 are interconnected, the dangers of them to our well being, and action steps you can take to reverse the negative impacts at an individual and business level. This inspiring episode will ignite greater purpose and inspiration to be a water protector. Episode Links: Greg Koch on LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/gregkochsustainability/ Greg Kochs Book SHINE Links: Thank you for listening. Want to build a high trust, innovative, and inclusive culture at work? Sign up for our newsletter and get the free handout and be alerted to more inspiring Shine episodes Building Trust Free Gift — leadfromlight.net Carley Links: LinkedIn — https://www.linkedin.com/in/carley-hauck/ Consultation Call with Carley — https://carleyhauck.com/contact Book Carley for Speaking — https://carleyhauck.com/speaking Leading from Wholeness Learning & Development — https://carleyhauck.com/learning-and-development Carley's Book — https://carleyhauck.com/SHINEbook Executive Coaching with Carley — https://carleyhauck.com/executive-coaching Environmentally Friendly Products for Water Protection Grove Collaborative Red tide Everything you wanted to know about Red Tide- Scripps Edu Red Tide Affects in Tampa/St Pete Area PFAS CDC Fact Sheet Dark Waters- Documentary on PFAS How Dupont may avoid paying to clean up toxic forever chemicals Microplastics https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/microplastics.html https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-01143-3 Well Being Resources: Inner Game Meditations — https://carleyhauck.com/meditations Inner Game Leadership Assessment- https://tinyurl.com/igniteyourinnergame Social: LinkedIn — https://www.linkedin.com/in/carley-hauck/ IG — https://www.instagram.com/carley.hauck/ Website — https://www.carleyhauck.com Shine Podcast Page — https://carleyhauck.com/podcast Imperfect Shownotes: Carley Hauck 0:08 Hi, welcome to the shine podcast. My name is Carley Hauck. I'm your host, this is the fifth season of the shine podcast. I started the shine podcast as a way of doing research for my book on conscious leadership in business. And you will find interviews with scientists, researchers and business leaders on the intersection of conscious inclusive leadership, the recipe for high performing teams and awareness practices. My book debuted in 2021 Shine ignite your inner game of conscious leadership and was voted one of the best books to read in 2022. By mindful magazine, I facilitate two episodes a month of the shine podcast. And before I tell you about the topic for today, please go over to Apple podcasts or your favorite podcast carrier and hit the subscribe button so you don't miss any future episodes. The focus of this season is on the essentials for wellbeing. And that encompasses the intersection of our personal well being the collective well being of our workplace, and how that fosters and nurtures the planet's well being they are all connected. I focus on well being this season, because I really want to crack the code and inspire folks to prioritize their individual well being and therefore that will transcend into the collective and the planet's well being. And I have developed a inner game leadership assessment that I gave out to 100 different leaders last year. And the leadership assessment is based on the framework of the inner game, which is what we're cultivating on the inside to be conscious leaders. And then it shows up on the outside when we've cultivated the certain qualities. And two of the nine leadership competencies that were lowest from the sample of 100 leaders were psychological and physical well being. Therefore, that is why we are focusing on well being and if you're curious about where your strengths and gaps are, around the qualities to become a conscious leader, you can take the assessment and find out your score for free. I recently opened to the assessment tool to the public and the link will be in the show notes. Now onto our episode. Hello, Shine podcast listeners. Thank you so much for joining this season. I am so excited about this conversation with my friend, Greg. Coach. Greg, thank you so much for being here. Greg Koch 3:06 Thanks for having me, Carley. I really enjoyed the last podcast we did and the relationship that we've maintained the friendship since then. And I'm looking forward to today, Carley Hauck 3:15 likewise. And for those of you listening, I just want to share that I've only had two folks that have now been on the podcast twice. And so Greg, you're in very good company. Lynne twist, who wrote the foreword for my book, who has a new book that just actually came out that I interviewed her on at the end of last year is the only other person that has been on the shine podcast twice, but for good reason, the fact that you are both repeating, because you're very purposeful leaders, and she is also a very strong climate leader. And so I'm delighted that you both Greg Koch 3:58 are here, I feel honored. Carley Hauck 4:02 Well, so with that, please introduce, introduce yourself regarding your current role at IR M. And also, you know, why? The topic of water stewardship and water protection, which we'll be speaking about in various ways today is personally and professionally important to you. Greg Koch 4:26 Sure. Well, thanks again for having me. My name is Greg couch, and I live in Atlanta, Georgia. And I've spent when I've not been on a plane or somewhere out of the country, which has been quite often throughout my career, I've been based in Atlanta, here in Atlanta, Georgia. I currently work for consultancy called e r m Environmental Resources Management. And my role there as a technical director is in the water and climate space and And primarily what I do is work with clients to translate all the noise around water and climate risks and issues into an assessment of how those issues will impact the business, both negatively and potentially positively. Meaning there are opportunities to, to, to look at as well as risks to try to mitigate. And so what does that look like? Well, it takes all the data that everyone has, but then dives deeper in what information the client would have around their water use or greenhouse gas emissions, what they've experienced in terms of impacts regulations, employee interest, other external stakeholder interest, including investors, NGOs, customers, and consumers. So that nuances all that, that global information and local information, and allows you to come up with scenarios realistic scenarios of what could happen positively or negatively, because of the stress issues. And then let's just focus for the sake of time on the risks versus the opportunities. But when you look at the risks that we quantify, we help the clients quantify a probability of that risk event happening, and then the impact that they would experience if that risk scenario or if that manifested itself. And that assessment of risk, what what would this mean, to me, me in this case would be accompany, but it's the same if you want to take it down to the personal level. Once you translate the issue, into what could happen positively and negatively, to you, your business, what have you, that leads to two things that I find very powerful one is, it leads to ownership, because you're a part of translating the noise into real impacts that you would experience or maybe already are experiencing. So the ownership, right, you're not just accepting the data and saying, Okay, that's an issue, I'm going to do something about it. There's nothing inherently wrong with going from issue to action, but issue to risk and opportunity quantification, in my experience leads to that ownership, but also more impactful actions. So so that's what I do. And in the course of the topics we'll discuss, I can give you some examples of how I've helped clients, and what that actually looks like. Carley Hauck 7:42 Thank you. So that was a great summary. Why does protecting the water there's no, there's lots of resources in the environment that we can protect. But that seems to be one you've really narrowed in on in your life and in your career, why does what is protecting the water personally matter to you? Greg Koch 8:06 Well, it should matter to everyone in the same way it matters to me in that it is a fundamental resource life as we know, it does not exist without water, there is no substitute for water. And at the same time, while water is a finite resource, there's a fixed amount of water on Earth that you cannot change over the long term. We can't create or destroy water over the long term. But it's infinitely renewable. So I'll be honest, most of my pre adult life, I took water for granted water was something I played in, I recreated in I saw fall from the sky, you know, experience rainfall, you you have a daily visceral connection with water. So it's always been important, but honestly, I took it for granted. Like I think most people do, and probably that those from the fact that over human history, water has been relatively abundant, and relatively clean, and therefore hasn't posed significant challenges to the majority of civilizations that have come and gone and that currently exist. But all that's changed, certainly since the Industrial Revolution, and even more in the last few decades, particularly from the impacts of climate change, which we talked about in in our previous podcast was very, you know, climate change is the message than water is the messenger. Right? You experience climate change, primarily not through hotter temperatures, but through some change, more intense and more unpredictable water situation. So what was the aha moment for me? It came when I was working for the Coca Cola company. And one of the jobs I had It was addressing wastewater discharge around the world and the company had implemented a standard or requirements say that if you can't discharge your wastewater, your industrial wastewater into a sewer system, if you will, where the government were utility would fully treat that water, then you had to build a wastewater treatment plant yourself, right, so that you weren't discharging, untreated, industrial and sanitary waste. And that was very well adopted. But the standard that is, but it went when I first started assessing the current status. Now, keep in mind, Coca Cola operates, I think, in all but one or two countries in the world and has 1000 Hot plants. And so I really got exposed to the local conditions around water. Initially, it was through the lens of water pollution, but quickly started to appreciate the challenges of drinking water access, reliable, safe, affordable water, being there at the tap when you needed it, or in some close proximity. And all of that was happening at a time where in my life, I had young children, they're 25 and 22. Now, but at the time, they were toddlers, and, you know, preschool or school aged children. And you know, I appreciate it. The the luxury that we have compared to most of the rest of the world, in having that safe water access, and then seeing the impact when that safe drinking water is available, what that does to communities and made me appreciate more the situation that that we have here in Atlanta, but also recognize how dire the situation around water was around the world. And so Carley Hauck 12:01 I have a more personal recently, which I'll see ya, yes. But you know about Yeah, thank you. Yeah, yeah. That's fascinating. Well, let me just kind of queue up what we're gonna be talking about today for those listening. So So Greg, and I've been noodling and emails in the last few weeks. And we came up with this fabulous conversation to share with you. So we're going to be really reviewing the interconnection between red tide microplastics and PFS. Over the course of the next, you know, 4045 minutes with you all, we're going to talk about what each of these are, how they are negatively impacting the planet's well being locally, globally, but then how that is impacting our well being, because what happens, what the planet is going to be happening with us, you know, we are interconnected. And we are, unfortunately, creating a lot of these problems. So we have the opportunity to shift that, to clean it up, you know, this, this is our home, we need to take care of our home. So so that is really going to be what we will be empowering, and activating and shedding the light on for all of you. And I also thought I would share a little bit about why water protection matters to me. So well. I grew up in Florida, which is not too far from Georgia, they're, you know, they're their neighboring our sister states, we could say. And from a very young age, I just had this kind of inner climate leader. And I was, you know, spending a lot of my childhood in St. Augustine, Florida, which is actually deemed to be one of the oldest cities in the United States. It's apparently where Ponce de Leon founded the fountain of youth. There's old Spanish forts. It's a beautiful, quaint city. And we would go you know, they're from my hometown of Gainesville when I was a kid every summer and multiple times during the year and I was noticing plastic on the beach. And because I was really interested in ocean life, and my father would give money to the World Wildlife Fund or the cetaceans society and so he would get these really cool calendars with all of these beautiful pictures of whales and dolphins and being a curious kid. I'm still a curious kid. Just a little older. I would I would go and look at the calendars and I'd see all these different organisms. missions and I started doing some research and finding out, wow, this humpback whale is endangered and this bottlenose dolphin is also endangered. And the sea turtle that I am fascinated with is really struggling. Why? Well, because we are poaching them, you know, we're polluting the oceans. And so when I was eight, nine years old, I literally was writing letters to the dictator. I guess they were a dictator at that time of Japan. And I said, stop killing the whales. So I adopted a gray. Yeah, I drafted a gray whale for my third grade class was $25. Back then I'm sure it's not much more y'all, you can adopt a gray whale. But it kind of started off, you know, at a young age. And so I've always felt this, frankly, responsibility to take care of the ocean. And there were not trash receptacles on the beaches in Florida. And I'm speaking to this now, because that was about 40 years ago, and I was recently in Florida, during red tide, which we're gonna get into in just a minute. And right before I left, thankfully, the basically the Tampa Bay St. Pete area lifted the restriction of being at the beach, because if you're near Red Tide, which Greg is going to tell us more about, you know, I mean, it can actually create some really adverse consequences, you can't breathe, you know, people get really sick if they go near the water if they go in the water. So all of the, you know, beaches, basically, in the Tampa St. Pete area, we were restricted from going and then the day before I was about to leave, they lifted those restrictions, it was safer, supposedly to go. And so I was walking on the beach with my father and I see a piece of plastic, which I know if I don't pick up a sea turtle is probably going to, at some point in their lifecycle see it, if it goes in the ocean, think it's going to jellyfish and it's going to try to eat it. So that's just an innate reflex of mine pick up trash, if you see it on the beach. And there was no place to throw it away. There's I mean, so Florida, Florida people. Now see you it's been 40 years I was doing this when I was five, I'm getting closer to 45. It does not take a lot of money to put waste receptacles recycle, compost would be great on the beach. Otherwise, it makes it really hard for people to do the right thing. Because most people are not going to pick up trash and carry it to a receptacle. And let's let's just let's just be real, like, you know, people go to the beach, they bring stuff, they bring stuff they don't even intend to leave on the beach. But let's say they have a screaming two year old who came with a little plastic bunny. And she throws the bunny on the beach and the bunny then gets stuck in the sand and they don't bring it back. Anyway, these things happen. Let's just make it easy for people to do the right thing. So this is why the water protection matters to me, because this is our home. I care about the planet, I care about the creatures, and I want to create a legacy for the future, that I'm not going to feel guilty about that I'm not going to regret that I couldn't have done more. And that, frankly, is going to alleviate so much suffering of so many people because we do the right thing right now. Greg Koch 18:50 Yeah. That's amazing. Thanks for sharing that. Carley Hauck 18:53 Yeah, thank you, Greg. Well, and I know that the folks that are listening to this have that inner water protectors as well. And so, before this podcast ends, I'm going to leave you all a prompt to really ignite that part of you because we all have that responsibility. And that opportunity. Okay, so without further ado, Greg, I feel like there's a you know, a music or is playing in the background. Can you please illuminate? Let's start with red tide. What is red tide? And why does it matter? Greg Koch 19:35 Yep. All right. So red tide is a global phenomenon. It can be called different things. But it's a condition where there's a certain micro organism and I'll get into that in a moment. It's an algae, different types of algae, but there's one in particular, that when it grows in abundance, when it grows, period, it per Do says a toxin a neurotoxin, as part of how it metabolizes food, and when shellfish in particular, but other aquatic species as well are exposed to that toxin, it can kill them and or affect their reproductive abilities. And if you eat those fish or shellfish in particular, you could ingest some of that toxin and it would have negative effects for you. It's called Red tide in in Florida and other parts of the world because that bacteria when it grows in maths, it takes on a reddish brown color. And that can actually color the water. And so the phrase red tide is used. There are other versions for it. So it's good that we started with red tide, because it's, it's the only one of these three topics microplastics and P Foss and red tide that occurs naturally, even without humans, but as exacerbated by humans. The other two topics we that's all the on us. Right? So red tide, or versions of it have been in recorded history as far back as the 1500s. So well before the Industrial Revolution well before the type of Population and Development we have today. So we know, in Florida, in other parts of the world, red tide has occurred naturally, these are naturally occurring micro organisms, and they do in particularly in warmer weather, when they are faced with enough nutrients. And I'll talk about the nutrients in a moment. It can cause it's perfect conditions, and they just start growing like crazy. If they are the type of algae that, that that produce this neurotoxin, then you get this, this red tide that happens now a little bit about the micro organisms, they're algae, and when you get a big growth of them, it's called an algal bloom. Right, just a lot of algae. One algae that all of us are familiar with, or most of the listeners should be familiar with is kelp. So seaweed, most forms of seaweed, including kelp are algae. So algae can be really big. If you've been diving off the coast of San Diego, the kelp forests are massive that actually an algae. So they are and I say that just to say that they are naturally occurring. When that algae bloom happens, I already talked about the impact to aquatic species, that neurotoxin and how that could impact you, but that that toxin that's released also becomes airborne. And most people will have trouble breathing. People who have immune compromised, their immune compromised or have asthma are more sensitive for some reason to to, you know, respiratory issues. It can be, it can be very debilitating. I'm not certain about deaths. And could anyone say this person died because of this, but it's certainly a complicating factor. And as you said, when that occurs, advisors go out and say, Okay, we're going to close the beach, you know, we're going to close it, the fishing, and we're going to close it to even people walking on the beach, because of both the dead fish and shellfish that will come up on shore. No one wants to walk around that. The smell of that, of course, but then also that toxin that's in the air that that's going to affect everyone and some people very significantly. So that's what Carley Hauck 23:48 Yeah, no, thank you. And just to speak to that, you know, I was reading a lot of articles. So I was I was in Florida a couple of weeks ago visiting my parents in the Tampa St. Pete area. And I remember when I was last there, there was also a red tie. And I'm like, why is Why is this still here? And so as I was as I was doing some deeper research, it had been in full bloom essentially with some minor, you know, wanes since December 22. And I just thought this has been going on for over a year. Yeah. And, and as I did more research, like 600 tons of whales and dolphins and turtles and fish are just rotting there. They're dead. I mean, this makes no sense to me. So that was in Part I, I was very angry. And I reached out to Greg and I said what is going on? And he said I was just in Florida too. Yep. So So I guess that'll go to the next piece of it. Why is this happening? And I've done some research, but I'd love to ask. Greg Koch 25:03 Sure. Well, like I said, it's been documented back to the 1500s. So it happens, it happens all by itself without any human intervention. But, and the science is not conclusive yet. But it is certain about one thing. A couple of things. One, you know, these things naturally exist. And for them to thrive, they need warm temperatures, like climate change, and they need nutrients food, just like you and I, we need magnesium and iron and potassium and you know, all these elements and nutrients, phosphates, nitrates, what have you. Our bodies need them to metabolize, to build cell structures to process food, what have you, it's the same with with any living organism, there's a set of nutrients that are critical. So when you have conditions where you have warmer than normal, or just warm temperatures and lots of food in the form of nutrients, that's right conditions, ideal conditions rather for a red tide to have red tide in quotes. Sometimes it's called the Blue tide. Sometimes it's all the other things, but let's just use red tide. So what role do humans play in either of those two conditions? Well, climate change is conclusively, in part, caused by manmade action. So we're making the world warmer, global warming aspect of climate change. And then we grow a lot of food and apply a lot of the nutrients that these algae love to the land. We do that in agriculture, we do that in our own home gardens, our lawns, our public spaces, to maintain those, for the most part, we apply a lot of fertilizer. And the main things in fertilizer are potassium, and nitrogen, and manganese. And so it is those nutrients that that enable the algae to thrive. So again, not conclusive, but if you triangulate runoff from land, particularly agricultural areas, and then coastal areas with warm, particularly warmer than normal water, body temperatures, you get these blooms. One thing I failed to say earlier, it's not just a title issue in the sense of the ocean, you can have algal blooms in freshwater, particularly in lakes, probably the, for those of your listeners that are familiar with the United States, Lake Erie, every summer, the west end of it, I believe it's the West End, just gets this green pond types gum on it, and, and that too, is it's green. And I'm sure people have been hiking and you know, in the forest and come across a pond and it's just covered in green scum. And that's algae, and conditions were ripe for that algae to to grow. Now, even if it doesn't produce this toxin, it still can have impacts on the environment and therefore humans. So this Algae grows, and it comes to a point where it can't grow anymore, because there's not enough room or enough nutrients or enough oxygen. And so that algae that algal bloom will eventually die. And when it dies, it settles to the bottom where other micro organisms say Oh, buffets open, let's go eat. And they start multiplying like crazy. And in doing that they they grow and they use up a lot of oxygen. So the dissolved oxygen, the amount of oxygen that's in water, for plants and animals to breathe to use is decreased and you get fish kills and other impacts. Probably the most famous one in the United States is in the Gulf of Mexico, at the outfall of the Mississippi River. Every summer there's a dead zone, actually called a dead zone because really everything dies because so much nutrients from all the agricultural practices in the Midwest come down the Mississippi dump all those nutrients in the summer you have warm temperatures and you get this massive algal bloom and once that algal bloom starts dying off, you get accelerated dissolved oxygen content and everything dies a dead zone. That doesn't sound great. So so it happens naturally. But it is pretty clear that higher temperatures from climate change and nutrients, primarily from fertilizer application, untreated sewage, untreated sewage, those types of things are going to exacerbate. Yep. Carley Hauck 30:09 Thank you. And I was also just gonna share, and it's not cracking down on polluters, right. And also, you and I were having a conversation prior to this one about how do we educate farmers to be more regenerative and their approach, right? I mean, we all know composting is the way we know that regenerative agriculture is the way forward so that we have, we're not ripping up, you know, the soil infrastructure, but we're regenerating it. So it's easier to continue to create a lot of opportunities for food and growth without all of this fertilizer. And it seems like from some of the research that I've been doing around Florida, and I'll leave, we're gonna leave a lot of, you know, very validated links about all of these things in the show notes. But apparently, the sea it was in the clean waterways act of 2020, did not require agricultural interests to reduce phosphorus runoff, and continues to rely on what is effectively a system of voluntary compliance. Well, that is not going to get it done. appealing to people's altruistic motivations. Unfortunately, without I think, certain checks and balances and consequences, is not going to support red tide to diminish. What do you think, Greg? Greg Koch 31:39 I agree. And, you know, not in defense, but an explanation of farmers. They spend a lot of money buying fertilizer, and they spend time and money applying it to land. And they know that they apply more fertilizer than the plants they're growing can actually absorb. And that cost them money. And when you apply more that the plants can use, that's what becomes runoff either trickles down into groundwater, or it's gonna run off off the surface, and then into rivers, lakes, and eventually into the ocean. The reason they they do that is that when a plant needs a certain nutrient, let's say nitrogen or phosphorus, they want to make sure it's available. Right? So you put more than you need, because you know, someone's going to wash off. And that when that plant in that part of the field is ready for it's there. Now, yes, if you knew at every part of the field, exactly what a plant is needs. During its growth cycle, you could apply that but just think of the technology and the cost of trying to understand that at such a granular level. So it's it's much easier for them to just apply it more liberally, if you will, so that they ensure that the plant is going to have the nutrients it needs. But unfortunately, that's what what ends up in our waterways and whether it causes red tide or not. There. There's other impacts to us, right? You know, the water treatment systems, for instance, for drinking water around Lake Erie, when they are faced with their source of water being covered in this green algal bloom. They have much higher water treatment costs to make that water safe to drink. It's a cyanobacteria that that actually grows from that blue green algae that causes that, that pond scum. So if you say all right, well, that's just temporary. It's in the summer. It's well, what if you live there, you know, beyond the health impacts? Carley Hauck 33:53 Well, I want to share I want to share just this is coming from an article. This is from a current, you know, citizen that lives in Pinellas County in Florida. So this is her experience in this part of Florida as we know it happens all over the world and all over the country. But she let me just Okay, so this this is coming from a woman Alicia Norris, a mother of 352. She experienced it firsthand. She said I cannot shake off that sickening, nauseous feeling in the summer of 2018. From the stench of dead fish turtles and manatees rotting in reddish brown coastal waters along the shorelines of St. Petersburg and the state's Tampa Bay area. And apparently, you know, it's been getting worse every year, as we know, because, you know, it gets it gets hotter. And just within the last year, Pinellas County Only officials reported collecting 600 tons of dead fish as the red tide peaked. Greg Koch 35:07 What that does to Yeah, it's deadly life. Carley Hauck 35:10 Property dolphins, manatees? Yeah, Greg Koch 35:13 the loss of biodiversity, property values, tourism dollars, you know, that fisheries people, fish or people who go out and catch fish to sell that we eat, you know, all of those are going to be impacted when you have a situation like this. Carley Hauck 35:31 And then, apparently, in 2001, the leak there is a basically a phospho Algeciras leak, that was discovered in a reservoir pond, that was holding 480 million gallons of toxic wastewater produced from phosphate. So there's apparently a lot of that that is positive, there's 25 Giant, toxic wastewater ponds in Florida. So I'm kind of sharing some of the God I don't want to hear this. But isn't this evoking emotion, emotion is going to get us to do something different. So I want to expose what's here? Because then we get to act on it. So we've kind of addressed what is red tide? How is it negatively impacting us? And now we get into what can we do about it? So and then we'll move similar Lee into PSAs, and microplastics, because they all are connected? Greg Koch 36:37 They are. So what can you do? I'd say for all of these topics, any topic that's new to you. Do some research, get some facts, as you said, Carly, in the show notes, you're gonna have some links to some reputable this is like no, CDC, right? Go get some facts. And Carley Hauck 36:57 Greg and I have come up with these resources together, by the way, so they're I'm not just pulling them out of thin air we actually came together on like, okay, let's share these. Yeah. Greg Koch 37:07 So whatever the topic is climate change, microplastics, red tide, you know, whatever, go get educated, you know, maybe this, this podcast is the first step. But if this interests you, or some emotion that's evoked, we'll do some reading. But beyond that, there's always advocacy that people can do and, you know, become somewhat, you know, cliche ish, but write your representative in Congress, right, your local, but those things matter, right? So do write your local representatives, your your local town, your county, your state, whomever and say, This is my voice, you know, that it's rare that people get to voice their concerns and issues with elected representatives outside of voting for them. Right. But but this is one way. And they have entire staffs, who, whose job it is to feel these questions and summarize and, and so it does have an impact on these people. If they say, you know, 10,000 people in my constituency have written to me about this issue. They're passionate about this issue, I have to say something and perhaps do something, and perhaps doing something is going to be something constructive. So get educated. Right, your representatives, right. But what can you do Carley Hauck 38:30 on it to plug one other piece to? Yeah, you know, I think it's also really important that we give money and we're supporting the institutions that are doing research on this. So for example, like, the mote aquarium is a research laboratory down in St. Pete, Tampa Bay, Scripps, which is where I am in San Diego, you know, they're they're doing some incredible research around ocean protection and how climate change is impacting the coral reefs to our water to red tide. And so like how do we support these institutions that are creating the education for us? Greg Koch 39:10 That is, and they're also creating the data, the science that regulators and other people will eventually look to to say, Okay, this defines the situation now I want to do something about it. So excellent. Add. Carley Hauck 39:25 Yeah. So I know we could talk about this for hours. So I want to move us into woody Which one do you want microplastics PFS? Greg Koch 39:37 Well, let me let me just want to add one more thing for things that you can do at home right now. Yes. Even if you live in Kansas and not worried about red tide, but one is, think about the fertilizers you're putting on your own lawn in your own flower pots in your in your apartment, whatever the case. There's a huge climate impact producing those fertilizers. And then if incorrectly applied, they can contribute to water quality issues, including red tie. So think about maybe using composting of your food waste and using that as a fertilizer and just be thoughtful about your fertilizer application. The other thing is, if your house or apartment, your home relies on a septic tank, that septic tank should be properly maintained. You know, it's not flush it and forget it, you still have a responsibility as a homeowner to properly maintain that when those aren't properly maintained. They can release a lot of sewage, which has lots of problems, but nutrients are are one of the things that is contained in sewage. So those are two other things that you could do. All right. Carley Hauck 40:50 I really appreciate that, as well. And you know, the other piece two, and I know you came up with this, but I think it's so important that we pay attention to what are we putting down the septic system, right? Like, are we using environmentally friendly products for cleaning for laundry detergent for you know, washing there's, there's so many options. GROVE collaborative also is a really wonderful company and everything that they provide are really environmentally safe and plastic free, in fact, cleaning and household resources. So I will put a link in the show notes, they are one of my favorite companies. Greg Koch 41:33 So one other thing I saw, I just learned about yesterday, Amazon platform has a filter that you can I haven't tried it, but someone showed it to me. Right now it's around climate change. Like if a company has set a Paris treaty aligned carbon reduction goal aligned with the 1.5 degree change. Some of your listeners will know what that is. It shows up. So if you're looking at products that you might buy from Amazon, there's a screen there that say, okay, which ones have set a goal of reducing their carbon emissions. And, you know, hopefully over time, other credible certification platforms or organizations would join that. And that way consumers can make an easier informed decision on something that that's not going to be as impactful to the environment. Carley Hauck 42:32 I love that. Yeah. Greg Koch 42:35 All right, well, let's go to microplastics. Boy, Carley Hauck 42:38 I feel like I want to get going from Greg Koch 42:40 bad to worse. Carley Hauck 42:42 Take it away from my class six. All right, there we go. Greg Koch 42:46 We'll talk about a personal evolution on the topic when most of my life, you know, I didn't Well, I don't like seeing litter on the side of the road, you know, wherever on the beach and waterways, just just, you know, out in the field or whatever. But I thought, you know, what harm is it doing? You know, it's just a can or a newspaper. It's just there. And then yes, you read about certain plastics that turtles might think as a jellyfish. And, you know, I just didn't really appreciate it was that big of an issue? It's wasteful. Aesthetically, it's displeasing. But is it really doing harm to the environment? Well, here comes micro plastics. And there's two categories of micro plastics. So they're defined as a piece of plastic that is of a certain size, and that's five nanometers, but it's tiny, tiny, tiny, the two most predominant sources of microplastics. One is intentional, and one is not intentional. Let's start with the intentional one. There's something called microbeads. And you find these microbeads in their tiny little balls of plastic, that are in makeup, are in exfoliating creams are in some toothpaste and are even in some, some foodstuffs. So these are manufactured microplastics that are put into a product, a human use product for some sort of functionality, right, it helps with exfoliation, or taste or texture of a food that you're you're eating whatever the case may be. So that's one and there are many examples of products that have microplastics in them. The other is probably what you're thinking of, it's just a piece of plastic, any kind of plastic that has been disposed that in the environment, particularly in the in the aquatic environment, and particularly in oceans, but it can happen on land it can happen in rivers and lakes. Oceans are just more energetic and dynamic. That those pieces of plastic take take a plastic bottle, soda or Water, whatever it is, it just gets broken down over time. You know, just like water action, breaks down rocks into boulders and then eventually into pebbles and then eventually into sand. So it's the same natural phenomenon that's breaking apart these pieces of plastic. And now, they're really tiny. And they currently are everywhere. You can find them in the Arctic, North Pole, you can find them in the Antarctic, you can find them on the peaks of mountain tops throughout the world. You find them in rivers, lakes, and in particular, they're all over the ocean. They're everywhere. What is the problem with that? The problem is, well, first of all, there's still a lot of science to be done. But what is already known is, you're probably eating them, maybe even inhaling them as you speak. And, and listen, because, as I said, they're so prevalent around the world, they're in everything. So you could just do the the mental thought experiment, say, Well, how can a microplastic and an ocean end up in my body? Well, if a fish or some species, even if it's one that you don't eat, but something you do eat, eat it, right in the food chain, they might mistake the plastic for food, or it just might be attached to something they normally eat. Like say that's a turtle that wants to eat some plant like kelp, or I'm not sure if they eat kelp, but it's got microplastics attached to it, they're just going to ingest it inadvertently. Or they actually think it's food that's usually with bigger pieces of plastic. So inside the body, it's not going to break down, it's going to take 100 to 1000 years for it to break down in your body or other people's body. It is already known to cause reproductive issues in aquatic species. What is the birds and amphibians, lizards, frogs, snakes are also exposed to it, anything that's closer to a water environment is probably going to be ingesting it. And that has problems just for biodiversity overall, but if you eat any of those, or rely on them to do something else for you, then they're being impacted. The human impacts are unknown. Certainly not pleasant to think that you have undigested plastic in your in your gut. But odds are you do. In fact, I would almost guarantee it. But no one's done the science to say, how much microplastic Can I ingest over a lifetime? That's a safe amount. Right? So there's the studies that are done on all kinds of chemicals that are aquatic, or in our case, human. Carley Hauck 47:57 And I also login another piece to this. And this is also, you know, kind of connecting to what can I do? Right? Yeah, to avoid microplastics. But based on hearing that we have, we all have plastic in our gut. But guess what else has plastic and it's got animals, right? Yeah, fish, because we're depositing so much of our plastic in the ocean, but it's also getting in the soil, it's getting in the water, it's getting in the air. And so Greg and I are both, you know, big plant based advocates, and you will actually have less plastic, if you're eating more fruits and vegetables, you know, a Whole Foods organic plant based diet, and that also will greatly mitigate the effects of climate change through less fossil fuels. And the more that we can actually eat vegetables versus things that are packaged, there will be less plastic, you know, we don't need I mean, it's great that we have beyond me, and we have all these really wonderful opportunities to get these products like just egg who happen, you know, just like Josh Tetrick happens to be a CEO that I have focused on in my book, Josh and I have had heart to hearts, he's like Harley, we wouldn't need to even create, you know, being placed or being sourced offering if people were just eating more beets and vegetables. So anyway, we can minimize our plastic consumption by eating more whole foods plant based and also just by choosing not to buy plastic as much as possible, even though we know it's everywhere. Greg Koch 49:45 I remember one time being in I used to travel a lot, particularly International. And I remember I think it was in Japan. And in the airport. They were selling bananas in a plastic bag, a sealed plastic bag and I looked Get that and I thought the banana has a rapper, rapper that protects that banana in the forest in the jungle for transportation, everything, but for some reason someone thought, let me put it in a plastic bag before I sell it. It has a nature provided bananas, its own packaging. But it's great. You say that. So what can you do? Again, educate yourself write your representative. But I like to think of what I can do about microplastic as the three C's consume less clean. All right. And don't change as often. All right. It's a it's a weak alliteration. I get Carley Hauck 50:44 that I love it. One more time. Greg Koch 50:47 Yeah, no, it's consume, clean and change. break those down for you. Now, I think that's a really weak alliteration. But so the first one you already said it's, you know, buy less things that have plastic in them, or are made of plastic. Right? Particularly. Yeah, particularly single use. Totally plastic. Right. So here, well, you can't see it. You can but your listeners can't. is a plastic water bottle that I got at REI. Rei. Yeah, go Rei. So it's made of plastic. All right, but I'll have this I've had this for 10 years, I'll have it for another 20. Right. And that's better than a one way bottle of water that I just drank. And now I've got to get rid of it. Right. So fortunately, increasingly, you see a lot more consumer goods particularly, Carley Hauck 51:46 and bring your own Tupperware to the restaurant. I went. So I currently live in San Diego right now. And I went to a place I tried to actually cook and eat the majority of my food from home, but sometimes I'm out and about, and I gotta eat dinner. So I stopped to get a salad. And I knew that I was not going to leave the whole salad. And I said, I don't want you to put it in a TO GO Box. Even though they had a compostable box. I brought my own Tupperware. And the woman behind the counter said, I love that you brought your own Tupperware, why aren't more people are doing that. And I was like, I know. But you just have to think about it and grab it. So bring your own plastic Tupperware. That's how you use it. And for those of you that have been listening, the podcast, you know that I had this experiment where I lived in Costa Rica for three months, and I tried to live as regeneratively as I possibly could. And I brought plastic everywhere. And I recycled even my little plastic baggies. Like I just I really did not want to bring more plastic into this country that does not want it or need it going back. Greg Koch 53:00 Consumers don't buy things or plastic. Certainly, well, if you can avoid it. One way plus Carley Hauck 53:08 another piece. This is a plug for the US airlines and international. They, in my opinion, are one of the biggest polluters of single use plastics, we do not need to be using plastics for everybody's water consumption. I've talked to the airline attendants, they hate giving out these plastic cups. So southwest, you know united, what are we doing? It's so easy, there is compostable plastic ware that we can be giving out to our patrons who are going to love the fact that you are being more environmentally responsible. For you, I don't know are the airlines any of Arabs clients? How do we get the airlines your clients? Greg Koch 53:55 I don't believe any of the airline's our clients. I know we've done some work for some of the airline manufacturers like Boeing and Airbus, but I don't know. But wow, talk about a captive audience and a captive waste stream, right? No one's gonna take any of that waste with them when they leave the plane. So it's entirely up to the airline what to serve, and what to serve it in and what to do with the waste that's left. It's only them right? Because people aren't going to bring their own meal. Most people are water and they're not going to leave their way or take their waste with them. Carley Hauck 54:30 So I do but I'm meticulous. Bring all my own food. I bring my water bottle and I just want to plug only 7% of what we think gets recycled actually is recycled. So the rest of it it's just going into a landfill and or the ocean. Greg Koch 54:46 That's the worst part. All right back to what can you do we talked about last Carley Hauck 54:53 and then we don't have a lot of time left Greg. So we'll have to move into PFA clothing. Greg Koch 54:58 Let me just do clothing. Yeah, go for it because most clothing has plastic in it. Yeah, nylon, you know all these synthetic fibers. So try not to buy the latest fashions all the time and throw out your other stuff. And believe it or not, because most clothing has plastic in it, your dryer, if you heat dry your clothes, like you wash your dryer at home, it's generating lots of microplastics that will get out into the airborne environment through your dryer vent. So think about that. Particularly with the, you know, the trend to buy all new outfits for every season because it's cheap, and you can have a new outfit and whatnot. But let's move on to P FOSS. Carley Hauck 55:43 And I'll just plug I know we're sharing a ton of information. But after this interview, I'm going to repeat the what can you do a summary for everybody before you so stay on till the very end of this interview because you're going to be reminded, okay, Greg, take it away. P FOSS. Greg Koch 56:02 P FOSS? Carley Hauck 56:03 What a fun name your pays Greg Koch 56:05 are P Foss, I think it's most commonly referred to as P FOSS. And sorry, my dogs are excited if you hear them in the background. Yeah. Well, it's funny, those dogs have beef. Awesome. And so do you, Carly? So do I, it's everywhere. You know, I talked about microplastics being everywhere. This stuff is really everywhere. I'm everywhere. So what they are is they're they're per and polyfluorinated substances, abbreviated as P FOSS. It's a chemical and manmade chemical. It's a poly or fluoro polymer for anyone who wants to try to understand that. But in the shownotes there'll be some links that explain you most commonly experience P FOSS in Teflon, scotchguard GoreTex. Those are probably the three most trade names that most people are. So stain resistance, water resistance, stick resistance, right? There's more industrial applications and firefighting foams, but because of Scotch cards a brand name, but what I mean to say is stain resistant coatings, which are everywhere. Teflon, everyone's frying pan, and cookwares coated with something nonstick. And then GoreTex is every bit of outdoor equipment. Those things are major sources of peat moss, and so they're everywhere. And because they've been used so ubiquitously. It's in the entire global population. So there was a famous study that one of the manufacturers of P FOSS did, where they, you know, said we're gonna do a random sampling, you know, I don't know 10,000 People and sample their blood and see if there's any P Foss, they stopped after 100 people, because 100% of the 100 people that pee FOSS in them. They're like, it's everywhere. It is everywhere. It's considered a forever chemical, meaning it takes 1000s of years to break down in a natural environment that it's in you you'll never get rid of. There's no way to get P FOSS out of your body. We believe that it has thyroid cause thyroid problems, cancer, reproductive issues, and liver does liver damage, but a lot of the science and that's not just in people that's in other living species, aquatic and terrestrial. And the science is still out of we know if you consumed a bunch of this, it would be detrimental probably deadly. But the tiny concentrations that we all have and are exposed to from our clothes or carpet, whatever our rain jacket. What does that look like? What are the long term health impacts over a lifetime that being exposed? We don't know. But in an abundance of caution regulators around the world in Europe, even in the United States and the Biden administration pointed out put out some recent new rules to say we've we've got to start limiting how much new pee FOSS gets into the environment into the product supply. And we start we have to start cleaning up some of the hotter spots of pee FOSS Carley Hauck 59:29 just to give a little bit more science. And this is all been found you know through the pf the P FOSS action act of 2021 which was designed to create a national drinking water standard for select P FOSS chemicals. And basically, the lawmakers shared that more than 320 military sites have P FOSS contamination and more than 200 million US residents could be drinking contaminated water now Want to cause cancer, reproductive and developmental issues and weakened immune systems? So there is, you know, this new legislature that it seems like it's being passed finally, through the EPA, because it's been stalled many times to remove three. And I believe there's 600, forever Greg Koch 1:00:17 600 versions of these. Carley Hauck 1:00:19 So why are we only reducing three, Greg Koch 1:00:23 three, go start somewhere. But I can tell you, you know, linking it back to my personal life, you know, the consultancy I worked for, there are places where we go and sample for this, to see, you know, if it's there, we know it's going to be there. But at what concentration, it's incredibly hard thinking about you're trying to sample for something that might be present in the parts per billion or even trillion, but you the person doing the sampling and doing the lab test, have P FOSS in you, it's in all the lab equipment, it's in the sample container, it's in the air, even just sampling for and trying to test it in the lab is very difficult because of how ubiquitous it is. And to be honest, that the three issues red tide microplastics and, and P Foss, this is the one that that worries me the most, not just the three that they're acting on now, but all 600 of them, and they are forever chemicals. Carley Hauck 1:01:18 And they're not just you know, local to the US. They're global, because they've gone out and all products all over the world. So what can we do? We can? Mice? Yeah, go ahead. Well, I was also gonna say, What are you cooking with y'all? You know, cooking with to get rid of that Teflon, you stainless steel or all clad is another Greg Koch 1:01:45 something. But I think the number one thing you can do after you sort of scrub your you know, is just be cautious about new products that come out. That sounds too good to be true. I mean, think about it, you know, think about stain resistance, you know, I could spill blueberries on this dress shirt that I have on right now. But because of the stain resistant, it comes right off. So be a little more cautious when a new product comes out, say, oh, it's got all this new function well, is it using a forever chemical? Does it have microbeads or microplastic in it and, you know, get educated about what you're bringing into your home into your body. As you work to try to eliminate the original sources of this Be careful not to buy a new one. Because it's the latest greatest thing. And it does things we I you know, stain resistance, waterproofing, stick resistance, these things make our life easier. But I would trade the convenience that those things offer for, for better health any day of the week. Carley Hauck 1:02:49 And make sure that you have really good filtered water, like some research on this reverse osmosis is the best to be able to really eliminate PFAs. You know, one of the things that I didn't share in this podcast, but it's also why I felt even more compelled to put more effort in my own life around water protection is when I was living in Costa Rica, Greg knows this. I unfortunately, got hit with parasites three times in three months. And this was due to I love Costa Rica. But if you're near the coast, they don't have great drinking water. And I have no idea what I was picking up. And it's not because I wasn't drinking filtered water, all my teachers, but I was I was eating local produce, because I was trying to stay away from having to cook everything and I didn't want to eat out. Yeah. And that local produce is being you know, grown and unhealthy water. And even though there's parasites and there's PFAs here in the States, I guess my body's like, I know that parasite. You're welcome here. But the parasites in subtropical climates in Costa Rica, my body was not happy. Took a little while to come back into healthy. So I believe that that was for me. And for me to then reach out to Greg and say, Hey, buddy, let's go we gotta talk more. Let's let's amplify our efforts to protect. This was wonderful. The other thing that I just wanted to leave as as resources is, Greg has written a fabulous book with his colleague will sarni I'm gonna leave a link in the show notes, which speaks to some of what we can do from a private and public sector. So even though Greg and I have been saying what can you do individually, this also comes down to what do we do in our business, right? Business has such an opportunity to be a force for good to really I change its operations so that it is aligned with the SDGs. And environmental responsibility and accountability for that matter. And then I'll just plug my own book, my own book shares another pathway, which is, how do we really cultivate that conscious motivation, as an individual to really lead, whether it's at work, whether it's in our communities, whether it's at home, and to see models of other people doing that, to know that, we have the opportunity, we have the responsibility to be the change, and there are going to be lots of resources for your education, for your activation that we will leave in the show notes, and I will come back, if you stay on just a few more minutes, I will summarize all the things that you can do. And, you know, maybe just pick one from each of these categories. And start small. And Greg, thank you, again, give our listeners with, Greg Koch 1:06:05 I think, not plugging my book, but the underlying premise of the book is about wellbeing. And the book starts off with an obvious realization of more, right, you hear politician, we want more jobs, you know, you're a business person, say we need more profit, more revenue, more volume, right? It's always more more more more and more across business, across government, even in our own lives. People want a bigger house, a nicer car, newer clothes, more jewelry, more, more, more. And in part microplastics, and nutrients and P FOSS are linked to a consumer society. And so the premise is, you know, instead of focusing so much on more, why don't we apply all that energy into well being? Carley Hauck 1:06:57 And less and simplicity. Yeah, I love it. Okay, thanks. This is so much fun. Yeah. It's so good to talk. Thank you again. Thank you. Thanks. All right. Keep keep rocking it, Greg, Greg Koch 1:07:14 you to have fun and have fun this weekend. I will. So have fun. You too. Take care. Carley Hauck 1:07:21 Bye. Well, I am humbled and inspired by that conversation. Greg, thank you so much for willing to noodle on this with me the past couple of weeks, as we, you know, co created what do we want to talk about? How is this going to be in service, for the flourishing of people and planning, and I'm just really delighted to have you in my life and this friendship that keeps deepening. For those of you that want to connect more with Greg, you know, he's doing some fabulous work with companies, and so is his consulting firm. So his LinkedIn handle is in the show notes. He also wrote a fabulous book. And I would encourage you to go there. As I prompted throughout the podcast, there were lots of action steps that Greg and I spoke about. And what I would encourage you to do is, you know, to pick one or two from each of these three sections, red tide, PFA, S and microplastics. So let me summarize a couple for you to really take some action on because we are all leaders, we all have the responsibility and the opportunity to lead and we have to take care of our home and that is planet Earth. If we do not take care of her, we will not flourish. our well being as you heard is being hugely negatively impacted. Because of our actions. We need to clean it up. We need to do better, we can do better. So I hope that these action steps inspire you. Share them with friends with colleagues with your kiddos, what can we do about red tide? Well, as we heard, the more we can mitigate warming of the planet, the better. So we try to abstain from fossil fuels. How do we do that? We don't drive as much you know, you don't have to go to the grocery store to go get that thing every day. Ride your bike more take mass transportation. And also, you know, be mindful of your heating and your cooling and just your energy consumption, limit or even eliminate home fertilizer use that even And, you know pertains to, if you're living in an HOA or you know a residential neighborhood are the landscapers using fertilizer like you have a voice This is what you pay for right? Figure out what are they using? Is there a way to have this be more regenerative pick up pet waste even on your lawn that actually makes a difference, as Greg mentioned, maintain your septic septic system. And really refrain from dumping any pollutants into sewers or storm drains or your laundry you know, so again, like there are so many environmentally friendly products for shampooing and laundry, to cleaning your pets to washing your hands that are biodegradable and healthy. Also see what you can do if you live near streams or water. How can you help clean up the water right so that there isn't trash or pollutants? It was kind of astonishing to me in 21 I was living outside of Asheville, North Carolina and the front prod wherever, which is one of the largest rivers throughout the Mississippi was quite polluted. And it just ran through town people would get really sick in the summer when they go swimming in it and I just think so Why are you swimming in an infected huge river? Why aren't we cleaning this up so we can enjoy it. And the same thing as you heard me talk about in Florida, which is please people that are living in Florida, please to help me get some new legislature so we have composting in Florida so that we have mandated solar on roofs that's going to help mitigate warming and red tide. Okay, I'll stop there. What about microplastics? What can we do about that? Well, it's intuitive, we use less plastics. Bring your own bag, there is no excuse for not having a cloth bag. Bring it when you travel. Bring your own water bottle when you travel when you go on the plane, refill it anything honestly that is transported in a plastic bottle that then has water in it that then you drink from at some point that plastic bottle is being transported in heat. When plastic gets hot. What happens? Well, chemicals from the plastic leach into the water which then you're drinking. So I don't believe that what is in your plastic bottle is cleaner than the tap water. So let's really try to bring our own bottle. There's a ton of incredible filters when you go to the airports now. And you just refill your bottle there. wash your clothes, less often. Air dry clothes, because that's going to mitigate microplastics you don't have to buy new clothes. I love going to consignment stores one that's going to lower fossil fuels because it takes less energy to have to create new clothing when you can actually just use great ones that are still in good shape that were probably way more expensive than what you can get for them now. And buy plastic free cosmetics if you're using cosmetics and don't microwave in plastic containers. We kind of already know that and then again, you can do you know litter cleanup. That's also going to help. What about PFS? PFS is harder because they're in everything. There's over 600 But filtered water is huge. And in doing my research reverse osmosis seems to be the best way to reduce them from your water. We also need to call our legislature or senators or Congress, you know, men, women people, why are we only limiting three when they're 600. And let's go a step further. I would love to encourage you to watch the movie dark water, which came out in 2019 Mark Ruffo and Anne Hathaway Oh yeah, some big stars are in this movie. And they basically exposed Dupont, there is a article in the shownotes where there is some evasion on actually paying the amount needed for all the people that got sick and the ongoing long term effects that they have caused not just the US the world, it's everywhere. And we also want to have less consumption of packaging because that is going to have one microplastics into it. PSAs so there are a lot of wonderful actions that you can get started on. But before we end, I wanted to leave you with a prompt. So let's just take a moment to just go inside, close the eyes. If you're driving, don't do that. And just feel your body. And when you think about this question, notice what arises, feelings sensations. And what do you feel inspired to do? What if you didn't have clean drinking water? What if you didn't have enough water to use for your every day? You know needs? There are a lot of people in the world that don't. How would that impact you? And what might you do to ensure that you protect it the water for yourself, for your neighbors for your community for life for animals for future generations? How could you live more simply how could you bring your attention towards living in a way that is regenerating? Not over consuming, not destroying. Water is becoming more scarce and quantity and quality. We can and should expect that there will be a reduction in precipitation due to changing climate. Drought, excessive withdrawals of groundwater from aquifers. Freshwater is diminishing. And we have a finite amount of water, which means we have to protect it. We are water protectors, you are a water protector. I invite you to take 30 minutes out of your week to reflect on how you want to be a water protector in your life. If you enjoy this episode, please give it a five star rating and share it with friends, colleagues and community who will benefit. Additionally, if you know of someone or you yourself work in the airline industry
We talk with Dr. Orian Welling and Mr. Michael Parker from ERDC's Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory about how ERDC's cold weather mobility expertise will directly help the U.S. military better protect and defend the Arctic. As the Arctic grows in strategic importance to the United States, the region also presents unique challenges to military mobility. Heavy duty tires designed for rugged terrains don't handle as well on cold, slick surfaces. And ice and snow aren't the only challenges facing military vehicles in Arctic environments. In fact, mobility becomes even more difficult during the spring months when frozen ground begins to thaw, and the terrain is transformed into a muddy, swampy quagmire. ERDC's research is enabling better cold weather tires and leading to robust cross-country mobility models that can forecast ice thickness, snow depth and thaw, and predict which vehicles can perform where in Arctic conditions. ERDC is also providing knowledge and developing algorithms and systems that will allow autonomous manned and unmanned systems to navigate in cold regions. We talk with Orian and Mike about how their unique backgrounds contribute to this research (6:41, 30:16), why the Army needs to study Arctic mobility (4:13), the unique challenges of the spring thaw (34:47), and how the expertise of CRREL's mobility team (8:57) and the laboratory's world-class specialized facilities (11:27) enable this capability. We also discuss specific projects, such as work on winter tires (16:54), mobility models (25:56) and cold weather autonomy (21:21). And we talk about how the effort benefits from ERDC's cross-disciplinary research (38:07), as well as from partnerships and international collaboration (40:34). Visit https://www.PowerofERDCPodcast.org for more information.
New Books in Political Science
Sacred kingship has been the core political form, in small-scale societies and in vast empires, for much of world history. Sacred Kingship in World History: Between Immanence and Transcendence (Columbia UP, 2022) recasts the relationship between religion and politics by exploring this institution in long-term and global comparative perspective. Editors A. Azfar Moin and Alan Strathern present a theoretical framework for understanding sacred kingship, which leading scholars reflect on and respond to in a series of essays. They distinguish between two separate but complementary religious tendencies, immanentism and transcendentalism, which mold kings into divinized or righteous rulers, respectively. Whereas immanence demands priestly and cosmic rites from kings to sustain the flourishing of life, transcendence turns the focus to salvation and subordinates rulers to higher ethical objectives. Secular modernity does not end the struggle between immanence and transcendence—flourishing and righteousness—but only displaces it from kings onto nations and individuals. After an essay by Marshall Sahlins that ranges from the Pacific to the Arctic, the book contains chapters on religion and kingship in settings as far-flung as ancient Egypt, classical Greece, medieval Islam, Mughal India, modern European drama, and ISIS. Sacred Kingship in World History sheds new light on how religion has constructed rulership, with implications spanning global history, religious studies, political theory, and anthropology. Alan Strathern teaches European and Global History as an Associate Professor in the Faculty of History at Oxford and as a Fellow at Brasenose College; he also lectures at St. John's College. He works on the global history of religious encounter and conversion, particularly in the early modern period (1500-1800), while additionally writing on the nature of religious change and its relationship with politics across world history. A. Azfar Moin is an Associate Professor in the Department of Religious Studies at the University of Texas at Austin. He studies the early modern Islamic world from comparative perspectives with a focus on concepts and practices of sovereignty. Justin N. Smolin is a PhD candidate in the History of Religions specializing in at the Divinity School in the University of Chicago. His research focuses on the question of the translatability of religious difference, with a particular view to the early modern Islamicate world: his broader interests include literary history, translation, and political theology. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/political-science
Born and raised in Cordova, Alaska, Rachel Kallander grew up with the motto “know who you are, know who you represent.” Rachel carries that motto with her today, and it drives her work on behalf of Alaska and the Arctic. As the founder and executive director of Artic Encounter, Rachel convenes the largest annual Arctic policy and business conference in the U.S. today. With over 1,000 attendees this year—including Ambassadors, US Senators, dignitaries, indigenous and youth leaders—Arctic Encounter convened panels on important topics ranging from climate change, energy development, healthcare, and more. Also the founder and CEO of Kallander & Associates, Rachel works to effectively engage the issues and opportunities affecting Alaska and the Arctic through bipartisan policy development and creative collaboration. From working with Senator Lisa Murkowski (R-AK) to owning and publishing the 114-year-old Cordova Times, Rachel's goal is to make sure that when it comes to Alaska and the Arctic, the health of the environment and the people are a key part of the conversation. Rachel joins hosts Dee Martin and Yasmin Nelson to discuss her passion for the Arctic region and how growing up in a fishing family in Alaska anchors her mission. Tune in to hear about Rachel's journey form working with Senator Murkowski (R-AK) to becoming the publisher of Prince William Sound's oldest newspaper, the Cordova Times, established in 1914. And don't miss the story of being named an Honorary Consul to Alaska by the government of Iceland! Tune in now!
Mars Technica is produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Cover art by Joey Montoya.
Sacred kingship has been the core political form, in small-scale societies and in vast empires, for much of world history. Sacred Kingship in World History: Between Immanence and Transcendence (Columbia UP, 2022) recasts the relationship between religion and politics by exploring this institution in long-term and global comparative perspective. Editors A. Azfar Moin and Alan Strathern present a theoretical framework for understanding sacred kingship, which leading scholars reflect on and respond to in a series of essays. They distinguish between two separate but complementary religious tendencies, immanentism and transcendentalism, which mold kings into divinized or righteous rulers, respectively. Whereas immanence demands priestly and cosmic rites from kings to sustain the flourishing of life, transcendence turns the focus to salvation and subordinates rulers to higher ethical objectives. Secular modernity does not end the struggle between immanence and transcendence—flourishing and righteousness—but only displaces it from kings onto nations and individuals. After an essay by Marshall Sahlins that ranges from the Pacific to the Arctic, the book contains chapters on religion and kingship in settings as far-flung as ancient Egypt, classical Greece, medieval Islam, Mughal India, modern European drama, and ISIS. Sacred Kingship in World History sheds new light on how religion has constructed rulership, with implications spanning global history, religious studies, political theory, and anthropology. Alan Strathern teaches European and Global History as an Associate Professor in the Faculty of History at Oxford and as a Fellow at Brasenose College; he also lectures at St. John's College. He works on the global history of religious encounter and conversion, particularly in the early modern period (1500-1800), while additionally writing on the nature of religious change and its relationship with politics across world history. A. Azfar Moin is an Associate Professor in the Department of Religious Studies at the University of Texas at Austin. He studies the early modern Islamic world from comparative perspectives with a focus on concepts and practices of sovereignty. Justin N. Smolin is a PhD candidate in the History of Religions specializing in at the Divinity School in the University of Chicago. His research focuses on the question of the translatability of religious difference, with a particular view to the early modern Islamicate world: his broader interests include literary history, translation, and political theology. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/history
Sacred kingship has been the core political form, in small-scale societies and in vast empires, for much of world history. Sacred Kingship in World History: Between Immanence and Transcendence (Columbia UP, 2022) recasts the relationship between religion and politics by exploring this institution in long-term and global comparative perspective. Editors A. Azfar Moin and Alan Strathern present a theoretical framework for understanding sacred kingship, which leading scholars reflect on and respond to in a series of essays. They distinguish between two separate but complementary religious tendencies, immanentism and transcendentalism, which mold kings into divinized or righteous rulers, respectively. Whereas immanence demands priestly and cosmic rites from kings to sustain the flourishing of life, transcendence turns the focus to salvation and subordinates rulers to higher ethical objectives. Secular modernity does not end the struggle between immanence and transcendence—flourishing and righteousness—but only displaces it from kings onto nations and individuals. After an essay by Marshall Sahlins that ranges from the Pacific to the Arctic, the book contains chapters on religion and kingship in settings as far-flung as ancient Egypt, classical Greece, medieval Islam, Mughal India, modern European drama, and ISIS. Sacred Kingship in World History sheds new light on how religion has constructed rulership, with implications spanning global history, religious studies, political theory, and anthropology. Alan Strathern teaches European and Global History as an Associate Professor in the Faculty of History at Oxford and as a Fellow at Brasenose College; he also lectures at St. John's College. He works on the global history of religious encounter and conversion, particularly in the early modern period (1500-1800), while additionally writing on the nature of religious change and its relationship with politics across world history. A. Azfar Moin is an Associate Professor in the Department of Religious Studies at the University of Texas at Austin. He studies the early modern Islamic world from comparative perspectives with a focus on concepts and practices of sovereignty. Justin N. Smolin is a PhD candidate in the History of Religions specializing in at the Divinity School in the University of Chicago. His research focuses on the question of the translatability of religious difference, with a particular view to the early modern Islamicate world: his broader interests include literary history, translation, and political theology. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/new-books-network
Today is Earth Day 2023, although, in our opinion, every day should be Earth Day) and according to the national center for environmental information:· Europe had its warmest January on record, while North America and Africa each had a January that ranked among the 10 warmest on record.Arctic sea ice extent ranked third lowest on record, while Antarctic Sea ice hit a record low for January.Cyclone Cheneso in the South Indian Ocean was the only storm of tropical cyclone strength this month. (https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/news/global-climate-202301)The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) stated that 2023 is expected to mark 10 consecutive years with global average temperatures at least 1 degree Celsius higher than the average during the preindustrial period. Earth's average temperature in 2023 is forecast to be between 1.08 and 1.32 degrees Celsius higher than it was before about 1900, when humans started burning fossil fuels more ferociously. (https://public.wmo.int/en/media/news/climate-and-weather-extremes-2022-show-need-more-action)WHAT CAN WE DO to help with saving our planet?1. Reduce Your Carbon Footprint "Number one on our list is reducing your carbon footprint. This means making conscious choices about the products you buy, the transportation you use, and the energy you consume. Small changes like taking public transportation or switching to LED light bulbs can make a big difference in reducing greenhouse gas emissions."2. Use Renewable Energy Sources"Did you know that the sun provides enough energy to power the entire planet for a year in just one hour? That's why it's important to use renewable energy sources like solar, wind, and hydropower. By using renewable energy, we can reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and help slow down climate change."3. Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle"The three R's: reduce, reuse, and recycle. These are simple yet powerful ways to save the planet. By reducing our waste, reusing items, and recycling materials, we can decrease the amount of trash that ends up in landfills and help conserve our natural resources."4. Eat a Plant-Based Diet"Did you know that animal agriculture is responsible for more greenhouse gas emissions than the entire transportation sector? By adopting a plant-based diet, we can reduce our carbon footprint and help slow down climate change. Plus, it's a great way to improve your health!"5. Support Renewable Energy Policies"One way to make a big impact is by supporting renewable energy policies. By advocating for clean energy initiatives, you can help create a more sustainable future for generations to come."6. Use Water Responsibly"Water is a precious resource that we often take for granted. By using water responsibly, we can help conserve this vital resource and reduce our carbon footprint. Simple actions like taking shorter showers and fixing leaky faucets can make a big difference."7. Plant Trees"Trees are not only beautiful, but they also play a crucial role in fighting climate change. By planting trees, we can help absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and create a more sustainable environment for future generations."8. Support Local Farmers"Buying locally grown produce is a great way to support your community and reduce your carbon footprint. By buying food that is grown closer to home, you can help reduce the amount of fossil fuels needed to transport food across long distances."9. Use Eco-Friendly Products"Using eco-friendly products is another simple way to help save the planet. By choosing products that are made from sustainable materials and are biodegradable, we can reduce our impact on the environment and help create a more sustainable future."10. Spread Awareness"Last but not least, spreading awareness is a powerful way to...
Sunday on PBS News Weekend, recent high-profile shootings reignite the debate over "stand your ground" laws. Then, we look at how artificial intelligence is being used to create hoax images and sounds known as deepfakes. Plus, how climate change is raising tensions over control of the Arctic's resources and shipping routes. PBS NewsHour is supported by - https://www.pbs.org/newshour/about/funders
John Franklin and Louise Cook were a wealthy couple in California, living off the fortune they earned during the gold rush. Their daughter Louise Arner Boyd was born in San Rafael on September 16, 1887. Louise was offered every advantage imagined by a late young woman in the late 19th century. But instead of living extravagantly with material things, as a socialite, Louise chose experience over material things and used her inheritance to explore the Arctic, in the name of science. “Far north, hidden behind grim barriers of pack ice, are lands that hold one spell-bound.” Today we will talk about Louise Arner Boyd. She was the world's leading female Arctic explorer, geographer and arctic photographer. Louise organized, financed and led seven maritime expeditions without a formal education, limited outdoor expertise and no family members alive to advise her. Season 3 features inspiring, gallant, even audacious stories of REAL 19th Century women from the Wild West. Stories that contain adult content, including violence which may be disturbing to some listeners, or secondhand listeners. So, discretion is advised. I am Andrea Anderson and this is Queens of the Mines, Season Three. In San Rafael, the Boyd's put effort into raising Louise to be a socialite, first hiring a governess tutor and then put her in the private school Miss Stewart's to learn the social graces. Louise's father had struck it rich, her mother, an aristocrat. Her mom encouraged her to join in her philanthropist activities and community work while she looked for a husband. But she was bored. Her mind was on other things. She dreamed of, and read about geography, the Arctic in particular. She did not want to sip tea in the parlor of the family's genteel mansion on Mission Avenue. She would rather spend time with her brothers. They rode horses, hiked, hunted and taught her to be a fine equestrian and skilled marksman on the 6 acre estate at Maple Lawn. In 1901, tragedy struck the Boyd family. In that year, both of her brothers died unexpectedly. One boy had complications of rheumatic fever, the other passed while away at boarding school in a riding accident. The Boyd's were devastated. After a while, Louise's father, in an attempt to give her direction and distraction, brought her on to work in the family's investment company. She worked with her parents for twenty years. Until 1919, when her mother died, her father followed a year later. 32 years old, unmarried and without children, she lost her entire family and inherited their Maple Lawn estate and a vast fortune. Fascinated with polar exploration, Boyd went to San Francisco at 19 to see Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen land in the city, after completing the first sea voyage through the Northwest Passage. She decided to travel. She spent the next few years visiting Europe. In 1924, Louise was gliding through icy waters on a Norwegian cruise ship. This is when Louise saw the polar ice pack for the first time, and madly curious, her life was forever changed. No woman before had financed and led an expedition to the polar seas. Oh well, she made a plan to travel north, and two years later, Louise chartered the Norwegian sealer Hobby and crew, and brought some friends, ready for adventure. The departed from Norway, taking stops at Northbrook Island, for photography and botanical collecting, to Franz Josef Land, for a hunt, and others for Arctic exploration. Louise fell in love with the remote land of ice. She killed many polar bears, which at the time, was highly respected. She planned another trip two years later. In Norway, far north in the city of Tromsø, Boyd and her crew were getting the Hobby ready to set sail on their second expedition. Then, news broke that Boyd's childhood hero, Roald Amundsen the iconic explorer, and his French crew had vanished while on a flight to rescue another explorer. A rescue mission was underway, and six European countries got to work organizing ships and airplanes. Wasting no time, Boyd offered the ship, crew and provisions she had on standby to the rescue efforts. She would fund the expedition herself, with one exception, she got to come along. It was a dangerous undertaking, staffed with high-ranking generals, aviators and explorers. The Norwegian government agreed, although no allowances were made for a woman. Good thing too, Louise ended up playing an integral role in the Amundsen rescue expedition. She had no experience, and the men were skeptical, but she took on her responsibilities just as they did. The 10-week rescue mission in the Greenland Sea into the pack ice north, traveling about 10,000 miles along the coast line was unsuccessful. Amundsen was never found. At the end of the summer, the Norwegian and French governments awarded Boyd the Chevalier Cross of the Order of Saint Olav and the Chevalier of the French Legion of Honor for her courage and stamina. Following her return to California, Louise's life purpose was solidified. She would be an Arctic explorer. She would commit not just to polar exploration but to polar science, and use her considerable inheritance to pursue her childhood dreams. She would live two lives. At home in the States, she would play hostess, adored by California high society and on the high seas, she would be tough, brave and heroic. Hiring a botanist and a staff of promising young scientists, she planned an expedition in 1931 visiting all the fjords and sounds in the King Oscar-Franz Josef region. The trips were originally planned for photographic reconnaissance but they ended up also serving as a topographical survey and saw a variety of investigations and discoveries. The inner end of Ice Fjord was reached by ship for the first time. The De Geer Glacier, entering the head of this fjord from the north, was discovered and the area between this glacier and Jaette Glacier was subsequently officially named Louise Boyd Land. A previously unsuspected connecting valley between the heads of Kjerulf and Dickson fjords was discovered. Boyd supplied the material for a detailed topographic map of the connection, which was subsequently constructed by the American Geographical Society, from over 200 of her photographs from 50 selected stations. But several thousand photographs were taken. She was also a remarkably fast learner who sought out experts in her fields of interest—including photographer Ansel Adams and California Academy of Sciences botanist Alice Eastwood—to teach her what she needed to know. Two years later, under the auspices of the American Geographical Society, Louise led the first arctic expedition to perform extensive echo sounding with self-recording gear. She equipped the ship with an echo-sounder, sonic equipment that helped them measure the depths of the ocean and the ice. It was the first American expedition to engage in ground photogrammetry. The primary objective of this expedition was the study of glacial marginal features; to supplement the investigations of the physiographer and geologist, as well as to try out new methods of field mapping. The staff included topographers, a physiographer, a geologist and a botanist from the University of Chicago, American Geographical Society, Cambridge, England and Harvard. They sailed from Ålesund, Norway, June 28, spending a few days at Jan Mayen Island on the way out and covering the East Greenland fjord region from King Oscar Fjord to Hold With Hope and returning September 16th. Tide gauge recordings were taken at Jan Mayen Island and at stations in the Greenland fjords and echo-sounding profiles were made of a number of the fjords, and fairly continuous lines of sounding were made on the runs between Norway and Greenland. The Louise A. Boyd Arctic Expeditions of 1937 and 1938 were planned as a unit under the auspices of the American Geographical Society. In 1937, she made another expedition of 8,600 nautical miles, leaving Alesund June 4 and returning September 27. The work was a continuation of the glacial marginal studies of the 1933 expedition, and a botanist was added to the staff with the special objective of examining plant communities associated with recessional features. The 1938 3 month expedition went a few weeks around the South Glacier, Jan Mayen Island and Walrus Bay doing echo-sounding and current measurement work, filling in or improving the blank spaces on their existing charts. They also performed detailed glaciological studies at the Narwhal Glacier area, Agassiz Valley and Tyroler Valley. Even more areas were visited for glaciological and geological examinations. This expedition carried a portable echo-sounder for use in a motor dory in waters too shallow or too ice-filled for ship navigation. In some areas, they found ice two miles thick. Glaciers made navigation dangerous, and after identifying an undersea mountain range, it was decided it should be named in her honor, the Louise A. Boyd Bank. It was, at the time, the farthest north landing ever made from a ship on the east coast of Greenland. They were delayed two weeks due to difficulty getting through the coastal ice barrier. The heavy polar ice had stopped the ship. They turned south to the Franz Josef-King Oscar fjord region. That year, she was awarded the Cullum Geographical Medal of the American Geographical Society in 1938. She was the second woman to earn the award. Then, in 1939 both the University of California and Mills College granted her an LL.D. in the United States of America, the LL.D. was only awarded as an honorary degree. It is the equivalent of a Ph.D. Louise paused her traveling at the outbreak of World War II, and began to travel again after she was asked to study the effect of polar magnetic fields on radio communication for the U.S. government in 1941. In 1941 Miss Boyd chartered Captain Robert A. Bartlett's schooner Effie M. Morrissey and spent the period from May to November as a temporary member of the staff of the U. S. Bureau of Standards in charge of a program of radio and ionosphere research and magnetic observation for the Bureau that involved work on both sides of Davis Strait and Baffin Bay as far north as Ellesmore Island and in Hudson Strait. Her mission undertook hazardous journeys to dangerous places. It was a perilous time. Only eight weeks before, a British cargo vessel had been torpedoed and sunk by a German U-boat off Cape Farewell just to the south. Effie M. Morrissey navigated its way through a narrow fjord and anchored off the town of Julianehaab. The American ship appeared vulnerable and run-down next to the impressive U.S. Coast Guard vessels Bowdoin and Comanche. As newly minted members of the Greenland Patrol of the Atlantic Fleet, the Bowdoin and the Comanche were responsible for preventing German forces from establishing a base on Greenland and for providing vital support for the Allies. As the Morrissey's passengers disembarked, town residents gathered onshore. Commander Donald Macmillan of the Bowdoin hurried forward to greet the person in charge. Defying all expectations, the leader was no grizzled Navy man. Instead, a stately, well-coiffed California woman of a certain age clambered out of the rowboat and strode toward him. Everyone wondered what she was doing in the company of high-ranking officers engaged in war matters. Well the answer was a secret. Boyd, operating under the guise of her work as an explorer, was conducting a covert mission for the American government, searching for possible military landing sites and investigating the improvement of radio communications in this region. Even the captain and crew of her own ship were unaware of the expedition's true goals. Miss Boyd not only turned over to the War Department her photographic library and her collection of hundreds of maps and miscellaneous publications dealing with the northern countries of Europe as well as the Arctic, but served in Washington from March 1942 to July 1943 as special consultant to the Military Intelligence Division. The National Bureau of Standards commended Boyd for resolving critical radio transmission problems they had grappled with in the Arctic for decades, and a certificate of appreciation from the Department of the Army extolled her “exemplary service as being highly beneficial to the cause of victory in 1949.” But Louise was not universally respected by her expedition participants. Boyd battled shyness and did struggle at times to assert herself. At first, most academics would be pleased with her credentials and her generous offer to join the team, but many ridiculed her behind her back and undermined her position as leader during the expeditions. Whatever. When Louise was 68, she took her last trip to the Arctic. This time, she chartered an airplane and became the first woman to fly over the North Pole. Over her lifetime, Boyd had no interest in being the “first” or conquering territories, she focused on contributing to science. She used her inherited fortune to organize, finance, and conduct seven Arctic expeditions in vessels which she had chartered and equipped. Louise was one of the first women to autograph their Explorers Globe, alongside major explorers and aviators of the 20th century. She pioneered the use of cutting-edge technology, including the first deep-water recording echo-sounder. She pioneered the use of photogrammetry, the science of taking photographs to create models or maps, in inaccessible places. She discovered a glacier in Greenland, a new underwater bank in the Norwegian Sea and many new botanical species. In all but 2 expeditions, she made large botanical collections. The staff botanist covered the other two trips. She also held the role as the official photographer and built up a full portfolio of glacial marginal features, land forms, vegetation, and sea ice, documenting ice patterns along the Greenland coast. Her extensive photographic documentation of Greenland is currently used by glaciologists to track climate change in Greenlandic glaciers. Her expeditions generated new data in the fields of geology, oceanography, botany, and glaciology. Data generated during her expeditions is still cited by contemporary scientists in the fields of geology, geomorphology, oceanography and botany. As a U.S. military consultant, she was an invaluable asset to the Allied war effort. Exploration of the Arctic seascape—with its vast expanses of bobbing ice, the rhythmic sway of the wooden ship as it traversed the surging waves, the soothing solitude of the north—resonated deeply with Boyd and defined who she was and what she did. She spent her remaining years in the San Francisco area writing about her experiences, she had spent most of the family fortune for her explorations and had to sell the family home in San Rafael, California. Today the gatehouse at the Boyd Estate is the present day home of the Marin History Museum and has a permanent exhibit of Louise Boyd's photographs and memorabilia. Louise A Boyd died on September 14, 1972, two days before her 85th birthday. Boyd requested that her ashes be scattered in the Arctic Ocean. It all leads me to wonder, Where do you want your bones to spend eternity? —--------------------- Are you enjoying the podcast? Make sure to subscribe, rate, review and find us on facebook and instagram. You can join the biggest fans behind the scenes at patreon.com/queensofthemines, or give a one time tip via venmo to, @queensofthemines