Podcasts about ARPA

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Best podcasts about ARPA

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Latest podcast episodes about ARPA

Detroit Today with Stephen Henderson
Should Detroit spend ARPA funds to expand ShotSpotter in the city?

Detroit Today with Stephen Henderson

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 29, 2022 52:00


hotSpotter is a system designed to detect gunfire by triangulating the sound of gunshots with a series of sensors deployed across an area. This week, Detroit City Council approved $1.5 million to renew ShotSpotter, while delaying a vote on whether to spend $7 million in ARPA funds to expand it. Mitchell Douchette, an assistant scientist at Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Violence joins the show to discuss his study's findings regarding whether the system is effective at reducing gun violence. Then, Nancy Parker, managing attorney at the Detroit Justice Center, presents her arguments against implementing ShotSpotter in the city. Next, Detroit Deputy Police Chief Franklin Hayes joins the show to discuss why the Detroit Police Department supports expanded use of the system. Finally, WDET's Eli Newman provides an update on where city council is with the vote and what to expect moving forward.

RADIOMÁS
Zarpa el Arpa - 24 de septiembre 2022

RADIOMÁS

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 24, 2022 27:12


Zarpa el Arpa - 24 de septiembre 2022 by Radiotelevisión de Veracruz

RADIOMÁS
Zarpa el Arpa - 24 de septiembre 2022

RADIOMÁS

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 24, 2022 27:12


Zarpa el Arpa - 24 de septiembre 2022 by Radiotelevisión de Veracruz

Conversations with the Mayors
Carrboro: ARPA Funds, Arts Center Dedication, and Pay Raises

Conversations with the Mayors

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 23, 2022 10:20


Carrboro Mayor Damon Seils spoke with 97.9 The Hill's Andrew Stuckey on Friday, September 23rd. He discussed ARPA Funds, the new Arts Center location, and pay raises for town staff. The post Carrboro: ARPA Funds, Arts Center Dedication, and Pay Raises appeared first on Chapelboro.com.

Capitol Insider from KGOU
Oklahoma legislators return for special session to appropriate federal ARPA funding

Capitol Insider from KGOU

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 23, 2022 5:30


It has taken a year, but Oklahoma lawmakers are close to finishing the process of appropriating $1.8 billion in pandemic relief funds received from the federal government.

La Crosse Talk PM WIZM
La Crosse County Board chair Monica Kruse on yearly budget, homeless plan, childcare, roads

La Crosse Talk PM WIZM

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 22, 2022 36:52


La Crosse County Board chair Monica Kruse in studio. Hit on a vast amount of items, including how the county is handling childcare, homelessness and the roads. We discussed the finalization of the yearly budget, where the board is at distributing ARPA funding and the timeline for hiring a new County Administrator.See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

Conversations with the Mayors
Chapel Hill: A Trip to the White House, ARPA Funds, and More

Conversations with the Mayors

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 22, 2022 11:50


Chapel Hill Mayor Pam Hemminger joined 97.9 The Hill's Andrew Stuckey on Thursday, September 22.  She was calling from Washington, D.C., where she was at a White House event for mayors to discuss ARPA funds. The post Chapel Hill: A Trip to the White House, ARPA Funds, and More appeared first on Chapelboro.com.

DECAL Download
Episode 56 - CRRSA & ARPA Spending Plan (Projects Supporting ECE Workforce)

DECAL Download

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 20, 2022 27:14


In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Georgia received over $2-billion in federal money to help stabilize the child care industry, increase access to high quality child care for all families of young children, and support the state's early childhood education workforce.  The money comes from the federal Coronavirus Response and Relief Supplemental Appropriations Act and from the American Rescue Plan Act.  Now we are announcing how we will spend the remaining $400-million in a list of projects supporting child care providers, the ECE workforce, families, and other groups. In this episode, Deputy Commissioner of Georgia's Pre-K Program and Instructional Supports Susan Adams discusses projects supporting the ECE workforce. Support the show

The Nonlinear Library: LessWrong
LW - Biden should be applauded for appointing Renee Wegrzyn for ARPA-H by ChristianKl

The Nonlinear Library: LessWrong

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 19, 2022 4:11


Link to original articleWelcome to The Nonlinear Library, where we use Text-to-Speech software to convert the best writing from the Rationalist and EA communities into audio. This is: Biden should be applauded for appointing Renee Wegrzyn for ARPA-H, published by ChristianKl on September 18, 2022 on LessWrong. When Biden first announced ARPA-H (Advanced Research Projects Agency for Health) I was skeptical. At the time the proposal was to make ARPA-H a normal agency within the NIH. When critics argued that the NIH bureaucracy would likely reduce the amount of innovation that ARPA-H could produce the administration listened and US health secretary Xavier Becerra decided to make ARPA-H an independent entity within the NIH. Appointing Renee Wegrzyn as the head of ARPA-H is an excellent choice. Having previously worked at DARPA and IARPA and not in the NIH makes her a good person to copy the structure of how DARPA and IARPA get things done. Being 45, she is twenty years younger than the average director of an institute at the NIH who is 65. When science sometimes evolves from gravestone to gravestone, it's great to see a director for the ARPA-H who's in her forties. Especially, in contrast to the newly appointed NIH director Lawrence A. Tabak who is a 71-year-old (a fact that his NIH biography omits) having a 45-year-old lead ARPA-H is a welcome surprise. While at DARPA, Wegrzyn worked on biosecurity and even gave a talk about the importance of biosecurity to the Long Now Foundation. It's valuable to have people who care about biosecurity at the top of organizations that direct a lot of research dollars. A lot of the research focuses either on directly curing diseases or on basic research but the research that focuses on producing tools for better research is historically underfunded. Wegrzyn experience as vice president of business development at Gingko Bioworks which is a unicorn biotech company that historically doesn't focus on curing diseases directly but providing tools to help other companies, gives me hope that ARPA-H will be able to fund research into producing better tools to deal with biological problems. During COVID-19 they worked on producing COVID tests which was likely a lesson in the flaws of government bureaucracy holding back innovation. In an interview she described her own research as being guided by the question of ‘what do we know about protein folding that can help us develop a totally new type of diagnostic?' I'm happy to see that and think it will lead to better research paths than having someone who focuses more on creating FDA approved drugs in charge of allocating research funding. She coedited Alzheimer's Disease Targets for New Clinical Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies in 2012. It seems to me that one of the more important issues in Alzheimers research funding is the overinvestment in the amyloid cascade hypothesis. The book gets that issue right when it argues “Until recently, the amyloid cascade hypothesis had been the predominant working hypothesis for AD pathogenesis. However, this hypothesis has been supplanted by what some have called the oligomer cascade hypothesis, which posits that Aβ oligomers, rather than fibrils, are the proximate neurotoxic agents in AD” I think she showed excellent judgment by writing a book that argued for directing our Alzheimer research dollar to other paths than the amyloid cascade hypothesis (that part isn't written by her directly). In the essay that she wrote herself, she argues “Drug discovery and development for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease would greatly benefit from biomarkers that are predictive of clinical outcomes to inform the selection of effective drug candidates, monitor dose safety and efficacy on treated cohorts, and identify or confirm the mechanisms of drug action in hopes of developing treatments that go beyond symptomatic relief and are disease modifying. The ability to monitor disease progression longitudinally during patient treatment will also be key to...

The Nonlinear Library
LW - Biden should be applauded for appointing Renee Wegrzyn for ARPA-H by ChristianKl

The Nonlinear Library

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 19, 2022 4:11


Welcome to The Nonlinear Library, where we use Text-to-Speech software to convert the best writing from the Rationalist and EA communities into audio. This is: Biden should be applauded for appointing Renee Wegrzyn for ARPA-H, published by ChristianKl on September 18, 2022 on LessWrong. When Biden first announced ARPA-H (Advanced Research Projects Agency for Health) I was skeptical. At the time the proposal was to make ARPA-H a normal agency within the NIH. When critics argued that the NIH bureaucracy would likely reduce the amount of innovation that ARPA-H could produce the administration listened and US health secretary Xavier Becerra decided to make ARPA-H an independent entity within the NIH. Appointing Renee Wegrzyn as the head of ARPA-H is an excellent choice. Having previously worked at DARPA and IARPA and not in the NIH makes her a good person to copy the structure of how DARPA and IARPA get things done. Being 45, she is twenty years younger than the average director of an institute at the NIH who is 65. When science sometimes evolves from gravestone to gravestone, it's great to see a director for the ARPA-H who's in her forties. Especially, in contrast to the newly appointed NIH director Lawrence A. Tabak who is a 71-year-old (a fact that his NIH biography omits) having a 45-year-old lead ARPA-H is a welcome surprise. While at DARPA, Wegrzyn worked on biosecurity and even gave a talk about the importance of biosecurity to the Long Now Foundation. It's valuable to have people who care about biosecurity at the top of organizations that direct a lot of research dollars. A lot of the research focuses either on directly curing diseases or on basic research but the research that focuses on producing tools for better research is historically underfunded. Wegrzyn experience as vice president of business development at Gingko Bioworks which is a unicorn biotech company that historically doesn't focus on curing diseases directly but providing tools to help other companies, gives me hope that ARPA-H will be able to fund research into producing better tools to deal with biological problems. During COVID-19 they worked on producing COVID tests which was likely a lesson in the flaws of government bureaucracy holding back innovation. In an interview she described her own research as being guided by the question of ‘what do we know about protein folding that can help us develop a totally new type of diagnostic?' I'm happy to see that and think it will lead to better research paths than having someone who focuses more on creating FDA approved drugs in charge of allocating research funding. She coedited Alzheimer's Disease Targets for New Clinical Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies in 2012. It seems to me that one of the more important issues in Alzheimers research funding is the overinvestment in the amyloid cascade hypothesis. The book gets that issue right when it argues “Until recently, the amyloid cascade hypothesis had been the predominant working hypothesis for AD pathogenesis. However, this hypothesis has been supplanted by what some have called the oligomer cascade hypothesis, which posits that Aβ oligomers, rather than fibrils, are the proximate neurotoxic agents in AD” I think she showed excellent judgment by writing a book that argued for directing our Alzheimer research dollar to other paths than the amyloid cascade hypothesis (that part isn't written by her directly). In the essay that she wrote herself, she argues “Drug discovery and development for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease would greatly benefit from biomarkers that are predictive of clinical outcomes to inform the selection of effective drug candidates, monitor dose safety and efficacy on treated cohorts, and identify or confirm the mechanisms of drug action in hopes of developing treatments that go beyond symptomatic relief and are disease modifying. The ability to monitor disease progression longitudinally during patient treatment will also be key to...

RADIOMÁS
Zarpa el Arpa - 17 de septiembre 2022

RADIOMÁS

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 18, 2022 26:39


Zarpa el Arpa - 17 de septiembre 2022 by Radiotelevisión de Veracruz

Bannon's War Room
Episode 2159: The Great Reset: Live From TPUSA Phoenix; If The Regime Continues To Go Unchecked, We Will Continue To See Destruction; ARPA-H: From Healing/Enhancement, To Humanity 2.0

Bannon's War Room

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 16, 2022 Very Popular


Episode 2159: The Great Reset: Live From TPUSA Phoenix; If The Regime Continues To Go Unchecked, We Will Continue To See Destruction; ARPA-H: From Healing/Enhancement, To Humanity 2.0

Capitol Insider from KGOU
Oklahoma legislators working on allocation of $1.8 billion in federal ARPA funds

Capitol Insider from KGOU

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 16, 2022 5:25


Joint Committee on Pandemic Relief Funding working groups evaluating requests for federal funding are picking up the pace as they head toward a special session.

The Rundown with Kansas Legislative Division of Post Audit
COVID Relief Funding Distribution (September 2022)

The Rundown with Kansas Legislative Division of Post Audit

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 14, 2022 24:34 Transcription Available


In response to the COVID pandemic, the federal government enacted six major relief bills totaling over $5 trillion. The federal government allocated about $34 million to the state of Kansas.  Out of that, the state had discretion on how to spend about $2.6 billion. In May 2020, the governor established the Office of Recovery and created a taskforce to distribute and administer certain COVID relief funds. The state distributed CARES Act discretionary funding through a 3 round proess that involved the SPARK taskforce and the State Finance Council. About $1.6 billion in ARPA funds are currently being distributed thorugh legislative appropriation and the SPARK taskforce.The state's distribution of CARES Act funding appeared appropriate and reasonable.  Most of the CARES Act expenditures we reviewed were likey allowable under federal spending rules. However, some expenditures appeared wasteful or raised other concerns even though the expenditure may be allowable under federal rules. Federal rules likely contibuted to the problems we encountered.

The Sovereign Man Podcast
EP57: Rob Arpa - The Lies Of The Left

The Sovereign Man Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 14, 2022 44:02


“Any man under 30 who is not a liberal has no heart, and any man over thirty who is not a conservative has no brains.” ― Winston S. Churchill Leftist ideology is detached from reality. The list of examples is long so we'll just pick one. They're trying to rewrite human nature and they try to use science to convince us. They want to alter our children's bodies while taking away the parents right to be involved in the decision. The lies of the left run deep and this episode aims to expose them. Check out the Sovereign Circle or the Battle Ready program at https://www.sovereignman.ca/. While you're there, check out the store for Sovereign Man t-shirts, hats, and books.

Long Story Short
Democracy Day, ARPA funding, Substandard Housing -- Long Story Short S2 E34

Long Story Short

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 14, 2022 20:40


Keaton Ross explains Democracy Day, Paul Monies updates the legislature's ARPA approvals, and Lionel Ramos talks about an interim study on substandard housing. Ted Streuli hosts.

UBC News World
Health insurance in Arlington will Have Subsidies Increased by ARPA Legislation

UBC News World

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 13, 2022 2:30


Rick Thornton, an Arlington health insurance agent , say that agents recognize that Democrats in the Senate are trying to pass a two-year extension of Insurance subsidies that were originally passed by American Rescue Plan Act (ARPA) for coverage years 2021 and 2022

The Matt Long Show
Monday with Angela Smith!

The Matt Long Show

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 12, 2022 44:47


Texas municipalities are creating budgets - right now! What are YOU doing about your tax rate? Is your city or county taking ARPA funds?

WUWM News
Milwaukee County task force says no to allocating ARPA dollars to rehab The Domes

WUWM News

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 9, 2022 2:31


Four county supervisors asked the Milwaukee County American Rescue Plan Act Task Force for $19 million toward rehabilitating The Mitchell Park Horticultural Conservatory or The Domes, including newly elected Supervisor Juan Miguel Martinez. He represents the 12th District in which the Domes reside. The task force unanimously rejected the proposal.

Holyoke Media Podcasts
Síntesis informativa, 9 de septiembre de 2022.

Holyoke Media Podcasts

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 9, 2022 2:00


Holyoke Media, en asociación con WHMP radio, emiten diariamente la Síntesis informativa en español a través del 101.5 FM y en el 1240 / 1400 AM. Esta es la síntesis informativa del viernes 9 de septiembre de 2022: - El alcalde de Holyoke, Joshua Garcia, junto con el fiscal de distrito de Hampden, Anthony Gulluni, el jefe de policía de Holyoke, David Pratt y el presidente del concejo municipal de Holyoke, Todd McGee, ofrecieron el jueves una conferencia de prensa para discutir los crecientes incidentes de seguridad pública ocurridos en fechas recientes en la ciudad de Holyoke. El alcalde García señaló que han habido cinco homicidios ocurridos este año en la ciudad, dos de ellos recientemente en los pasados días. De igual forma reconoció que la justicia no solo debe ser vista desde la perspectiva de la corte, pero en el acceso a servicios de salud, asistencia en casos de salud mental y adicciones, oportunidades de trabajo y de vivienda, que son factores de calidad de vida que ayudan a evitar incidentes de seguridad pública. Por su parte el fiscal de distrito Anthony Gullini expresó que la implementación de herramientas como el detector de disparos ShotSpotter, ha sido de mucha ayuda en la investigación de casos en Springfield por los pasados diez años y calificó de irresponsables las opiniones de oficiales electos que se expresan de forma negativa hacía la policía. Esto en referencia a comentarios emitidos durante la sesión especial del Concejo Municipal 1 de septiembre por el concejal José Maldonado-Velez. El jefe de policía de Holyoke, David Pratt recalcó que el Departamento de Policía de Holyoke trabajará incansablemente para mitigar la violencia con armas de fuego en la ciudad, gracias al esfuerzo conjunto del alcalde y el fiscal de distrito, así como la colaboración con otras agencias a nivel estatal y federal. El alcalde García agradeció al jefe Pratt y al cuerpo de policía de Holyoke por su respuesta a los incidentes y sus esfuerzos para proteger a la ciudad. Pese a que la discusión del concejo de la ciudad para aceptar fondos federales del Departamento de Justicia por $50, 000 fue aplazada en la sesión especial del 1 de septiembre, el presidente del Concejo Municipal Todd McGee indicó que esta puede retomarse en futuras sesiones para volver a discutirse y emitir una nueva votación. Por su parte García indicó que independientemente del resultado de esa votación, él va a implementar la iniciativa de instalar el detector de disparos y al mismo tiempo buscar fondos, posiblemente de ARPA, para aumentar el área de cobertura a un 80% de las zonas donde se reporta el mayor número de incidentes que involucran armas de fuego. FUENTE: HOLYOKE MEDIA

Public Hearing
Can your idea be ARPA funded? with Casey Burns

Public Hearing

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 8, 2022 27:58


ARPA update! Tune in to hear from our guest Casey Burns from the Coalition for a Healthy Greater Worcester as she talks upcoming ARPA application deadlines, submission resources, and community involvement in the decision making process. Casey also provides insight about the Community Health Improvement Plan (CHIP) and how it can impact funding strategies and priorities throughout the City.There is $10M available through the American Rescue Plan Act (ARPA) for Community Projects and Programs. Applications are due on September 30th. Check the City's site for more information and join the Coalition for a Healthy Greater Worcester for free workshops with grant writers to support you in the application process. Public Hearing is a series-based podcast and radio show from Action! by Design about Worcester, MA and designing sustainable and thriving cities; ones that are rooted in equity, Justice, and Joy. Follow our new Twitter account at @PublicHearingMA!  Tune in Wednesdays at 6pm on WICN 90.5FM, Worcester's only NPR affiliate station. Not in the Worcester area? No worries, you can listen live at WICN.org.

Holyoke Media Podcasts
Síntesis informativa, 8 de septiembre de 2022.

Holyoke Media Podcasts

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 8, 2022 2:00


Holyoke Media, en asociación con WHMP radio, emiten diariamente la Síntesis informativa en español a través del 101.5 FM y en el 1240 / 1400 AM. Esta es la síntesis informativa del jueves 8 de septiembre de 2022: - El Senador de Massachusetts John C. Velis y la Representante Patricia A. Duffy anunciaron el miércoles que $150,000 en fondos ARPA han sido asignados para el Programa de Subsidios Empresariales Latinos de Partners for Community Inc. en Holyoke. El Senador Velis y la Representante Duffy se reunieron en Fiesta Cafe en Holyoke, con su propietario, Juan Montano, así como la Directora Ejecutiva de la Cámara de Comercio de Holyoke, Jordan Hart y con Verónica García, en representación de la Cámara de Comercio Latina de Partner for Community Inc, para hacer el anuncio. García también anunció que el nuevo nombre de la cámara latina de comercio es el Concejo Latino de Desarrollo Económico (Latino Economic Development Council en inglés) Estos fondos ayudarán a los negocios propiedad de latinos en Holyoke, en particular a aquellos que se han visto afectados negativamente por la pandemia de Covid-19. FUENTE: HOLYOKE MEDIA - Un juez federal le dio al Departamento de Justicia de EEUU y a los abogados de Donald Trump hasta el viernes para elaborar una lista de posibles candidatos para servir como maestro especial para revisar los registros que el FBI incautó del inmueble del expresidente en Florida. Pero encontrar personas que tengan la experiencia necesaria y las autorizaciones de seguridad para manejar los documentos altamente clasificados y la voluntad de entrar en el fuego político que rodea la investigación, no será una tarea fácil, dijeron expertos legales. Una ilustración del desafío: la firma de abogados sin fines de lucro National Security Counselors proporcionó la semana pasada a la corte una lista de cuatro posibles candidatos con experiencia en privilegios ejecutivos. Desde entonces, los cuatro han hecho comentarios públicos que sugieren que no quieren el trabajo o que los abogados del Departamento de Justicia o Trump podrían usar para argumentar en su contra. La jueza de distrito de EEUU Aileen Cannon dictaminó el lunes que un maestro especial debe revisar los registros incautados de la casa de Trump en Palm Beach para descartar cualquier cosa que deba ocultarse a los fiscales, ya sea debido al privilegio abogado-cliente o al privilegio ejecutivo, una doctrina legal que protege a algunos Comunicaciones de la Casa Blanca a partir de la divulgación. Sin embargo, los Archivos Nacionales de EE. UU., luego de consultar con el Departamento de Justicia, les dijeron a los abogados de Trump a principios de este año que no puede hacer valer el privilegio contra el poder ejecutivo para proteger los registros del FBI. Algunos expertos legales dijeron que la mejor opción es buscar jueces jubilados recientemente de Washington, D.C. o Florida que hayan manejado casos de seguridad nacional y que podrían restaurar fácilmente su autorización. FUENTE: REUTERS

The Sovereign Man Podcast
SMP EP56 Arpa & Billou -- How To Avoid A Midlife Crisis

The Sovereign Man Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 7, 2022 28:25


“If it's a big deal to your wife, it better become a big deal to you.” Maybe a midlife crisis, on some level, is inevitable. The pattern has its roots. But if men and women, husbands and wives aren't grounded by some basic human principles, the midlife crisis can get out of hand and messy. Ultimately, family comes first. If your partner is showing signs of the midlife crisis, there are things you can and should do to uphold the strength and balance of the family. Check out the Sovereign Circle or the Battle Ready program at https://www.sovereignman.ca/. While you're there, check out the store for Sovereign Man t-shirts, hats, and books.

My 904 News
Afternoon: Jenny harvey and Kim Simon from United Way

My 904 News

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 6, 2022 27:05


Jenny harvey, Director of United Way of St. Johns County and Kim Simon, director of resource development update us on the ARPA funding for local organizations, and their big gala coming up!

Municipal Equation Podcast
Episode 73: ARP in Action

Municipal Equation Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 31, 2022 41:53


Let's take a tour around this state we love so much. On this episode of Municipal Equation, NCLM's podcast about cities and towns adapting to change, we explore how municipalities from the mountains to the coast are programming their American Rescue Plan allocations -- federal funds with transformative potential, and recipient cities are acting in that regard. Our guest on this episode is NCLM's Jack Cassidy, who has been covering ARP from its inception and likes to point out that when municipalities get support, they get the job done. Plenty of examples to celebrate and inspire, here. Listen now. 

The Sovereign Man Podcast
EP55: Billou & Arpa - Andrew Tate - Hero Or Villain?

The Sovereign Man Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 31, 2022 32:50


Andrew Tate sends a confusing message. On one hand, he contributes to raising awareness of some dangerous political and social issues. But on the other hand, he's actually contributing to those same issues by giving advice that can only do damage to men, women and society on a macro scale. Check out the Sovereign Circle or the Battle Ready program at https://www.sovereignman.ca/. While you're there, check out the store for Sovereign Man t-shirts, hats, and books. Also in this episode: P. J. O'Rourke

WUWM News
Milwaukee non-profits that support diverse businesses get a boost from the state and feds

WUWM News

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 30, 2022 2:30


The Evers administration awarded $16 million in ARPA grants, including $6 million to non-profits in the Milwaukee area.

Good Morning Gwinnett Podcast
Gwinnett County Extends Deadline For Local Nonprofits To Apply For Funds

Good Morning Gwinnett Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 29, 2022 52:14


www.GoodMorningGwinnett.com -a division of Noise Podcast Network https://www.NoisePodcastNetwork.comGwinnett County officials have extended the deadline by which local nonprofits have to apply for Coronavirus Local Fiscal Recovery funds.The county announced on Friday that the application deadline will now be Sept. 9. Gwinnett county government and the United Way of Greater Atlanta will be allocating $4.25 million in funds that was provided to the county by the U.S. Department of the Treasury.SOURCE: www.GwinnettDailyPost.com

WNHH Community Radio
Arts Respond with Lucy Gellman: ARPA Funding and the Arts

WNHH Community Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 26, 2022 54:13


Arts Respond with Lucy Gellman: ARPA Funding and the Arts by WNHH Community Radio

Eric Chase
Falls and Loans

Eric Chase

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 26, 2022 50:19


Bethany's husband had quite a fall off a ladder on his trip to the roof. Some people are upset there wasn't a certain warning for House Of The Dragon. Bethany is totally cool with Alex, and others, having their student debt wiped away. I have a new favorite animal at the zoo. It gives me peace. TPS using ARPA funds to bring in more mental health professionals. A discussion about why they're needed there in the first place. 

Future of Agriculture
FoA 325: Electrified and Distributed Fertilizer Production with Nico Pinkowski of Nitricity

Future of Agriculture

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 24, 2022 33:23 Very Popular


Visit our presenting sponsor: www.CalgaryAgbusiness.com Nitricity: https://www.nitricity.co/ Today's episode features Nico Pinkowski, co-founder and CEO of Nitricity, which is a company electrifying and distributing the production of fertilizer. As it is done today, fertilizer emits as much as  5-7%/yr of total global GHG emissions. The company can trace its beginnings back to Stanford University where Nico received his PhD in Mechanical Engineering. Nitricity and Nico have been awarded numerous awards and grants from Stanford, MIT, Caltech, ASU,  Forbes 30 under 30, NSF, USDA, and ARPA-e SBIR, and a recent $20M venture finance round.  We'll start off with a fascinating history of fertilizer production, then talk more about Nitricity's solution, how they've developed it, and how they're bringing it to market with farmers and retailers.

Steady Habits: A CT Mirror Podcast
Affordable housing misses out on stimulus spending in Connecticut

Steady Habits: A CT Mirror Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 23, 2022 7:52


Despite rising rents, skyrocketing home prices and pleas from the Biden administration, Connecticut towns have budgeted just $15 million in federal ARPA funds for housing-related projects. That represents only around 1% of the $1.5 billion in federal stimulus funding they've received over the past year to help people recover from the pandemic and to allow local leaders to make transformational investments in their communities. Investigative reporter Andrew Brown joins host Ebong Udoma to explain why housing is so low on the spending list. You can read his story, co-reported with Ginny Monk, here.See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

Monday Night Talk
Monday Night Talk 959FM WATD - August 15, 2022 Radio Show

Monday Night Talk

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 20, 2022 45:46


This week's program kicks off with Fred Happel, a Weymouth At Large Town Councilor joins the show to provide updates on the community including Weymouth 400 and projects being funded by ARPA money. Hank Schless, Senior Manager of Securities Solutions at Lookout will provide tips on the latest scams targeting unsuspecting back to school shoppers who make purchases online.   Do you have an topic for a future show or info on an upcoming community event? Email us at mondaynighttalk@gmail.com. If you're a fan of the show and enjoy our segments, you can either download your favorite segment from this site or subscribe to our podcasts through iTunes today!  © Monday Night Talk with Kevin Tocci - 2022.  

The Creative Exchange Podcast
Funding the Creative Economy with Senator Julian Cyr

The Creative Exchange Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 19, 2022 31:52


Senator Julian Cyr serves in the Massachusetts Senate representing Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket. First elected to the State Senate on November 8, 2016, Julian is now serving in his second term and is the youngest senator in the 40-member body. And he's been a champion for arts and culture here on Cape Cod.  In this episode, we speak with the Senator about how the arts led him to a career in politics as well as how the Arts Foundation of Cape Cod's Creative Exchange is being bolstered thanks to $400,000 in federal funding from the American Rescue Plan Act (ARPA).  Senator Julian Cyr was instrumental in securing the federal dollars to support the Cape's creative economy, filing an amendment to the Legislature's $4 billion ARPA and surplus tax revenue spending bill, which Governor Charlie Baker signed into law in December 2021.  “These are once-in-a-generation funds that are meant to help us rebuild and repair and build more resilient communities,” Senator Cyr said. “When you look at what powers Cape Cod and the Islands' economy, it is not solely tourism and our gorgeous beaches and natural beauty. The fabric of our community is its creativity and innovation.”

It's All Journalism
Public service reporter tracks ARPA spending in North Carolina

It's All Journalism

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 18, 2022 33:58


Carolina Public Press reporter Shelby Harris investigates how localities in North Carolina are spending American Rescue Plan Act funds on the latest episode of It's All Journalism. Keep up with the latest news about the It's All Journalism podcast, sign up for our weekly email newsletter. Also, listen to our podcast on Apple Podcasts, Google Play, PodcastOne, Soundcloud, or Stitcher.

MID-WEST FARM REPORT - MADISON
Deadline Coming For Meat Dollars

MID-WEST FARM REPORT - MADISON

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 17, 2022 8:15


On Friday, the application period closes for the Meat and Poultry Supply Chain Resiliency Grants. In the first round of these grants, DATCP got 100 applications requesting more than $4.4 million in funding. Because of the high demand, the state created the Meat and Poultry Supply Chain Resiliency Grants -- up to $10 million in ARPA funds to continue to grow Wisconsin's meat processing industry and improve the long-term viability of the state's livestock industry, explains DATCP Secretary Randy Romanski. Wisconsin meat processors can get grants of up to $150,000. Applications for the grant were released in May, and the application period will close this Friday, Aug. 19.See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

DECAL Download
Episode 51 - CRRSA & ARPA Spending Plan (Projects Supporting Child Care Providers)

DECAL Download

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 16, 2022 30:49


In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Georgia received over $2-billion in federal money to help stabilize the child care industry, increase access to high quality child care for all families of young children, and support the state's early childhood education workforce.  The money comes from the federal Coronavirus Response and Relief Supplemental Appropriations Act and from the American Rescue Plan Act.  We are now announcing how we will spend the remaining $400-million in a list of projects supporting child care providers, the ECE workforce, families, and other groups. Joining us to discuss our plans for supporting child care providers is Pam Stevens, Deputy Commissioner of Child Care Services, and Dr. Bentley Ponder, Deputy Commissioner of Quality Innovations and Partnerships.  Support the show

Good Morning Aurora
Tuesday | 8/16/2022 | ARPA, RBI & CDBG Funds, Wards & Redistricting (Live Aurora News & Updates)

Good Morning Aurora

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 16, 2022 68:56


Good morning friends! It's Tuesday and we have your news and headlines for you. $3 million in grants for Aurora infrastructure, wards & redistricting and CDBG grant workshop. Tune in to tomorrow's PTSD event live on the Kane County State's Attorney's Facebook page. Refill your coffee and let's get busy! Here's the news: - Tuesday, August 30th from 2 to 3 pm there will be a Veteran's Benefit presentation at the Santori Branch of the Aurora Public Library, downtown. Learn about VA Pension Benefits and how it can be of financial assistance for assisted living care. This event is presented by Bardwell Residences & Claims Agent Jerry Schmitt. See the flyer for more details and instructions on how to RSVP. Save the date! This event is free and open to the public. - This Thursday, August 18th will be open mic night at Tavern On Broadway. The musical guest will be Olivia Ports Music & Gremlen Recording Studio. Get ready for a great time at a great location! #auroradowntown - Saturday September 10th is the Kid's Expo, taking place at Phillips Park! This is hosted by Illinois House District 84 and will be held from 10 am to 1 pm. This is a free and fun event open to the public and will be held rain or shine. For more information call 630-585-1308. Bring the family out for a good time, we hope to see you there! Have a great day today! Good Morning Aurora will return Friday morning for more news, more culture and more Aurora. Subscribe to the show on YouTube at this link: https://www.youtube.com/c/GoodMorningAuroraPodcast The second largest city's first daily news podcast is here. Tune in everyday to our FB Live from 8 am to 9 am. Make sure to like and subscribe to stay updated on all things Aurora. Twitter: goodmorningaur1 Instagram: goodmorningaurorail Spotify: https://open.spotify.com/show/6dVweK5Zc4uPVQQ0Fp1vEP... Apple: https://podcasts.apple.com/.../good-morning.../id1513229463 Anchor: https://anchor.fm/goodmorningaurora #positivevibes #positiveenergy #downtownaurora #kanecountyil #bataviail #genevail #stcharlesil #saintcharlesil #elginil #northaurorail #auroraillinois #auroramedia #auroranews #goodmorningaurora #comedy #news #dailynews #subscribe #youtube #podcast #spotify #morningnews #morningshow #tuesday --- Send in a voice message: https://anchor.fm/goodmorningaurora/message Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/goodmorningaurora/support

Good Morning from WVIK news
Good Morning from WVIK News for Monday, August 15th, 2022

Good Morning from WVIK news

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 15, 2022 8:55


Candidates take to the soap box at the IA State Fair...Moline tries to decide how to spend $21 million ARPA dollars...Another effort to save the RICO courthouse...A local game developor features local musicians that now live elsewhere...Partly sunny and 80 today!

Radio 24 Podcast
Musica maestro - Novità discografiche: Valentina Ciardelli (contrabbasso) e Anna Astesano (arpa), Miriam Baumann (piano), Amandine Beyer (violino)

Radio 24 Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 14, 2022


"Musica Maestro" è il programma di Radio 24 dedicato alla musica classica: lirica, sinfonica, d'epoca, strumentale e da camera commentata dai protagonisti del momento. Il programma affronta la musica sotto molteplici sfaccettature, indagando e portando alla luce anche i rapporti con la cultura, la filosofia, la scienza e la società, ponendo un'attenzione particolare all'attualità: ogni settimana la segnalazione di un libro o un disco appena uscito, un esecutore o un giovane musicista, un anniversario o un avvenimento di rilievo.

Capitol Journal
August 12, 2022

Capitol Journal

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 12, 2022 56:41


A busy week at the State House as lawmakers gather for budget updates. We'll take you inside the meetings. The state's cannabis commission adopts final rules for medical marijuana. Director John McMillan explains. Cam Ward of the Bureau of Pardons and Paroles explains electronic monitoring and preventing opioid deaths. State Senator Greg Albritton discusses the challenging situation in Alabama's prisons; House Minority Leader Anthony Daniels discusses the state's use of ARPA money as his party's electoral performance. And Steve Murray of the Department of Archives and History explains how the state is reuniting Native American tribes with sensitive artifacts. 

The CityVoice Podcast
CityVoice - S04E20: One year later: How cities are using ARPA funds

The CityVoice Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 12, 2022 14:52


It's been just over a year since cities began receiving federal funds under the American Rescue Plan Act (ARPA). During our Annual Conference in Vancouver this year, we held an educational session where panelists addressed complying with federal rules, how their cities are using ARPA funds, and talked through some of the lingering challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic. AWC's Jacob Ewing sat down with the panelists to gather their thoughts and insights on ARPA and cities.

The Lit Round Table
Part 3 | Hall of Smoke Read Along

The Lit Round Table

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 10, 2022 33:01


Join the Sib-Nerds as they continue their journey through Hall of Smoke by H.M. Long and discuss chapters 12-15 Oulden, and Arpa, and tension, oh my! There were some “intense shenanigans” in this section. While we witness Hessa deconstruct her own culture, it's fascinating to see how she learns from each new group of people she encounters. After an intense fight (thunderdome!) with an imposter god, Oulden, and Eang, Hessa is accompanied by an owl messenger. For next time, read chapters 16-19. Happy Reading! Twitter: @litround Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/LitRoundTable Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/thelitroundtable Art: Kris Easler: https://www.kriseasler.com/

The Sovereign Man Podcast
SMP EP52: Arpa & Billou -  Why Jerry West (AKA the NBA Logo) Is Wrong About His Father

The Sovereign Man Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 10, 2022 26:29


Jerry West is an NBA legend who's been immortalized in the NBA logo. He wrote an autobiography called, West By West: My Charmed, Tormented Life where he shares his perspective on being raised by his imperfect father. Here at the Sovereign Man, we believe that father's, even many of the imperfect one's, deserve some credit in the legacy of the their children. Jerry West's performance as an athlete suggests the his father's methods, though imperfect, contributed to Jerry's fire and immense success as an athlete and role model. You can find Jerry West's autobiography, West By West: My Charmed, Tormented Life, on Amazon. Check out the Sovereign Circle or the Battle Ready program at https://www.sovereignman.ca/. While you're there, check out the store for Sovereign Man t-shirts, hats, and books.

What The Flux
Beyond Meat trims fat on workforce | PayPal, Pinterest stalked by Elliot | ARPA flexes climate muscle

What The Flux

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 7, 2022 5:52


Beyond Meat has cut its revenue outlook and now it plans to trim the fat on its workforce.   PayPal and Pinterest both saw their share prices spike last week after an activist hedge fund entered the chat.   APRA, the Aussie prudential regulator, reckons a quarter of the companies it regulates do not have any metrics to measure and monitor climate risks.     ---   Build the financial wellbeing of your team at work with Flux at Work: https://bit.ly/fluxatwork Download the free app (App Store): http://bit.ly/FluxAppStore Download the free app (Google Play): http://bit.ly/FluxappGooglePlay   ---   The content in this podcast reflects the views and opinions of the hosts, and is intended for personal and not commercial use. We do not represent or endorse the accuracy or reliability of any opinion, statement or other information provided or distributed in these episodes.See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

Slices of Wenatchee
PUD commissioners officially shortlisted two developers for Fifth Street Redevelopment; $4 million in grants from ARPA through Chelan County

Slices of Wenatchee

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 6, 2022 6:02


Today - Chelan County PUD commissioners officially shortlisted two developers for the Fifth Street Redevelopment project. And later - Local nonprofits, community agencies and small agricultural businesses qualify to apply for part of $4 million in grants from the federal American Rescue Plan Act through Chelan County.Support the show: https://www.wenatcheeworld.com/site/forms/subscription_services/See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

The Daily Dose: Maryland Confronts COVID-19
The sky's the limit for a summer youth aviation program

The Daily Dose: Maryland Confronts COVID-19

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 5, 2022 16:28


More than 14-million dollars in ARPA funds will go toward an initiative to help clean up Baltimore neighborhoods.  Baltimore County school officials are hoping a new app will help ease the chaos created by the continuing school bus driver shortage. Parents have been notified that the free meal program in Baltimore County Public Schools is ending. A summer youth initiative is giving some inner-city students a taste of the aviation field and a plan by the The U.S. Naval Academy for a golf course across the Severn River is drawing criticism from some environmentalists.See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

Midday
Mayor Brandon Scott: Baltimore's NNO, public safety, ARPA funds

Midday

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 4, 2022 24:27


Welcome to another edition of Midday with the Mayor, host Tom Hall's monthly conversations with Baltimore City Mayor Brandon Scott about key issues facing the citizens of Baltimore. Today, Tom asks the mayor about the annual Public Safety Report summarizing progress on the mayor's Multi-Year Violence Prevention Plan; an update on the squeegee workers collaborative; a new city-wide count of the homeless; new allocations for American Rescue Plan funds, including nearly $15 million to the city's Clean Corps initiative to clean up and beautify targeted city neighborhoods; and this week's National Night Out events across the city.   Mayor Brandon Scott joins us on Zoom from his office in City Hall. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

Cincinnati Edition
Millions of people could lose their insurance if ARPA premium subsidy expires

Cincinnati Edition

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 3, 2022 23:22


Congress is considering a massive tax and health care bill that could extend the subsidy.

Idea Machines
DARPA and Advanced Manufacturing with William Bonvillian [Idea Machines #46]

Idea Machines

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 2, 2022 48:26


William Bonvillian does a deep dive about his decades of research on how DARPA works and his more recent work on advanced manufacturing.  William is a Lecturer at MIT and the Senior Director of Special Projects,at MIT's Office of Digital Learning. Before joining MIT he spent almost two decades as a senior policy advisor for the US senate. He's also published many papers and a detailed book exploring the DARPA model.  Links William's Website The DARPA Model for Transformative Technologies Transcript [00:00:35] In this podcast, William Bonvillian, and I do a deep dive about his decades of research about how DARPA works and his more recent work on advanced manufacturing. Well humans, a lecturer at MIT and a senior director of special projects at MIT is office of digital learning. Before joining MIT. He spent almost two decades as a senior policy advisor for the us Senate. He's published many papers and a detailed book exploring the DARPA model. I've wanted [00:01:35] to compare notes with him for years. And it was a pleasure. And an honor to finally catch up with him. Here's my conversation with William [00:01:42] Ben: The place that I I'd love to start off is how did you get interested in, in DARPA and the DARPA model in the first place you've been writing about it for more than a decade now. And, and you're probably one of the, the foremost people who who've explored it. So how'd you get there in the first. [00:01:58] William: You know, I, I I worked for the us Senate as a advisor in the Senate for for about 15 years before coming to MIT then. And I I worked for a us Senator who is on the on the armed services committee. And so I began doing a substantial amount of that staffing, given my interest in science technology, R and D and you know, got early contact with DARPA with some of DARPA's both program managers and the DARPA directors, and kind of got to know the agency that way spent some time with them over in their [00:02:35] offices. You know, really kind of got to know the program and began to realize what a, what a dynamic force it was. And, you know, we're talking 20, 20 plus years ago when frankly DARPA was a lot less known than it is now. So yeah, just like you know, kind of suddenly finding this, this Jewelbox varied in the. It was it was a real discovery for me and I became very, very interested in the, kind of the model they had, which was so different than the other federal R and D agencies. [00:03:05] Ben: Yeah. And, and actually um, It sort of in your mind, what is the for, for people who I, I think tend to see different federal agencies that give money to researchers as, as all being in the same bucket. What, what do you, what would you describe the difference between DARPA and the NSF as being [00:03:24] William: well? I mean, there's a big difference. So the NSF model is to support basic research. And they have, you know, the equivalent of project [00:03:35] managers there and they, they don't do the selecting of the research projects. Instead they queue up applicants for funds and then they supervise a peer review process. Of experts, you know, largely from academia who evaluate, you know, a host of proposals in a, in a given R and D area mm-hmm and and make valuations as to which ones would qualify. What are the kind of best most competitive applicants for NSFs basic research. So DARPA's got a different project going on, so it doesn't work from the bottom up. It, it has strong program managers who are in effect kind of empowered to go out and create new things. So they're not just, you know, responding to. Grant applications for basic research, they come into DARPA and develop a [00:04:35] vision of a new breakthrough technology area. They wanna stand up. And so it's, and there's no peer review here. It's really, you hire talented program managers. And you unleash them, you turn them loose, you empower them to go out and find the best work that's going on in the country. And that's, that can be from, from universities and often ends in this breakthrough technology area they've identified. But it also could be from comp companies, often smaller companies and typically they'll construct kind of a hybrid model where they've got academics. Companies working on a project, the companies are already always oriented to getting the technology out the door. Right. Cause they have to survive, but the researchers are often in touch with some of the more breakthrough capabilities behind the research. So bringing those two together is something that the program manager at DARPA does. So while at [00:05:35] NSF, the program manager equivalent, you know, their big job is getting grant out the door and supervising a complex selection process by committee mm-hmm . The role of the, of the ARPA of the, of the DARPA program manager is selecting the award winners is just the beginning of the job. Then in effect you move into their home, right? You work with them on an ongoing basis. DARPA program managers are spending at least one third of their time on the road, linking up with their, you know, with their grantees, the folks they've contracted with sort of helping them along in the process. And then, you know, the typically fund a group of research awards in an area they'll also work on putting together kind of a thinking community amongst those award winners. Contract winners so that they begin to share their best ideas. And that's not a, that's not easy, right? Yeah. Yeah. If you're an academic [00:06:35] or you, a company, you stuff, you trading ideas is a complicated process, but that's one of the tasks. That the DARPA program manager has, is to really build these thinking communities around problems. And that's what they that's what they're driven to do. So it's a very, very different situation. This is, this is the different world here that Dar is created [00:07:01] Ben: and, and sort of actually to, to, to click on The, the how DARPA program managers interact with ideas. Do you have a sense of how they incentivize that idea sharing? Is it just the, the concept that if you share these ideas, they might get funded in a way that they wouldn't or like what, how do they sort of construct that That trust that people for people could actually be sharing those ideas. [00:07:28] William: Yeah. In, in some ways then it starts out at an all stage. So before, you know, a new [00:07:35] program manager arrives at DARPA and often they'll have, I mean, this could be ape. It could be I RPA, which worked slightly different ways, but similar kind of approach RPE is our energy DARPA. I, APA is our intelligence Dar. Right. And then soon we'll have a help DARPA, which has now been funded. Yeah. I wanna [00:07:55] Ben: your opinion on that later. [00:07:57] William: Okay. Well, we're working away on this model here. You know, you hire a program manager and you hire somebody. Who's gonna be, you know, talent and dynamic and kind of entrepreneurial and standing up a new program. They get the DARPA and they begin to work on this new technology area. And a requirement of DARPA is that really be a breakthrough. They don't wanna fund incremental work that somebody else may be doing. They wanna find a new, new territory. That's their job, revolutionary breakthroughs. To get there. They'll often convene workshops, 1, 2, 3 workshops with some of the best thinkers around the country, including people, [00:08:35] people who may be applying for the funding, but they'll, they'll look for the best people bringing together and get, you know, a day long process going um, often in several different locations to kind of think through. Technology advance opportunity. How, how it might shape up what might contribute, how might you organize it? What research might go into it, what research areas and that kind of begins the kind of thinking process of building a community around a problem. And then they'll make grant awards. And then similarly, they're gonna be frequently convening this group and everybody can sit on their hands and keep their mouth shut. But you know, that's not often the way technologists work. They'll get into a problem and start wanting to share ideas and brainstorm. And that's, that's typically what then takes place and part of the job of the, of. Partner manager DARPA is to really encourage that kind of dialogue and get a lot of ideas on the table and really promote it. Yeah. [00:09:34] Ben: [00:09:35] And, and then also with, with those ideas do, do you have, like, in your, your having looked at this so much, do you have a sense of how much there there's this tension? You know, it's like people generally do the best research when they feel a lot of ownership over their own ideas and they feel like they're, they're really working on. The, the thing that they want to work on. But then at the same time to sort of for, for, for the, a project to play into a broader program, you often need to sort of adjust ideas towards sort of a, a bigger system or a bigger goal. Do you have, do you have an idea of how much Program managers sort of shape what people are working on versus just sort of enabling people to work on things that they would want to work on. Otherwise. [00:10:24] William: Yeah. The program manager in communication with DARPA's office directors and director. Right, right. So it's a very flat organization. You know, and [00:10:35] there'll be an office director and a number of program managers working with that office director. For example in the field of, of biological technologies, a fairly new DARPA office set up about a decade ago. Yeah. You know, there'll be a group of DARPA program managers with expertise in that field and they will often have often a combination of experiences. They'll have some company experience as well as some academic research experience that they're kind of walking on both sides. They'll come into DARPA often with some ideas about things they want to pursue, right. And then they'll start the whittle down process to get after what they really wanna do. And that's, that's a very, very critical stage. They'll do it often in dialogue with fellow program managers at DARPA who will contribute ideas and often with their office. Who kind of oversees the portfolio and we can feed that DARPA program manager into other areas of expertise around DARPA. So coming up with a big breakthrough idea, then [00:11:35] you test it out in these workshops, as I mentioned, right. As well as in dialogue with your colleagues at DARPA. And then if it looks like it's gonna work, then you can move it rapidly to the approval process. But DARPA is, you know, I mean, it's what its name says. It's advanced research projects agency. So it's not just doing research. It very much wants to do projects. And you know, it's an agency and it's a defense agency, so they're gonna be, have to be related to the defense sector. Although there's often spill over into huge areas of civilian economy, like in the it world really pioneer a lot. But essentially the big idea to pursue that's being developed by the program manager and refined by the program manager. And then they'll put out, you know, often what's called a broad area announcement, a BIA. We wanna get a technology that will do this. Right. Right. Give us your best [00:12:35] ideas. And put this out, this broad area announcement out and get people to start applying. And if it's, if the area is somewhat iffy, they can, you know, proceed with smaller awards to see how it kind of tests out rather than going into a full, larger, larger award process with kind of seedlings they'll plant. So there's a variety of mechanisms that it uses, but getting that big breakthrough revolution or idea is the key job at a program manager. And then they'll, they're empowered to go out and do it. And look, Dora's very cooperative. The program managers really work with each other. Yeah. But in addition, it's competitive and everybody knows whose technology is getting ahead, whose technology is moving out and what breakthroughs it might lead to. So there's a certain amount of competition amongst the program managers too, as to how their revolution is coming along. Nice. [00:13:28] Ben: And, and then sort of to, to go sort of like one level down the hierarchy, if you will. When [00:13:35] they put out these, these BAAs do you have a sense for, of how often the performers will sort of either shift their focus to, to, towards a APA program or like how much sort of haggling is there between the performer and the, the program manager in terms of Sort of finding this balance between work that supports the, the broader program goals and work that sort of supports a researcher's already existing agenda. Right. Because, you know, it's like people in their labs, they, they sort of have this, the things that they're pursuing and maybe they're, they're like sort of roughly in the same direction as a program, but need to be, need to be shifted. [00:14:20] William: Yeah. It's, you know, the role of the program manager is to put out a new technological vision, you know, some kind of new breakthrough territory. That's gonna really be a very significant [00:14:35] advance that can be implemented. It's gonna be applied. It's not discovery. It's implementation that they're oriented to. They want to create a new thing that can be implemented. So they're gonna put the vision out there and look the evaluation process. Is gonna look hard at whether or not this exact question you're raising. It's gonna look hard at whether or not the, the applicant researcher is kind of doing their own thing or can actually contribute to the, to the implementation of the vision. And that's gonna be the cutoff. Will it serve the vision or not? And if it's not, it's not gonna get the award. So look, that's an issue with DARPA. DARPA is going at their particular technology visions. NSF will fund, you know, it's driven by the applicants. They will think of ideas they wanna pursue and see if they can get NSF funding for it at DARPA's the other way around the program manager has vision [00:15:35] and then sees who's willing to pursue that vision with him or her. Yeah. Right. So it's a, it's more of a, I won't say top down because DARPA's very collaborative, but it's more of a top down approach than as opposed to NSF, which is bottom up. They're going for technology visions, not to see what neat stuff is out there. right. [00:15:56] Ben: Yeah. And just to, to shift a little bit you, you mentioned I a RPA and ARPA, E as, as other government agencies that, that used the same model you wrote an article in 2011 about ARPA E and, and I I'm interested in. What like how you think that it has played out over, over the past decade? Like how, like how well do you think that they, they have implemented the model? Do you think that it, it does work there. And like what other places do you think, I guess do, do you have a sense of like how to know whether a DARPA, the DARPA [00:16:35] model is applicable to an area more broadly? [00:16:39] William: Yeah. I mean, look that's, and that's kind of a, that's kind of a key question, you know, if you wanna do a, if you wanna do a DARPA, like thing, is it gonna work in the territory that you wanna work in? But let's, let's look at this energy issue. You know, I was involved in, you know, some of the early discussions about creating an, a. For for energy and, you know, the net result of that was that Congressman named bar Gordon led an effort on the house science committee to really create an ARPA energy. And, and that approach had been recommended by a national academies committee. And it you know, it seemed to make a term on a sense. So what was going on in energy at the time of formulation of this. Like the 2007 rough time period. You know, 2008, what was happening was that there was significant amount of investment that was moving from, in, [00:17:35] in moving in venture capital towards new energy, clean tech technologies. So the venture capital sector in that timetable was ramping. It's 2006, 2007 time period was ramping up its venture funding and Cleantech. And that's when AR was being proposed and consider. So it looks like it looked to us, looks everybody, like there would be a way of doing the scale up. Right. In other words, it's not enough just to have, you know, Cool things that come out of an agency, you need to implement the technology. So who's gonna implement it. Right. Who's gonna do that scale up into actual implementation. And that's a very key underlying issue to consider when you're trying to set up a DARPA model. DARPA has the advantage of a huge defense procurement budget. So, right. It can, you know, it can formulate a new technology breakthrough, like [00:18:35] saying stealth, right. Mm-hmm or in you know, UAVs and drones. And then it can turn to the defense department that will spend procuring money to actually stand up the model on a good day. Cause that doesn't always happen. doesn't always go. Right. But, but it's there, what's the scale up model gonna be for energy? Well, we thought there was gonna be venture capital money to scale up Cleantech. And then the bottom fell out of the Cleantech venture funding side in the 2008, 2009 time table and venture money really pulled out. So, you know, in 2009 is. Harpa E first received it, significant early funding. Got an appropriation of 400 million had been authorized for the science committee and then it got an appropriation. Could you say that again? And the there was a big risk there. So look, RPE was then created, had a very dynamic leader named Maju. Who's now at Stanford leading the energy initiatives there. Aroon [00:19:35] saw the challenge and he frankly rose to it. So if they weren't gonna get this, these technologies scaled up through venture capital, like everybody assumed would work. How are they gonna do scale up? So who did a whole series of very creative things? There was some venture left. So we maintained, you know, good relations with the venture world. But also with the corporate world, because there were a lot of corporations that were interested in kind of moving in some of these directions. If these new technologies complimented technologies, they were already pursuing, right. So room created this annual. RPE summit where all of its award winners would, you know, present their technologies and, you know, fabulous, you know, presentations and booths all around this conference. It rapidly became the leading energy technology conference in the us wide widely attended by thousands of people. Venture capital may not be funding much, but they were there. But more importantly, [00:20:35] companies were there. And, you know, looking at what these technologies were to see how they could get to get stood up. So that was a way of exposing what was RPE was doing in a really big way. Right. Right. Another approach they tried was very successfully was to create what they call the tech to market group. So in addition to your program manager at RPE, You stand up a new project and assigned to that project would be somebody with expertise in the commercialization of technology by whatever route the financing might be obtained. And they brought in a series of experts who had done this, who knew venture, who knew startups, who also knew federal government contracting in case the feds were gonna buy this stuff, particularly a D O D and this tech to market group became, you know, that was part of the discipline of standing up a project was to really make sure there was gonna be a pathway to commercialization. In fact, that approach. [00:21:35] Was so successful and DARPA for a number of years later hired away RPE tech tech to tech, to market director to run and set up its own tech to market program. Right. Which was, you know, the, the new child is just taught the parent a lesson here is what the, what the point was. So there's now a tech to market group at, at DARPA as well. Another approach they did. Was, you know, there's a, there's a substantial amount of other R and D funding, more incrementally oriented at the department of energy. The E E R E program, but other programs in different energy technology areas will support, you know, companies, company research, as well as academic research. So RP built very good ties. With E E R E the applied research wing for renewable energy and other applied research, arms of department of energy so that they could provide the kind of next stage in funding. So you do the [00:22:35] prototyping through APA E and then some of the scale up could occur through through. Some of the applied agencies within the department of department of energy. So that was, there were other things they attempted as well. But those were some of the most creative and, you know, they got around this problem. Now there's an underlying issue in energy technology and, and it's true for many. DARPA like approaches the technologies don't stand up overnight. In other words, you don't do your applied work and end up with an early prototype and expect it to become a major business within two weeks. Right. Right. That process can take 10 years or 15 years, particularly in the hard tech area. Right. Anything that requires manufacturing? Yeah. Energy technology stand up. That's a, that's a 10 to 15 year process in the United States. So RPS only been around what, you know, 11, 12 years, something like that. They're still, you know, their technology are still emerging. They have made a lot of [00:23:35] technology contributions in a lot of technology areas that have helped expand opportunity spaces. Yeah. In many interesting areas. So they really helped, I believe. In identifying kind of new territories where there can be advances. But you know, have we transformed the world and solve climate change because of RPE yet? No, no, that's, that's a longer term project. So you have to have that expectation when you look at these different story of software and in some it sectors, DARPAs played a huge role in the evolution of those. Those could be shorter. Yeah, but anything really in the heart tech area is gonna take a much more extended period. Yeah. So you have to be patient. The politicians can't expect change in two weeks or two years. They're gonna have to be a little more patient. [00:24:24] Ben: And, and another sort of just issue that I, I, I'm not sure is, is a real thing, but that I've noticed is that a difference between DARPA and RPE is that [00:24:35] with, with DARPA, when you have the, the DOD acquiring technologies, they can sort of gather together all the different projects that were in, in, within a program and sort of integrate them into an entire system where. When you have a, an ape E program ending there's, there are a number of different projects, but there, there, isn't a great way of sort of integrating all the different pieces of a program. Is that an accurate assessment or am I, am I off base on that? [00:25:07] William: No, Ben, I think that's, I think that's accurate. I know. I mean the part of energy doesn't have a procurement budget. Right, right. Like the defense department does, it's not spending 700 billion a year to make things. So it can't play that system scale up kind of role in the kind of way the defense department does. Now. Look, I, I don't wanna overstate this because DARPA has definitely stood up technologies outside of defense, above procurement. So [00:25:35] most of its it revolution stuff. Where it played a, you know, big role, for example, as you know, in the development of desktop computing and, and a huge role in, in supporting the internet development of the internet. Absolutely. You know, those got stood up, not particularly through DOD, they got stood up in the civilian sector. So DARPA, you know, works on both sides of the street here. If it appears advantageous to, to stand it up on the civilian side, let it scale up and then the can buy it. Right. Mm-hmm , it'll do that. But on the other hand, there's, you know, there's very critical areas. Defense's gonna have to be a lead on like, you know, GPS, for example and really scale up the system. And then it can be shifted over to serve a dual use. [00:26:22] Ben: And, and then, so, so sort of like looking forward to the, the future how do you see all these considerations playing out with with ARPA H the, the health ARPA that is, I think been approved, [00:26:35] but hasn't actually started doing anything yet. [00:26:39] William: Yeah. It's got money appropriated. So you, and it's a priority of the. Of the current administration. So, you know, I believe it's gonna happen here. I mean, look, you know, there, there's some things that just need to be in place for a DARPA model to work well, mm-hmm, scale up is one that we've talked about and, you know, there is a pathway to scale up for new breakthroughs in in, you know, biomedicine and and, and medical device. We've got strong venture capital support in that area for a series of historical reasons. So that follow one pickup in many fields, right, is gonna be is gonna be available in many biomedical kind of fields. Know, there are issues. There, there was a big debate about an issue that I'll call island bridge, right? What you want, what you wanna do [00:27:35] with your DARPA is you want to put your, your DARPA team on an island. You wanna protect that island and keep the bureaucracy away from it. Right? Let 'em do their thing out there and do great stuff. And don't let the bureaucracy, the suits interfere with them. Yeah. On the other hand, they really need a bridge back to the mainland to get their technologies scaled up. So DARPA, for example, reports to the, in effect to the secretary defense and can undertake projects that the secretary defense can then, you know, in effect force the military services to pick up or, you know, use, use budgeting authority to encourage the military services to pick up DARPA has it's an island. It's got a separate building. It's about five miles away from the Pentagon. It's got its team there. It's got its own established culture. But then it's got a bridge back to the mainland, through the secretary of defense, into the defense procurement system. What's gonna be ARPA HS [00:28:35] relationship there. So there've been a lot of. About where to put ARPA-h do you put it in NIH, which is another, like NSF, another peer review, basic research agencies by far the biggest it's got its own culture and that culture frankly, is not a DARPA culture, right? That's not a strong program manager culture. It's a peer review culture. Do you really want to put your DARPA like thing within NIH? And within that NIH culture on the other hand, where else are you gonna put it? Right. So at the moment we've gotta compromise the ARPA H is gonna report to the secretary of HHS, but the secretary of HHS. Doesn't have money to scale up new technologies to speak up. Right. Right. There is an assistant secretary of health who oversees BARDA and some other entities. So, you know, that's, that's a possibility. But NIH has got a lot of ongoing research going on. [00:29:35] There could be a lot of following research that came out of NIH, NIH. So it's, this is a challenge. This is a challenge to set up the right kind of island bridge model for this new ARPA H. We've kind of got a compromise there at the moment. It will be located somewhere on the NIH campus. Hopefully in a separate, you know, building or location. Yeah. And then report to the secondary of HHS. But how are these, how is this scale up gonna work here? What's the bridge to the mainland gonna be and will it be protected enough from a very different culture at NIH? With lots of look, lots of jealousies, you know, when RPE was created for energy, the labs saw the, you know, there's 14 major energy labs, right? They saw RPE as a big competitor for funding that was gonna take money away from the labs. It took a long time to build those relationships so that the lab saw RPE, not as a competitor, but as a way in which their stuff could help. Move ahead. [00:30:35] Yeah. Uh, And that took a while to kind of sort out. So there's a series of these issues that are gonna have to get well thought through for for this new ARPA H that opening culture is absolutely critical. Say more about that and it, yeah. In other words, the culture of strong program managers that are empowered and ready to pursue breakthrough technologies. That's the heart of the darker culture, that culture locks in, in the opening months. If you get it wrong, it's very hard to fix it later. You really can't go back. Yeah. So hiring the right people, having a DARPA director who understands, for example, an ARPA age director who really understands the DARPA model and how to implement it that's gonna be key in setting that culture upright to the. [00:31:23] Ben: Yeah. And, and, and you've mentioned a, a couple of times the, sort of the effect of physical location on, on the culture. Have you, have you seen that, that, like where [00:31:35] people are physically located really like have an effect on, on resulting cultures? [00:31:41] William: Yeah. I mean, look, obviously post pandemic, we're exploring remote work a lot. Yes. But there's a lot to be said for getting your, your thinking team in one place where they're bouncing off ideas, each other with each other all the time. Yeah. Where they're exposed and, and critiqued and evaluated. And they just can't see each other, remind each other kind of all the time. So creating that island. With your talent on it so that they can interact and, and inevitably work pretty intensively together. Yeah. That's a, you know, I think that's a, something of a prerequisite to getting these kinds of organizations together. You've gotta build that earliest free to core and that early culture that that's very empowered. [00:32:30] Ben: And, and so just sort of to, to take, to take a, a right turn [00:32:35] and, and talk a little bit about your, your work on, on advanced manufacturing. This is, this is an area I personally know much less about. But like, I guess one, one sort of basic thing is I think a lot of people Like don't have a good sense of what sort of advanced manufacturing actually means. Like what, what is, what is, what, what, what does advanced actually entail in this situation? [00:33:00] William: Yeah, let me, let me tell you know, a little bit of a story here. Yeah, please. The there are a suite of new technologies. Corresponding processes that are kind of emerging, right. And some have, you know, some have emerged. Some are earlier at an earlier stage but areas like robotics, you know, 3d printing, additive manufacturing obviously digital digital production technologies. Where it is built into kind of every stage. All of your factory floor equipment is all [00:33:35] linked. You're doing continuous analytics on each machine, but then able to connect them to see the processes as a whole that kind of it revolution side. Then there's a whole series of advances in critical, you know, materials. that will enable us to do kind of designer materials in a way we've never done before, because we can now really operate at the medical level in designing materials. So, you know, we can have, you know, in the, in the clean tech space or automotive space, for example, we can have much lighter, much stronger materials. And in a related area, composites are now, you know, an emerging opportunity space. For a lot of, kind of new manufacturing. We may be able to do electronics, which is a whole new generation of electronics based on light and with whole kind of range of new speed for electronics as a result of that and new efficiencies. So there's a lot of technologies that are, that are [00:34:35] available. Some are starting to enter. Some are further back like Flo for example. But they could completely transform the way in which we make things. And that's what advanced manufacturing is. Can we move to these new technologies and, and the processes that go with them in completely transforming the way in which we make. [00:34:57] Ben: Yeah. And, and like, so, so this is, I'm very interested in this and it, it feels like there isn't like, like sort of answering that question involves real research. Right? Cause you, you sort of need to, to rethink processes, you need to rethink how you do design. But at the same time, there, there aren't a lot of. Institutions that are, are organized to do that sort of research. [00:35:23] William: Yeah, that's look that this has been a big gap in our R and D portfolio in the United States. So at the end of world war II, Ben you know, veever Bush designs, the postwar [00:35:35] system for science. Right, right. So. We do this amazing connected system in world war II. We have industries working with universities, working with government that're closely tied. We do incredible advances that lead to, you know, the, they lead to the electronics industry. They lead to the whole aerospace industry, right at the kind of scale we have now, they lead to, they lead to nuclear power. Amazing stuff comes out of world war. I. And we had a very connected system. Then we, we dismantled the military at the end of the work. Cause we thought mistakenly there was gonna be world peace and all those 16 million, you know, soldiers, sailors, airmen that are overseas start to come home and VIN Bush steps in and he says, wait a minute, let's hang on to some of this. We built this amazing R D capability in the course of the war. Let's hold on to some of it. So he says let's support basic research. That's the cheapest stage, right? Applied research costs a lot more. Yep. So we decided let's hang onto that. [00:36:35] And then we began during the war with a lot of federal research funding and universities really for the first time. So my school MIT got 80 times. Amount of federal research funding in four years of world war II, as it did in all of its previous 80 years of history, wow. That's happening at a whole bunch of schools. We're creating this incredible jewel in the American system. We're creating the federally funded research university. So it leads to that which is big, positive, but neighbor Bush's basic research model leaves out the applied side. And the assumption he's got, it's kind of a, what he, what others refer to as a pipeline model. But the federal government role is let's dump basic research into one end of the innovation pipeline. Let's hope that mysterious things occur and great products emerge. Right. And it's the job of industry to do that interim stage. That's kind the model. That is what it, [00:37:35] your fingers hoping something is gonna happen in that pipeline. And whereas in world war II, every stage that pipeline was pretty well organized in a coordinated kind of way. So we move away from that world war II connected system to a very disconnected system. We in effect institutionalized the valley of death, right. There's gonna be a gap between research side and on one side of the valley. And. You know, the actual technology implementation applied late stage applied side on the other side of the valley with a big gap, big valley gap in between the two and very few bridging mechanisms across. So we built that into our system. And look, VIN Bush was worried about science. How are we gonna fund basic science? That's his worry. And we built, you know, the us, wasn't the science leader going into world war II. Yeah. Germany, Britain, war. We weren't, we managed [00:38:35] to bring over lots of immigrants to help lead science in the us. And they, they took up the reigns and we trained a lot of great talent here in the course of the war. And you know, we got ourselves in a position where the us was the science leader by the end of the. We were going into the war, the world manufacturing leader. We weren't the science leader. We were the world manufacturing leader. We had built a system of mass production that nobody else had ever seen. Right? Yeah. We went into the war with eight times the production capacity of Japan and four times the production capacity in Germany going into the war. You can only imagine what were coming outta the war. Yeah, exactly. So the least thing on Genever Bush's mind was manufacturing that's in great shape. He sort [00:39:24] Ben: took that as a given [00:39:25] William: almost right. That's a given we're always gonna have that. Right. But he was wrong. We weren't always gonna have that. Uh, And Japan taught us, [00:39:35] you That ended up costing the us it's electronic sector leadership in the electronic sector and leadership in the auto sector, two industry sectors that we had completely dominated. So, and then, you know, comes to China and we have further erosion as well. So the reason why advanced manufacturing is important is you. We, we got two moves to compete with China. China's lower wage, lower cost. We can lower our wages to Chinese wage levels. That's probably not gonna happen. Right. Or alternatively, although we've been working on it, cause we've definitely stagnated wages in us, manufacturing, believe me. But secondly, we can get much more efficient, much more productive. We can apply our innovation system to manufacturing. Right. So NSF doesn't have an R and D portfolio related to manufac. Star doesn't have an R D portfolio that's terribly related to manufacturing either. Right? NIH certainly [00:40:35] doesn't we don't do manufacturing. We don't do these manufacturing technologies and processes in our I D system. Let's get that very talented, still very able us innovation system onto manufacturing. So that's the basic idea and that's the way we're gonna have to compete. We sort of got no other move. Right? We can just have continued erosion with all kinds of social disruption. And a real decline in the American working glass, we can continue to do that and we watch what that's doing to our democracy, or we can get our act together and do advanced manufacturing. Yeah. And, and [00:41:12] Ben: do you look, I guess, like, what are some of the most sort of promising efforts in that area, in, in that you've seen? [00:41:21] William: Well, there's, there's amazing work going on that we already see in a whole new kind of robotics. You know, the old industrial robots weighed 10 times. They're very dangerous. You have to put cages around them and make sure that the workers don't go near them. [00:41:35] And they do, you know, they lift up something heavy and they'll do like one perfect spot weld, and then they'll move to the next, you know, next piece of, you know, next piece, moving down the assembly line. Yeah. That's the old kinda robotics. The new kind of robotics are lightweight, collaborative robotics. Just as you know, we're talking on cell phones, it's like the relationship between me and the cell phone. It's a big enabler for me. It helps me I can do voice commands to the robot and it's, you know, and can work in a precision kind of way, but it was also knows me works around me. Doesn't endanger. It's a helper, not a, you know, a caged beast that has to be behind a fence. So we're moving to that kind of new robotics. That's a whole new C change in manufacturing. We're doing 3d printing, which you know, is instead of. Instead of subtractive manufacturing, where you cut away a huge piece of metal [00:42:35] and end up with a smaller part with real limits to what the shape and dimensions and content of that, that, that part can be additive enables you to build a part from scratch with these, with powders shape it to exactly the role you want often with new materials and we're moving into. Metal 3d printing. So it's no longer plastics and resins only, it's a whole new kind of it's metal of production. And look, you know, we haven't figured out yet how to get the volumes that are similar to, to mass production for 3d printing, but there are plenty of product lines where you you're making limited numbers that are, have to be extremely precise, right? Yeah. Like. Jet engines, right. You know, you're not turning out millions of jet engines every day. You're turning out small numbers, but the precision that additive [00:43:35] can bring potentially with new materials, like ceramics to creating those turbine blades is really quite dramatic. So there's a whole series of industrial sectors that'll be suited to, to additive. And that's already moving in on some of these sectors and we're learning how to. All kinds of, of new materials for additives, you know, particularly in the metal side and new material side. So that's another huge territory of opportunity to transform their actually new ways. [00:44:03] Ben: And, and something that I'm particularly interested in is, is so. You could think of, of many of these, these new technologies as sort of components in a broader system. And what it seems like I, I don't personally see a lot of, is kind of like the like process research work to really sort of rethink the entire The the, the entire, like, call it a manufacturing line or the entire system and sort of ask, like what, how would you like redesign the product around how you're making it? Have you seen any [00:44:35] sort of like institutions that are sort of trying to do that sort of work? [00:44:40] William: Yeah. I mean this, this whole idea of, you know, for a long time, you know, we gear. The design had to fit the manufacturing, right? So we moved to, you know, design for manufacturing, right. To make it easily manufacturable. But now. The manufacturing can be much more embedded into the design process because you can come up with a whole new suite of capabilities that will effectuate new design opportunities. Right? So rather than manufacturing, being a limiting factor on, on design, it's a, it's now an enabler of design and additive manufacturing is an example of. So a whole new relationship between the production process and design process really possible here with these new technologies. And then getting back to your systems point. You know, now we've got the opportunity through digital [00:45:35] technologies to really take a look at a production. Operation, not as this, a series of isolated machines where material has to be carted from one machine suite to the next machine suite. Right now we've got the ability to integrate them in, in ways that we have never had before with running the kind of level of data analytics on, on performance for each machine, but also running a new level of analytics on the system itself. Right? So we're now in a position to really connect, collect the metrics. To a very fine scale and level on the production process itself in a way that we've never really had before. So the opportunities for efficiencies here I think are quite dramatic. And I think that's the way we're gonna have to compete. But a lot of people worry, you know, are we gonna eliminate all work? Right? Are the, are the robots gonna displace the workers? But the reality of advanced manufacturing is actually something [00:46:35] of the opposite. You know, the robot will display some jobs, but much more frequently, the robot will create all kinds of new possibilities within existing jobs. Yeah. And then thirdly, there will be jobs to get created because we need to make robots right. And operate program. And so they're gonna be a lot of jobs. So the net job loss problem, I just don't think is a real. Right. Yeah. Instead we get these new possibilities of kind of moving ahead and look at the center of these kinds of new factory systems are gonna be people, right? Yeah. People in the are the ones that have ideas you know, software and AI. And robotics just can't do a whole lot of things that people are, are able to do. They don't have the kind of conceptual frameworks and the ability to kind of Intuit [00:47:35] change that people have got. So I think in a way the new manufacturing system is going be, you know, more people centric than it's been before. Instead [00:47:47] Ben: of people just acting like robots. [00:47:49] William: Yeah. Lot people act acting like robots. It's people, you know, doing the organization and designing and management and the systems and the programming and the processed way that we're gonna need. Yeah, [00:48:07] Ben: This was awesome. I'm so grateful. And now a quick word from our sponsors. 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