Podcasts about neanderthals

Eurasian species or subspecies of archaic human

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In Our Time
Cave Art (Summer Repeat)

In Our Time

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 22, 2022 48:02 Very Popular


Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss ideas about the Stone Age people who created the extraordinary images found in caves around the world, from hand outlines to abstract symbols to the multicoloured paintings of prey animals at Chauvet and, as shown above, at Lascaux. In the 19th Century, it was assumed that only humans could have made these, as Neanderthals would have lacked the skills or imagination, but new tests suggest otherwise. How were the images created, were they meant to be for private viewing or public spaces, and what might their purposes have been? And, if Neanderthals were capable of creative work, in what ways were they different from humans? What might it have been like to experience the paintings, so far from natural light? With Alistair Pike Professor of Archaeological Sciences at the University of Southampton Chantal Conneller Senior Lecturer in Early Pre-History at Newcastle University And Paul Pettitt Professor of Palaeolithic Archaeology at Durham University Producer: Simon Tillotson

Reasons to Believe Podcast
Stars, Cells, and God | Neanderthal Brains and First Exoplanet

Reasons to Believe Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 22, 2022 55:58


Join Fazale “Fuz” Rana and Jeff Zweerink as they discuss new discoveries taking place at the frontiers of science that have theological and philosophical implications, as well as new discoveries that point to the reality of God's existence. Neanderthal Brains Are human beings unique and exceptional? A large collaborative team from Germany recently explored this question by examining the behavior of three proteins that play a role in cell division and are expressed at high levels in the developing cells of the brain's neocortex. As it turns out, the modern human versions of these proteins have small but significant differences in their amino acid sequences compared to the mouse, Neanderthal, and Denisovan versions. The research team determined that, because of these differences, the cell division process in human brain cells occurs much more reliably than in the corresponding cells in mice, Neanderthals, and Denisovans. This discovery points to differences in brain development in modern humans and Neanderthals, suggesting cognitive differences between the two. First Exoplanet  The James Webb Space Telescope recently imaged its first exoplanet, and researchers found that the telescope was ten times more sensitive than expected. What have we learned about this exoplanet, and how will those learnings inform the search for extraterrestrial life? Fuz and Jeff discuss these important topics in this episode of Stars, Cells, and God. References: “Longer Metaphase and Fewer Chromosome Segregation Errors in Modern Human than Neanderthal Brain Development,” Felipe Mora-Bermúdez et al., https://www.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abn7702  Additional Resources: “Brain Organoids Cultivate the Case for Human Exceptionalism,” Fazale Rana, https://reasons.org/explore/blogs/the-cells-design/brain-organoids-cultivate-the-case-for-human-exceptionalism  “The JWST Early Release Science Program for Direct Observations of Exoplanetary Systems I: High Contrast Imaging of the Exoplanet HIP 65426 b from 2-16 μm,” Aarynn L. Carter et.al., https://arxiv.org/abs/2208.14990

Various Speakers on SermonAudio
Are Humans Descendants of Neanderthals?

Various Speakers on SermonAudio

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 20, 2022 29:00


A new MP3 sermon from Answers in Genesis Ministries is now available on SermonAudio with the following details: Title: Are Humans Descendants of Neanderthals? Subtitle: Answers News Speaker: Various Speakers Broadcaster: Answers in Genesis Ministries Event: Podcast Date: 9/19/2022 Length: 29 min.

Answers in Genesis Ministries
Are Humans Descendants of Neanderthals?

Answers in Genesis Ministries

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 20, 2022 29:00


The Ancients
Neanderthals

The Ancients

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 15, 2022 45:43 Very Popular


Neanderthals are stereotypically viewed as thoughtless savages - but is this an accurate depiction or was there more to Neanderthal society?Discovered only 160 years ago what can they tell us about the Palaeolithic past? In this episode, Tristan is joined by archaeologist and author Rebecca Wragg Sykes to help dispel some of these myths. Using cutting edge technology and looking at recent discoveries, archaeologists are able to give a clearer picture of what Neanderthal life was actually like. With evidence of seafood in their diet, the advanced use of tools and managing to survive for 300,000 years - there's more to Neanderthal's than meets the eye.For more Ancients content, subscribe to our Ancients newsletter here. If you'd like to learn even more, we have hundreds of history documentaries, ad free podcasts and audiobooks at History Hit - subscribe today! Hosted on Acast. See acast.com/privacy for more information.

Andamos Arcanos
Andamos Arcanos 0074 - Rol y Metal

Andamos Arcanos

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 15, 2022 43:35


En Potionless, el encargado de musicalizar nuestras sesiones de Rol es el Neanderthal y siempre lo hace con pesadas y retumbantes playlists que parecieran acomodarse a la perfección con el ambiente de cada setting. En este episodio nos ponemos a platicar de como arma sus listas de reproducción, de nuestro paso por el metal y de como descubrí que me gusta el chile. Perfil de Neanderthal en Spotify: https://open.spotify.com/user/q6mh2jq1mtjc0x7ajmhqzbddd?si=b7b3edb645f0465c

Espacio Vital
¿Cuál es la diferencia entre un cerebro humano actual y el de un Neanderthal?

Espacio Vital

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 14, 2022 4:35


A lo largo de la historia, los humanos han presentado distintos cambios en su anatomía. ¿Cuál es la diferencia entre un cerebro humano actual y el de un Neanderthal? El doctor Elmer Huerta lo explica.

Our Prehistory
8. Neanderthals

Our Prehistory

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 13, 2022 3:33


Eagle talons around their necks, painted faces, and stone-tipped spears in hand, Neanderthals were not dumb brutes. Join me on this crash course and learn about the species with whom we share the most in common.Support the show

Extreme Genes - America's Family History and Genealogy Radio Show & Podcast
Episode 350: Classic Rewind - Dr. Scott Woodward On Our Shared Blood With Neanderthals And What It May Mean In Our Response To Covid-19

Extreme Genes - America's Family History and Genealogy Radio Show & Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 12, 2022 44:16


Host Scott Fisher opens the show with David Allen Lambert, Chief Genealogist of the New England Historic Genealogical Society and AmericanAncestors.org. The guys begin talking about the coming International Conference on Jewish Genealogy. (Want to speak there in Philly next August? Their Call for Proposals is open through November 19!) David then shares the story about how the grandson of a couple who were lost in the Holocaust recently was presented with an important item that once belonged to his grandparents. Next, David talks about an important new database released by the New England Historic Genealogical Society. Might your ancestors names be in it?  The British Library has just released a remarkable collection of almost 18,000 maps tied to King George III! Black history Marine biologists have been recovering artifacts from 19th century slave ships and airplanes flown by the Tuskegee Airmen. Hear more about their project. Next, Fisher visits with Dr. Scott Woodward for two segments talking DNA and Neanderthals and how that may affect our response to Covid 19. Then David Lambert returns for Ask Us Anything, as we take your questions. That's all this week on Extreme Genes, America's Family History Show!

The Science Hour
The genetics of human intelligence

The Science Hour

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 11, 2022 62:58 Very Popular


Early humans and Neanderthals had similar-sized brains but around 6 million years ago something happened that gave us the intellectual edge. The answer may lie in a tiny mutation in a single gene that meant more neurons could develop in a crucial part of the brain. Post-doctoral research scientist at the Max Plank Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Anneline Pinson, did the heavy lifting on the research under the supervision of Wieland Huttner. They discuss with Roland how this finding offers a major development in our understanding of the evolutionary expansion of the all-important neocortex area of the brain. A central aspect of what it is to be human and how we use our intelligence is to care for one another. A burial site in Borneo from tens of thousands of years ago gives us fresh insights into how advanced our capacity to care was, millennia before the establishment of stable communities and agricultural life. Remains uncovered by a team of archaeologists from Australia have found one of the first examples of complex medical surgery. Finally, moving to a carbon-neutral society will involve developing huge battery potential, but that comes with its own environmental and social problems. Could a solution be found in the exoskeleton of crabs? Mathematics and our ability to describe the world in terms of number, shape and measurement may feel like a uniquely human ability. But is it really? Listener Mamadu from Sierra Leone wants to know: can animals count too? CrowdScience presenter Marnie Chesterton goes on a hunt to uncover the numerical abilities of the animal kingdom. Can wild lions compare different numbers? Can you teach bees to recognise and choose specific amounts? And if the answer is yes, how do they do it? Marnie tries to find out just how deep the numerical rabbit hole goes… and comes across a parrot named Alex who is perhaps the most impressive example of animal counting of them all. (Image: Getty Images)

Stuff You Should Know
Selects: What Happened to the Neanderthals?

Stuff You Should Know

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 10, 2022 50:55 Very Popular


As recently as 40,000 years ago we lived among humans from an entirely different species – Neanderthals. About the same time our species showed up, Neanderthals suddenly vanished. Just what happened to the other guys? Did our ancestors do something … bad? Find out in this classic episode.See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

Curiosity Daily
Big Brain Bestfriends, Mars Exploration Fleet, Brain Unpain

Curiosity Daily

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 9, 2022 12:24 Very Popular


Discover how our brains physically reflect how social we are, a new proposal for Mars exploration vehicles, and patterns in our brain that reveal how we process pain!Social brains.“Brain regions linked to empathy bigger in monkeys with more friends” by Alice Kleinhttps://www.newscientist.com/article/2316110-brain-regions-linked-to-empathy-bigger-in-monkeys-with-more-friends/“Social connections predict brain structure in a multidimensional free-ranging primate society” by Camille Testard, et al.https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abl5794“Online social network size is reflected in human brain structure” by R. Kanai, et al.https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2011.1959“Social relationships and physiological determinants of longevity across the human life span” by Yang Claire Yang, et al.https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1511085112“An ecocultural model predicts Neanderthal extinction through competition with modern humans” by William Gilpin, et al.https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1524861113Mars CarsDivide and Conquer: Mars Rovers Could be Superseded by Swarms of Two-Wheeled Robots by Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technologyhttps://phys.org/news/2022-04-conquer-mars-rovers-superseded-swarms.htmlThe Two-Wheeled Robotic Swarm Concept for Mars Exploration by Alexander Petrovsky, et al.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0094576522000340Missions by NASA Science Mars Exploration Programhttps://mars.nasa.gov/mars-exploration/missions/Announcement by MIT Skoltech Programhttps://skoltech.mit.edu/Pain patterns.“Discovery In The Brains Of Army Veterans Sheds Light On The Neurobiological Mechanisms Behind Chronic Pain And Trauma” by Conn Hastingshttps://www.psypost.org/2022/06/discovery-in-the-brains-of-army-veterans-sheds-light-on-the-neurobiological-mechanisms-behind-chronic-pain-and-trauma-63313“Understanding Pain and Trauma Symptoms in Veterans From Resting-State Connectivity: Unsupervised Modeling” by Irina A. Strigo, Andrea D. Spadoni and Alan N. Simmons.https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpain.2022.871961/full?utm_source=fweb&utm_medium=nblog&utm_campaign=ba-sci-fpain-Understanding-pain-and-trauma-symptoms-in-Veterans-from-resting-state-connectivityFollow Curiosity Daily on your favorite podcast app to get smarter with Calli and Nate — for free! Still curious? Get exclusive science shows, nature documentaries, and more real-life entertainment on discovery+! Go to https://discoveryplus.com/curiosity to start your 7-day free trial. discovery+ is currently only available for US subscribers.Find episode transcripts here: https://curiosity-daily-4e53644e.simplecast.com/episodes/big-brain-bestfriends-mars-exploration-fleet-brain-unpain

Science in Action
The genetics of human intelligence

Science in Action

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 8, 2022 31:03


Early humans and Neanderthals had similar-sized brains but around 6 million years ago something happened that gave us the intellectual edge. The answer may lie in a tiny mutation in a single gene that meant more neurons could develop in a crucial part of the brain. Post-doctoral research scientist at the Max Plank Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Anneline Pinson, did the heavy lifting on the research under the supervision of Wieland Huttner. They discuss with Roland how this finding offers a major development in our understanding of the evolutionary expansion of the all-important neocortex area of the brain. A central aspect of what it is to be human and how we use our intelligence is to care for one another. A burial site in Borneo from tens of thousands of years ago gives us fresh insights into how advanced our capacity to care was, millennia before the establishment of stable communities and agricultural life. Remains uncovered by a team of archaeologists from Australia have found one of the first examples of complex medical surgery. Finally, moving to a carbon-neutral society will involve developing huge battery potential, but that comes with its own environmental and social problems. Could a solution be found in the exoskeleton of crabs? (Image: Getty Images) Presenter: Roland Pease Producer: Zak Brophy and Robbie Wojciechowski

Hindsightless
387: Neanderthal Luddite Gutter Jester

Hindsightless

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 6, 2022 17:06


In this episode I demonstrate just how guerrilla guerrilla-podcasting can get. Spencer drops us a line about messages, Kevin and I talk speed, while Jason and Rob talk best practices when it comes to being a good player.  If you're in the U.S., feel free to leave me a message @ 661-494-6656

Master Books Podcast
Dinosaurs and More! Biblical Answers to Big Questions with Brian Young

Master Books Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 5, 2022 26:43


Elementary Paleontology is one of Master Books Homeschool Curriculum's best-selling science courses. Master Books Academy instructor, Brian Young, joins the podcast to share how his online video course is designed to teach your child the biblical worldview of dinosaurs. HOMESCHOOL CURRICULUM LINKS Elementary Paleontology Curriculum Pack  Elementary Paleontology Supplemental Video Course  Unwrapping the Pharaohs  Biblical Archaeology Curriculum Master Books Academy Online Learning Portal    PODCAST HIGHLIGHTS: 5:10 - Scientific dating methods that help prove that the Bible's creation story can be proven by science and actually debunks evolution. Young earth creation is proven through these dating methods. 6:40 - Study dinosaurs in order to defend your faith in God and the Bible. Elementary Paleontology strengthens student's biblical worldview. 6:45 - Bill Nye debate with Ken Ham  7:00 - Age of the earth debate 7:40 - How elephant reproduction proves the young earth theory. 8:45 - Cave men, Neanderthals, and the age of the earth 9:30 - The Bible talks about cave men  11:40 - How is character built? Debunking the idea that sports builds character 12:30 - God's word builds character.  13:07 - Find dinosaurs in the Bible 16:00 - Find unicorns in the Bible 16:42 - Master Books' Elementary Paleontology Homeschool Curriculum and online video instruction 18:08 - Advice for homeschool families 18:40 - Homeschooling is more than education 20:12 - Explore beyond Master Books homeschool curriculum to books on creation science, apologetics, logic, and more. 20:16 - Dangers of losing your faith as a college student in a Chrisitan college 22:26 - Brian Young recommends Unwrapping the Pharaohs by David Downs and available at MasterBooks.com

Our Midnight Cake

Genndy Tartakovsy's Primal is this week's topic of discussion. The series is a beautifully animated story of survival for a Neanderthal and his Tyrannosaurus partner.

Bright Side
What If You Lived One Day in the Ice Age

Bright Side

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 4, 2022 10:25


How would you survive in the Ice Age? Mammoths, Neanderthals and lots of ice... Let's imagine getting transported right there! Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

Intelligent Design the Future
Darwin Visits the 21st Century–A Novella, Pt. 2

Intelligent Design the Future

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 2, 2022 21:50 Very Popular


Today's ID the Future from the vault continues the audio adaptation of Nickell John Romjue's fascinating novella, I, Charles Darwin. In this episode, Romjue's Darwin explores what we've learned about the fossil record since Darwin's time on Earth — and it's not what he expects. Part 1 of the audio series is here. To learn more and to purchase the book, visit www.icharlesdarwin.com. Source

Takes All Over The Place
119: Forever Flaccid | Only Murders in the Building, Extraordinary Attorney Woo, Making the Cut

Takes All Over The Place

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 2, 2022 79:35


Nick's vacation prep is in full effect and that means a buffet of chicken fries, a roll call of what medical practitioners he has available (left) and a review of plane-induced panic behaviors from both of our hosts. We let the intrusive thoughts win in the tweets of the week and go for the win in this week's game of poetry for neanderthals. Show Notes: @1:00 - Hot takes | Nick's buffet, medical protectors, trip prep, Extraordinary Attorney Woo finale, synthetic joy, Only Murder finale, GBBO - kids edition, Making the Cut @29:00 - Tweets of the Week | Intrusive Thoughts @54:30- Game | Poetry for Neanderthals @1:16:30 - Coming up | Paper Girls, Making the Cut, Dragons? Want to support us and get fun extras? Join our Patreon! Like 30 Rock? Like Nick and Julie? Listen to them on their 30 Rock rewatch podcast: Blerg! (@blergpodcast) wherever you listen to Takes.

Hades Base Channeling Network
Advanced Evolution and a Very Special Ceremony- Part 1

Hades Base Channeling Network

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 1, 2022 41:48


Greetings in love, light, and wisdom as one.    We have a few notes to cover which will help in understanding some of the behind-the-scenes aspect of the channeling session. Starting with Tia who is our first speaker, at this point in the sessions, only Klarra had been born to Karra and Alex had been born to Kiri and Mark. Tia was currently pregnant with the triplets and was planning on going on pregnancy leave soon. Tia had been training me in astral projection and gave me some advice on going solid. I had been working on going out of my solar plexus which is just one of the chakras and she explains you can leave from various places on your body. Another note from her time talking is that when she discussed having two, she means her ability to nurse her upcoming triplets. The last note is about the pilot's party discussed. Mark and I had both been allowed to fly craft from the base so we were invited to what was a very exclusive party. That brings on Omal who, when he said he found some jokes, he needs he found them by rummaging in Mark's mind. He and Tia had had me go longer and longer distances on my training for astral travel. Stanford that is mentioned was one of my targets that I used for my remote viewing practice. When we talk about an Eindecker, it's a German aircraft from World War I Mark flew in the computer games we played together. The notes from the next speaker after Omal are for Karra who had me help her with a patient of hers in my astral form. In the channeling session I say it was instinctive how I helped heal the person but I'm pretty sure Karra was feeding me instructions telepathically that I assumed were mine. The final note from our time speaking was the crystal I mentioned with the pyrite, is a small handheld scalpel-shaped crystal with a little bit of pyrite at the bottom. The last note from side one is for when Kiri ends things and that is that Alex we are talking about was just an infant at the time. On side two, the sound distortion are bit more on this side than on side one so some of the words may not be exact. The first notes from the side though are from a return channeling of Omal because everyone else had left for a ceremony and so when we talk about him backpacking, it's that there are certain things in the ceremony that he does in an official capacity such as bringing in two jugs of water. This side is less than 20 minutes long and so each speaker doesn't spend much time but the next speaker on the side is Korton and the only note from his time talking is that the ceremony calls for the two jugs of water Omal brought in are to be poured around the couple afterwards. Korton would be officiating and so he would be the one to give the notice to start pouring the water. Our last guest speaker of the night is Luna who specializes in earth history so she was the best person to ask about information on Atlantis. She does so quite well. The final note from the channeling session is that Omal wraps things up with a last-minute advice for me prior to the ceremony which is for me to go solid.   Side one has three main speakers with Tia leading things off by going over some astral travel adjustments to help maintain focus. My problem was needing to come back to my body to adjust it for some reason before leaving it again. In this session, she gives me some tips on how to make those adjustments automatic so I would not have to interrupt the astral travel trip. She provided a programing tip to use before leaving to solve that issue. Omal and I go over a number of things but what stands out is his answer to my question of where would mankind's evolution be had there not been an interference with humanity's genetic code back in the days of Atlantis. What we find out is that our timeline in evolution would be closer to that of the first Pharaoh of Egypt and just now learning how to write. With that kind of conclusion, the benefits of merging the DNA of the Sirians who colonized Atlantis with the Neanderthals that were dominant at the time would have to be considered beneficial to our development. Finally, Kara takes up most of the rest of the side as we break down a healing she had me do on the base with a patient of hers. The gentleman was a workman who was making adjustments on one of the doors and accidentally activated the mechanism that closed it on his arm. I was in my astral form so working on energy flows in a body was something I could do since I wasn't solid. I instinctively helped align the person's energy to allow it to flow better. When I asked her why she let me do some of the healing, she said it was women's intuition. Kiri comes back to finish out the side and thank me for some extra energy I sent her when she happen to be in need at that particular moment.     For full transcripts of this session and more information about Hades Base and the 6th dimension, please visit our website:  http://hadesbasenews.com    The sessions lasted from 1992 to 2001 with this one being taped on 01/20/1998. Side one includes:    1.)(0:00)- A pregnant Tia gives us an update on how it's going as well as providing some handy advice on how to have the body run on automatic response mode while astral traveling to avoid the need to return.  2.)(13:43)- Omal and I share some jokes that are all his. We also hear from him where humanity would be right now had not there been some genetic modifications done by the Atlanteans to the Neanderthals. 3.)(28:04)-  This is the night where Karra and I are to be bonded and so we are both pretty excited. We are able to go over her trusting of my healing of a patient of hers on the base while in my astral form. 4.)(38:31)-  Kiri talks about the outfit she is to wear to the ceremony where she will be bonded to Mark with us. She lets me know that the child of Mark and herself will be with her during the bonding.  

Curiosity Daily
Neanderthal Roommates, Sea Dragons, Hidden Egyptian

Curiosity Daily

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 1, 2022 12:24


Hear about a new archeological site that suggests humans arrived in Europe 10,000 years earlier than previously thought, what a giant fossil could teach us about the fearsome sea dragon, and a massive archeological find in Egypt!European humans.Homo Sapiens May Have Reached Europe 10,000 Years Earlier Than Previously Thought by Bruce Bowerhttps://www.sciencenews.org/article/homo-sapiens-humans-europe-migration-earlier-france-rock-shelterModern Human Incursion into Neanderthal Territories 54,000 Years Ago at Mandrin, France by Ludovic Slimak, et al.https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abj9496Apidima Cave Fossils Provide Earliest Evidence of Homo sapiens in Eurasia by Katerina Harvati, et al.https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1376-zDragons of the sea.Huge Prehistoric 'Sea Dragon' Fossil Discovered in U.K. Reservoir by Rachel Elbaumhttps://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/prehistoric-sea-dragon-ichthyosaur-fossil-discovered-uk-reservoir-rcna11565Ichthyosaur Fossil Reptile Group by Encyclopedia Britannicahttps://www.britannica.com/animal/ichthyosaurRutland Sea Dragon: How Remarkable Ichthyosaur Fossil Was Protected by Greig Watsonhttps://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-leicestershire-59969089“The World-Renowned Ichthyosaurus”: A Nineteenth-Century Problematic and Its Representations" by John Glendeninghttps://doi.org/10.12929%2Fjls.02.1.02Lost city.Archaeologists in Egypt Discover 3,000-Year-Old ‘Lost Golden City' by Livia Gershonhttps://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/archaeologists-discover-3400-year-old-egyptian-city-180977471/Renowned Archaeologist Zahi Hawass Announces Discovery of Luxor's ‘Lost City' by Mustafa Mariehttps://www.egypttoday.com/Article/4/100658/Renowned-archaeologist-Zahi-Hawass-announces-discovery-of-Luxor%E2%80%99s-%E2%80%98Lost-City%E2%80%99The Rise and Fall of Zahi Hawass by Joshua Hammerhttps://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/the-rise-and-fall-and-rise-of-zahi-hawass-72874123/'Lost Golden City' Found in Egypt Reveals Lives of Ancient Pharaohs by BBC Newshttps://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-56686448Follow Curiosity Daily on your favorite podcast app to get smarter with Calli and Nate — for free! Still curious? Get exclusive science shows, nature documentaries, and more real-life entertainment on discovery+! Go to https://discoveryplus.com/curiosity to start your 7-day free trial. discovery+ is currently only available for US subscribers.Find episode transcripts here: https://curiosity-daily-4e53644e.simplecast.com/episodes/neanderthal-roommates-sea-dragons-hidden-egyptian

Grey Mirror: MIT Media Lab’s Digital Currency Initiative on Technology, Society, and Ethics
Revealing Our Human Evolution Mystery Through Ancient Fossils With Chris Stringer

Grey Mirror: MIT Media Lab’s Digital Currency Initiative on Technology, Society, and Ethics

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 29, 2022 54:38


In this episode, physical anthropologist and archaeologist Chris Stringer joins us to explore fossil records and what they tell us about the birth of our species and its staying power on Earth. Chris is known as one of the leading proponents of the “Recent African Origins” hypothesis, which is currently the most widely accepted model for the origin of our species. This hypothesis is that the modern form of Homo sapiens and human behavior had evolved in Africa by at least 150,000 years ago. Around 60,000 years ago, modern humans left Africa, replacing archaic hominins outside of the continent with restricted amounts of interbreeding. We dive deep into the whole story from 7MM years ago to the Neolithic revolution and to us as lone survivors. He talks about the last 500 thousand years when lots of homo species were existing at the same time and the behavioral and cognitive traits that distinguished current Homo sapiens from other anatomically modern humans. Additionally we talk about fossils, what evidence they are providing in regards to human evolution and where they are found. Stringer looks ahead on ideas from a historical fossil perspective and shares the importance of fossil protein that can take us beyond ancient DNA and provide us with more information about how Homo sapiens came to be. SUPPORT US ON PATREON: https://www.patreon.com/rhyslindmark JOIN OUR DISCORD: https://discord.gg/PDAPkhNxrC Who is Chris Stringer? Professor Chris Stringer is a Research Leader in Human Origins at the Natural History Museum of London and is the co-director of the follow-up Pathways to Ancient Britain project. He studied anthropology at University College London and holds a PhD in Anatomical Science, and a DSc in Anatomical Science both from Bristol University. Stringer is author of many scientific papers and books, here are a few to mention: Lone Survivors: How We Came to Be the Only Humans on Earth, Britain: One Million Years of the Human Story & Our Human Story. Stay tuned for his upcoming book! Topics: Welcome Chris Stringer to The Rhys Show!: (00:00:00) Putting in context: understand time period from 7MM years ago through twelve thousand years ago: (00:02:11) The story from 7MM years ago to the Neolithic revolution: (00:03:13) Reason for walking upright: (00:08:03) Transition from Australopithecines to humans: (00:11:30) The story from 2MM years ago: about Homo erectus and Homo luzonensis the dwarf species: (00:15:10) From 2MM years ago to 200 thousand years ago: How did Homo Sapiens emerge and the oldest human dna recovered : (00:20:03) What makes us different in the skeleton compared to other humans: (00:26:12) About Denisovans: Discovery of Homo Longi “Dragon Man” in China: (00:27:42) About Denisovans: discovery of the whole genome of a new kind of human in Siberia and the Neanderthal & Denisovan hybrid: (00:31:15) Behavioral modernity and the beginning of language: (00:35:53) 60000 years ago: what cultural evolution looked like back then and how ideas spread: (00:42:03) Thoughts on gene-culture coevolution: (00:46:38) Looking ahead on ideas from a historical fossil perspective: (00:48:12) Overrated & underrated questions about fire, tools and being in groups: (00:49:42) Wrap-up: (00:51:35) Mentioned resources: Archaeological site of Atapuerca: https://www.britannica.com/place/Atapuerca Story of “Dragon Man” skull discovery in the river Songhua, Harbin, 1933: https://answersingenesis.org/human-evolution/dragon-man-newest-human-cousin/ Connect with Chris Stringer: Web Natural History Museum: https://www.nhm.ac.uk/our-science/departments-and-staff/staff-directory/chris-stringer.html Twitter: https://twitter.com/chrisstringer65

Drunk With Buds
S5 E23: Anthony Nevarro gets Pitted

Drunk With Buds

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 27, 2022 73:21


 This week we have a guest that used his negotiation skills to get on the show! Anthony Nevarro of Granger, Indiana. He tries 3 Beers with us today from, Connecticut Valley Brewing, Wild Barrel Brewing and Brix City Brewing.This week's segments are:Pop Culture: We talk Sandman, Neanderthals getting it on, She-Hulk on Disney Plus and so much more.Dive Bar Reviews with Honer brings us Home!! Back to Indiana where you can barely move around and hear the horrible jokes from the one man stage.In Bruce Trivia we return to an oldie but a goody, Name that Movie Trailer 2015 edition.Beers Tasted:Blackberry Jam (4.16) Wild Barrel BrewingGet Pitted (4.11) by Brix City BrewingSpiked Smoothie Blackberry Lemonade (4.13) by Connecticut Valley Brewing CompanyGuest Social Media:Instagram:@mr.nav_97 Our Social Media:Discord:Drunk With Buds PodcastFacebook:Drunk with Buds Podcast | FacebookInstagram:Drunk With Buds Podcast (@drunkwithbudspodcast) • Instagram photos and videosTwitter:Drunk With Buds Podcast (@DrunkWithBuds) / TwitterLinktree:Drunk With Buds Podcast - Listen on Spotify - LinktreeThe Enthusiasm ProjectDeep dives exploring the world of what it means to be an independent creator.Listen on: Apple Podcasts Spotify

Verbal Assault
335. Glory Skull

Verbal Assault

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 26, 2022 78:29


Memes. NPC of the week. James Webb does Jupiter. A man was beaten with a pipe and robbed by a homeless man after offering to buy him food. Sex Dolls found on a beach in Thailand. GameMaster Bekah has Poems for Neanderthals. Secret UFO photo called "Most Spectacular Ever." Keagull made a shirt that you can see for yourself and possibly get one in the future. Here's the link (https://www.customink.com/designs/verbal/zmd0-00b1-s3vd/twt) Leave a review on iTunes, Stitcher, Spotify, or Soundcloud. Share us on Facebook (www.facebook.com/verbalassaultpodcast), Twitter (@_verbalassault_) and if you really want to show your love support us via Patreon (www.patreon.com/verbalassault) for $1.00 an episode. We would love to hear from you on Google Voice (865-316-6955.) We are now on Rumble: https://rumble.com/user/VerbalAssault Join us live on Facebook on Wednesdays around 9:30pm EST

Don't Make Me Come Back There
Dustin Has Neanderthal Teeth

Don't Make Me Come Back There

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 24, 2022 47:05 Very Popular


Mel and Dustin are back in the Frontseat to discuss Dustin's teeth defying the laws of evolution, Mel missing her true calling as an ASB Advisor and her upcoming high school reunion. PLUS...Backseater emails! Order Dustin's book: How to Be Married (To Melissa)  today! Go to www.MunchieMug.com where you can use promo code DONTMAKEME for 25% off and FREE shipping on your order of the world's #1 premium no-spill snack cup. Click here find out more about the great work being done at Hope Heals Camp. Check out our Patreon page! Head to https://www.patreon.com/DustinNickerson for exclusive bonus content and to help support the show. Want to be a part of the show? Shoot us a message to dontmakemecomebackthere@gmail.com and get your very own horrible parenting/relationship advice.

The Lunar Society
37: Steve Hsu - Intelligence, Embryo Selection, & The Future of Humanity

The Lunar Society

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 23, 2022 141:27


Steve Hsu is a Professor of Theoretical Physics at Michigan State University and cofounder of the company Genomic Prediction.We go deep into the weeds on how embryo selection can make babies healthier and smarter. Steve also explains the advice Richard Feynman gave him to pick up girls, the genetics of aging and intelligence, & the psychometric differences between shape rotators and wordcels.Watch on YouTube. Listen on Apple Podcasts, Spotify, or any other podcast platform.Subscribe to find out about future episodes!Read the full transcript here.Follow Steve on Twitter. Follow me on Twitter for updates on future episodes.Please share if you enjoyed this episode! Helps out a ton!Timestamps(0:00:14) - Feynman’s advice on picking up women(0:11:46) - Embryo selection(0:24:19) - Why hasn't natural selection already optimized humans?(0:34:13) - Aging(0:43:18) - First Mover Advantage(0:53:49) - Genomics in dating(1:00:31) - Ancestral populations(1:07:58) - Is this eugenics?(1:15:59) - Tradeoffs to intelligence(1:25:01) - Consumer preferences(1:30:14) - Gwern(1:34:35) - Will parents matter?(1:45:25) - Word cells and shape rotators(1:57:29) - Bezos and brilliant physicists(2:10:23) - Elite educationTranscriptDwarkesh Patel  0:00  Today I have the pleasure of speaking with Steve Hsu. Steve, thanks for coming on the podcast. I'm excited about this.Steve Hsu  0:04  Hey, it's my pleasure! I'm excited too and I just want to say I've listened to some of your earlier interviews and thought you were very insightful, which is why I was excited to have a conversation with you.Dwarkesh Patel 0:14That means a lot for me to hear you say because I'm a big fan of your podcast.Feynman’s advice on picking up womenDwarkesh Patel  0:17  So my first question is: “What advice did Richard Feynman give you about picking up girls?”Steve Hsu  0:24   Haha, wow! So one day in the spring of my senior year, I was walking across campus and saw Feynman coming toward me. We knew each other from various things—it's a small campus, I was a physics major and he was my hero–– so I'd known him since my first year. He sees me, and he's got this Long Island or New York borough accent and says, "Hey, Hsu!"  I'm like, "Hi, Professor Feynman." We start talking. And he says to me, "Wow, you're a big guy." Of course, I was much bigger back then because I was a linebacker on the Caltech football team. So I was about 200 pounds and slightly over 6 feet tall. I was a gym rat at the time and I was much bigger than him. He said, "Steve, I got to ask you something." Feynman was born in 1918, so he's not from the modern era. He was going through graduate school when the Second World War started. So, he couldn't understand the concept of a health club or a gym. This was the 80s and was when Gold's Gym was becoming a world national franchise. There were gyms all over the place like 24-Hour Fitness. But, Feynman didn't know what it was. He's a fascinating guy. He says to me, "What do you guys do there? Is it just a thing to meet girls? Or is it really for training? Do you guys go there to get buff?" So, I started explaining to him that people are there to get big, but people are also checking out the girls. A lot of stuff is happening at the health club or the weight room. Feynman grills me on this for a long time. And one of the famous things about Feynman is that he has a laser focus. So if there's something he doesn't understand and wants to get to the bottom of it, he will focus on you and start questioning you and get to the bottom of it. That's the way his brain worked. So he did that to me for a while because he didn't understand lifting weights and everything. In the end, he says to me, "Wow, Steve, I appreciate that. Let me give you some good advice."Then, he starts telling me how to pick up girls—which he's an expert on. He says to me, "I don't know how much girls like guys that are as big as you." He thought it might be a turn-off. "But you know what, you have a nice smile." So that was the one compliment he gave me. Then, he starts to tell me that it's a numbers game. You have to be rational about it. You're at an airport lounge, or you're at a bar. It's Saturday night in Pasadena or Westwood, and you're talking to some girl. He says, "You're never going to see her again. This is your five-minute interaction. Do what you have to do. If she doesn't like you, go to the next one." He also shares some colorful details. But, the point is that you should not care what they think of you. You're trying to do your thing. He did have a reputation at Caltech as a womanizer, and I could go into that too but I heard all this from the secretaries.Dwarkesh Patel  4:30  With the students or only the secretaries? Steve Hsu  4:35  Secretaries! Well mostly secretaries. They were almost all female at that time. He had thought about this a lot, and thought of it as a numbers game. The PUA guys (pick-up artists) will say, “Follow the algorithm, and whatever happens, it's not a reflection on your self-esteem. It's just what happened. And you go on to the next one.” That was the advice he was giving me, and he said other things that were pretty standard: Be funny, be confident—just basic stuff. Steve Hu: But the main thing I remember was the operationalization of it as an algorithm. You shouldn’t internalize whatever happens if you get rejected, because that hurts. When we had to go across the bar to talk to that girl (maybe it doesn’t happen in your generation), it was terrifying. We had to go across the bar and talk to some lady! It’s loud and you’ve got a few minutes to make your case. Nothing is scarier than walking up to the girl and her friends. Feynman was telling me to train yourself out of that. You're never going to see them again, the face space of humanity is so big that you'll probably never re-encounter them again. It doesn't matter. So, do your best. Dwarkesh Patel  6:06  Yeah, that's interesting because.. I wonder whether he was doing this in the 40’–– like when he was at that age, was he doing this? I don't know what the cultural conventions were at the time. Were there bars in the 40s where you could just go ahead and hit on girls or? Steve Hsu  6:19  Oh yeah absolutely. If you read literature from that time, or even a little bit earlier like Hemingway or John O'Hara, they talk about how men and women interacted in bars and stuff in New York City. So, that was much more of a thing back than when compared to your generation. That's what I can’t figure out with my kids! What is going on? How do boys and girls meet these days? Back in the day, the guy had to do all the work. It was the most terrifying thing you could do, and you had  to train yourself out of that.Dwarkesh Patel  6:57  By the way, for the context for the audience, when Feynman says you were a big guy, you were a football player at Caltech, right? There's a picture of you on your website, maybe after college or something, but you look pretty ripped. Today, it seems more common because of the gym culture. But I don’t know about back then. I don't know how common that body physique was.Steve Hsu  7:24  It’s amazing that you asked this question. I'll tell you a funny story. One of the reasons Feynman found this so weird was because of the way body-building entered the United States.  They  were regarded as freaks and homosexuals at first. I remember swimming and football in high school (swimming is different because it's international) and in swimming, I picked up a lot of advanced training techniques from the Russians and East Germans. But football was more American and not very international. So our football coach used to tell us not to lift weights when we were in junior high school because it made you slow. “You’re no good if you’re bulky.” “You gotta be fast in football.” Then, something changed around the time I was in high school–the coaches figured it out. I began lifting weights since I was an age group swimmer, like maybe age 12 or 14. Then, the football coaches got into it mainly because the University of Nebraska had a famous strength program that popularized it.At the time, there just weren't a lot of big guys. The people who knew how to train were using what would be considered “advanced knowledge” back in the 80s. For example, they’d know how to do a split routine or squat on one day and do upper body on the next day–– that was considered advanced knowledge at that time. I remember once.. I had an injury, and I was in the trainer's room at the Caltech athletic facility. The lady was looking at my quadriceps. I’d pulled a muscle, and she was looking at the quadriceps right above your kneecap. If you have well-developed quads, you'd have a bulge, a bump right above your cap. And she was looking at it from this angle where she was in front of me, and she was looking at my leg from the front. She's like, “Wow, it's swollen.” And I was like, “That's not the injury. That's my quadricep!” And she was a trainer! So, at that time, I could probably squat 400 pounds. So I was pretty strong and had big legs. The fact that the trainer didn't really understand what well-developed anatomy was supposed to look like blew my mind!So anyway, we've come a long way. This isn't one of these things where you have to be old to have any understanding of how this stuff evolved over the last 30-40 years.Dwarkesh Patel  10:13  But, I wonder if that was a phenomenon of that particular time or if people were not that muscular throughout human history. You hear stories of  Roman soldiers who are carrying 80 pounds for 10 or 20 miles a day. I mean, there's a lot of sculptures in the ancient world, or not that ancient, but the people look like they have a well-developed musculature.Steve Hsu  10:34  So the Greeks were very special because they were the first to think about the word gymnasium. It was a thing called the Palaestra, where they were trained in wrestling and boxing. They were the first people who were seriously into physical culture specific training for athletic competition.Even in the 70s, when I was a little kid, I look back at the guys from old photos and they were skinny. So skinny! The guys who went off and fought World War Two, whether they were on the German side, or the American side, were like 5’8-5’9 weighing around 130 pounds - 140 pounds. They were much different from what modern US Marines would look like. So yeah, physical culture was a new thing. Of course, the Romans and the Greeks had it to some degree, but it was lost for a long time. And, it was just coming back to the US when I was growing up. So if you were reasonably lean (around 200 pounds) and you could bench over 300.. that was pretty rare back in those days.Embryo selectionDwarkesh Patel  11:46  Okay, so let's talk about your company Genomic Prediction. Do you want to talk about this company and give an intro about what it is?Steve Hsu  11:55  Yeah. So there are two ways to introduce it. One is the scientific view. The other is the IVF view. I can do a little of both. So scientifically, the issue is that we have more and more genomic data. If you give me the genomes of a bunch of people and then give me some information about each person, ex. Do they have diabetes? How tall are they? What's their IQ score?  It’s a natural AI machine learning problem to figure out which features in the DNA variation between people are predictive of whatever variable you're trying to predict.This is the ancient scientific question of how you relate the genotype of the organism (the specific DNA pattern), to the phenotype (the expressed characteristics of the organism). If you think about it, this is what biology is! We had the molecular revolution and figured out that it’s people's DNA that stores the information which is passed along. Evolution selects on the basis of the variation in the DNA that’s expressed as phenotype, as that phenotype affects fitness/reproductive success. That's the whole ballgame for biology. As a physicist who's trained in mathematics and computation, I'm lucky that I arrived on the scene at a time when we're going to solve this basic fundamental problem of biology through brute force, AI, and machine learning. So that's how I got into this. Now you ask as an entrepreneur, “Okay, fine Steve, you're doing this in your office with your postdocs and collaborators on your computers. What use is it?” The most direct application of this is in the following setting: Every year around the world, millions of families go through IVF—typically because they're having some fertility issues, and also mainly because the mother is in her 30s or maybe 40s. In the process of IVF, they use hormone stimulation to produce more eggs. Instead of one per cycle, depending on the age of the woman, they might produce anywhere between five to twenty, or even sixty to a hundred eggs for young women who are hormonally stimulated (egg donors).From there, it’s trivial because men produce sperm all the time. You can fertilize eggs pretty easily in a little dish, and get a bunch of embryos that grow. They start growing once they're fertilized. The problem is that if you're a family and produce more embryos than you’re going to use, you have the embryo choice problem. You have to figure out which embryo to choose out of  say, 20 viable embryos. The most direct application of the science that I described is that we can now genotype those embryos from a small biopsy. I can tell you things about the embryos. I could tell you things like your fourth embryo being an outlier. For breast cancer risk, I would think carefully about using number four. Number ten is an outlier for cardiovascular disease risk. You might want to think about not using that one. The other ones are okay. So, that’s what genomic prediction does. We work with 200 or 300 different IVF clinics in six continents.Dwarkesh Patel  15:46  Yeah, so the super fascinating thing about this is that the diseases you talked about—or at least their risk profiles—are polygenic. You can have thousands of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) determining whether you will get a disease. So, I'm curious to learn how you were able to transition to this space and how your knowledge of mathematics and physics was able to help you figure out how to make sense of all this data.Steve Hsu  16:16  Yeah, that's a great question. So again, I was stressing the fundamental scientific importance of all this stuff. If you go into a slightly higher level of detail—which you were getting at with the individual SNPs, or polymorphisms—there are individual locations in the genome, where I might differ from you, and you might differ from another person. Typically, each pair of individuals will differ at a few million places in the genome—and that controls why I look a little different than youA lot of times, theoretical physicists have a little spare energy and they get tired of thinking about quarks or something. They want to maybe dabble in biology, or they want to dabble in computer science, or some other field. As theoretical physicists, we always feel, “Oh, I have a lot of horsepower, I can figure a lot out.” (For example, Feynman helped design the first parallel processors for thinking machines.) I have to figure out which problems I can make an impact on because I can waste a lot of time. Some people spend their whole lives studying one problem, one molecule or something, or one biological system. I don't have time for that, I'm just going to jump in and jump out. I'm a physicist. That's a typical attitude among theoretical physicists. So, I had to confront sequencing costs about ten years ago because I knew the rate at which they were going down. I could anticipate that we’d get to the day (today) when millions of genomes with good phenotype data became available for analysis. A typical training run might involve almost a million genomes, or half a million genomes. The mathematical question then was: What is the most effective algorithm given a set of genomes and phenotype information to build the best predictor?  This can be  boiled down to a very well-defined machine learning problem. It turns out, for some subset of algorithms, there are theorems— performance guarantees that give you a bound on how much data you need to capture almost all of the variation in the features. I spent a fair amount of time, probably a year or two, studying these very famous results, some of which were proved by a guy named Terence Tao, a Fields medalist. These are results on something called compressed sensing: a penalized form of high dimensional regression that tries to build sparse predictors. Machine learning people might notice L1-penalized optimization. The very first paper we wrote on this was to prove that using accurate genomic data and these very abstract theorems in combination could predict how much data you need to “solve” individual human traits. We showed that you would need at least a few hundred thousand individuals and their genomes and their heights to solve for height as a phenotype. We proved that in a paper using all this fancy math in 2012. Then around 2017, when we got a hold of half a million genomes, we were able to implement it in practical terms and show that our mathematical result from some years ago was correct. The transition from the low performance of the predictor to high performance (which is what we call a “phase transition boundary” between those two domains) occurred just where we said it was going to occur. Some of these technical details are not understood even by practitioners in computational genomics who are not quite mathematical. They don't understand these results in our earlier papers and don't know why we can do stuff that other people can't, or why we can predict how much data we'll need to do stuff. It's not well-appreciated, even in the field. But when the big AI in our future in the singularity looks back and says, “Hey, who gets the most credit for this genomics revolution that happened in the early 21st century?”, they're going to find these papers on the archive where we proved this was possible, and how five years later, we actually did it. Right now it's under-appreciated, but the future AI––that Roko's Basilisk AI–will look back and will give me a little credit for it. Dwarkesh Patel  21:03  Yeah, I was a little interested in this a few years ago. At that time, I looked into how these polygenic risk scores were calculated. Basically, you find the correlation between the phenotype and the alleles that correlate with it. You add up how many copies of these alleles you have, what the correlations are, and you do a weighted sum of that. So that seemed very simple, especially in an era where we have all this machine learning, but it seems like they're getting good predictive results out of this concept. So, what is the delta between how good you can go with all this fancy mathematics versus a simple sum of correlations?Steve Hsu  21:43  You're right that the ultimate models that are used when you've done all the training, and when the dust settles, are straightforward. They’re pretty simple and have an additive structure. Basically, I either assign a nonzero weight to this particular region in the genome, or I don't. Then, I need to know what the weighting is, but then the function is a linear function or additive function of the state of your genome at some subset of positions. The ultimate model that you get is straightforward. Now, if you go back ten years, when we were doing this, there were lots of claims that it was going to be super nonlinear—that it wasn't going to be additive the way I just described it. There were going to be lots of interaction terms between regions. Some biologists are still convinced that's true, even though we already know we have predictors that don't have interactions.The other question, which is more technical, is whether in any small region of your genome, the state of the individual variants is highly correlated because you inherit them in chunks. You need to figure out which one you want to use. You don't want to activate all of them because you might be overcounting. So that's where these L-1 penalization sparse methods force the predictor to be sparse. That is a key step. Otherwise, you might overcount. If you do some simple regression math, you might have 10-10 different variants close by that have roughly the same statistical significance.But, you don't know which one of those tends to be used, and you might be overcounting effects or undercounting effects. So, you end up doing a high-dimensional optimization, where you grudgingly activate a SNP when the signal is strong enough. Once you activate that one, the algorithm has to be smart enough to penalize the other ones nearby and not activate them because you're over counting effects if you do that. There's a little bit of subtlety in it. But, the main point you made is that the ultimate predictors, which are very simple and addictive—sum over effect sizes and time states—work well. That’s related to a deep statement about the additive structure of the genetic architecture of individual differences. In other words, it's weird that the ways that I differ from you are merely just because I have more of something or you have less of something. It’s not like these things are interacting in some incredibly understandable way. That's a deep thing—which is not appreciated that much by biologists yet. But over time, they'll figure out something interesting here.Why hasn’t natural selection already optimized humans?Dwarkesh Patel  24:19  Right. I thought that was super fascinating, and I commented on that on Twitter. What is interesting about that is two things. One is that you have this fascinating evolutionary argument about why that would be the case that you might want to explain. The second is that it makes you wonder if becoming more intelligent is just a matter of turning on certain SNPs. It's not a matter of all this incredible optimization being like solving a sudoku puzzle or anything. If that's the case, then why hasn't the human population already been selected to be maxed out on all these traits if it's just a matter of a bit flip?Steve Hsu  25:00  Okay, so the first issue is why is this genetic architecture so surprisingly simple? Again, we didn't know it would be simple ten years ago. So when I was checking to see whether this was a field that I should go into depending on our capabilities to make progress, we had to study the more general problem of the nonlinear possibilities. But eventually, we realized that most of the variance would probably be captured in an additive way. So, we could narrow down the problem quite a bit. There are evolutionary reasons for this. There’s a famous theorem by Fisher, the father of population genetics (aka. frequentist statistics). Fisher proved something called Fisher's Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection, which says that if you impose some selection pressure on a population, the rate at which that population responds to the selection pressure (lets say it’s the bigger rats that out-compete the smaller rats) then at what rate does the rat population start getting bigger? He showed that it's the additive variants that dominate the rate of evolution. It's easy to understand why if it's a nonlinear mechanism, you need to make the rat bigger. When you sexually reproduce, and that gets chopped apart, you might break the mechanism. Whereas, if each short allele has its own independent effect, you can inherit them without worrying about breaking the mechanisms. It was well known among a tiny theoretical population of biologists that adding variants was the dominant way that populations would respond to selection. That was already known. The other thing is that humans have been through a pretty tight bottleneck, and we're not that different from each other. It's very plausible that if I wanted to edit a human embryo, and make it into a frog, then there are all kinds of subtle nonlinear things I’d have to do. But all those identical nonlinear complicated subsystems are fixed in humans. You have the same system as I do. You have the not human, not frog or ape, version of that region of DNA, and so do I. But the small ways we differ are mostly little additive switches. That's this deep scientific discovery from over the last 5-10 years of work in this area. Now, you were asking about why evolution hasn't completely “optimized” all traits in humans already. I don't know if you’ve ever done deep learning or high-dimensional optimization, but in that high-dimensional space, you're often moving on a slightly-tilted surface. So, you're getting gains, but it's also flat. Even though you scale up your compute or data size by order of magnitude, you don't move that much farther. You get some gains, but you're never really at the global max of anything in these high dimensional spaces. I don't know if that makes sense to you. But it's pretty plausible to me that two things are important here. One is that evolution has not had that much time to optimize humans. The environment that humans live in changed radically in the last 10,000 years. For a while, we didn't have agriculture, and now we have agriculture. Now, we have a swipe left if you want to have sex tonight. The environment didn't stay fixed. So, when you say fully optimized for the environment, what do you mean? The ability to diagonalize matrices might not have been very adaptive 10,000 years ago. It might not even be adaptive now. But anyway, it's a complicated question that one can't reason naively about. “If God wanted us to be 10 feet tall, we'd be 10 feet tall.” Or “if it's better to be smart, my brain would be *this* big or something.” You can't reason naively about stuff like that.Dwarkesh Patel  29:04  I see. Yeah.. Okay. So I guess it would make sense then that for example, with certain health risks, the thing that makes you more likely to get diabetes or heart disease today might be… I don't know what the pleiotropic effect of that could be. But maybe that's not that important one year from now.Steve Hsu  29:17  Let me point out that most of the diseases we care about now—not the rare ones, but the common ones—manifest when you're 50-60 years old. So there was never any evolutionary advantage of being super long-lived. There's even a debate about whether the grandparents being around to help raise the kids lifts the fitness of the family unit.But, most of the time in our evolutionary past, humans just died fairly early. So, many of these diseases would never have been optimized against evolution. But, we see them now because we live under such good conditions, we can regulate people over 80 or 90 years.Dwarkesh Patel  29:57  Regarding the linearity and additivity point, I was going to make the analogy that– and I'm curious if this is valid– but when you're programming, one thing that's good practice is to have all the implementation details in separate function calls or separate programs or something, and then have your main loop of operation just be called different functions like, “Do this, do that”, so that you can easily comment stuff away or change arguments. This seemed very similar to that where by turning these names on and off, you can change what the next offering will be. And, you don't have to worry about actually implementing whatever the underlying mechanism is. Steve Hsu  30:41  Well, what you said is related to what Fisher proved in his theorems. Which is that, if suddenly, it becomes advantageous to have X, (like white fur instead of black fur) or something, it would be best if there were little levers that you could move somebody from black fur to white fur continuously by modifying those switches in an additive way. It turns out that for sexually reproducing species where the DNA gets scrambled up in every generation, it's better to have switches of that kind. The other point related to your software analogy is that there seem to be modular, fairly modular things going on in the genome. When we looked at it, we were the first group to have, initially, 20 primary disease conditions we had decent predictors for. We started looking carefully at just something as trivial as the overlap of my sparsely trained predictor. It turns on and uses *these* features for diabetes, but it uses *these* features for schizophrenia. It’s the stupidest metric, it’s literally just how much overlap or variance accounted for overlap is there between pairs of disease conditions. It's very modest. It's the opposite of what naive biologists would say when they talk about pleiotropy.They're just disjoint! Disjoint regions of your genome that govern certain things. And why not? You have 3 billion base pairs—there's a lot you can do in there. There's a lot of information there. If you need 1000 to control diabetes risk, I estimated you could easily have 1000 roughly independent traits that are just disjoint in their genetic dependencies. So, if you think about D&D,  your strength, decks, wisdom, intelligence, and charisma—those are all disjoint. They're all just independent variables. So it's like a seven-dimensional space that your character lives in. Well, there's enough information in the few million differences between you and me. There's enough for 1000-dimensional space of variation.“Oh, how considerable is your spleen?” My spleen is a little bit smaller, yours is a little bit bigger - that can vary independently of your IQ. Oh, it's a big surprise. The size of your spleen can vary independently of the size of your big toe. If you do information theory, there are about 1000 different parameters, and I can vary independently with the number of variants I have between you and me. Because you understand some information theory, it’s trivial to explain, but try explaining to a biologist, you won't get very far.Dwarkesh Patel  33:27  Yeah, yeah, do the log two of the number of.. is that basically how you do it? Yeah.Steve Hsu  33:33  Okay. That's all it is. I mean, it's in our paper. We look at how many variants typically account for most of the variation for any of these major traits, and then imagine that they're mostly disjoint. Then it’s just all about: how many variants you need to independently vary 1000 traits? Well, a few million differences between you and me are enough. It's very trivial math. Once you understand the base and how to reason about information theory, then it's very trivial. But, it ain’t trivial for theoretical biologists, as far as I can tell.AgingDwarkesh Patel  34:13  But the result is so interesting because I remember reading in The Selfish Gene that, as he (Dawkins) hypothesizes that the reason we could be aging is an antagonistic clash. There's something that makes you healthier when you're young and fertile that makes you unhealthy when you're old. Evolution would have selected for such a trade-off because when you're young and fertile, evolution and your genes care about you. But, if there's enough space in the genome —where these trade-offs are not necessarily necessary—then this could be a bad explanation for aging, or do you think I'm straining the analogy?Steve Hsu  34:49  I love your interviews because the point you're making here is really good. So Dawkins, who is an evolutionary theorist from the old school when they had almost no data—you can imagine how much data they had compared to today—he would tell you a story about a particular gene that maybe has a positive effect when you're young, but it makes you age faster. So, there's a trade-off. We know about things like sickle cell anemia. We know stories about that. No doubt, some stories are true about specific variants in your genome. But that's not the general story. The general story you only discovered in the last five years is that thousands of variants control almost every trait and those variants tend to be disjoint from the ones that control the other trait. They weren't wrong, but they didn't have the big picture.Dwarkesh Patel  35:44  Yeah, I see. So, you had this paper, it had polygenic, health index, general health, and disease risk.. You showed that with ten embryos, you could increase disability-adjusted life years by four, which is a massive increase if you think about it. Like what if you could live four years longer and in a healthy state? Steve Hsu  36:05  Yeah, what's the value of that? What would you pay to buy that for your kid?Dwarkesh Patel  36:08  Yeah. But, going back to the earlier question about the trade-offs and why this hasn't already been selected for,  if you're right and there's no trade-off to do this, just living four years older (even if that's beyond your fertility) just being a grandpa or something seems like an unmitigated good. So why hasn’t this kind of assurance hasn't already been selected for? Steve Hsu  36:35  I’m glad you're asking about these questions because these are things that people are very confused about, even in the field. First of all, let me say that when you have a trait that's controlled by  10,000 variants (eg. height is controlled by order 10,000 variants and probably cognitive ability a little bit more), the square root of 10,000 is 100.  So, if I could come to this little embryo, and I want to give it one extra standard deviation of height, I only need to edit 100. I only need to flip 100 minus variance to plus variance. These are very rough numbers. But, one standard deviation is the square root of “n”. If I flip a coin “n” times, I want a better outcome in terms of the number of ratio heads to tails. I want to increase it by one standard deviation. I only need to flip the square root of “n” heads because if you flip a lot, you will get a narrow distribution that peaks around half, and the width of that distribution is the square root of “n”. Once I tell you, “Hey, your height is controlled by 10,000 variants, and I only need to flip 100 genetic variants to make you one standard deviation for a male,” (that would be three inches tall, two and a half or three inches taller), you suddenly realize, “Wait a minute, there are a lot of variants up for grabs there. If I could flip 500 variants in your genome, I would make you five standard deviations taller, you'd be seven feet tall.”  I didn't even have to do that much work, and there's a lot more variation where that came from. I could have flipped even more because I only flipped 500 out of 10,000, right? So, there's this  quasi-infinite well of variation that evolution or genetic engineers could act on. Again, the early population geneticists who bred corn and animals know this. This is something they explicitly know about because they've done calculations. Interestingly, the human geneticists who are mainly concerned with diseases and stuff, are often unfamiliar with the math that the animal breeders already know. You might be interested to know that the milk you drink comes from heavily genetically-optimized cows bred artificially using almost exactly the same technologies that we use at genomic prediction. But, they're doing it to optimize milk production and stuff like this. So there is a big well of variance. It's a consequence of the trait's poly genicity. On the longevity side of things, it does look like people could “be engineered” to live much longer by flipping the variants that make the risk for diseases that shorten your life. The question is then “Why didn't evolution give us life spans of thousands of years?” People in the Bible used to live for thousands of years. Why don't we? I mean, *chuckles* that probably didn’t happen. But the question is, you have this very high dimensional space, and you have a fitness function. How big is the slope in a particular direction of that fitness function? How much more successful reproductively would Joe caveman have been if he lived to be 150 instead of only, 100 or something? There just hasn't been enough time to explore this super high dimensional space. That's the actual answer. But now, we have the technology, and we're going to f*****g explore it fast. That's the point that the big lightbulb should go off. We’re mapping this space out now. Pretty confident in 10 years or so, with the CRISPR gene editing technologies will be ready for massively multiplexed edits. We'll start navigating in this high-dimensional space as much as we like. So that's the more long-term consequence of the scientific insights.Dwarkesh Patel  40:53  Yeah, that's super interesting. What do you think will be the plateau for a trait of how long you’ll live? With the current data and techniques, you think it could be significantly greater than that?Steve Hsu  41:05  We did a simple calculation—which amazingly gives the correct result. This polygenic predictor that we built (which isn't perfect yet but will improve as we gather more data) is used in selecting embryos today. If you asked, out of a billion people, “What's the best person typically, what would their score be on this index and then how long would they be predicted to live?”’ It's about 120 years. So it's spot on. One in a billion types of person lives to be 120 years old. How much better can you do? Probably a lot better. I don't want to speculate, but other nonlinear effects, things that we're not taking into account will start to play a role at some point. So, it's a little bit hard to estimate what the true limiting factors will be. But one super robust statement, and I'll stand by it, debate any Nobel Laureate in biology who wants to discuss it even,  is that there are many variants available to be selected or edited. There's no question about that. That's been established in animal breeding in plant breeding for a long time now. If you want a chicken that grows to be *this* big, instead of *this* big, you can do it. You can do it if you want a cow that produces 10 times or 100 times more milk than a regular cow. The egg you ate for breakfast this morning, those bio-engineered chickens that lay almost an egg a day… A chicken in the wild lays an egg a month. How the hell did we do that? By genetic engineering. That's how we did it. Dwarkesh Patel  42:51  Yeah. That was through brute artificial selection. No fancy machine learning there.Steve Hsu  42:58  Last ten years, it's gotten sophisticated machine learning genotyping of chickens. Artificial insemination, modeling of the traits using ML last ten years. For cow breeding, it's done by ML. First Mover AdvantageDwarkesh Patel  43:18  I had no idea. That's super interesting. So, you mentioned that you're accumulating data and improving your techniques over time, is there a first mover advantage to a genomic prediction company like this? Or is it whoever has the newest best algorithm for going through the biobank data? Steve Hsu  44:16  That's another super question. For the entrepreneurs in your audience, I would say in the short run, if you ask what the valuation of GPB should be? That's how the venture guys would want me to answer the question. There is a huge first mover advantage because they're important in the channel relationships between us and the clinics. Nobody will be able to get in there very easily when they come later because we're developing trust and an extensive track record with clinics worldwide—and we're well-known. So could 23andme or some company with a huge amount of data—if they were to get better AI/ML people working on this—blow us away a little bit and build better predictors because they have much more data than we do? Possibly, yes. Now, we have had core expertise in doing this work for years that we're just good at it. Even though we don't have as much data as 23andme, our predictors might still be better than theirs. I'm out there all the time, working with biobanks all around the world. I don't want to say all the names, but other countries are trying to get my hands on as much data as possible.But, there may not be a lasting advantage beyond the actual business channel connections to that particular market. It may not be a defensible, purely scientific moat around the company. We have patents on specific technologies about how to do the genotyping or error correction on the embryo, DNA, and stuff like this. We do have patents on stuff like that. But this general idea of who will best predict human traits from DNA? It's unclear who's going to be the winner in that race. Maybe it'll be the Chinese government in 50 years? Who knows?Dwarkesh Patel  46:13  Yeah, that's interesting. If you think about a company Google, theoretically, it's possible that you could come up with a better algorithm than PageRank and beat them. But it seems like the engineer at Google is going to come up with whatever edge case or whatever improvement is possible.Steve Hsu  46:28  That's exactly what I would say. PageRank is deprecated by now. But, even if somebody else comes up with a somewhat better algorithm if they have a little bit more data, if you have a team doing this for a long time and you're focused and good, it's still tough to beat you, especially if you have a lead in the market.Dwarkesh Patel  46:50  So, are you guys doing the actual biopsy? Or is it just that they upload the genome, and you're the one processing just giving recommendations? Is it an API call, basically?Steve Hsu  47:03  It's great, I love your question. It is totally standard. Every good IVF clinic in the world regularly takes embryo biopsies. So that's standard. There’s a lab tech doing that. Okay. Then, they take the little sample, put it on ice, and ship it. The DNA as a molecule is exceptionally robust and stable. My other startup solves crimes that are 100 years old from DNA that we get from some semen stain on some rape victim, serial killer victims bra strap, we've done stuff that.Dwarkesh Patel  47:41  Jack the Ripper, when are we going to solve that mystery?Steve Hsu  47:44  If they can give me samples, we can get into that. For example, we just learned that you could recover DNA pretty well if someone licks a stamp and puts on their correspondence. If you can do Neanderthals, you can do a lot to solve crimes. In the IVF workflow, our lab, which is in New Jersey, can service every clinic in the world because they take the biopsy, put it in a standard shipping container, and send it to us. We’re actually genotyping DNA in our lab, but we've trained a few of the bigger  clinics to do the genotyping on their site. At that point, they upload some data into the cloud and then they get back some stuff from our platform. And at that point it's going to be the whole world, every human who wants their kid to be healthy and get the best they can– that data is going to come up to us, and the report is going to come back down to their IVF physician. Dwarkesh Patel  48:46  Which is great if you think that there's a potential that this technology might get regulated in some way, you could go to Mexico or something, have them upload the genome (you don't care what they upload it from), and then get the recommendations there. Steve Hsu  49:05  I think we’re going to evolve to a point where we are going to be out of the wet part of this business, and only in the cloud and bit part of this business. No matter where it is, the clinics are going to have a sequencer, which is *this* big, and their tech is going to quickly upload and retrieve the report for the physician three seconds later. Then, the parents are going to look at it on their phones or whatever. We’re basically there with some clinics. It’s going to be tough to regulate because it’s just this. You have the bits and you’re in some repressive, terrible country that doesn’t allow you to select for some special traits that people are nervous about, but you can upload it to some vendor that’s in Singapore or some free country, and they give you the report back. Doesn’t have to be us, we don’t do the edgy stuff. We only do the health-related stuff right now. But, if you want to know how tall this embryo is going to be…I’ll tell you a mind-blower! When you do face recognition in AI, you're mapping someone's face into a parameter space on the order of hundreds of parameters, each of those parameters is super heritable. In other words, if I take two twins and photograph them, and the algorithm gives me the value of that parameter for twin one and two, they're very close. That's why I can't tell the two twins apart, and face recognition can ultimately tell them apart if it’s really good system. But you can conclude that almost all these parameters are identical for those twins. So it's highly heritable. We're going to get to a point soon where I can do the inverse problem where I have your DNA  and I predict each of those parameters in the face recognition algorithm and then reconstruct the face. If I say that when this embryo will be 16, that is what she will look like. When she's 32, this is what she's going to look like. I'll be able to do that, for sure. It's only an AI/ML problem right now. But basic biology is clearly going to work. So then you're going to be able to say, “Here's a report. Embryo four is so cute.” Before, we didn't know we wouldn't do that, but it will be possible. Dwarkesh Patel  51:37  Before we get married, you'll want to see what their genotype implies about their faces' longevity. It's interesting that you hear stories about these cartel leaders who will get plastic surgery or something to evade the law, you could have a check where you look at a lab and see if it matches the face you would have had five years ago when they caught you on tape.Steve Hsu  52:02  This is a little bit back to old-school Gattaca, but you don't even need the face! You can just take a few molecules of skin cells and phenotype them and know exactly who they are. I've had conversations with these spooky Intel folks. They're very interested in, “Oh, if some Russian diplomat comes in, and we think he's a spy, but he's with the embassy, and he has a coffee with me, and I save the cup and send it to my buddy at Langley, can we figure out who this guy is? And that he has a daughter who's going to Chote? Can do all that now.Dwarkesh Patel  52:49  If that's true, then in the future, world leaders will not want to eat anything or drink. They'll be wearing a hazmat suit to make sure they don't lose a hair follicle.Steve Hsu  53:04  The next time Pelosi goes, she will be in a spacesuit if she cares. Or the other thing is, they're going to give it. They're just going to be, “Yeah, my DNA is everywhere. If I'm a public figure, I can't track my DNA. It's all over.”Dwarkesh Patel  53:17  But the thing is, there's so much speculation that Putin might have cancer or something. If we have his DNA, we can see his probability of having cancer at age 70, or whatever he is, is 85%. So yeah, that’d be a very verified rumor. That would be interesting. Steve Hsu  53:33  I don't think that would be very definitive. I don't think we'll reach that point where you can say that Putin has cancer because of his DNA—which I could have known when he was an embryo. I don't think it's going to reach that level. But, we could say he is at high risk for a type of cancer. Genomics in datingDwarkesh Patel  53:49  In 50 or 100 years, if the majority of the population is doing this, and if the highly heritable diseases get pruned out of the population, does that mean we'll only be left with lifestyle diseases? So, you won't get breast cancer anymore, but you will still get fat or lung cancer from smoking?Steve Hsu  54:18  It's hard to discuss the asymptotic limit of what will happen here. I'm not very confident about making predictions like that. It could get to the point where everybody who's rich or has been through this stuff for a while, (especially if we get the editing working) is super low risk for all the top 20 killer diseases that have the most life expectancy impact. Maybe those people live to be 300 years old naturally. I don't think that's excluded at all. So, that's within the realm of possibility. But it's going to happen for a few lucky people like Elon Musk before it happens for shlubs like you and me. There are going to be very angry inequality protesters about the Trump grandchildren, who, models predict will live to be 200 years old. People are not going to be happy about that.Dwarkesh Patel  55:23  So interesting. So, one way to think about these different embryos is if you're producing multiple embryos, and you get to select from one of them, each of them has a call option, right? Therefore, you probably want to optimize for volatility as much, or if not more than just the expected value of the trait. So, I'm wondering if there are mechanisms where you can  increase the volatility in meiosis or some other process. You just got a higher variance, and you can select from the tail better.Steve Hsu  55:55  Well, I'll tell you something related, which is quite amusing. So I talked with some pretty senior people at the company that owns all the dating apps. So you can look up what company this is, but they own Tinder and Match. They’re kind of interested in perhaps including a special feature where you upload your genome instead of Tinder Gold / Premium.  And when you match- you can talk about how well you match the other person based on your genome. One person told me something shocking. Guys lie about their height on these apps. Dwarkesh Patel  56:41  I’m shocked, truly shocked hahaha. Steve Hsu  56:45  Suppose you could have a DNA-verified height. It would prevent gross distortions if someone claims they're 6’2 and they’re 5’9. The DNA could say that's unlikely. But no, the application to what you were discussing is more like, “Let's suppose that we're selecting on intelligence or something. Let's suppose that the regions where your girlfriend has all the plus stuff are complementary to the regions where you have your plus stuff. So, we could model that and say,  because of the complementarity structure of your genome in the regions that affect intelligence, you're very likely to have some super intelligent kids way above your, the mean of your you and your girlfriend's values. So, you could say things like it being better for you to marry that girl than another. As long as you go through embryo selection, we can throw out the bad outliers. That's all that's technically feasible. It's true that one of the earliest patent applications, they'll deny it now. What's her name? Gosh, the CEO of 23andme…Wojcicki, yeah. She'll deny it now. But, if you look in the patent database, one of the very earliest patents that 23andme filed when they were still a tiny startup was about precisely this: Advising parents about mating and how their kids would turn out and stuff like this. We don't even go that far in GP, we don't even talk about stuff like that, but they were thinking about it when they founded 23andme.Dwarkesh Patel  58:38  That is unbelievably interesting. By the way, this just occurred to me—it's supposed to be highly heritable, especially people in Asian countries, who have the experience of having grandparents that are much shorter than us, and then parents that are shorter than us, which suggests that  the environment has a big part to play in it malnutrition or something. So how do you square that our parents are often shorter than us with the idea that height is supposed to be super heritable.Steve Hsu  59:09  Another great observation. So the correct scientific statement is that we can predict height for people who will be born and raised in a favorable environment. In other words, if you live close to a McDonald's and you're able to afford all the food you want, then the height phenotype becomes super heritable because the environmental variation doesn't matter very much. But, you and I both know that people are much smaller if we return to where our ancestors came from, and also, if you look at how much food, calories, protein, and calcium they eat, it's different from what I ate and what you ate growing up. So we're never saying the environmental effects are zero. We're saying that for people raised in a particularly favorable environment, maybe the genes are capped on what can be achieved, and we can predict that. In fact, we have data from Asia, where you can see much bigger environmental effects. Age affects older people, for fixed polygenic scores on the trait are much shorter than younger people.Ancestral populationsDwarkesh Patel  1:00:31  Oh, okay. Interesting. That raises that next question I was about to ask: how applicable are these scores across different ancestral populations?Steve Hsu  1:00:44  Huge problem is that most of the data is from Europeans. What happens is that if you train a predictor in this ancestry group and go to a more distant ancestry group, there's a fall-off in the prediction quality. Again, this is a frontier question, so we don't know the answer for sure. But many people believe that there's a particular correlational structure in each population, where if I know the state of this SNP, I can predict the state of these neighboring SNPs. That is a product of that group's mating patterns and ancestry. Sometimes, the predictor, which is just using statistical power to figure things out, will grab one of these SNPs as a tag for the truly causal SNP in there. It doesn't know which one is genuinely causal, it is just grabbing a tag, but the tagging quality falls off if you go to another population (eg. This was a very good tag for the truly causal SNP in the British population. But it's not so good a tag in the South Asian population for the truly causal SNP, which we hypothesize is the same). It's the same underlying genetic architecture in these different ancestry groups. We don't know if that's a hypothesis. But even so, the tagging quality falls off. So my group spent a lot of our time looking at the performance of predictor training population A, and on distant population B, and modeling it trying to figure out trying to test hypotheses as to whether it's just the tagging decay that’s responsible for most of the faults. So all of this is an area of active investigation. It'll probably be solved in five years. The first big biobanks that are non-European are coming online. We're going to solve it in a number of years.Dwarkesh Patel  1:02:38  Oh, what does the solution look like?  Unless you can identify the causal mechanism by which each SNP is having an effect, how can you know that something is a tag or whether it's the actual underlying switch?Steve Hsu  1:02:54  The nature of reality will determine how this is going to go. So we don't truly  know if the  innate underlying biology is true. This is an amazing thing. People argue about human biodiversity and all this stuff, and we don't even know whether these specific mechanisms that predispose you to be tall or having heart disease are the same  in these different ancestry groups. We assume that it is, but we don't know that. As we get further away to Neanderthals or Homo Erectus, you might see that they have a slightly different architecture than we do. But let's assume that the causal structure is the same for South Asians and British people. Then it's a matter of improving the tags. How do I know if I don't know which one is causal? What do I mean by improving the tags? This is a machine learning problem. If there's a SNP, which is always coming up as very significant when I use it across multiple ancestry groups, maybe that one's casual. As I vary the tagging correlations in the neighborhood of that SNP, I always find that that one is the intersection of all these different sets, making me think that one's going to be causal. That's a process we're engaged in now—trying to do that. Again, it's just a machine learning problem. But we need data. That's the main issue.Dwarkesh Patel  1:04:32  I was hoping that wouldn't be possible, because one way we might go about this research is that it itself becomes taboo or causes other sorts of bad social consequences if you can definitively show that on certain traits, there are differences between ancestral populations, right? So, I was hoping that maybe there was an evasion button where we can't say because they're just tags and the tags might be different between different ancestral populations. But with machine learning, we’ll know.Steve Hsu  1:04:59  That's the situation we're in now, where you have to do some fancy analysis if you want to claim that Italians have lower height potential than Nordics—which is possible. There's been a ton of research about this because there are signals of selection. The alleles, which are activated in height predictors, look like they've been under some selection between North and South Europe over the last 5000 years for whatever reason. But, this is a thing debated by people who study molecular evolution. But suppose it's true, okay? That would mean that when we finally get to the bottom of it, we find all the causal loci for height, and the average value for the Italians is lower than that for those living in Stockholm. That might be true. People don't get that excited? They get a little bit excited about height. But they would get really excited if this were true for some other traits, right?Suppose the causal variants affecting your level of extraversion are systematic, that the average value of those weighed the weighted average of those states is different in Japan versus Sicily. People might freak out over that. I'm supposed to say that's obviously not true. How could it possibly be true? There hasn't been enough evolutionary time for those differences to arise. After all, it's not possible that despite what looks to be the case for height over the last 5000 years in Europe, no other traits could have been differentially selected for over the last 5000 years. That's the dangerous thing. Few people understand this field well enough to understand what you and I just discussed and are so alarmed by it that they're just trying to suppress everything. Most of them don't follow it at this technical level that you and I are just discussing. So, they're somewhat instinctively negative about it, but they don't understand it very well.Dwarkesh Patel  1:07:19  That's good to hear. You see this pattern that by the time that somebody might want to regulate or in some way interfere with some technology or some information, it already has achieved wide adoption. You could argue that that's the case with crypto today. But if it's true that a bunch of IVF clinics worldwide are using these scores to do selection and other things, by the time people realize the implications of this data for other kinds of social questions, this has already been an existing consumer technology.Is this eugenics?Steve Hsu  1:07:58  That's true, and the main outcry will be if it turns out that there are massive gains to be had, and only the billionaires are getting them. But that might have the consequence of causing countries to make this free part of their national health care system. So Denmark and Israel pay for IVF. For infertile couples, it's part of their national health care system. They're pretty aggressive about genetic testing. In Denmark, one in 10 babies are born through IVF. It's not clear how it will go. But we're in for some fun times. There's no doubt about that.Dwarkesh Patel  1:08:45  Well, one way you could go is that some countries decided to ban it altogether. And another way it could go is if countries decided to give everybody free access to it. If you had to choose between the two,  you would want to go for the second one. Which would be the hope. Maybe only those two are compatible with people's moral intuitions about this stuff. Steve Hsu  1:09:10  It’s very funny because most wokist people today hate this stuff. But, most progressives like Margaret Sanger, or anybody who was the progressive intellectual forebears of today's wokist, in the early 20th century, were all that we would call today in Genesis because they were like, “Thanks to Darwin, we now know how this all works. We should take steps to keep society healthy and (not in a negative way where we kill people we don't like, but we should help society do healthy things when they reproduce, and have healthy kids).” Now, this whole thing has just been flipped over among progressives. Dwarkesh Patel  1:09:52  Even in India, less than 50 years ago, Indira Gandhi, she's on the left side of India's political spectrum. She was infamous for putting on these forced sterilization programs. Somebody made an interesting comment about this where they were asked, “Oh, is it true that history always tilts towards progressives? And if so, isn't everybody else doomed? Aren't their views doomed?”The person made a fascinating point: whatever we consider left at the time tends to be winning. But what is left has changed a lot over time, right? In the early 20th century, prohibition was a left cause. It was a progressive cause, and that changed, and now the opposite is the left cause. But now, legalizing pot is progressive. Exactly. So, if Conquest’s second law is true, and everything tilts leftover time, just change what is left is, right? That's the solution. Steve Hsu  1:10:59  No one can demand that any of these woke guys be intellectually self-consistent, or even say the same things from one year to another? But one could wonder what they think about these literally Communist Chinese. They’re recycling huge parts of their GDP to help the poor and the southern stuff. Medicine is free, education is free, right? They're clearly socialists, and literally communists. But in Chinese, the Chinese characters for eugenics is a positive thing. It means healthy production. But more or less, the whole viewpoint on all this stuff is 180 degrees off in East Asia compared to here, and even among the literal communists—so go figure.Dwarkesh Patel  1:11:55  Yeah, very based. So let's talk about one of the traits that people might be interested in potentially selecting for: intelligence. What is the potential for us to acquire the data to correlate the genotype with intelligence?Steve Hsu  1:12:15  Well, that's the most personally frustrating aspect of all of this stuff. If you asked me ten years ago when I started doing this stuff what were we going to get, everything was gone. On the optimistic side of what I would have predicted, so everything's good. Didn't turn out to be interactively nonlinear, or it didn't turn out to be interactively pleiotropic. All these good things, —which nobody could have known a priori how they would work—turned out to be good for gene engineers of the 21st century. The one frustrating thing is because of crazy wokeism, and fear of crazy wokists, the most interesting phenotype of all is lagging b

god united states america ceo american new york university spotify founders donald trump new york city google english china europe kids bible nfl japan americans mexico british west professor ai tech nature chinese gold european ohio russian german romans mit medicine evolution dna new jersey italian elon musk san diego north greek indian asian harvard humanity mcdonald tinder loved vladimir putin ufc helps match world war ii singapore stanford ucla nebraska jeff bezos taiwan guys denmark intelligence south korea stepping albert einstein olympians long island stockholm consumer simpsons intel fields consistent nancy pelosi ohio state gym artificial ea iq michigan state university selection boeing gp gdp nobel prize api d d ivf mckinsey cs jiu jitsu estonia pasadena aws ml conquest ripper scandinavian south asian goldman crispr ancestral crimson hemingway sicily asana gosh neanderthals goldilocks east asia us marines neumann genomics langley conformity sri lankan big five advising imo embryos caltech dawkins westwood theoretical suitable sats mathematicians nobel laureates gpt ai ml snp tradeoffs natural selection eloy nordics gattaca iit pua l1 ftx richard feynman lsat margaret sanger h 1b east german south asians secretaries feynman manifold olympiads theoretical physics hsu multiplex roko hour fitness piketty indira gandhi snps applied physics conceptually wonderlic francis crick pagerank morlocks communist chinese selfish gene homo erectus ashkenazi jews uk biobank youa wojcicki gpb hahahah tay sachs fundamental theorem scott aaronson chote gregory clark palaestra gwern
Free Beer and Hot Wings: Free Clip of the Day
How To: Talk Like A Neanderthal

Free Beer and Hot Wings: Free Clip of the Day

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 23, 2022 6:02


On today's show, we all learned how to talk like a neanderthal. Check out the How-To and see if you're as bad as us. For the whole podcast, as well as a ton of other exclusive perks, sign up to be a Fancy Idiot at FreeBeerAndHotWings.com! Our GDPR privacy policy was updated on August 8, 2022. Visit acast.com/privacy for more information.

Springfield's Talk 104.1 On-Demand
Nick Reed PODCAST 08.22.22 - Hate Crimes in Springfield?

Springfield's Talk 104.1 On-Demand

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 22, 2022 44:33


Hour 3 -  Nick Reed talks about a variety of topics in the news, including: Employees at Google's parent company are urging the search engine to suppress results for pro-life crisis pregnancy centers, according to a petition sent Monday by the company union to Alphabet Inc. CEO Sundar Pichai. As President Joe Biden's polls stagnate and the midterms approach, we are now serially treated to yet another progressive melodrama about the dangers of a supposed impending radical right-wing violent takeover. This time the alleged threat is a Neanderthal desire for a "civil war." MyPillow CEO Mike Lindell was in Springfield over the weekend. After vandals struck a second and third church in north Springfield this week, one woman is coming forward with security camera footage.

bulls#!t&booze podcast
Phillip Anthony & Neanderthal kids

bulls#!t&booze podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 22, 2022 94:36


Phillip Anthony & Neanderthal kids by deacon and the dicknose

Recap and Gown
Encino Man

Recap and Gown

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 22, 2022 94:12


This week, we're breaking down the 1993 Pauly Shore classic, "Encino Man." We examine the differences between Neanderthals and Cro Magnon man, Try to figure out what the hell is wrong with Sean Astin's character, debate whether the Swedish Chef is the most racist character we currently allow on TV, and break out our finest Pauly Shore impressions, buuuuud-dy! As always, subscribe, rate, review, follow us on Twitter and Instagram @RecapNGownPod, and join our Facebook group, the Recap and Gown Fan Club! Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

Sasquatch Chronicles
SC EP:882 Beasts of the World

Sasquatch Chronicles

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 21, 2022 56:14 Very Popular


Andy writes “Beasts of the World is a seven-part series, which seeks to investigate the histories, evidence, and common theories surrounding the numerous cryptid creatures that have been reported around the globe. In Volume 1. – Hairy Humanoids, we examine the diverse collection of hairy, bipedal, man-like monsters that are believed to inhabit the world's remote and lonely regions and ask the question – do they represent a single species, or, could there be other lesser-known varieties of Wildmen, yet to be revealed? This book seeks to classify some of these distinct kinds and proposes a separation (even when two or more ‘types' or ‘species', appear to be sharing a similar geographic area) based upon key physiological and behavioural differences. And so, we find that the Man-Ape – Bigfoot of the Pacific Northwest, is something quite different to the Wildman – Almasti, of the Caucuses Mountains; and that the Relict Ape – known as the Yeti, is more akin to the Florida Skunk Ape, than the Chinese Yeren… Are these mysterious monsters surviving Gigantopithecus, extant Neanderthals, undiscovered apes, hidden tribes, or simply folklore and fable, repackaged for the modern world? Join me, as I go in search of these Hairy Humanoids and the many yet to be discovered Beasts of the World.”   Check out the book here

On the Media
We Are Family

On the Media

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 19, 2022 50:13 Very Popular


When you hear the word “Neanderthal,” you probably picture a mindless, clumsy brute. It's often used as an insult — even by our president, who last year called anti-maskers “Neanderthals.” But what if we have more in common with our ancestral cousins than we think? On this week's On the Media, hear how these early humans have been unfairly maligned in science and in popular culture. 1. John Hawks [@johnhawks], professor of anthropology at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, on our biological family tree—and the complicated branch that is Neanderthals. Listen. 2. Rebecca Wragg Sykes [@LeMoustier], archeologist and author of Kindred: Neanderthal Life, Love, Death and Art, on and what we know about how they lived. Listen.  3. Clive Finlayson [@CliveFinlayson], Director, Chief Scientist, and Curator of the Gibraltar National Museum, on how studying what's inside Gorham and Vanguard caves can help reconstruct Neanderthal life beyond them. Listen.  4. Angela Saini, science journalist, on how Neanderthals have been co-opted to push mythologies about the genetic basis of race. Listen. Music:Boy Moves the Sun by Michael AndrewsYoung Heart by Brad MehldauSacred Oracle by John ZornTomorrow Never Knows by Quartetto d' Archi Di Dell'Orchestra di Milano Guiseppe VerdiInvestigations by Kevin MacLeod

Takes All Over The Place
117: Head Games | Never Have I Ever (S3), Indian Matchmaking, Instant Dream Home

Takes All Over The Place

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 19, 2022 72:22


Nick's K-pop lessons continue - because he led us astray last week - and Julie might be getting into it? Maybe she's just been softened by the romance of Never Have I Ever season 3 and Indian Matchmaking (both on Netflix). And whatever our brains had going for them was thoroughly scrambled by a game of Poetry for Neanderthals (thanks Stacy!) Show Notes: @1:00 - Hot takes | Where's the dance?!, restless leg, excited brain, A League of Their Own, Never Have I Ever, Indian Matchmaking, Secret Celebrity Drag Race, Instant Dream Home @26:45 - Tweets of the Week | How often does a plane crash? @42:00- Game | Poetry for Neanderthals Want to support us and get fun extras? Join our Patreon! Like 30 Rock? Like Nick and Julie? Listen to them on their 30 Rock rewatch podcast: Blerg! (@blergpodcast) wherever you listen to Takes.

Introvert Biz Growth Podcast
Growing Your Business Without Social Media

Introvert Biz Growth Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 19, 2022 46:48


Today I'm talking to Viv Guy about growing your business without social media. Viv is a business coach, mentor, strategist, and the host of the podcast Marketing Without Social Media. Viv is passionate about helping service-based business owners create recurring 5k+ months, WITHOUT social media (bye-bye hamster wheel of content!), having created her first successful biz in her 20s without it. The best bit; doing it all in just 20 hours a week! In this episode, you'll learn about growing your business without social media as well as...   Why Viv thinks there's a growing interest in ditching Social Media If not Social Media, then what? Viv's ideas to grow your business without it Her 3 favorite ways of growing without social How to get traffic to our free offers to get people on to our email list Advantages of email vs. Social Media How Viv thinks Social Media will evolve in the next 5 year And so much more Viv's Resources   Viv's Website Viv's Podcast: Marketing Without Social Media Viv's Free Guide: 21 Ways to Get Clients Off Social Media   Sarah's Resources Watch this episode on Youtube (FREE) Sarah's One Page Marketing Plan (FREE) Sarah Suggests Newsletter (FREE) The Humane Business Manifesto (FREE) Gentle Confidence Mini-Course Marketing Like We're Human - Sarah's book The Humane Marketing Circle Authentic & Fair Pricing Mini-Course Podcast Show Notes We use Descript to edit our episodes and it's fantastic! Email Sarah at sarah@sarahsantacroce.com Thanks for listening!   After you listen, check out Humane Business Manifesto, an invitation to belong to a movement of people who do business the humane and gentle way and disrupt the current marketing paradigm. You can download it for free at this page. There's no opt-in. Just an instant download. Are you enjoying the podcast?  The Humane Marketing show is listener-supported—I'd love for you to become an active supporter of the show and join the Humane Marketing Circle. You will be invited to a private monthly Q&A call with me and fellow Humane Marketers -  a safe zone to hang out with like-minded conscious entrepreneurs and help each other build our business and grow our impact.  — I'd love for you to join us! Learn more at humane.marketing/circle Don't forget to subscribe to the show on iTunes or on Android to get notified for all my future shows and why not sign up for my weekly(ish) "Sarah Suggests Saturdays", a round-up of best practices, tools I use, books I read, podcasts, and other resources. Raise your hand and join the Humane Business Revolution. Warmly, Sarah Imperfect Transcript of the show We use and love Descript to edit our podcast and provide this free transcript of the episode. And yes, that's an affiliate link. Sarah: [00:00:00] [00:01:00] [00:02:00] [00:03:00] [00:04:00] [00:05:00] [00:06:00] Hey  Viv. So good to speak to you today. I look forward to our, I'm gonna just let in the listeners that were doing a double episode. So we're, we're recording first for my show. And then I'm gonna be recording one for your show. So yay. We get to hang out all morning. So welcome to the humane marketing podcast with, so  Viv: I'm excited to have. Thanks, sir. I'm so, so happy to be here. And one a morning, we've got how exciting is it's awesome. I think, you know, we're gonna come away from this, like bursting at the seams. I think there's so much energy and value that we take  Sarah: exactly. And all these new ideas about social media and marketing and all of that. So,  Viv: yeah, I'm [00:07:00] really excited.  Sarah: Cool. Well, let's dive right in. I, I, I have some big picture questions for you, but then also some nitty gritty, like, you know, how do we do this without social media? Because yeah, there's, there's obviously the big picture. So the that's kind of what I, where I wanna start. I, I feel like. There's maybe some movements starting together with my humane marketing revolution. Maybe there's a movement also away from social media. Yeah. What do you see? What do you hear in the grapes? What's going on?  Viv: Yeah. So I think you become more aware don't you have things are movements when you, you kind of embrace that yourself. Mm-hmm . So for me, obviously, when I, I had the idea of, I want to go off social media entirely, right? You start kind of looking around who else is doing this? Am I crazy? you know, but it was great. Cuz the coach I was working with at the time, Greg Fon, he had, he would pivoted away from social media. So I was like, okay. Greg can do it. And then I started looking around and came across [00:08:00] Leon Dawson, you know, who I made 11 million and doesn't use social media now and there's, and, you know, look around, there are so many people coming off, social media. So I kind of was like, okay, there are people moving away, but the big thing was. Can can like younger businesses, newer businesses do it, you know? Cause I was seeing a lot of more established businesses doing it. Mm-hmm , you know, multi billion dollar businesses doing it, you know, makeup brands, perfect brands and, and Tesla and people like that. So I was like that. Mm. So I do think there is, I do think there's a movement is in answer. The short answer is yes. I do think there is a, a movement away from social media. There's a lot, obviously that sits behind that and that the rationale mm-hmm, , I'm very logical. You know, so for me, I like to see a good return on my investment of my time and energy. And I didn't see that coming through social media also on a kind of more intuitive, emotional level. I just didn't like social media. I've never liked social media. And it just never felt [00:09:00] right. And I fell into that trap with, with, with my second business, which was a personal brand photography of really, you know, listening to the experts out, out there who were, were saying, you know, you must use social media and you must be on it all time and you must be responsive and da, da duh. And, you know, I just felt. I felt like I was in like social media prison. Like I just didn't have a choice, you know? And, and I had to do all of this stuff and it felt horrible. But I did it and I built a very successful business, but there was always a part of me that was like, I don't like this. And is there another way. And then when I moved into. You know, very naturally into the, into the coaching world because I'd built a very successful business people saying, how did you do that? I, and what I was, you know, intuitively, I was like, I don't want to do this anymore. You know, instinctively, I was. I don't like it. It's not really providing me the return on investment cuz energetically, I didn't feel aligned, you know, with it. So [00:10:00] obviously, you know, if you want to talk about sort of energy and what you put out, you're getting return. I just, wasn't seeing the, the return on investment for me in terms of leads. And I found it was so a big sort of energy drain and that's just not what I wanted to. So yes, I was like, there's gotta be another way. And then I also found my clients were coming to me and I seemed to be attracting these clients who were. I don't like social media. I don't wanna use social media. Is there another way? And at that, that point, I had not gone entirely off social media. I was still using Facebook and Instagram, but I was attracting these people who were like, I don't wanna use social media. Can you help me? And I wasn't putting that out there as a message at all, but obviously energetically, you know, and I'm not a woo person. I'm just gonna say this to everyone out there. I'm not, there is a big, you know, and I say that in the kindest possible way, you know, with affect. I'm not, you know, somebody who has studied and, and a lot of expertise and experience, but I have definitely embraced a lot more. You know, woo. In the sense of really tapping into my intuition, you know, and, and my, [00:11:00] my instincts of what feels good. And, and I really do believe, obviously I was putting out this energy that was saying like social media sucks. It's not the right way to build your business. And I was attracting these people before. And then obviously before I kind of made that decision to a really niche and too. How to market without social media. So that was a very long winded answer. yeah. Yes. There's a movement.  Sarah: it's it's all good. It's all good. Then there's so many bits and pieces. And I wanna go back to one that stood out to me where you mentioned, you know, obviously it's easy for the big companies, the, the big corporations, or even the small business owners you mentioned Leon do and Daws. She was on social media before, right? Mm-hmm, , she's built a, an empire on social media. So in a way it's like, oh, well it's easy for them to now say I'm going off social media because if, or, you know, the, the devil's advocate would say, well, they have already built an audience. So it it's, I think it's really relevant that you share.[00:12:00]  We have built businesses before social media and kind of look at these cases and then also share your experience saying, well, I built a business now without social media, right. Because it's, it's everywhere. And so we're like, well, Yeah, but it seems like you have to do it in order to get some kind of audience. It's almost like we have to unlearn everything we learned all the business advice and marketing advice. We, we got over the years,  Viv: right? Yeah, yeah, absolutely. You know, and, and I built my first seven figure business without any social media and yes, I'm that old social media did not exist when that business launched. Right. And it was never somewhere I needed to kind of go you know, Yeah, I just didn't do it then. And you look around. Yeah. As you say, then there's a lot of advice that says you have to use social media because, but we look at that and, you know, I had a great conversation when I had Leone Dawson on my show because she's obviously been in business quite long time now. And when you, you know, when social media media first arrived on Facebook, first appeared, you know, you could put [00:13:00] one post out there. And it would get like 80 to 90% kind of reach and engagement on it. Mm-hmm , which was phenomenal. And year on year, it declined, you know? So you're having to put out more and more content to get any kind of engagement or reach. Yeah. And I think there's a lot of very successful entrepreneurs and business owners out there who obviously. Kind of got on that Bandra and that social media marketing kind of, and took that opportunity that was there, which was great to market using social media at a time when it was very effective. Yeah, exactly. Yeah. But that's what they're now kind of selling.  Sarah: Yeah. And, and they're not telling you that now they have a team of 10 people who constantly create content and do all the social media management  Viv: for you for that. And I, and I often wonder, you know, if they were to start a business right now, you know, in 20, 22 or, you know, it, what would they do? Because it would not be, I'm not gonna say any, it was easy for them, but it would, it's very different, you know? [00:14:00] Horizon now in, in the marketing world. And I think it's, you know, you can become so far removed, you know? So when you are so successful, if you're still trying to kind of teach people who are early on, you're not kind of on the ground doing those kind of ground level Strategies. So how can you then be kind of teaching? It just feels really misaligned for me sometimes that, you know  Sarah: yeah. It's that cookie cutter approach. Oh, this worked for me. So I'm gonna teach you and make millions of dollars. you know, now that yeah. And it, yeah. There's no guarantee that it's gonna work for all these other people. Viv: Yeah. And I think the big thing for me was always, you know, that it was missing. In all the courses and trainings I did and, you know, everything I invested in that nobody said what feels good to you. Yeah. Yeah, yeah. And that was the one question that was missing until I worked with an amazing coach who was like, what do you want it to feel? Like, what do you want it to look like? And I was like, oh, that's a choice here. Is it permission?  Sarah: Yeah. It's just permission giving. Yeah. And I  Viv: think, but I think for so many. Business owners. I, [00:15:00] I work with who come to me. They, they don't know, there's no awareness of other approaches to marketing because when we start a business, you know, most people start a business. You know, whether you say you're a therapist or. Or you wanna be a business coach or whatever it is, you know, where have you already kind of been hanging out on a personal level when you maybe were in your corporate career? Mm-hmm on social media. So you kind of like, it's familiar, it's comfortable. So I'm gonna go there instinctively and automatically, and I'm not gonna explore those other options. Yeah, because this feels like something that I could do and it's easy. And everybody says, you know, the noise out there face, you have to be there. you have to be there. And this is gonna be the easiest way to grow your business. And it's just not the case now, you know? Yeah. And there is so much, so much kind of data out there to kind of back this up that says this is not the most effective. Way to build your business now and to grow your audience, you know, and, and what do we know? You know, we need, we need leads. We need an audience, you know, in order to get [00:16:00] clients and customers and doing it through social media, especially organically is not effective. And I was speaking to. And a, a Facebook ads manager last week who was very much working with small businesses. And she said, honestly, I'm, I cannot sell what I do anymore, because I don't believe it's the right thing for small businesses. Because since the iOS changes last year, it's even harder now. And you know, you are, if you wanna spend 10 to 20 pounds per day on ads, You're just not gonna get the results, you know, so she was saying it like instinctively for her and intuitively it just didn't feel right to be selling that. And so she's gonna come on the podcast and talk about that to people now that actually even the pay to play, you know, cause I've always said, you know, if you wanna do it, it's pay to play. But actually. It's paid to play. If you've got a lot of money to invest and a lot, you know, a lot of money to invest in it. And also you have many other strategies supporting it. You know, you think about the big businesses out there. They are not just pushing out [00:17:00] paid ads. Now they are looking to other, other means of bringing in leads.  Sarah: Yeah. Wow. Such a good example of a humane marketer and, and often you know, the way you come to humane marketing it is by kind of. Tuning into your integrity and saying, can I still do this? You know, and for some people it might still work. She might still get clients and get paid, right? Yeah. But she can't sleep at night because she's like this, I know this is not working for my clients. They're just paying too much for the results that they're getting. And, and I just saw stat also someone sharing on, on. Because that's kind of my turf, where, where I hang out in with LinkedIn ads, 90%, 97% of people don't click on the page that you want them to click on. So they never click over to your landing page. Wow. So the, this ad guy was saying the, the, the new way of looking at ads is kind of like looking at them as billboards.[00:18:00]  So you engage with the O audience that. Already there in your network, you don't send them somewhere else and then try to sell them something there. Right? Yeah. That doesn't mean we make our content all look like ads, but we, you know, we engage differently. But, but yeah, like you pay tons and tons of money for these ads and they don't convert because nobody actually clicks on them anymore. Viv: Yeah. It's you know, and, and it it's out there. The data, you know, the return on investment. It's it's, it's, it's low. It is low. Yeah. It's low, you know, and again, you've gotta have a lot of money and you want to have an ads manager because there's so many changes with algorithms and everything, you know, you could spend days just doing that. Oh yeah. And you know, what's working this month might not work next month. So, you know, ads are a minefield of the, you know, minefield of their own. If you want to do that, but yeah, organically, I, I think there's just a whole reframing that I say to people, like, if you. For example, Facebook groups, because there is a big thing, you know, the [00:19:00] community aspect that, that, that people love with Facebook groups. But, but what's happening is a lot of people are hanging out on, on Facebook and Instagram and places and trying to attract people into, into those kind of groups and communities. And that's really difficult. So I say to people look outside of social media, how can you bring people in to your world, into your email list first and foremost, cuz that's your valuable asset and. If you want them to come hang out with you, sign, post them from your emails, come hang out with me on Instagram or Facebook group or whatever, but stop trying to build your audience like in, you know, on these social media platforms, build it, you know? Via an email list, as they say, cuz that is, you know, the gold, that's the pot of gold in your business. And then direct them if that's what you want, because then they're gonna see more of you, you know, they're gonna see your emails more than they're gonna see that content. And that's a much better way to kind of bring people in. And you know, you dunno what's gonna happen. You don't own social media. You know, we all know that. Yeah. I missed the blackout last year cuz it didn't affect me. But obviously I [00:20:00] woke up to, you know, lots of emails. We kind of didn't have social media have an email list, blah, blah, blah. You know, you don't own this. Yeah. And we're well aware of that. So I just say kind of flip your whole approach to how you are using social media, if you do want to keep using social media. Yeah. So that you are not kind of, so, so kind of. In that world. I think that's the problem. We need to look outside and expand our, our vision beyond social media. And I, I think at the moment, a lot of people are kind of stuck and, and to that tunnel vision, that this is the only way. Yeah.  Sarah: And, and I just wanna add, I'm kind of allergic to this term community on, you know, Facebook when it's. It's not actually a community. It's more an audience for yeah. The guru to, you know, find clients. Yes. And, and, and it's a misuse, in my opinion of the word community, cuz a community is, you know, interconnected. It's not just connected to the guru who wants to sell to  Viv: use. Yes. So a whole different story. I absolutely [00:21:00] agree. And I've been reading the book you are invited by John Levy. Mm-hmm it's a great book and it talks about how. We need like actual connection with people like human connection, you know, and, and how you, we have, you know, we, we, we know more people in this digital era, you know, when we have connections, but we're not really connected and we're so much more isolated. And I think this comes with this, this, this misconception of community, I'm part of a community, but actually. True communi very lonely. Yes. Very, yeah. Very isolating and lonely. So I, I, I absolutely agree with you on that. There's a whole episode just on, just on that. on that idea. Yeah, absolutely. So  Sarah: people are probably just, you know, listening nodding saying yes, yes, yes. But they will also wanna know, well, okay. If not social media, then what, okay. We heard you say, you know, we need an email list, but how do we get people on this email list? It's kind of. Probably feels like the chicken and the egg, so yeah. So yeah, [00:22:00] take us kind of through some pragmatic things on how to yeah. Get more people on your email list because we still want to grow an audience that we can send these emails  Viv: to. Absolutely. And this is the big thing that I mentioned, obviously that the Facebook and, and social media outage last year, and, you know, I'm gonna get on my soapbox for just a moment to say the thing that really railed me, waking up to those emails the next day was, you know, you need to have an email list. You don't own social media and I'm like, we're not idiots. We all know this, but not one person offered the how, how do you build an email list? So I was like, do they even know the answer to this beyond social media? Cuz these were a lot of obviously like social media experts out there, experts. So. For me, I'm very much about the, the how and the practicality. There is no secret here, you know, and I, I've obviously there's a guide that I've shared with you, given you the link for 21 ways. My favorite 21 ways to market without social media, there are hundreds. [00:23:00]  Sarah: Yeah. And there's a great video on your website as well on the homepage where you take us through some  Viv: of these things. So, yeah, absolutely. And you know, and I, and I've offered like 21 ways for, for kind of people who are more service based business is cuz that's my area. Expertise mm-hmm but you know, project based businesses, there are additional ways as well. Anyway, so your  Sarah: favorite. Three ways three,  Viv: my favorite three ways again, for, for me personally. And I just want you guys who are listening to take this, you know, don't just try and replicate me because I have a, my, you know, there are different marketing archetypes. So what works for me may not work for you. Depends on your business. Depends on who you are. And again, there's a whole, all that kind of. Quiz and things you can do there to figure out who that is what that is. So for me, ways, I best way for me to grow my list. I collaborate in bundles. They're really great for me because I get to connect with other people. I build partnerships. So bundles for anyone out there, what is a bundle you're kind of going, Hey, I dunno what that is. So this is where maybe. 20 businesses come together and they [00:24:00] put something in there. So a free course, a free ebook or something that they would normally charge for. And they all put some offering into, to this, this bundle bag basket, you know, virtual bag. And then what happens is everybody shares this with their own email list. So you add value, you give a lot of value to your own audience saying, Hey, these are other things that could be really useful. And only obviously do bundles that, that, that have kind of collaborations and contributions from people who, who are gonna help add value to your audience. Yeah. And so, you know, you are sharing your offering and getting like your, you know, eyes on, on who you are and what you do. You know, to 20 other people's audiences and it's, so is  Sarah: this like a course or some kind of mini program that you're  Viv: offering could be a course mini program. Ebook could be templates, you know, could be like the 20 emails you wanna send when you're launching something, whatever it might be. [00:25:00] So it's a great way to kind of look at that. So for me, bundle's worked really, really  Sarah: well. And are you usually the one organizing these bundles or once you organize one, then you. Kind of know the people and you get invited. How, how do you get started with  Viv: bundles? Yeah. So you could organize a bundle. I did a, a bundle last year. But you can just contribute to bundles. You don't have to ever run your own if you don't want to. And the great thing is kind of, once you get. And discover one. And how do you find them? Google, Google bundles, asking your networks, look around, check out emails. People are normally talking about them. So kind of find out who's run one. You'll have missed it, probably, you know, in terms of getting in that one, but getting in touch with them, like look at who else was contributing because most people kind of are on the circuit doing the rounds, you know? So if that's a strategy that works you'll find people will generally be kind of contributing. Right in that same network and it opens up a lot of connections for you, you know, in terms of you can then collaborate and, and partner with people. One on [00:26:00] one, you can look at joint ventures. So it opens up many opportunities. If, if you make the effort, because they're quite anonymous in the, the sense that you can just put your thing in and never speak to another person who's in that bundle. So, you know, utilize it either reach out to people, kind of say, Hey, we're both in the same bundle. I really like what you do think we've got some crossover, you know, so take it that step further. Some people will, some, some bundle organizers will run like a zoom kind of session where you can all get to kind of connect and meet and greet, which is really nice to actually. Kind of hear from people and really say like, I agree.  Sarah: Yeah. Yeah. I always recommend that when I'm on a summit, I'm like, let's connect with each other for the summit speakers, you know, how come, how come people forget that part. It's such an important part because yeah. We are also. Of wanting to connect with peers and like-minded people. So, yeah. I agree with you. It's so great to, to have that [00:27:00] for bundles or summits or conferences as well. Yeah.  Viv: Because you know, you get to hear more about the business and what, what it is they do, which, you know, when you kind of just see one offering in a bundle, you don't get the whole picture of that business. So I think it's. Such a great way to, to do that. So if you are gonna run a bundle, I would highly recommend you do a zoom session where you can, you know, it doesn't have to be long, 30, 40 minutes where people can kind of just go round hot seat, introduce themselves. So bundles bundles are like a great, and the reason I like them is you get a really. Great return on your investment. You can create one asset. So one mini course, one, you know ebook, whatever it is, and you can use it in many different bundles. So you do that piece of work once and you get to repurpose it. And that's a really great thing, you know, because we wanna, we don't wanna add and create lots of extra work for ourselves. Yeah. And I would say if you wanna kind of go down that bundle route and that's gonna be a core strategy, have a few different offerings and you can just rotate them for different bundle. Just, just a follow  Sarah: up question, like in terms of the [00:28:00] offering, what have you seen kind of the value? Is this something that's worth 50 bucks or 500 bucks or, or  Viv: more? It entirely depends on the bundle. And I don't think the value is the big pull for people. I don't think people kind of go, oh, this would cost me $500. I'm gonna go for that. It's really. Understanding who it's targeted at the audience mm-hmm and what are their biggest struggles? And this is where I have seen people say, well, I did a bundle and I didn't get any signups out and I  Sarah: didn't create, so it was the wrong offer or the wrong  Viv: audience, or yeah. Or people downloaded it because they were kind of just going through the whole thing, downloading everything, and then they didn't get any leads from it. You know, if, if it's, if it's right and you have pitched it right, you should, you know, People joining your mailing list, you should get people then booking in to have like calls or conversations, or if you wanna do trick wire office, you should be, you know, that next step should happen. And that's the process to kind of really look at. So, yeah. Bundles, I like for me works for me. And [00:29:00] then speaking, I love kind of guessing on people's podcasts and in, in kind of people's masterminds, really adding like value. And as you know, I can talk for a long time on my topic. So yeah, I really like to go in and guess speak and I think that adds a different level of connection as well, to, to bundles. So bundles you've gotta out for me. I believe you've got a longer nurture. Kind of journey for those people that are coming in. Whereas when you go in and guest speak I think that's fast tracked as well. Hugely because obviously, you know, there's trust imparted there's so there's so much that comes with that. So for me, guest speaking, I am really energized by having two-way conversations. And this is interesting cuz I, you know, my archetype is, is a salesperson or a persuader mm-hmm , it's a, is a slightly nicer way of putting, putting it. I think. Kind of salesperson brings with it, not always the best, the best vibes. So, yeah. For me, It would, you know, for a persuader architect, people would always say, well, video's great for you, but I hated [00:30:00] video. I hated doing things like on my own because there was, wasn't the two way like exchange and the, that energy. So I found it really difficult. Whereas if I'm doing things like that, you know, now we're having a conversation video. I just, it works so differently for me. It's a great way to do that. So yeah, I like that kind of interaction. I like to speak to people. And that's, I think my social media wasn't great for me. It just didn't feel like I was speaking to. Yeah, what's the third one. Oh, sorry. That was number two. Yeah.  Sarah: Forgot. I'm like waiting baby. wait,  Viv: waiting, waiting, waiting. And the third one for growing audiences for me is is, is podcast podcasting. You know, so for me, I have my own podcast and I love that and kind of putting that out there. And it's an interesting one because it works in two ways. And as I say, it works for me, for my archetype. It works in terms of it can bring in new audiences, but it's also fantastic for adding value and nurturing my existing audiences. So it works. It's like a double whammy. So you think, if you think about like, what is your intention when [00:31:00] you're using social media and you're trying to kind of give people value and stuff, but it allows an opportunity to go so much deeper than kind of like the odd post. That's something that that's really effective. And the amount of people I get on calls with who wanna work with me and they say, oh, I've been listening to your podcast. You know? And I love it when people message, they go and I'm in California and I listen to your podcast and you know, I love it. And, and this is great, cuz you kind of seen that, that maybe people aren't, haven't been ready to work with you, but they've been getting this value from you and kind of understanding how that works in your, your marketing process is really effective. So you can use it as a, a, a kind of lead generator and then as a nurture. Sort of a converter as well.  Sarah: Yeah. It, it totally, it it's like in humane marketing, we, we're all about bringing more of you to your marketing and, and that's what you do in your podcast. You know, people really get to know you, your values, your worldview what you stand for. Because you're not just in promotion mode all the time. I feel like on social media, a lot of people are kind of going [00:32:00] into promotion mode, right? Yeah. Where on social media? Sorry on podcast. You, you are not, we're not in promotion mode. We're, we're not promoting anything. We're just having a, a deep conversation. And so that's when I feel like it's more real. Yeah. I mean, there's also podcasts where I feel like, wow, okay. That's not real. Like, they're still like, kind of like, I wanna just kind of scratch, you know, the surface and go show me your real human being. Yeah. Usually, yeah. You can tell, okay. This feels like, oh, I'm really speaking to live. And that's how she is in real life as well, you know?  Viv: Yeah. And I think this is the beauty as well. When you come away from social media, you know, if you think about how you utilize social media, now it's so much is. Quantity kind of content creation approach. You just need to push out content in the hope that it's gonna get seen multiple times a day to have any chance of being seen by other people that are in, in your world. Whereas I [00:33:00] think when we come away from social media, We start serving with content that goes so much deeper, whether that's podcasts, blogs, maybe YouTube power, two videos, you know, whatever that is, you get the opportunity to go so much deeper. And I think that's where the true value lies. You know, and you can give everything away, you know, and I don't hold back because at the end of the day, people come speak, cuz they're like, I still need help. Like implementing this. I need accountability. I need, you know, I just need support. I need someone to really kind of help guide.  Sarah: Yeah. Yeah, totally agree. I don't think I think it's actually there it's the opposite effect. If you share more. People are like, oh wow. Now I can really see what, what it would be like to work with her instead of oh, you know, just gimme your top three tips and, and, and then don't go into details that that's yeah, just kind of  Viv: superficial. Yeah. But the big thing is, you know, just to kind of, sort of bring together, you know, they, they were my sort of top three ways. But the fastest way to grow your audience [00:34:00] off social media. Is to, to leverage, to borrow audiences. You know, there are three ways that you can grow an audience. You can buy an audience which we've touched on today. You can build an audience. So building like a, a Facebook group, a community. And then also, you know, blog in what we kind of building an audience that way. Or you can borrow an audience, so borrowing other people's audiences, you know, and I think sometimes people think, oh, that's not great, but you know, borrowing audiences is a great way because actually you are giving value. You're giving value that, that. That audience, you know, maybe are not getting from the person who's kind of leading that community known as a hub, you know, so actually bringing that outside expertise that can really serve deeper and that, you know, that is that that's giving you are giving. So you're not kind of taking away saying, well, I'm borrowing and I'm getting people signing up to my list and taking away you are not, you are adding value and, and that's brilliant if people can resonate with what you, you offer and you. Your unique way of [00:35:00] delivery, then that's a fantastic thing, you know? So, so borrowing, you know, audiences and, and maybe borrowings, not the best term, because I think it brings maybe again, like negative kind of connotations for people. But, but that is fundamentally like the best way, the fastest way to grow your audience. Sarah: To, to us what we use. One of the, the piece of the humane marketing mandala is partnership. And to me, it's partnering, you know, it  Viv: is partnering, borrowing is partner  Sarah: partnering with other entrepreneurs and realizing that your clients gain something. I gain something because I'm exposing my clients to an expertise that I don't have. Yeah. And so really it really is partnering and, and I think we need to find our way back to that. We, you know, it's part of the, this isolation that we kind of learned over the last 20 years, it's like everybody on their own. No. Why, why, you know, we're aligned, our values are aligned. Why not help each other grow our  Viv: businesses? Yeah, absolutely. And you know, if you think [00:36:00] back to, to how. We survived back, you know, when we were like Neanderthals and, you know, paleolithic man and everything, you know, and we were at risk of being eaten by saber tooth tiger, you know, that community. Right. You know, and that partnering, you know, was an integral part of our survival. And I think that's why we struggle. So much emotionally and mentally with this isolation now, because we need, we, you know, we need that as human beings. And I think this whole thing with partnerships is just great because you get to connect with people, you know, you get to hop on a zoom and maybe you're not in the same room physically with somebody, but, you know, having that face to face connection and having that one-on-one interaction is so much more powerful, you know, and, and opens up so many more opportunities because we are all connected. Know that one person is. To so many other people and has their own networks and communities that potentially, you know, they can put you in touch with. So it's, it's, it's just a big kind of. Yeah, yeah.  Sarah: [00:37:00] Right way. I started not offering a replay for my workshops or, you know, webinars, but to me they're really workshops because they're participated in. Yes. And you know, I do, every time I send it out, I do get one or two nasty emails for, for not offering a replay again, it's because we. Gotten so trained to be spoon fed, spooned more and more content and more and more information that people just sign up to 20 webinars and just get the content and, and then feel even more anxious and overloaded. So I'm like we need to move away from that. And. Like you said, have real human connections, get onto a zoom call where there's other people you don't know and be in community with these people. So I, I build in a break where we say, let's be human with each other and let's pause and let's see each other. You know, fellow humans going through this experience of being an entrepreneur that that's not easy. Yeah. But it's an [00:38:00] unlearning. It's a lot of unlearning. Yeah,  Viv: we're such, I mean, like you say, we, you know, we're a society where everything's on demand, you know, we get, yeah. We get stimulation. We get you know, social what's the word I'm looking for? Sorry. Validation social. We get social validation, you know, for instant gratification from checking social media, you know, Amazon prime. We can have things instantly, you know, on demand TV. Everything's there, you know, we're not used to having to wait as well. Is, is another big, big aspect aspect of that, you know? And yeah, it's, it's, it's crazy times. It's, you know, we are overstimulated. I think someone said to me that. In the course of, is it a day or an hour? Now we have more stimulation than caveman would've had within their entire life. Wow. And that's scary. And I think Neil Patel if you dunno who Neil Patel is like big or like he, he, he created Uber suggests, which is great, kind of online SEO search tool and things. And. He put a, I think it was, I think it was Neotel [00:39:00] that talked about the attention span of a goldfish, I think is nine seconds. And I think in 2016 or 17, like the human, like attention span was something like 13 seconds. And now it's shorter in 2022, then that of a goldfish. That is scary. Yeah. And that has come from this like constant, like like I think this, this on demand society and having this constant stimulation. Yeah.  Sarah: So where do we go from here? Like, you know, where do you see, how do you see social media evolving over the next. Let's just say five years. I don't think we can even plan 10 years ahead anymore. So let's just see two to five years. How do you see it evolving since there is this movement away from it? I guess? Oh, well  Viv: I think there will still be so many people who continue to use it because they. Believe it's the only way, especially people early on in their journey. So I think they will be drawn to it again, as for the reasons I [00:40:00] cited, you know, I use it socially. It's addictive, you know, first and foremost, we have to remember. People are not gonna come away because it's, it is an addiction. Mm-hmm . And so it's still gonna, it's still gonna be massively prominent. I don't think social media is ever going to go away and I don't necessarily think, you know, it, it needs to, for lots of people, it's a great way, you know, to stay connected with, with friends and family, maybe. But from a business perspective, I think you are gonna see a lot more people. After sort of six to 12 months in business, kind of saying this isn't working this is not giving me, you know, the clients I'm not, not getting the leads and clients and I need to, I need another way. Yeah. And I think we'll start seeing more people moving away from social media as that core kind of approach and strategy. Mm.  Sarah: Yeah. And, and like you said, it it's a good tool, I guess, to stay in touch with family and friends. And so for that we'll keep using [00:41:00] it. But yeah, I agree with you. There's probably gonna be, and it's a good thing. It's like the, it's almost like you have to go through it, you know, to see, oh, this is not working for me. Yeah, if we all knew what was working right from the start Life would be too easy. so it's like I have to go through some motions and, and see, okay, this is not working for me. Yeah. Also to learn about yourself, as we said, it's a lot, the entrepreneurial journey is a lot about learning out. Learning to find out what works for you. And so maybe we just need to first learn, okay, this is not  Viv: working for me. Yeah. What feels good when, you know, and I think again, thinking about the people that come to me, they kind of say, I just, I don't like it. It doesn't feel good. And then, and I don't do it, you know? So this is the other thing I'm not consistent. So I just, it just, it's not working.  Sarah: Why give. All together then feel shame about not doing it, right? Yeah. That's another piece. The  Viv: shame. Yeah. So the shame is massive. Yeah. [00:42:00] That people feel and like this guilt and why, and, and you know, why am I not doing it? And I've learned all the techniques and strategies, but you know, this, this shame. Yeah. Massive, massive.  Sarah: This is so good. Thank you so much. Viv. I, I wanna come full circle, but. Share again, first of all, where people can find your report with the 21 ways where  Viv: they can connect with you. It's very easy. It's www.vivguide.com/ 21. That's the number two, one ways. W a Y S that's it. So yeah, Viv guide.com/ 21 ways. And you can get your, your free guide there. You can hear more from me on my podcast marketing without social media and, and, you know, I, I I've, this I've shared some real deep dives recently into kind of bundles. If that's something that's of interest we've got summits coming up in. Couple of weeks. So, you know, all the different kind of approaches that I talk about within that guide, we do a lot kind of deep dives about how effective they are, you know, [00:43:00] the, the pros and cons. So you can kind of explore and get an insight into maybe what feels right for you before you kind of tackle things and, and invest in kind of learning how to do things. Sarah: Wonderful. Yeah. Thank you so much for sharing those resources. And it's, it's, it's almost funny. Like, you know, when I usually ask, where can people find you it's like this long list of, you know, on Instagram, I'm this on Twitter? I'm this? You're like, no, there's my website. And that's where we connect.  Viv: Yeah. Connect with me on email, say hi. And, you know, I always say, if you wanna just email me, you know, just drop me an email. Hello, Viv guy.com. And I love that, you know, Truly do reply personally, to every email that comes through to my inbox. In the first instance from everybody, because I like saying hi, you know, we're, we're people we wanna connect. And I like to hear what you do. So tell me, share with me your story.  Sarah: Nice. Thank you so much. I have one last question. Sure. What are you grateful for today or this week?  Viv: Oh, I've done [00:44:00] my gratitude diary this morning. I was really grateful that my children both slept all night last night in their own beds because they have not been sleeping well over the last couple of weeks, I've saying to Sarah they've been ill. So I was really grateful to. Good sleep last night to help help me kind of prepare for today. And that seems really selfish, but it's real. Oh,  Sarah: about it. It's so important. Like if we're not taken care of, then we can't take care of others, first of all, and who's gonna do our  Viv: business. Exactly. And I had, you know, my, my eldest is not quite six yet. She's still five. We've had nearly six years of no sleep. So you know, they were never great sleepers. My, well, my eldest has never been a great sleeper, so she she's, she is a lot better now. So I'm always grateful when they sleep all night.  Sarah: yeah, hang in there.  Viv: it's fine. It's you know, and I like that they come and they feel comfortable coming to get me and say, I just need a, you know, my youngest style say why you out open? She goes, I just need a mama. At three o'clock in the morning. I'm like, I can't send you [00:45:00] away. Can I, you know, have if you need so, yeah, that's my gratitude.  Sarah: Thank you so much for being on the humane marketing  Viv: show. Thank you, Sarah. Thank you everybody.[00:46:00] 

Podcast Notes Playlist: Latest Episodes
Balaji Srinivasan - Exploring the Decentralized Science Reformation

Podcast Notes Playlist: Latest Episodes

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 17, 2022 66:44


The DeSci Podcast ✓ Claim Podcast Notes Key Takeaways Centralization, specifically the U.S. government, is most responsible for holding back scientific progress Balaji believes the year 1950 was “peak centralization”: there was one telephone company (AT&T), two superpowers (U.S. and USSR), and three television stations (CBS, ABC, and NBC)The level of centralization from the 1950s to today is atypical in history, but many people believe it to be the norm because it is all they have known  Implementing components of the venture capital model, and removing the bureaucratic grant structure of academia, would improve the scientific research and funding structure“You'll know that the system is being fixed when Satoshi, Snowden, and Alexandra Elbakyan get Nobel Prizes.” – Balaji SrinivasanOpen-style, decentralized funding is now an option for scientists; they can monetize their teachings outside of academia and raise capital to pursue their scientific curiosities, or start a company, for example Three baskets of technologies will coordinate large numbers of human beings, which he refers to as the NYT, BTC, and CCP triangleMathematical capability is one of the best ways to measure a civilization's progress Homo sapiens were better at math than Neanderthals, and the successor to homo sapiens will be better at math than itThe Helical Theory of History: Cycles play out in history, but generally there is progressWe are at the beginning of digital history; it's hard to think of ourselves at the beginning of something because we often think of ourselves as the culmination of somethingRead the full notes @ podcastnotes.orgWelcome to Episode Nr. 2 of the DeSci Podcast - Today we're exploring the decentralized science reformation together with no other than Balaji Srinivasan! We're incredibly proud to be joined by such a smart and well-known mind as a second guest on "The DeSci Podcast" show! Topics of this episode: → Key factors holding back scientific progress and how to change it (also via DeSci).

UnMind: Zen Moments With Great Cloud
104. Design & Zen Summary IV

UnMind: Zen Moments With Great Cloud

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 17, 2022 16:53


All are on the Path,Though many do not know it.This Path is no path.* * *The focus of this segment, the intersection of the Social Sphere and the Path to Cessation, sounds dangerously close to “sociopath,” a term that is becoming more and more familiar in the era of extreme divisiveness in the cultural and political landscape, not only in the USA but around the globe. What more appropriate designation for the president living in luxury in Russia, who finds it desirable to be constantly bombing and shelling civilians, women and children, in Ukraine? But then, what name is most fitting for a president who tries to steal an election? “Narcissist” doesn't quite cut it.When we return from our meditation to our family, or sally forth into the public fray — crossing the boundary between the Personal and Social spheres as shown in the graphic model — we enter the Original Frontier™ that Buddha must have encountered the night of his profound enlightenment some 2500 years ago. Perhaps the more accurate term would be “reenter,” as the Social sphere into which he had been born and raised had not changed — he had changed. In the 1960s, the “reentry problem” became a ubiquitous trope, designating that segue back into so-called normality, following a psychedelic-induced “trip” to what appeared to be another world. One of my design students at U of I, Chicago Circle campus, described it as “dumping out all of the drawers in the house in one big pile, and next day, having to put all that stuff back where it belongs.” A psychotropic, rather than alcoholic, hangover.Of course, we never completely leave the Social realm, even when intently focusing on the Personal, in meditation. The influences of our particular social milieu are ever-present, even in the deep isolation of meditation. The Four Spheres are not only outside of us, they are also inside. The body's biology and inherited DNA are obvious examples of the Natural. Subtle movements of chemistry and the neurological verge on the microcosmic Universal. As do such subtle phenomena as circadian rhythms, subliminal responses to sunlight, and the tidal pull of the moon.Not that we are conscious of these influences. The inner Social sphere includes such unconscious elements as self-identity, i.e. association with family ancestry, including persuasions such as identifying with the political party that our parents favored. In receiving the Zen Buddhist lay precepts, we embrace interpretations of others regarding the avoidance of killing, stealing, lying, and so forth, on a conscious level. But we harbor built-in precepts inherited from parents and peers, all unbeknownst to ourselves. Zen's Precepts often belabor the obvious. But they bear repetition.Considering the intersection of the Social sphere with the Path, we call to mind its eight dimensions. Not capitalized here, in order to embrace them as Universal and Natural, as well as Social and Personal, rather than as holy writ. Right view and thought, or understanding, which together comprise right wisdom; right speech, action and livelihood, or right conduct; and right effort, mindfulness and meditation, taken together as right discipline. With our usual caveat that the term “right,” as used here, is more of a verb than an adjective. It indicates taking right action to correct our worldview and understanding, bringing them more into alignment with the worldview of Buddhism, or Buddha himself.One could argue that effort, mindfulness and meditation live entirely within the Personal sphere of action, as exemplified by Bodhidharma, alone in his cave in ancient China. But we point to the halo- or ripple-effect of our personal discipline upon others around us, once we do leave the cushion and reenter the Social realm. Master Dogen is attributed with encouraging us to do one thing, and to do it well enough that we can even do it in front of other people. I have not been able to locate this saying in the written record, but in his famous Genjokoan [Actualizing the Fundamental Point] he declares that “Doing one practice is practicing completely.” This is analogous to the current Zen trope that asks, If you want to drill for water, would you drill a lot of shallow wells, or one deep well? This applies broadly.In the fields of performing arts and athletics, connections of the discipline of Personal effort to Social performance becomes obvious, through repetition of rehearsal and practicing routines. As does the recommendation that “practice makes perfect,” notwithstanding the Buddhist tenet of fundamental imperfection. But the training, while clearly physical, is not only physical. Highly trained athletes are often guilty of making “mental errors.” Gymnasts, musicians, dancers and pole vaulters who persevere and break records, or move audiences to laughter or tears, are examples of this principle. They realize the non-separation of the Personal and Social, following the Path of process and progress through which we integrate inner discipline and outer conduct. In Zen as well as the arts, we arrive at a convergence in which wisdom emerges, on physical as well as mental and emotional planes.Let's take a brief look at each of the eight dimensions and its connection to the Social sphere, beginning where our practice begins, with right meditation. Sometimes rendered traditionally as contemplation or concentration, that there is right meditation suggests that there could be wrong meditation. Again, the usage is not exactly right versus wrong here on the Personal level of meditation practice, but we can agree that there may be wrong attitudes or usages of meditation in the Social context. For example, if we make a divisive or wedge issue of our zazen practice within the dynamics of our household, allowing it to affect our relationships to our family — spouse, children, parents, even in-laws — that might be an example of wrong meditation. An old saying holds that if your spouse and children are happy, your meditation is working. Adding an hour of meditation to our daily routine should not be a cause celebre, but can be inserted at an hour and in a place that does not disrupt or disturb anyone. In fact, practicing zazen should add to the harmony of the household, just as it does to the Zen community, or Sangha.Right mindfulness in the Social realm would suggest extending this Personal caution and humility to the workspace, whether in the office or in the field. Making a display of wearing a wrist mala, for example, calls upon our fellow workers, managers and team members to respond, with questions or comments. While Zen practice has definite benefits in terms of our relationship to colleagues under the stressful conditions of productivity demands, making an issue of it with people who have little or no familiarity with Zen is not advisable. It introduces an irrelevant and even irritating element into a situation already fraught with potential for friction and conflict, e.g. along political or ideological lines. Not that we should be evasive about it, or try to hide the fact that we engage in a practice — meditation — that has its detractors, and does not yet enjoy the kind of mainstream acceptability that it is gaining.A similarly inappropriate, and more common, phenomenon, is the tendency of some to insert their religious views into the business environment, when the business itself has little or nothing to do with religion. I have worked for a relatively large corporation where one of the partners held regular prayer meetings. He was also involved in an illicit affair with one of the employees. Along with being mindful of our practice, we practice mindfulness of context.Right effort plays into the Social context as well, witnessed as our tendency to overdo and overthink all of these relationships, sometimes to the detriment of the relationship. In a comment I came across recently, a mother cogently summed up one example of this syndrome, suggesting that we would be a whole lot less worried about what other people thought of us if we realized how seldom they do. We have all been there, done that, when a colleague or boss makes a comment and we spend the next all-too-long period of time ruminating over it, fretting about what the person really meant, and insulted that they do not appreciate us for the contribution we make to the corporate cause.There are innumerable books published about this, one I heard reviewed on television titled “Neanderthals at Work” by Albert J. Bernstein. He suggests that in the modern office setting you have three distinct types of coping strategies or views of the situation, one he called something like the politician, another the believer, and the third the genius. The “politician,” an example of the bad boss syndrome, schmoozes the people above them, while largely ignoring those lower on the ladder, or worse, criticizing them as a way of improving his position. The “believer” thinks the politician is immoral, feeling that as long as they come to work and do their job, they should not have to play politics. The “genius” comes out of the computer room to solve the problem du jour, but is often culpable in creating the problem. The politician looks down on the other two as naive, simply not understanding how things work in the modern office. Focusing on the boss is the natural approach to the reporting structure. The problem is not that these tendencies exist, but that their adherents do not understand each other, which exacerbates the friction between them.Which brings us to another four-pointed model, my take on the traditional Zen jargon term, “Samadhi,” usually capitalized to stress the high regard in which it is held. I reduce it to the more prosaic “balance.” This concept is simple enough to grasp that no illustration is required. The first of the four is physical samadhi, the centered and balanced form of the zazen posture, leaning neither to the right or left, or front or back, as Master Dogen explains what it is not. From it, or along with it, comes the second samadhi, emotional balance: more calm, less anxiety. Thirdly we begin to experience mental samadhi: more clarity, less confusion. And finally, after some time, social samadhi: more harmony, less friction in our relationships to others. These four comprehend the inner-Personal and outer-Social benefits, or side-effects of Zen meditation practice.Most people want to leap to the Social aspect right away, to handle interpersonal transactions with greater patience and compassion. But Zen goes deeper, of course. When the upright posture becomes more natural and comfortable, the heart-mind (J. shin) becomes calmer and clearer naturally. When one becomes more patient with the monkey mind, and more comfortable in one's own skin through zazen, it becomes easier to have patience with others. But we have to be patient with the time that it takes to get over ourselves, and to divest ourselves of a lot of excess baggage we carry around. This is why Zen takes so long to penetrate to the deeper levels of Samadhi, as a transformational experience, sometimes regarded as the precursor to the fabled spiritual insight (J. satori) of Zen.Summing up so far, we have looked briefly at the Universal Existence of Dukkha, change or suffering, that we are to fully understand; its Natural Origin, or craving, which we are to fully abandon — and which is built-into birth as a human being — which is considered the necessary condition for Buddhist awakening; and the Social Path recommended by Shakyamuni Buddha, which we are to follow to its ultimate conclusion in the Cessation of suffering. A caveat is in order as to this last claim. In the Heart Sutra we chant: “Given Emptiness, no suffering, no end of suffering.” This is not a contradiction, but indicates that the kind of suffering that can come to an end is that self- and mutually-inflicted suffering, intentionally and unintentionally, that we visit upon ourselves and others. The Natural suffering of aging, sickness and death, which come with the territory of sentient existence, do not, cannot, come to an end. But embracing that fact as reality, and perfectly natural, mitigates the suffering as a human meme.Continuing, we will next take up the remaining pair of the combinations of the Four Spheres and the Four Noble Truths, the Personal and the Cessation of suffering, which necessarily involves the Eightfold Path to cessation. Personal Cessation is the only kind there is. Stay tuned one more time.* * *Elliston Roshi is guiding teacher of the Atlanta Soto Zen Center and abbot of the Silent Thunder Order. He is also a gallery-represented fine artist expressing his Zen through visual poetry, or “music to the eyes.”UnMind is a production of the Atlanta Soto Zen Center in Atlanta, Georgia and the Silent Thunder Order. You can support these teachings by PayPal to donate@STorder.org. Gassho.Producer: Kyōsaku Jon Mitchell

Diet Science
New Research Shows Paleolithic Diet Contained Starchy Foods

Diet Science

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 14, 2022 12:52


The Paleo Diet has long been touted as a diet that did not contain potatoes, beans or other starchy foods. New research now shows that likely wasn't the case. Listen in this week as Dee discusses the findings of the 7-year study on the dental plaque and oral microbiome of a 100,000-year old Neanderthal.Reference:Fellows Yates, J. A., Velsko, I. M., Aron, F., Posth, C., Hofman, C. A., Austin, R. M., Parker, C. E., Mann, A. E., Nägele, K., Arthur, K. W., Arthur, J. W., Bauer, C. C., Crevecoeur, I., Cupillard, C., Curtis, M. C., Dalén, L., Díaz-Zorita Bonilla, M., Díez Fernández-Lomana, J. C., Drucker, D. G., … Warinner, C. (2021). The evolution and changing ecology of the african hominid oral microbiome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(20). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2021655118 

WCPT 820 AM
THINK THEORY RADIO - AWESOME ARCHAEOLOGY 4 - 08.06.22

WCPT 820 AM

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 7, 2022 48:27


It's time for another episode of Think Theory Radio's "Awesome Archaeology!" Have recent discoveries in a French cave upended our understanding of the Neanderthals way of life? What are the mysteries of the Cholula pyramid in Mexico and America's Stonehenge? Plus, a pyramid in Peru as old as the ones in ancient Egypt & how AI is decoding cuneiform tablets!

Uncomposed
LÉON

Uncomposed

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 5, 2022 64:03


Shyama and Ben take on the magnificent LÉON with a classic love tale between a Neanderthal named Garth and a 21st century girl named CassieFollow us:Instagram: @UncomposedPodcastTwitter: @UncomposedPodContact Us:UncomposedPodcast@gmail.comMusic:“Sunshine, Nevermind” & “Infinity”-AJ Abdullah & Mihir Lulay-Follow AJ on Instagram: @ajabdullah_Follow Mihir on Instagram: @mihir.lGraphic Design:-Justin Brolley-Instagram: @JustinBrolleyTwitter: @JustinBrolleyUncomposed is a musical podcast where hosts, Shyama and Ben, write an entire (often very silly) musical in 60 minutes or less using your favorite artists as inspiration! Episodes posted bi-weekly.

Evolution Soup
How Homo Erectus Took Over the World ~ with DR KAREN BAAB

Evolution Soup

Play Episode Play 60 sec Highlight Listen Later Aug 2, 2022 44:38


They were the most successful hominids of all time, existing on earth for almost two million years and leaving fossil evidence across much of the globe. From Africa to the Caucasus to the Far East, Homo erectus travelled far and left an indelible mark on prehistory.DR KAREN BAAB is a biological anthropologist studying human evolution at Midwestern University in Glendale, Arizona, USA.  Her main areas of research are the evolutionary history of Plio-Pleistocene Homo and what the shape of their skulls can tell us. MARK from Evolution Soup welcomes Dr Baab back to talk all things Homo erectus.Link to original video interview: https://youtu.be/7N7JrQcLJVs#humanevolution #evolution #homoerectusLINKS FOR DR KAREN BAAB:SITE: http://www.karenbaab.com/RESEARCHGATE: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Karen_BaabConcerning Hobbits (interview with Karen Baab): https://bit.ly/39BXwlVEVOLUTION SOUPYouTube: http://www.youtube.com/c/evolutionsoupFacebook: https://www.facebook.com/evolutionsoup/Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/evolutionsoup/Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/evolution_soup/RSS feed: https://feeds.buzzsprout.com/354743.rssSmells Like HumansLike spending time with funny friends talking about curious human behavior. Listen on: Apple Podcasts Spotify The First Brick Property PodcastWeekly Real Estate Tips & insights from industry experts. Helping you navigate the marketListen on: Apple Podcasts SpotifySupport the show

Evolution Soup
Neanderthals - Our Kindred Spirits ~ with REBECCA WRAGG SYKES

Evolution Soup

Play Episode Play 60 sec Highlight Listen Later Jul 26, 2022 45:39


Were neanderthals just dumb brutes waiting for extinction? The latest research says they were anything but dimwitted. They had culture, forethought, and emotion - just like us.REBECCA WRAGG SYKES is a palaeolithic archaeologist and honorary fellow at the University of Liverpool, specialising in Neanderthals. She is co-founder of the Trowelblazers website, celebrating women archaeologists, palaeontologists and geologists through the ages, and the author of Kindred: Neanderthal Life, Love, Death and Art.MARK from Evolution Soup talks to Rebecca about neanderthal history, biology, and technology (stone tools). The amazing DNA work on this hominid is also discussed, as well as the world of the female neanderthal and what the evidence can tell us. Kindred spirits, to be sure.Original interview video:  https://bit.ly/3z6UKRH#neanderthal #evolution #humanevolutionLINKS FOR REBECCA WRAGG SYKES:SITE: https://www.rebeccawraggsykes.comBLOG: http://www.therocksremain.orgARTWORKS: https://www.redbubble.com/people/sili...TWITTER: https://twitter.com/LeMoustierhttps://trowelblazers.com/ #RealFossilHunterLottie 'Sheanderthal' - Rebecca's article on female Neanderthals https://bit.ly/37mJeEVEVOLUTION SOUPYouTube: http://www.Support the show

CEO School
175. Conquering Mom Guilt, Knowing Your Why, and Raising a Village

CEO School

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 20, 2022 24:49


Welcome back to Wine Down Wednesdays. This week, Suneera shares a recent poll she asked on IG stories about mom guilt. The overwhelming response? We all feel it. In this episode, you'll learn how mom guilt is physiologically wired into our brains because society, since the Neanderthal times to today, identifies mothers as the ones responsible for the nurturing of children. Suneera shares her personal experience with mom guilt while she grew her technology company, and the importance of accepting that no matter how much you are doing, feeling guilt is normal. Find your village, whatever that looks like, create your goals together, and support each other. Join us for the exclusive CEO School Conference September 16-18, 2022: Register Today: www.nothingbadhappens.com Follow @ceoschool on Instagram for inspiration and exclusive behind-the-scenes you won't find anywhere else. This episode is sponsored by The Club, a Quarterly box and digital monthly community to help you level up and leadership and life. Learn more today at https://join.theceoschool.co/

That's Cool News | A weekly breakdown of positive Science & Tech news.
114. New Prehistoric Human, Step Closer to Window Solar Panels, Drug Helps Heal Spinal Cord

That's Cool News | A weekly breakdown of positive Science & Tech news.

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 18, 2022 27:39


News: New prehistoric human unknown to science discovered in Israel | The Jerusalem Post (01:20) A new type of early human previously not known to scientists has been discovered in Israel, Tel Aviv University and Hebrew University researchers announced Thursday, July 14th. They believe this new “Homo” species intermarried with Homo sapiens and was an ancestor of the Neanderthals. The dig site, Nesher Ramla, a few kilometers from the modern-day city, was probably close to a water reservoir where early humans could hunt animals.Filled with many animal bones, stone tools for making fire and butchering Prof. Israel Hershkovitz talked on the dig site:“We know that modern humans – or Homo sapiens – arrived in this area some 200,000 years ago … When we started excavating and examining the different archaeological layers, we found that they dated back between 140,000 and 120,000 years ago, so we expected to find remains of Homo sapiens. We did not realize that another form of human was living alongside them.” The researchers believe that the newly discovered human type, which they named after the site, lived in the region hundreds of thousands of years ago and at least until 130,000 years ago. The findings may radically change what researchers have so far believed about how ancient populations evolved and interacted.Especially how sapiens and Neanderthal, other ancient human types, related to each other. Researchers believe the Nesher Ramla was an ancestor of the Neanderthals and other archaic Asian populations.Thought Neanderthals arrived in what is now Israel 70,000 to 50,000 years ago from Europe, but here they found a human species 130,000 years old. Some features of the remains, like the teeth and the jaws, were more similar to Neanderthal species, while the skulls resembled the Homo type. According to Hershkovitz, Nesher Ramla Homo and Homo sapiens not only coexisted peacefully and exchanged technology, but also produced offspring.“In Europe, the story was very different because when modern humans arrived there around 45,000 years ago, they completely eliminated the local Neanderthals. This did not happen here” In the past, geneticists had already suggested that an unknown population represented the missing link between sapiens and Neanderthal.The Nesher Ramla population could represent the answer.   Prunes can restore bone loss, research finds | Brighter Side News (06:58) New research provides evidence that prunes are a prebiotic food that reverses bone loss in mice.Findings show the ​​carbohydrates and polyphenols in prunes act as prebiotics and help restore bone health. Principal Investigator, Brenda Smith, PhD explains:“Both the carbohydrate component and the polyphenols within the prunes altered the gut microbiota and were associated with positive effects on bone, namely restoring bone. By definition, prebiotics are substrates that alter the composition or activity of the microbiota and confer benefits to the health of the individual” Researchers isolated the polyphenol (PP) compounds as well as the carbohydrates (CHO) from prunes and fed them to two separate groups of estrogen-deficient, female mice with substantial bone loss for 5- and 10-week durations. In the study they had 4 groups of mice with different diets:Receiving the polyphenol (PP) compounds and carbohydrates directly Whole prunes Prune crude extract with both PP and CHO prune components Control (i.e. no prunes or extract) Compared to the mice who did not consume any prune or prune component, those who consumed isolated CHO, isolated PP, prune crude extract, or whole prunes experienced restored bone previously lost. Showed a significant increase in short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in their guts Favorable changes to their gut microbiota.  Researchers saw increases in SCFAs n-butyrate and propionate, which are thought to be most effective at preventing bone loss by suppressing biomarkers associated with bone breakdown. Smith suggests the findings make a strong case for consuming whole prunes “because you're getting some of the benefit from the carbohydrate in the short term, and the long-term benefit from the polyphenols.”Smith also noted that the vitamins, minerals, and plant compounds in prunes may contribute to the bone and the gut benefits.  This research gets us closer to understanding the unique attributes of prunes while underscoring the importance of eating the fruit in its entirety.    Scientists create a nearly invisible solar cell with up to 79% transparency | Interesting Engineering (11:07) A team of scientists from the Tohoku University in Japan has created a near-invisible solar cell using indium tin oxide (ITO) as a transparent electrode and tungsten disulfide (WS2) as a photoactive layer.Potential to achieve a transparency of 79 percent This type of PV device is known as the Schottky junction solar cell.An interface put between a metal and a semiconductor provides the band required for charge separation.  The suggested device and ideal band structure separate the photogenerated electron-hole pairs by a difference in the work function between one of the electrodes and the semiconductor.  WS2 is a member of the transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) family of materials, which the scientists claim are perfect for near-invisible solar cells due to their acceptable band gaps in the visible light range and greatest absorption coefficient per thickness.  The contact barrier between WS2 and ITO was adjusted by coating various thin metals on top of ITO material and introducing a thin layer of WO3 (Tungsten trioxide) between ITO and the monolayer WS2.Result: the Schottky barrier height increased dramatically. Potential for increasing the efficiency of charge carrier separation in this Schottky-type solar cell. The power conversion efficiency of the solar cell with the optimized electrode (WO3/Mx/ITO) was more than 1,000 times greater than that of a device employing a regular ITO electrode. With the aid of studies like this one, we may eventually develop transparent solar panels, which would have far-reaching ramifications.There are reportedly five to seven billion square meters of glass surfaces in the United States, from phone screens to skyscrapers.    Drug Treatment for Cataracts Might Soon Become a Reality | SciTechDaily (16:11) According to the World Health Organization, cataracts are one of the leading causes of blindness throughout the world. Cataracts account for more than 51 percent of blindness throughout the world. In the United States alone, over 24.4 million people over the age of 40 have been affected by cataracts. A cataract is a clouding of the eye lens that develops over time and compromises the quality of vision. Caused by a disorder of the proteins in the lens that leads to clumps of protein accumulating that scatter light and substantially limit transmission to the retina. Currently, cataracts can only be cured with surgery. However, a groundbreaking new treatment for cataracts has had incredibly positive laboratory test results suggesting that the affliction might soon be able to be treated with drugs. A team of international scientists at Anglia Ruskin University, have been carrying out advanced optical tests on an oxysterol compound that had been proposed as an anti-cataract drug. In laboratory trials, treatment with the oxysterol compound VP1-001 showed an improvement in refractive index profiles – a key optical parameter that is needed to maintain high focusing capacity – in 61% of lenses.Meaning that the protein organization of the lens is being restored, resulting in the lens being better able to focus.  Professor Barbara Pierscionek, lead researcher, stated:“This study has shown the positive effects of a compound that had been proposed as an anti-cataract drug but never before tested on the optics of the lens. It is the first research of this kind in the world.”  She continues mentioning this compound could only affect a certain kind of cataracts:“Improvements occurred in some types of cataracts but not in all indicating that this may be a treatment for specific cataracts. This suggests distinctions may need to be made between cataract types when developing anti-cataract medications. It is a significant step forward towards treating this extremely common condition with drugs rather than surgery.”   Cancer drug triggers remarkable recovery from spinal cord injury in mice | New Atlas (21:08) A drug under investigation as a cancer treatment has shown exciting promise in a rather different branch of medical research, with scientists demonstrating how it can promote nerve repair following spinal injury.  The drug acts on a DNA damage response mechanism and triggers a "remarkable" recovery in mice with injured spinal cords. The DNA Damage Response system, which swings into action in response to DNA damage caused by several common cancers, and also in response to spinal cord injury. Led by scientists at the University of Birmingham, the research focused on an experimental drug called AZD1390. Under investigation as a cancer therapy due its potential to make tumor cells more sensitive to radiation treatment. The authors of the new study hypothesize that the activation of this DNA Damage Response system may slow or prevent recovery from spinal cord injury, by hampering nerve repair.The thinking was that by using AZD1390 to inhibit the ATM signaling pathway, they could clear the way for the growth of new nerve cells. In mice with spinal cord injuries, oral administration of AZD1390 was also shown to significantly suppress the pathway. Further, it promoted nerve regeneration beyond the site of the injury, and enhanced the capacity of these nerves to relay electrical signals Study author Professor Zubair Ahmed, stated:“This is an exciting time in spinal cord injury research with several different investigational drugs being identified as potential therapies for spinal cord injury … We are particularly excited about AZD1390 which can be taken orally and reaches the site of injury in sufficient quantities to promote nerve regeneration and restore lost function. Our findings show a remarkable recovery of sensory and motor functions, and AZD1390-treated animals being indistinguishable from uninjured animals within four weeks of injury." Such a rapid and effective recovery, making injured mice appear much like uninjured mice in 4 weeks, positions AZD1390 as an exciting potential treatment for a condition that has no cure.  Though just an initial study, the fact that it centers on a drug already under investigation may also shorten its path to clinical use.