Eastern region of Asia
Tensions between China and Taiwan have been described as the worst in 40 years after the Chinese air force intensified its overflights into the Taiwanese air defence zone earlier this month. Susan Thornton spent nearly 30 years working on Eurasia and East Asia for the US state department. Currently she is a senior fellow at Yale Law School's Paul Tsai China Center.
There is no better word to describe the Netflix show Squid Game than 'phenomenon', as it has taken the entire world by storm with more than 111 million loyal viewers, leading many people to ask why a South Korean dystopian horror-drama has proven so popular? The Quicky speaks to an expert in Korean culture and media to uncover the hidden depths of the show not apparent to English-speaking audiences, and a psychologist to understand the impact the show has on our brains. CREDITS Host/Producer: Claire Murphy Executive Producer: Siobhán Moran-McFarlane Audio Producer: Ian Camilleri Guests: Dr Sung-Ae Lee - Lecturer in the Department of Media, Communications, Creative Arts, Language and Literature at Macquarie University, whose major research focuses on fiction, film and television drama of East Asia, with particular attention to Korea Elisabeth Shaw - CEO of Relationships Australia NSW and has worked for over 25 years as a clinical and counselling psychologist with extensive experience in relationships services Subscribe to The Quicky at... https://mamamia.com.au/the-quicky/ CONTACT US Got a topic you'd like us to cover? Send us an email at email@example.com Mamamia acknowledges the Traditional Owners of the Land we have recorded this podcast on, the Gadigal people of the Eora Nation. We pay our respects to their Elders past and present and extend that respect to all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures. Support the show: https://www.mamamia.com.au/mplus/ See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
The Mongols, their conquests, and the travellers who went to see them were all going to necessitate some changes to the Prester John narrative. This episode is all about those changes. If you like what you hear and want to chip in to support the podcast, my Patreon is here. I'm on Twitter @circus_human, Instagram @humancircuspod, and I have some things on Redbubble. Sources: Prester John: The Legend and its Sources, compiled and translated by Keagan Brewer. Taylor & Francis, 2019. Sir John Mandeville: The Book of Marvels and Travels, translated by Anthony Bale. Oxford University Press, 2012. Aigle, Denise. The Mongol Empire Between Myth and Reality. Brill, 2014. Jackson, Peter. The Mongols and the West: 1221-1410. Routledge, 2018. Rachewiltz, Igor de. Prester John and Europe's Discovery of East Asia. Australian National University Press, 1972. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit podcastchoices.com/adchoices
In this episode, several OPC missionaries discuss theological education in foreign mission fields. Douglas Clawson is associate general secretary for the OPC's Committee on Foreign Missions. Charles Jackson serves as a missionary in Uganda, and Mike serves in East Asia. Each of these ministers speaks about their experience in training officers for the building up […]
Robert Hellyer's Green with Milk and Sugar: When Japan Filled America's Tea Cups (Columbia UP, 2021) is a tale of American and Japanese teaways, skillfully weaving together stories of Midwesterners drinking green tea (with milk and sugar, to be sure), the recent and complex origins of Japan's love of now-ubiquitous sencha, Ceylon tea merchants exploiting American racism, Chinese tea production expertise, and the author's own family history in the Japan-America tea trade going back to the nineteenth century. Transnational histories and commodities histories are notoriously delicate dances, but Hellyer has produced a very readable and eye-opening look at the modern history and culture of tea. Green with Milk and Sugar will be of interest to a diverse group of historians—scholars of North America, East Asia, commerce and trade, food, etc.—but also to a general audience who will be pulled in by the author's personal connections as well as the delightfully jargon-free narrative. Nathan Hopson is an associate professor of Japanese language and history in the University of Bergen's Department of Foreign Languages. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/new-books-network
Robert Hellyer's Green with Milk and Sugar: When Japan Filled America's Tea Cups (Columbia UP, 2021) is a tale of American and Japanese teaways, skillfully weaving together stories of Midwesterners drinking green tea (with milk and sugar, to be sure), the recent and complex origins of Japan's love of now-ubiquitous sencha, Ceylon tea merchants exploiting American racism, Chinese tea production expertise, and the author's own family history in the Japan-America tea trade going back to the nineteenth century. Transnational histories and commodities histories are notoriously delicate dances, but Hellyer has produced a very readable and eye-opening look at the modern history and culture of tea. Green with Milk and Sugar will be of interest to a diverse group of historians—scholars of North America, East Asia, commerce and trade, food, etc.—but also to a general audience who will be pulled in by the author's personal connections as well as the delightfully jargon-free narrative. Nathan Hopson is an associate professor of Japanese language and history in the University of Bergen's Department of Foreign Languages. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/american-studies
Robert Hellyer's Green with Milk and Sugar: When Japan Filled America's Tea Cups (Columbia UP, 2021) is a tale of American and Japanese teaways, skillfully weaving together stories of Midwesterners drinking green tea (with milk and sugar, to be sure), the recent and complex origins of Japan's love of now-ubiquitous sencha, Ceylon tea merchants exploiting American racism, Chinese tea production expertise, and the author's own family history in the Japan-America tea trade going back to the nineteenth century. Transnational histories and commodities histories are notoriously delicate dances, but Hellyer has produced a very readable and eye-opening look at the modern history and culture of tea. Green with Milk and Sugar will be of interest to a diverse group of historians—scholars of North America, East Asia, commerce and trade, food, etc.—but also to a general audience who will be pulled in by the author's personal connections as well as the delightfully jargon-free narrative. Nathan Hopson is an associate professor of Japanese language and history in the University of Bergen's Department of Foreign Languages. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/east-asian-studies
Robert Hellyer's Green with Milk and Sugar: When Japan Filled America's Tea Cups (Columbia UP, 2021) is a tale of American and Japanese teaways, skillfully weaving together stories of Midwesterners drinking green tea (with milk and sugar, to be sure), the recent and complex origins of Japan's love of now-ubiquitous sencha, Ceylon tea merchants exploiting American racism, Chinese tea production expertise, and the author's own family history in the Japan-America tea trade going back to the nineteenth century. Transnational histories and commodities histories are notoriously delicate dances, but Hellyer has produced a very readable and eye-opening look at the modern history and culture of tea. Green with Milk and Sugar will be of interest to a diverse group of historians—scholars of North America, East Asia, commerce and trade, food, etc.—but also to a general audience who will be pulled in by the author's personal connections as well as the delightfully jargon-free narrative. Nathan Hopson is an associate professor of Japanese language and history in the University of Bergen's Department of Foreign Languages. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/american-west
In this episode, several OPC missionaries discuss theological education in foreign mission fields. Douglas Clawson is associate general secretary for the OPC's Committee on Foreign Missions. Charles Jackson serves as a missionary in Uganda, and Mike serves in East Asia. Each of these ministers speaks about their experience in training officers for the building up of indigenous churches, sharing the joys, struggles, and present needs in various fields.
Go to deployempathy.com to buy the audiobook private podcast, physical book, or ebook!This episode of Software Social is brought to you by Reform.As a business owner, you need forms all the time for lead capture, user feedback, SaaS onboarding, job applications, early access signups, and many other types of forms.Here's how Reform is different:- Your brand shines through, not Reform's- It's accessible out-of-the-box... And there are no silly design gimmicks, like frustrating customers by only showing one question at a timeJoin indie businesses like Fathom Analytics and SavvyCal and try out Reform.Software Social listeners get 1 month for free by going to reform.app/social and using the promo code "social" on checkout.AUTOMATED TRANSCRIPTMichele Hansen 0:01 Hey, everyone, Michele here. Colleen is at a conference this week. So doing something a little bit different this week and wanted to give you a preview of the audio book podcast for Deploy Empathy. So as I've kind of mentioned on previous episodes, I am releasing the audio book every week as a podcast as I record it. Part of the idea of this was kind of to sort of sort of do like I did with the newsletter with the book and sort of you know, do it and you know, sort of chapters at a at a time. And so I didn't have to spend you know, two weeks recording which is just, I didn't didn't really have two weeks, you know, of full workdays to sort of lock myself in a closet and record it. So this is allowing me to record it as I have time. Which is kind of a challenge as I say this right now, my desk is literally surrounded and pillows from the last time I recorded which was like two weeks ago. So So yeah, it's been it's been kind of an interesting challenge. But I have been enjoying it. And it's also allowed me to get feedback on it as well. This is my first time recording an audio book. So if anything sounds weird, or whatnot, like people can, you know, give me feedback, and I get a chance to re record as I go. So, so yeah, so it started in I want to say the end of August. And currently, it's on Part Six, which is the how to talk so people will talk section of the book, which is maybe my favorite section of the book. I admit I was a little bit nervous going into recording these chapters because the tone of voice is so important. And I wanted to make sure that I got that right. And I think I got a little bit in my head about that. But I think it I think it came out Okay, so I think I think I'm happy with it. But so yeah, so So this week you're gonna get a chance to preview the the the private podcast, there are still spots in it if you want to join so it's limited to 500 people and right now I think there's about a little under 200 so there's quite a few spots left if you wanted to, to join along, but also you know what, once the full thing is recorded, which I don't really I guess it'll be sort of end of the year early next year. You know, it'll also be available as a regular audio book not quite sure what I'm going to do with the podcast I'm actually kind of curious to hear if people want that to stick around or whatnot. I don't I wonder if it makes it more digestible to get through but maybe that value is on the you know that it's coming out every week, right now. So yeah, hope you enjoy and Colleen and I will be next back next week.Part Six, how to talk So people will talk. This is the most important part of this book. The tactics you'll learn build toward one goal, creating a bubble of suspended judgment, where the person feels comfortable being open. Throughout this part, you'll also find ways to practice these skills before using them in customer conversations. We'll go into each of these in depth one, use a gentle tone of voice to validate them. Three, leave pauses for them to fill for, mirror and summarize their words. Five, don't interrupt, six, use simple wording. Seven asked for clarification, even when you don't need it. Eight. Don't explain anything. Nine. Don't negate them in any way. And let them be the expert. Love it. Use their words and pronunciation 12 asked about time and money already spent. Lastly, you'll learn how to pull it all together by picturing yourself as a rubber duck. Trust me, it'll take you some time and some practice. But I think you'll notice a difference even in your personal life. By using these phrases and tactics. I want you to make me a promise, you'll only use what I'm about to teach you for good, you won't be manipulative, and you won't use what people say against them. deploying the tactics in this chapter can make someone open up to you much more than they otherwise would. Someone's confidence is a sacred gift. And it should be handled gently, respectfully and ethically. That respect should continue after the interview to I expect you to carry through the empathy you build for the customer well beyond the interview, and use empathy as part of your decision making process. Before we get into the tactics and phrases, it's important to understand just how much these tactics can transform a conversation. I got my start doing proper customer interviews in the personal finance industry. In America, people are generally very private about their personal finance decisions and situations. It's an extremely delicate topic. And because of this, I had to learn interviewing in a rigorous way. I didn't realize how much the techniques outlined in this chapter had woven themselves into my everyday conversation habits until I was at the grocery store a few years ago, I was in line with a dozen items and notice that the cashier hugged the woman in front of me, and they interacted with one another in a heartfelt way. I must have just finished an interview because I found myself asking the cashier about it. me with a smile. Oh, I noticed you hugged her. Is that your sister? cashier? No, she's just a longtime customer. I've worked here for a long time. me. Oh, you have? cashier? Yeah, almost 20 years. I'm due to retire soon. Companies changed a lot in that time. me. Oh hasn't. cashier proceeds to tell me about how the store chain was bought out by another chain 10 years ago, how they changed the retirement plan how she's worried about having enough income from Social Security, her 401k her old pension and retirement and how she's making extra 401k contributions. This was all in the span of less than five minutes. As she rang up the dozen or so items I had in my basket. It's important to note that this cashier wasn't just a particularly chatty person. This was my local grocery store. And I had been there a few times per week. For several years at this point. I'd been in this woman's line many many times. And we had never had more than a simple polite conversation about the weather, or how busy the store was that day. I went home and told a former co worker about it and joked Do I have Tell me about your retirement planning written on my forehead. I was amazed that a stranger had told me that kind of information in such a short amount of time. My former co worker pointed out that it was a sign of just how much interview skills had worked themselves into my everyday conversation style. And how I become so much more effective at digging into the heart of an issue without too much effort. For someone who's only negative mark in their first professional performance review was that I was abrasive and was diagnosed with a DD it'll 11 years old, it came as quite a shock to realize I now had an active listening conversation style without even realizing it. That experience taught me how we need to be careful with these skills, and to know when to hit the brakes. It's a person's decision what to reveal. But I always keep that story in mind and remind myself to back off or shift topics. When it seems like someone is on the verge of saying too much. It's possible to make someone too comfortable and safe. It's always okay to say thank you for telling me that I was wondering if we could go back to something you said earlier. I'm curious about something else. It also reminded me of how so many people don't have people in their lives who will just listen to them. Especially about things that are processes or tasks they complete daily or goals that are top of mind. The cashier at the grocery store clearly spent a lot of time thinking and worrying about the different sources of Income she'd have in retirement and whether they would be enough, but maybe didn't have anyone who would listen to her talk about that. I find that once you build trust with someone and show them that you're willing to listen, they will talk. Because no one has ever cared about that part of their daily life before. Maybe they grew up to a co worker about how long something takes, but they've probably never sat down and had someone genuinely ask them what they think about creating server uptime reports or following up on invoices, they've probably never really talked through where they spend a lot of time the tools they use, and so forth. They've probably never had anyone care enough to try to make it better for them. Just being a presence who's willing to listen is more powerful than people realize how customer interviews differ from other kinds of interviews. If you're already familiar with other kinds of interviewing, it might be interesting for you to read with an eye for how this kind of interviewing differs, journalistic interviewing, motivational interviewing and a negotiation based interview all bears similarities to user interviewing, yet they also have significant differences. The first professional interview I ever did was the summer I was interning at the Washington bureau of a British newspaper. the BP oil spill had happened a few months earlier. And my boss asked me to interview someone thinking back that was a very different interview from the customer interviews I started doing years later, in that BP oil spill interview, I was digging for information and I was looking for specific quotes that could be used in an article I already knew about the oil spill, so I wasn't looking to learn their perspective on it. Instead, I needed them to say specific things and say them in a quotable way. Customer interviews by contrast, are all about diving into how the other person perceives an experience and intentionally suspending the desire to validate your own ideas. Later, after the interview has finished, you can analyze the interview and see what opportunities might exist. We'll talk about that more in Part Eight analyzing interviews. Chapter 25 use a gentle tone of voice.In Chris Voss, his book never split the difference. He suggests using a late night DJ voice in negotiations. You're listening to wb mt 88.3 FM therapists will often speak in soft slow voices as a method of CO regulation to calm their patients. These techniques help put the other person at ease and create an environment where they feel safe. These techniques apply when you're talking to customers to a customer interviews should be conducted in the most harmless voice you can possibly muster. Imagine you're asking a treasured older family member about a photo of themselves as a young person. There might be a gentle, friendly tone of voice, a softness to your tone, genuine judgment free curiosity. Or perhaps picture that a close friend has come to you experiencing a personal crisis in the middle of the night. You would listen to them calmly and just try to figure out what was going on. You probably wouldn't start offering ideas or solutions to their problem and would focus on helping them get back to a clear state of mind. use that same gentleness in your customer interviews. It's important to note though, that you cannot be condescending. I purposefully do not say to speak to them like you would a child because people have very different ways of talking to children. Think of your customer as someone you respect and you can learn from because you should and you can. Why did you do it that way set in a medium volume voice with emphasis on certain words could make it sound accusatory and put them on the defensive versus will lead you to do it like that. And a gentle, unassuming, curious voice will help them open up. Try this now. The next time a friend or family member comes to you with a problem. Intentionally use the gentlest voice you can muster when you talk to them. The next time use your normal approach. Notice whether the person reacts differently. Chapter 26 validate them. books on product development often talk about validation, validating ideas, validating prototypes, validating business models.This chapter is about an entirely different kind of validation. It's a pivotal part of getting someone to open up to you. This chapter is about what psychologists and therapists describe as validating statements. These are specific phrases you can use to show someone that you're engaged with what they're saying. It's okay to have trepidation about what you would say in an interview, and how you would come up with follow up questions. Yet most of what you say during an interview aren't questions at all. Instead, you use validating statement It's that shows someone you're open to what they're saying and are listening. Your goal is for them to talk as much as possible. And you as little aim for the interviewee to do 90% of the talking in the interview. In a customer interview, you use validation, even when you don't necessarily agree with what they say. Or even if what they say sounds absurd to you. It does not mean that you agree with them. It is instead a way of recognizing that what they think and do is valid from their perspective. You cannot break that bubble of trust ever, even when something wacky cans, which I can. In a memorable interview years ago, the interviewee suddenly said, Sorry, I'm eating a case of beer right now, about 45 minutes into the phone call. Mind you, this person had given zero previous indications that they were eating. My research partner, the unflappable research expert, Dr. Helen fake, just rolled with it and said, Oh, you're fine. Notice what she said there. She didn't say no worries or not a problem or don't worry about it, all of which either hinge on negating a negative word, worries problem, and thus leave the negative word in the person's mind. Or invalidating instead told him he was fine. Not, that's fine, which is abstract. But explicitly putting the interviewee as the subject. And that saying that he is fine, which validated his state as a person. It was subtle yet next level of conversational jujitsu that will start to come naturally to you, the more you practice this, you also cannot say that you agree with them, or congratulate them, or do anything that implies that you have an opinion. Even if it's a positive opinion, this is probably one of the strangest parts of how to make an interview flow. And for many people, it runs counter to their built in instincts to be positive and encouraging. The person you're interviewing may ask you if you agree, and you need to purposely find a way to make that question go away. I can see where you're coming from on that. Can you tell me rather than Yeah, I agree. agreeing or disagreeing will remind them that you're a human being with opinions and judgments, and the trust will start to melt away, you almost want them to forget that you're a person. For example, when I was interviewing people about their finances, they would admit to doing things that a financial planner or portfolio manager would never endorse, even though we knew that we couldn't correct them. We also couldn't agree with them, either. We were searching for their internal logic and thought processes. And if we were introduced outside information, or agree or disagree with them, they would have shifted into trying to impress us and holding back information, examples of validating statements. That makes sense. I can see why you would do it that way. I'm interested to hear more about how you came to doing it that way. Would you be able to walk me through the context behind that? I can see what you're saying. It sounds like that's frustrating. That sounds like that's time consuming. It sounds like that's challenging. Sounds like you think that could be improved? Can you help me understand What went through your mind? When? Can you tell me more about? It makes sense. You think that? It makes sense? You do it that way? Sounds like there are several steps involved. I'm curious, can you walk me through them? Sounds like a lot goes into that.When using validating phrases, I encourage you to use the word think instead of feel. Some people I've noticed will find it insulting to say that they feel a certain way. But think is interpreted as more neutral and factual. For example, you feel the process is complicated. Versus you think the process is complicated, or better. The process is complicated. And remember, most people like to think their job is challenging. years ago, I heard someone talk about their recent move to LA. their spouse was in the entertainment industry and this person was not. And they kept finding themselves struggling to make conversation at cocktail parties. But eventually they learned a trick. Whenever someone said what they did, they replied with that sounds challenging. Even if the person's job sounded easy or boring. People would open up because it felt like a compliment. And it would lead to an interesting conversation about the things that person did at work. What that person found was that encouraging someone to keep talking requires Turning the conversation back over to them. Rather than offering your own ideas. Try this now. The next time a friend or family member shares a problem with you and does not explicitly ask you for advice, say that makes sense or another one of the validating statements mentioned previously, rather than offering a solution. Sometimes people say I just don't know what to do, which sounds like an invitation to offer a solution but may not be. If that happens, ask them about what they've already tried. Chapter 27 leave pauses for them to fill. Several years ago, I was sitting in the audience at the DC tech meetup. I was there to support a friend who was giving a presentation. And something one of the panelists said stuck with me and it's something I remind myself about during every customer interview. Radio producer melody Kramer was asked what she had learned while working for Terry Gross host of the long running NPR interview show fresh air. She said that Terry Gross his interview strategy is to ask a question and then to wait and wait and wait at least three long beats until it is uncomfortable. Quote, the other person will fill the silence and what they fill it with will often be the most interesting part of the interview. I remember Cramer quoting gross as saying this tactic of saying something and then waiting at least three beats for the other person to fill it is something that I use in every single interview often multiple times. The length of what feels like a long pause varies from person to person. The research of linguist Dr. Deborah Tannen, shows that people from different American regions tend to have different conversation styles. A coordinator her research, people from the northeastern us may talk over one another to show engagement. While California and may wait for a pause to jump in. People from different continents can have different conversation styles to people from East Asia may wait for an even longer pause and could interpret what seems like a suitable pause to the California as an interruption. A three beat pause may seem long disarm and normal to others. I encourage you to experiment with us and add an extra two to three beats on top of whatever is normal for you. In addition to pauses, I also encourage you to notice whether you provide prompts and additional questions. What do you do if the other person doesn't respond right away? Imagine you're trying to figure out what kind of delivery to order for dinner with a friend or spouse. Do you say Where should we order takeout from and let it hang? Perhaps you had possible answers like where should we order takeout from? Should we get pizza? Chinese sushi? One of the ways people make a typical conversation flow is by adding these sorts of little prompting words, when someone doesn't reply immediately. Maybe the prompting is an offering answers like above. And it's just a rephrase without offering an answer like where should we order takeout from? Do you wanna? while adding gesticulation. In an interview, you need to avoid prompting as best as you can, lest you influence the person's answer. When you ask a question, you need to let it hang and let the customer fill the silence. So can you tell me why you even needed a product like your product in the first place? And wait?Don't prompt. If they don't reply right away? Don't say was it for use case one, or maybe use case two? Just wait. I know how hard this is. In fact, there's a point in the example customer interview where I slipped up and prompted cool was there, or is there anything else? Did you have any other questions or?Drew 24:10 No, I think that's everything I have.Michele Hansen 24:14 Now, sometimes it might get truly awkward. The person you're interviewing may not respond. If they say, Are you still there? You can gently bring the conversation back to focus on them and say something that elevates what they've already said like, Yeah, I was just giving you a moment to think. Oh, I was just jotting down what you just said that seemed important. And then rephrase what you'd like them to expand on. Yes, I'm still here. Do you want to come back to that later? Oh, we just sounded like you're about to say something. If anything too long pauses and the interviewers phrases the follow, make the customer feel even more important and reinforce that they are in the dominant role in this conference. It puts them in the role of teacher which marketing psychology expert Dr. Robert Steele, Dini, has identified as a powerful way of influencing another person's behavior. You want them to teach you about their view of the process. And this sort of almost differential treatment through pauses, helps elevate them into that teaching position. To get the answers you need about the customers process, you need to create a safe judgment free environment, you need to hand the stage entirely over to the customer, and talk as little as possible. And leaving silences without prompting is one of the ways you can do that. Try this now. The next time you're having an everyday conversation, not a tense conversation, not appointed conversation. Notice whether you ask a question and wait. Chapter 28 mirror and summarize their words. I have a friend who used that a parrot named Steve. I remember listening amused as he told me about the conversations he had with Steve. This was years before I learned about active listening. And now it makes more sense to me why parrots are great conversationalist, even though their vocabulary is limited. What parents do is repeat words back at people and repeating words back at someone and rephrasing what they've said, as the magical power of encouraging them to elaborate. It's a tactic that therapists and negotiators use all the time. CHAPTER TWO OF never split the difference by Chris Voss is a deep dive on mirroring. And you can also learn about it and nonviolent communication by Marshall Rosenberg. Consider this excerpt from the example interview, I wasn'tDrew 26:44 really seriously considering anything that had a paywall on it was I wasn't sure that it would ever pay itself back off. I knew there were other options out there that would either require moving our storage and our database altogether, which didn't really seem appealing, or having two different services, one to manage each. But then the storage still being just as complicated only somewhere else.Michele Hansen 27:07 It sounds like you had a lot of things you were trying to like wave back and forth about whether you should sort of try to plunge forward with this thing that was already being very frustrating. Or then all of the the negative effects of switching and all the complications that that would introduce.Drew 27:23 I really didn't want to spend a whole lot of time investing, you know, building up a new infrastructure for a new product for new servers to handle this one thing that I think the most frustrating part was that it worked in now it doesn't.Michele Hansen 27:36 You'll notice there aren't any question marks and what I said as a follow up. I rephrased what he said as a statement, which then prompted him to expand on it. This is a combination of two conversation tactics, mirroring and summarizing, mirroring is repeating what someone has said. And summarizing is when you rephrase what they have said, and sometimes label their feelings, you can hear another example of mirroring in the sample interview, he describes himself running into a lot of walls, jumping through a lot of hoops. And that phrasing is mirrored back for elaboration.Drew 28:10 And Firebase Storage just did not work as easily. As it was we found ourselves running into a lot of walls, jumping through a lot of hoops just to make the simplest things work.Michele Hansen 28:22 Can you tell me a little bit more about those hoops and walls that you ran into? negotiation expert Chris Voss notes that it's important to say it rather than I, when summarizing, it sounds like is more neutral, then I'm hearing that since in the second one, you're centering yourself as the subject, but the first phrase centers the situation. For example, if your spouse or roommate comes home seeming frazzled, man, what a day, I had, like 10 calls today. You mirroring. You had 10 calls today. The other person? Yeah, and then my last one didn't even show up and I'd had to cut the previous call short to make it. If I'd known they weren't going to show up. I could have gotten this thing sorted out and then I wouldn't have to work tonight. You summarizing and labeling. Sounds like you had a lot of calls today. And because someone didn't show up, you're feeling frustrated that you have to finish your work tonight. Notice that none of these follow ups or questions? Oh, are you talking to new clients? The clarifications are simple restatements of what the person has said without added editorial zation of the events. Try this now. When a friend or family member says something to you about their day, try stating back at them what they've said. Then try summarizing what they've said as a statement. Sometimes a gentle upward tone implies interest more depending on the person
Imaginaries of Connectivity: The Creation of Novel Spaces of Governance (Rowman & Littlefield, 2019) addresses the problem of how the creation of novel spaces of governance relates to imaginaries of connectivity in time. While connectivity seems almost ubiquitous today, it has been imagined and practiced in various ways and to varying political effects in different historical and geographical contexts. Often the conception of new connectivities also gives birth to new spaces of governance. The political denomination of spaces – whether maritime, continental, social, or virtual – reflects the situatedness of power. Yet, such crafting of new spaces also expresses particular imaginaries and technologies of connectivity that make governance possible. Whereas the study of international relations has traditionally focused on the role of agency and structure in power relations, the affects, beliefs, attitudes, and practices that intervene in how groups of people connect in given times have not attracted much scholarly attention Overall, the detailed and original case studies examined in the book range from the 16th century, to the 19th century, to the present, and from Spain, to the Maritime Alps, to Germany, to the Mediterranean, to China, to East Asia. The historical and geographical variety of the cases serves to highlight the diversity of the meaning and function of connectivity in the constitution of novel spaces of governance. Krzysztof Odyniec is a historian of the Early Modern Europe, the Spanish Empire, and the Atlantic World, specializing in sixteenth-century diplomacy and travel. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/geography
Imaginaries of Connectivity: The Creation of Novel Spaces of Governance (Rowman & Littlefield, 2019) addresses the problem of how the creation of novel spaces of governance relates to imaginaries of connectivity in time. While connectivity seems almost ubiquitous today, it has been imagined and practiced in various ways and to varying political effects in different historical and geographical contexts. Often the conception of new connectivities also gives birth to new spaces of governance. The political denomination of spaces – whether maritime, continental, social, or virtual – reflects the situatedness of power. Yet, such crafting of new spaces also expresses particular imaginaries and technologies of connectivity that make governance possible. Whereas the study of international relations has traditionally focused on the role of agency and structure in power relations, the affects, beliefs, attitudes, and practices that intervene in how groups of people connect in given times have not attracted much scholarly attention Overall, the detailed and original case studies examined in the book range from the 16th century, to the 19th century, to the present, and from Spain, to the Maritime Alps, to Germany, to the Mediterranean, to China, to East Asia. The historical and geographical variety of the cases serves to highlight the diversity of the meaning and function of connectivity in the constitution of novel spaces of governance. Krzysztof Odyniec is a historian of the Early Modern Europe, the Spanish Empire, and the Atlantic World, specializing in sixteenth-century diplomacy and travel. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/new-books-network
Imaginaries of Connectivity: The Creation of Novel Spaces of Governance (Rowman & Littlefield, 2019) addresses the problem of how the creation of novel spaces of governance relates to imaginaries of connectivity in time. While connectivity seems almost ubiquitous today, it has been imagined and practiced in various ways and to varying political effects in different historical and geographical contexts. Often the conception of new connectivities also gives birth to new spaces of governance. The political denomination of spaces – whether maritime, continental, social, or virtual – reflects the situatedness of power. Yet, such crafting of new spaces also expresses particular imaginaries and technologies of connectivity that make governance possible. Whereas the study of international relations has traditionally focused on the role of agency and structure in power relations, the affects, beliefs, attitudes, and practices that intervene in how groups of people connect in given times have not attracted much scholarly attention Overall, the detailed and original case studies examined in the book range from the 16th century, to the 19th century, to the present, and from Spain, to the Maritime Alps, to Germany, to the Mediterranean, to China, to East Asia. The historical and geographical variety of the cases serves to highlight the diversity of the meaning and function of connectivity in the constitution of novel spaces of governance. Krzysztof Odyniec is a historian of the Early Modern Europe, the Spanish Empire, and the Atlantic World, specializing in sixteenth-century diplomacy and travel. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/sociology
Imaginaries of Connectivity: The Creation of Novel Spaces of Governance (Rowman & Littlefield, 2019) addresses the problem of how the creation of novel spaces of governance relates to imaginaries of connectivity in time. While connectivity seems almost ubiquitous today, it has been imagined and practiced in various ways and to varying political effects in different historical and geographical contexts. Often the conception of new connectivities also gives birth to new spaces of governance. The political denomination of spaces – whether maritime, continental, social, or virtual – reflects the situatedness of power. Yet, such crafting of new spaces also expresses particular imaginaries and technologies of connectivity that make governance possible. Whereas the study of international relations has traditionally focused on the role of agency and structure in power relations, the affects, beliefs, attitudes, and practices that intervene in how groups of people connect in given times have not attracted much scholarly attention Overall, the detailed and original case studies examined in the book range from the 16th century, to the 19th century, to the present, and from Spain, to the Maritime Alps, to Germany, to the Mediterranean, to China, to East Asia. The historical and geographical variety of the cases serves to highlight the diversity of the meaning and function of connectivity in the constitution of novel spaces of governance. Krzysztof Odyniec is a historian of the Early Modern Europe, the Spanish Empire, and the Atlantic World, specializing in sixteenth-century diplomacy and travel. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/history
The results of China's 2020 census, released in May 2021, reveal that population growth over the past decade has been the lowest since the 1950s. China's government has now loosened some restrictions, allowing married couples to have as many as three children. This signals increasing concern by policy makers, and may suggest further measures in the near future as the wide-ranging repercussions of demographic changes reverberate across Chinese society. In an interview conducted on September 14, 2021, Dr. Ye Liu and Professor Carl Minzner discuss the social implications of China's accelerating demographic crisis, with specific attention to the varied reactions of women in China to recent policy shifts and comparisons of China's demographic challenges with those in other parts of East Asia.
Dr. Jenelle Kim, DACM, L.Ac., is the founder and leader formulator for JBK Wellness Labs. Dr. Kim is carrying on the medical knowledge and wisdom of her lineage. Dr. Kim is devoted to integrating the philosophy, medical wisdom, and expertise of East Asia with the advancements of modern life and medicine of the West in order to touch and positively affect the lives of others. Dr. Kim is a Doctor of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine and is Nationally Board Certified in Herbology, Oriental Medicine, and Acupuncture. Dr. Kim completed extensive training in East Asia under some of the most respected doctors in the field of Oriental Medicine and is the custodian of her lineage's proprietary Bi Bong® formulas. Dr. Kim's teachings on meditation are currently available for pre-order under the title Myung Sung: The Korean Art to Living Meditation by Watkins Publishing and will be distributed by Penguin Random House in January 2022. In her book, Dr. Kim breaks down the principles of Myung Sung, offering a way to achieve a life of balance and happiness by enjoying the positive benefits of meditation every minute of every day. Dr. Kim's unique approach to meditation combines lessons on movement and natural medicine learned from a lifetime of experience studying Eastern philosophy, Eastern medicine, and martial arts. In today's episode Jenelle shares her journey tapping into the medical knowledge and wisdom of her lineage. She so beautifully speaks on how her lineage drives her work and her passion. She speaks of three pillars: medicine, meditation and movement. These three pillars have been passed down for many centuries, and it's her belief that these pillars can empower us no matter where we are in our lives. Ultimately by incorporating the practices and principles of these pillars into your life, you'll be able to find your own happiness, longevity, beauty, happiness, peace, and all of the things that we wish for. Early on in her career Jenelle focused solely on medicine, and as she shares, when life shows us different opportunities we have to have our eyes open. Even when it's scary, we have to walk forward, and that's exactly what she did. She began to focus on the second pillar, meditation. It's her wish to share the principles of living meditation, Myung Sung. Jenelle shares her journey publishing her book, the impact of her father's passing on her journey, the role of the pandemic, and how she's worked to embody the third pillar of movement, by creating movement and flow in her own life. It's Jenelle's wish to share the wisdom that has been handed down to her through her lineage so that she can share it with the world. To connect with Dr. Jenelle and learn more visit her website Jenellekim.com andJbkwellnesslabs.com and on Instagram @drjenellemkim TikTok @drjenellekim Twitter @JenelleMKim Facebook @drjenellemkim and LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/dr-jenelle-kim-863835175/ Stories of Inspiring Joy is a production of Seek The Joy Media and created by Sydney Weiss. To learn more and submit your story, click here. *Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in this episode are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of Stories of Inspiring Joy.
Australia's decision to cancel its French submarine contract in favour of partnering with the US and the UK on nuclear-powered boats has provoked local and international controversy. The decision has implications for US, Chinese, European and Southeast Asian diplomacy and defence policies. Richard McGregor, the Lowy Institute's Senior Fellow for East Asia, talks with three experts: Bilahari Kausikan, the former head of the Singapore Foreign Ministry, Yun Sun, of the Stimson Centre in Washington DC, and Nadège Rolland, of the National Bureau of Asia Research in the United States.
Thomas Graham, distinguished fellow at CFR, leads a conversation on constraining Putin's Russia. FASKIANOS: Welcome to today's session of the CFR Fall 2021 Academic Webinar Series. I'm Irina Faskianos, vice president of the National Program and Outreach here at CFR. Today's meeting is on the record, and the video and transcript will be available on our website CFR.org/academic if you would like to share it with your colleagues or classmates. As always, CFR takes no institutional positions on matters of policy. We are delighted to have Thomas Graham with us to talk about Putin's Russia. Mr. Graham is a distinguished fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations and a senior advisor at Kissinger Associates, where he focuses on Russian and Eurasian affairs. He is cofounder of the Russian, East European, and Eurasian studies program at Yale University, and is also a research fellow at the MacMillan Center at Yale. He previously served as special assistant to President George W. Bush and senior director for Russia on the National Security Council staff from 2004 to 2007, and director for Russian affairs from 2002 to 2004. His résumé is very distinguished. I will just also say that he is a U.S. diplomat who served two tours of duty in Moscow, where he worked on political affairs. So, Mr. Graham, thanks very much for being with us today. I thought you could get us started by talking about the primary interests at stake in U.S.-Russia relations. GRAHAM: Great. Thank you very much, Irina, for that introduction, and it's a real pleasure to be with all of you here today. I want to start with three broad points that will frame the rest of our discussion. The first is that the problem that the United States faces is not simply with Putin; it is with Russia more generally speaking. The last seven years of very difficult, challenging adversarial relationship is really not an aberration in the history of the relationship between our two countries. In fact, from the moment the United States emerged as a major power on the global stage at the very end of the nineteenth century, we have had a rivalry with Russia. And the issues that divide us today are the ones that divided us 125, 150 years ago: We have opposing worldviews. We have different geopolitical interests. And clearly, we have different systems of values that inform our domestic political systems. This rivalry has intensified, ebbed and flowed during the twentieth century. But the effort we made at partnership after the breakup of the Soviet Union up until 2014, marked by the eruption of the crisis in Ukraine, is really the aberration in the history of relations between our two countries and one that was founded very much on the fact that Russia endured a period of strategic weakness. So the issue we have to deal with Russia and how we're going to deal with Russia well into the future, even after Putin departs—which he will, obviously, at some point, if only for biological reasons. The second point that I would make is that Russia is not going to go away. We hear a lot in the public debate in the United States about Russian decline, about the population/demographic problems it has, about its stagnating economy, and so forth. None of this is necessarily untrue, but I think it tends to exaggerate the problems that Russia faces. It ignores the problems that all other major countries face—including China, the United States, and many major European countries—but it also overlooks the very great strengths that Russia has had for decades that are going to make it a player and an important player on the global stage, nuclear weapons to begin with. We should never forget that Russia remains the only country that can destroy the United States as a functioning society in thirty minutes. Russia has the largest natural endowment of any country in the world, a country that can pretend to self-sufficiency and, in fact, is better placed than most other countries to deal with a breakdown in globalization in the decades to come if that, indeed, happens. It has a veto on the U.N. Security Council, which makes it an important player on issues of importance to the United States, and it has a talented population that has fostered a scientific community that, for example, is capable of taking advances in technology and developing the military applications from them. Just look at the strength that Russia exhibits in cyberspace, for example—again, a major challenge for the United States. So Russia is going to continue to be a challenge. One other thing that I should have mentioned here is that the Russian state throughout history and Putin's Russia today has demonstrated a keen ability to mobilize the resources of their own society for state purposes. So even if in relative terms they may be weaker and weakening vis-à-vis China and the United States, in some ways that political will, that ability to mobilize, allows Russia to play a much larger role than mere indicators of its economic size and population size would suggest. Now, Russia clashes with the United States across a whole range of issues, and as I said that is going to continue for some time. And this brings me to my third point: How we should think about American foreign policy, what our guidelines should be in dealing with Russia. And here there are three, I think, key elements to this. First, the United States needs to preserve strategic stability. We need to have that nuclear balance between us (sic) and the United States. This is an existential question. And as I already mentioned, Russia does have a tremendous nuclear capability. Second, the United States should seek to manage its competition with Russia responsibly. We want to avoid or reduce the risk of a direct military conflict that could escalate to the nuclear level. This is—also, I think, recognizes that the United States is not going to be able to compel Russia to capitulate on issues that are of interest to us, nor are we going to be able to radically change the way they think about their own national interests. So it's a competitive relationship and we need to manage that responsibly. And finally, given the complex world that we live in today—the very real transnational challenges we face: climate change, pandemic diseases, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction—the United States should seek, to the extent possible, ways to cooperate with Russia in dealing with these issues. We should recognize that Russia is not necessarily the only player nor necessarily the most important player in dealing with these challenges, but it does have a role to play along with other major powers in handling these transnational issues. So those, I think, are three sort of broad points that help set the stage for our discussion. Now let me turn sort of very briefly to the questions about U.S. policy. How do we deal with this Russia? What are sort of—the way we should think about American foreign policy? And here the point I would make is that we should think of the policy in terms of what I would call the three Ds: defense, deterrence, and dialogue. Now, defense and deterrence in many ways go together. If you have a very good defense, if you demonstrate an ability and willingness to defend your interests effectively and deliberately, then you tend to deter another power. They have less reason to want to attack you. But if deterrence fails, you very much need to be able to defend yourself—to disrupt Russian operations in cyberspace, for example, or disrupt military operations by the Russians that you find problematic in some way. So defense and deterrence go together, and we need to think about that. Now, you build these elements on a number of other things that we're all familiar with. A strong military—strong, capable military—is, obviously, an element of both defense and deterrence, and something that we have managed quite well in the past and I imagine will manage quite well going into the future. Cyber defenses are also an important element of constraining Russia on the global stage. Now, here the United States really has much room for improvement. We built our internet, our cyberspace largely for the accessibility, the ability to pass information from one entity to another, and we spent much less attention to the security of that system. As cyberspace has become more important to our socioeconomic and political lives, we really need to devote much more attention to cybersecurity, hardening our commuter—computer networks, for example, making sure we have strong passwords and so forth, something that I think we now recognize but we need to put a much greater effort into doing that. Third area of defense and deterrence is strong alliances. When we're thinking about Russia, this is clearly the transatlantic community, NATO, our relations with our other European partners. And here, we need to develop the types of military/defense cooperation that we need to demonstrate quite clearly that the United States, along with the rest of the NATO allies, is ready and prepared to meet its Article 5 guarantees to collective security should the Russians do something that is untoward in our neighborhood. And then, finally, and I think of increasing importance, is the question of national unity. National unity, national resilience, has really become a key element in defense and deterrence at this point. We need to demonstrate to the Russians that we have sufficient national unity to clearly identify what our interests are and pursue them on the international stage. One of Putin's close colleagues several years ago said that what Putin is doing is messing with the Americans' minds, and certainly we've seen that over the past several years. Putin hasn't sowed the discord in the United States, but he certainly has tried to exploit it for Russian purposes. And this is something that he's going to concentrate on in the future, in part because he recognizes the dangers of military confrontation with the United States. So great-power competition, from the Kremlin's standpoint, is going to move very, very quickly from the kinetic realm to the cyber realm, and we need to be able to deal with that. So building national unity at home, overcoming our polarization, is really perhaps one of the key steps in constraining Russia on the global stage. And then, finally, some very brief words about dialogue. We tend to downplay this in our national discussion. Many believe that diplomatic relations are—should not be branded as a reward for bad behavior. But I think if you look at this objectively, you'll see that diplomatic relations are very important as a way of defending and advancing our national concerns. It's a way that we can convey clearly to the Russians what our expectations are, what our goals are, what our redlines are, and the responses that we're capable of taking if Russia crosses them. At the same time, we can learn from the Russians what their goals are, what their motivations are, what their redlines are, and we can factor that into our own policy. This is a major element of managing the competition between our two countries responsibly. You'll see that we have begun to engage in negotiations and diplomacy with the Russians much more under President Biden than we did under President Trump. We've already launched strategic stability talks with the aim of coming up with a new concept of strategic stability that's adequate to the strategic environment of the present day and the near future. We've engaged in cybersecurity talks, which my understanding is have, in fact, had some success over the past several weeks. Where we, I think, have lagged is in the discussion of regional issues—Europe, Ukraine, the Middle East, for example. These are areas where there is still potential for conflict, and the United States and Russia ought to be sitting down and talking about these issues on a regular basis. So three Ds—defense, deterrence, and diplomacy or dialogue—are the ways that we should be thinking about our relationship with Russia. And obviously, we'll need to adjust each of these three elements to the specific issue at hand, whether it be in Europe, whether it be in the nuclear realm, cyberspace, and so forth. Now, with that as a way—by way of introduction, I am very pleased to entertain your questions. FASKIANOS: Tom, thanks very much for that terrific overview and analysis. We're going to go to all of you now for your questions. You can either raise your hand by clicking on the icon, and I will call on you, and you can tell us what institution you are with; or you can type your question in the Q&A box, although if you want to ask it you can raise your hand. We encourage that. And if you're typing your question, please let us know what college or university you're with. So I'm going to take the first raised-hand question from Babak Salimitari. And unmute yourself. Q: Can you guys hear me? GRAHAM: Yes. FASKIANOS: Yes. Q: Hello. I'm a third-year UCI student, economics. I have a question. I'm going to sound a bit like Sean Hannity here, so please forgive me, but I have a question about that Nord Stream 2 pipeline that you constantly hear on the news, and it just doesn't make that much sense for me of why this pipeline was allowed to be completed into the heart of Europe considering Russia's strength with natural gases and the leverage that they have over Europe with that pipeline. Why was that allowed to be completed? GRAHAM: Well, I think from the standpoint of the Biden administration this was a matter of what we call alliance management. Germany is clearly a key ally for the United States in Europe, and the Germans were very committed to the completion of that pipeline, starting with Chancellor Angela Merkel down through I think both the leading political parties and the German business community. So I think they made the decision for that. But let me step back because I'd like to challenge a lot of the assumptions about the Nord Stream 2 project here in the United States, which I think misconceive it, misframe the question, and tend to exaggerate the dangers that is poses. The first point that I would make is that Europe now and in the future will have and need Russian gas. It's taken a substantial amount in the past—in the past decades, and even as it moves forward towards a green revolution it will continue to take considerable amounts of Russian gas. It can't do without that gas. So the Nord Stream 2 pipeline, contrary to what you hear in the United States or at the U.S. Congress, I don't think poses an additional threat to Europe's energy security, no larger than the threat that was posed before that pipeline was completed. The Europeans, I think are aware of the problems that that poses, and they've taken steps over the past several years to integrate the gas—the gas distribution network in Europe, to build facilities to import liquified natural gas, all as a way of eroding the leverage that Gazprom might have had over energy markets in Europe. And that has been quite successful over the past—over the past several years. Now, I think, you know, the other issue that comes up in the discussion in the United States is Ukraine, because Nord Stream 2 clearly provides Russia with a way to import the gas into Europe and bypass Ukraine at the—at the same time. And Ukraine is going to suffer a significant loss in budgetary revenue because of the decline in transit fees that it gets from the transportation of Russian gas across its territory. You know, that is a problem, but there are ways of dealing with that: by helping Ukraine fill the budgetary gap, by helping Ukraine transition away from a reliance on gas to other forms of energy, of helping Ukraine develop the green-energy resources that will make it a much more important partner in the European energy equation than it is now. And then finally, you know, it strikes me as somewhat wrongheaded for Ukraine to put itself in a position where it is reliant on a country that is clearly a belligerent for a significant part of its federal revenue. So we need to think hard with the Ukrainians about how they deal with this issue, how they wean themselves off Russian transit fees, and then I think we have a situation where we can help Ukraine, we can manage the energy-security situation in Europe, we can reduce any leverage that Russia might have, and that Nord Stream 2 really doesn't pose a significant risk to the United States or our European allies over the long run. FASKIANOS: Thank you. We're going to take the next question from the written queue from Kenneth Mayers, who's at St Francis—sorry, that just popped away; oh, sorry—St. Francis College. Thinking beyond this triangular framework, what pathways and possibilities can be envisioned for a more positive dimension of working together in mutually, even globally, beneficial ways? GRAHAM: What triangular relationship are we talking about? FASKIANOS: His—thinking beyond this triangular framework and— GRAHAM: Oh, OK. So I think it's defense, deterrence, and diplomacy is the— FASKIANOS: Correct. GRAHAM: OK. Can you repeat the final part of the question, then? FASKIANOS: What pathways and possibilities can be envisioned for a more positive dimension of working together in mutually beneficial ways? GRAHAM: Well, there are a number of areas in which we can work together beneficially. If you think about proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, for example, the United States and Russia over the past two decades have played a major role in both securing weapons that were located in Russia, but also in securing highly-enriched uranium that was in Soviet-designed reactors throughout the former Soviet space. We have taken a lead together in setting down rules and procedures that reduce the risk of nuclear material—fissile material getting into the hands of terrorist organizations. And we have played a role together in trying to constrain the Iranian nuclear program. Russia played an instrumental role in the conclusion of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action that we signed in 2015 that the Trump administration walked away with, but they will continue to play a role in constraining Iranians' nuclear ambitions going forward. And we've also worked in a cooperative fashion in dealing with the North Korean nuclear program. So there are areas in nonproliferation where the two countries can work together. On climate change, I mean, I think the big challenge for the United States is actually persuading Russia that climate change is a significant threat to their own security. They're slowly beginning to change that view, but as they come around to recognizing that they have to deal with climate change there are a number of areas where the two countries can cooperate. One of the things that climate is doing is melting the permafrost. That is destabilizing the foundation of much of Russia's energy infrastructure in areas where gas and oil are extracted for export abroad. The United States has dome technologies that the Russians might find of interest in stabilizing that infrastructure. They suffer from problems of Siberian fires—peat-bog fires, forest fires—an area that, obviously, is of concern to the United States as well. And there may be room for cooperation there, two. And then, finally, you know, the United States and Russia have two of the leading scientific communities in the entire world. We ought to be working together on ways that we can help mitigate the consequences of climate change going forward. So I see an array of areas where the two countries could cooperate, but that will depend on good diplomacy in Washington and a receptivity on the part of the Russians which we haven't seen quite yet. FASKIANOS: Thank you. Let's go next to Jeffrey Ko. You can unmute yourself. Thank you. Q: Hi. So I'm Jeffrey Ko. I'm an international relations master's student at Carnegie Mellon. And my question has to deal with these private military forces, and especially the Wagner Group. And so I would like to know, you know, how does this play into our security strategy regarding Russia in countries that have seen proxy warfare? And how does this—how difficult will it be to engage with Russia either diplomatically or militarily on the use of these gray-zone tactics, and specifically utilizing the Wagner Group as an informal branch of Russia's military? GRAHAM: Well, look, I mean, I do think that we need, one, to sit down and have a discussion with Russia about the use of these private military forces, particularly the Wagner firm, which has played a significant role in a number of conflicts across the globe in the Middle East, Africa, and in Latin America. But we also ought to help the countries that are of interest to us deal with the problems that the Wagner Group causes. You know, the United States had to deal with the Wagner Group in Syria during the Syrian civil war. You know, despite the fact that we had a deconfliction exercise with the Russians at that point, tried to prevent military conflicts between our two militaries operating in close proximity, when the Wagner forces violated those strictures and actually began to attack a U.S. facility, we had no hesitation about using the force that we had to basically obliterate that enemy. And the Wagner Group suffered casualties numbering in the hundreds, one to two hundred. I think the Russians got the message about that, that you don't—you don't mess with the United States military, certainly not while using a private military company like Wagner. You know, in places like Libya, where Wagner is quite active, I think the United States needs a major diplomatic effort to try to defuse the Libyan crisis. And part of the solution to that would be negotiating an agreement that calls for the withdrawal of all foreign military forces and certainly private military groups from Libyan territory, and lean on the Russians to carry that through. In any event, you know, this is not going to be an easy issue to resolve. I think we deal with this by—country by country, and we focus our attention on those countries where our national interests are greatest. FASKIANOS: Thank you. I'm going to take the next question from Jill Dougherty, who's at Georgetown University. The Putin administration appears to be hardening its control of Russia's society with the purpose of keeping Putin in power at least until 2036. Most recent example is the Duma elections that just took place. Will this crackdown domestically affect or damage U.S.-Russia relations? GRAHAM: Thank you, Jill. Always a good question and always a difficult question to answer. You know, I think the issue here is the extent to which the Biden administration wants to make the domestic political situation in Russia a key item on its agenda with Russia over the next—over the next few years. You know, my impression from the conversations I've had with people in the administration—in and around the administration is that President Biden is not going to focus on this. You know, his focus really is going to be China, and what he wants to do is maintain something of a status quo in the relationship with Russia. You will notice that the second round of sanctions that the United States levied with regard to the poisoning of Alexei Navalny, something that was mandated by U.S. law, were actually quite mild—much less extreme, much less punitive than the legislation allowed—I think a signal that the Biden administration was not going to let domestic political issues in Russia overwhelm the agenda that the United States has, which is going to be focused on strategic stability, cyber issues, and so forth. So my immediate reaction is that the Duma election is really not going to have a dramatic impact on the state of the relationship between our two countries. We accept the fact that Russia is an authoritarian system. It is becoming more authoritarian. We will continue to try to find ways to support those elements of civil society we can, but always being careful not to do it in ways that causes the Russian government to crack down even harder on those individuals. This is a very sort of difficult needle to thread for the United States, but I think that's the way we'll go and you won't see this as a major impediment to the improvement of relations—which, as we all know, are at a very low level at this point in any event. FASKIANOS: Great. Thank you. Let's go next to Sujay Utkarsh. Q: Hi, yeah. Can you hear me? GRAHAM: Yes. FASKIANOS: Yes. Q: Awesome. So, regarding the issue about cyber warfare, I was wondering if you can go into more detail about what advantages the Russians have in cyberspace and what the United States can do to compete with those advantages. GRAHAM: A good question and a difficult question for people outside the government to answer, since we're not privy to all the information about Russian cyber capabilities nor are we privy to the information about American cyber capabilities. Both countries cloak those programs in a great deal of secrecy. You know, it seemed to me that one of the advantages that perhaps Russia has is that it's a much more closed society than the United States. Now, I'm thinking simply in terms of the way societies can be disrupted through cyberspace. We're a much more open society. It's easier to access our internet. We are—just as I mentioned before, we are a polarized society right now. That allows Russia many avenues into our domestic political system in order to exacerbate the tensions between various elements in our society. The United States can't reply in the same way in dealing with Russia. You know, second, Russia, in building its own internet, its own cyberspace, has paid much more attention to security than the United States has. So, you know, I would presume that its computer systems are somewhat harder to penetrate than American systems are at this point, although another factor to take into account here is that much of the initial effort in building up cyberspace—the Web, the computer networks—in Russia was built with American technology. You know, the Googles, the Intels, and others played an instrumental role in providing those types of—that type of equipment to the Russians. So I wouldn't exaggerate how much stronger they are there. And then, finally, I think what is probably one of the strengths, if you want to call it that, is that Russia is probably a little more risk-prone in using its cyber tools than the United States is at this point, in part because we think as a society we're more vulnerable. And that does give Russia a slight advantage. That said, this shouldn't be a problem that's beyond the capability of the United States to manage if we put our minds to it. We have done a lot more over the past several years. We are getting better at this. And I think we'll continue to improve in time and with the appropriate programs, the appropriate education of American society. FASKIANOS: Thank you. The next question is a written one from Kim-Leigh Tursi, a third-year undergraduate at Temple University. Where do you see Russia in relation to the rise of China, and how does that affect how the U.S. might approach foreign policy toward Russia? GRAHAM: Well, you know, that's an important question, obviously one that a lot of people have focused on recently. You know, Russia and China have developed a very close working strategic relationship over the—over the past several years, but I think we should note that the Russian effort to rebuild its relations with China go back to the late Soviet period to overcome the disadvantages that then the Soviet Union felt they had because of the poor relationship with China and the ability of the United States to exploit that relationship to Moscow's detriment. So relations have been improving for the past twenty-five, thirty years; obviously, a dramatic acceleration in that improvement after 2014 and the breakdown in relations between Russia and the West. Now, there are a number of reasons for this alignment at this point. One, the two countries do share at a very general level a basic view of for—a basic dislike of what they see as American ambitions to dominate the global—the global security and economic environment. They don't like what they consider to be American hegemonic goals. Second, the economies seem to be complementary at this point. Russia does have a wealth of natural resources that the Chinese need to fuel their robust economic growth. You have similar domestic political systems. And all of this, I think, is reinforced by what appears to be a very good personal relationship between President Putin and President Xi Jinping. These two leaders have met dozens of times over the past five to seven years and have maintained, I think, very robust contact even during the—during the pandemic. So there are very good strategic reasons why these two countries enjoy good relations. They are going to step those up in the near term. The Russians are continuing to provide the Chinese with significant sophisticated military equipment. They've also undertaken to help the Chinese build an early warning system for ballistic missiles, and when that's completed it will make China only the third country in the world to have such a system along with Russia and the United States. Now, I would argue that this strategic alignment does pose something of a challenge to the United States. If you look at American foreign policy or American foreign policy tradition, one of the principles that has guided the United States since the end of the nineteenth century, certainly throughout the twentieth century, was that we needed to prevent the—any hostile country or coalition of hostile countries from dominating areas of great strategic importance, principally Europe, East Asia, and more recently the Middle East. A Russian-Chinese strategic alignment certainly increases the chances of China dominating East Asia. Depending on how close that relationship grows, it also could have significant impact on Europe and the way Europe relates to this Russian-Chinese bloc, and therefore to the United States as a whole. So we should have an interest in trying to sort of attenuate the relationship between the two countries. At a minimum, we shouldn't be pursuing a set of policies that would push Russia closer to China. Second, I think we ought to try to normalize our diplomatic relationship with the Russians. Not that we're necessarily going to agree on a—on a range of issues at this point, but we need to give the Russians a sense that they have other strategic options than China going forward—something that would, I think, enhance their bargaining position with the Chinese going forward and would complicate China's own strategic calculus, which would be to our advantage. I think we also should play on Russia's concerns about strategic autonomy, this idea that Russia needs to be an independent great power on the global stage, that it doesn't want to be the junior partner or overly dependent on any one country as a way, again, of attenuating the tie with China. The one thing that I don't think we can do is drive a wedge between those two countries, in part because of the strategic reasons that I've mentioned already that bring these two countries together. And any very crude, I think, effort to do that will actually be counterproductive. Both Beijing and Moscow will see through that, quite clearly, and that will only lead to a closing of the ranks between those two countries, which as I said is a strategic challenge for the United States going forward. FASKIANOS: Thank you. I'm going to take the next question from Holli Semetko, who's at Emory University. Polarization is something we must overcome, as you said, but those of us working on social media have some evidence to suggest that social media has fostered political polarization in the U.S. Yuri Milner, a Russian Israeli entrepreneur, invested in an early round of Facebook funding with help from VTB, a Russian state-controlled bank, as well as his investment in Jared Kushner's real estate firm. What is the level of FDI from Russia in the U.S. and do you see it as a threat to national security? GRAHAM: Well, look, I mean, the actual level of Russian FDI in the United States is quite small. You know, you have some few, I think, good examples of it—the one that you've mentioned with Yuri Milner, for example. There was some investment in a steel factory some years ago. But by and large, there hasn't been a significant amount of Russian foreign direct investment in the United States. I think our growing concerns about Russia have made us even more leery of allowing Russian investment, particularly in sectors that we consider critical to American national security. So I'm not deeply concerned about that going forward. I think we probably face a much greater challenge from the Chinese in that regard. Of course, you've seen efforts by the United States to deal more harshly or look more closely at Chinese investment in the United States over the past several years. Let me just make one sort of final point on social media since it's come up. You know, Russia is a problem. We need to pay attention to Russia in that space. But again, I don't think that we should exaggerate Russia's influence, nor should we focus simply on Russia as the problem in this area. There is a major problem with disinformation in social media in the United States, much of that propagated by sources within the United States, but there are a host of other countries that also will try to affect U.S. public opinion through their intrusions into American social media. You know, given our concerns about First Amendment rights, freedom of speech and so forth, you know, I think we have problems in sort of really clamping down on this. But what we need to do, certainly, is better educate the American public about how to deal with the information that crosses their electronic devices day in and day out. Americans need to be aware of how they can be manipulated, and they need to understand and know where they can go to find reliable information. Again, given the political polarization in our country today, this is a very real challenge and difficult one. But I think if we think long term about this problem, the key really is educating the American public. An educated American public is going to be the best defense against foreign countries, other hostile forces trying to use social media to undermine our national unity and exacerbate the politics of our country. FASKIANOS: Thank you. I'm going to take the next question from Eoin Wilson-Manion, who's raised his hand. Q: Hello. Can you hear me now? GRAHAM: Yes. FASKIANOS: Yes. Q: Awesome. Well, thank you. I just wanted to ask if you could touch a little bit more on Russia's presence in Syria and what that means for U.S. interests in Syria and I guess the larger Middle East. I'm Eoin from Carnegie Mellon University. Thanks very much. GRAHAM: Well, you know, the Russians entered Syria in 2015 militarily largely to save Assad from what they thought was imminent overthrow by what they considered a radical Islamic force, a group of terrorists that they thought would challenge Russian interests not only in Syria but would fuel extremist forces inside Russia itself, particularly in the North Caucasus but farther afield than that—even into Moscow, into areas that were Muslim-dominated inside Russia itself. So they had very good national security reasons for going in. Those ran—I mean, the Russian presence in Syria clearly has run counter to what the United States was trying to do at that point since we clearly aligned against Assad in favor of what we considered moderate reformist forces that were seeking a more sort of democratic future for Syria as part of this broader Arab Spring at that time. So there was a clear conflict at that point. You know, subsequently and in parallel with its continued presence in Syria, the Russians have extended their diplomatic—their diplomatic effort to other countries in the region. Russia enjoys a fairly robust diplomatic relationship with Israel, for example, that has been grounded in counterterrorism cooperation, for example. They have a sort of strange relationship, largely positive, with Turkey that they have pursued over the past several years. We know of the ties that they've had in Tehran, in Iran for some time. They have reached out to the Saudis and the Saudis have bought some military equipment from them. We see them in Egypt and Libya, for example. So they're a growing presence, a growing diplomatic presence in the Middle East, and this does pose some problems for the United States. From the middle of the 1970s onward, one of the basic thrusts of American foreign policy was to limit the role the Russians played in the Middle East. We sidelined them in the negotiations between the Arabs and the Israelis in the 1970s and in the 1980s. We limited their diplomatic contacts to countries that we considered critical partners and allies in that part of the world. Now I think the geopolitical situation has changed. Our own interest in the Middle East has diminished over time, in part because of the fracking revolution here in the United States. Gas and oil, we've got close to being independent in that area. We're not as dependent on the Middle East as we once were for energy sources. And also, as, you know, the Biden administration has been clear, we do want to pivot away from the Middle East and Europe to focus more of our energies on what we see as the rising and continuing strategic challenge posed by China. So I think that means that going forward the United States is going to have to deal with Russia in a different fashion in the Middle East than in the past. We're going to have to recognize them as a continuing presence. We're not going to be able to push them out, in part because we're not prepared to devote the resources to it. We have countries that are still important to us—Saudi Arabia, Israel for example—that do want a Russian presence in the Middle East. And so what we ought to do, it seems to me, is to begin that discussion about how we're going to manage the rivalry in the Middle East. Now, it's not all simply competition. There are areas for cooperation. We can cooperate in dealing with Iran, for example, the Iran nuclear dossier, as we have had in the past. Neither country has an interest in Iran developing nuclear weapons. Second, I think the two countries also would like to see a Middle East that's not dominated by a single regional power. So despite the fact that the Russians have worked together quite closely with the Iranians in Syria, they don't share Iranian ambitions elsewhere in the Middle East. And if you look at the diplomatic ties that the Russians have nurtured over the past with Turkey, with Israel, Saudi Arabia for example, none of these are friends of Iran, to put it mildly. So we can talk, I think, to the Russians of how our—you know, we can conduct ourselves so as to foster the development of a regional equilibrium in the Middle East that tends to stabilize that region, makes it less of a threat to either country, less of a threat to America's European allies, and use this as a basis for, again, sort of not escalating the tension in the region but moderating it in some ways that works to the long-term advantage of the United States. FASKIANOS: Next question from Michael Strmiska, who's a professor at Orange County Community College in New York state. Do you see any hope of persuading Russia to abandon its occupation of Crimea in the near term? Or do you think this is like the occupation of the Baltic states of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia after World War II, where a very long timespan was needed before any liberation was realistically possible? GRAHAM: Well, I guess my answer to those two questions would be yes and no, or no and yes. On Crimea, you know, I see no sort of near-term scenario that would lead to the Russians agreeing to the return of Crimea to Ukraine. Quite the contrary, Russia has taken steps since 2014 they continue at this point to further integrate Crimea into the Russian Federation politically, economically, socially, and so forth. The Russians have also built up their military presence in Crimea as a way of enhancing their domination or their influence in the greater Black Sea region. So I see no set of circumstances that would change that, certainly not in the—in the near term. And I think, you know, the Ukrainian effort to focus attention on Crimea is not going to, in fact, gain a great deal of traction with Europe nor with the United States going forward, though we will maintain the principled position of not recognizing Russia's incorporation or annexation of Crimea. You know, I don't think that the Crimean and Baltic situations are necessarily analogous. You know, in the Baltic states there was a significant indigenous element, governments in exile, that supported the independence of those countries. There was a fulcrum that the United States or a lever that the United States could use over time to continue pressure on the Soviets that eventually led to the independence of those countries as the Soviet Union broke down and ultimately collapsed at the end of the 1980s into 1991. I don't see any significant indigenous element in Crimea nor a movement of inhabitants of Crimea outside Crimea that wants Crimea to be returned to Ukraine. I think we need to remember that a significant part of the population in Ukraine is Russian military, retired Russian military, that feels quite comfortable in—within the Russian Federation at this point. So if I were being quite frank about this, although I think the United States should maintain its principled position and not recognize annexation of Crimea, I don't see anything over the long term, barring the collapse of Russia itself, that will change that situation and see Ukraine (sic; Crimea) reincorporated into the Ukrainian state. FASKIANOS: So there are a couple questions in the chat about Russia's economy: What is their economy like today? And what are the effects of the sanctions? And from Steve Shinkel at the Naval War College: How do you assess the tie between Russia's economy and being able to continue to modernize its military and ensure a stable economy? And will economic factors and Russia's demographic challenges be a future constraining factor? So if you could— GRAHAM: Yeah. No, no, just take the economy. Obviously, a big issue, and it will be a constraining factor. I mean, the Russian economy is stagnating and it has for some—for some time. They enjoyed—the Russian economy enjoyed a very rapid period of growth during President Putin's first presidential—two presidential terms in the 2000s, but since the financial crisis of 2008 and 2009 Russia has run into very difficult economic times. In fact, it's never really recovered from that crisis. If you look at the past ten years, barely any growth in the Russian economy at all. If you look at the impact that that has had on Russians themselves, there's basically been no growth in real disposable income; rather, a decline over the past six or seven years. I think the Russians recognize that. The question is whether they can come up with a set of policies that actually will reverse that and that lead to a more robustly growing economy. Now, what the Kremlin has tried to do is not so much reform the economy—which I think is necessary if they're going to enjoy robust economic growth—as much as professionalize the economy; that is—that is, bring in a younger sort of cadre who are well educated, many of them educated in the West, who understand how modern economies function and can keep the economy stable at least at the macro level. And this is one of the reasons that Western sanctions have not had nearly the impact on Russian behavior that many had hoped for or anticipated back in 2014 when we began to turn repeatedly to this tool in response to Russian activities and operations against Ukraine. You know, it has had some impact. I think the IMF would say that it's probably taken a percentage point off—or, not a percentage point, but a tenth of a percentage point off of Russia's GDP growth over the past several years. That certainly hasn't been enough to change Russian behavior. But it hasn't been more, in fact, because the governors of the—of the central bank have dealt quite adeptly with that, and maintain said Russian macroeconomic stability and some sort of foundation for the economy to grow going forward. I imagine that's going to continue into the—into the future as well. So it is a constraining factor. Then I would end with what I—with a point that I made in my introduction. Russia does have a tremendous ability to mobilize its resources for state purposes, to extract what it needs from society at large to modernize the military, to maintain certainly Russia's defenses and also some capability to project power abroad. So I wouldn't write them off because of that. I think it's going—still going to be a serious power, but not nearly as great a challenge to the United States as if it, in fact, solved its demographic problems, its economic problems, and had a robustly growing economy, greater resources that it could devote to a whole range of things that would improve its standing on the global stage vis-à-vis the United States and vis-à-vis China. FASKIANOS: Well, with that we are at the end of our time. And I apologize to everybody. We had over twenty written questions still pending and raised hands. I'm sorry we couldn't get to all of you, but we do try to end on time. So, Thomas Graham, thank you very much for sharing your insights and analysis with us today. We appreciate it. And to all of you for your terrific questions and comments, we appreciate it. Our next Academic Webinar will be on Wednesday, October 6, at 1:00 p.m. Eastern Time. And we will focus on the Indo-Pacific with Dhruva Jaishankar, who is the executive director of the Observer Research Foundation America and nonresident fellow at the Lowy Institute. And in the meantime, I encourage you to follow CFR at @CFR_Academic and visit CFR.org, ForeignAffairs.com, and ThinkGlobalHealth.org for new research and analysis on global issues. So, Tom, thank you very much. GRAHAM: Thank you. Good luck to all of you. (END)
China has reacted angrily following this month's announcement of an alliance that will enable Australia to possess and deploy nuclear powered submarines in the region. Australia says the partnership with the USA and the UK, or Aukus, is not aimed at China. But most analysts agree that the initiative is hoping to counter Beijing's rapidly expanding naval capabilities. Chinese patrol boats have clashed with neighbouring vessels in disputed waters, home to billions of barrels of untapped oil and gas. The country has created artificial islands in the South China Sea and there are concerns it may use its growing amphibious capabilities to invade Taiwan. So how important is the Chinese navy to the country's overall strategic and economic plan? How does its expansion affect maritime disputes in East Asia and the safe passage of trillions of dollars worth of commodities each year? And is China right to accuse the West of a 'Cold War mentality' when it criticises the country's military investments? Ritula Shah is joined by a panel of experts. Producers: Junaid Ahmed and Paul Schuster
Matt Beyer has one of the most fascinating stories in the world of sports business in the past decade, and today we're lucky to have him as a guest! Here is an outline of some of the topics we discuss: ☑️ his first few trips to China ☑️ being a translator for NBA players ☑️ passing the CBA Agent License exam ☑️ overview of the Chinese Basketball Association ☑️ raising money and developing the EASL ☑️ the future of sports in the Asian markets If you have any interest in sports business, pro hoops, the Asian markets or entrepreneurship... you should probably have a listen! The East Asia Super League is ready to turn the world of Asian basketball on its head!
Season 3, Episode 2: ISD Director of Programs and Research Kelly McFarland talks to scholars of U.S. foreign policy Emma Ashford from the Atlantic Council and Charles Edel from the Wilson Center. Emma and Charlie debate some of the key questions in U.S. foreign policy on relations with China, Russia, and climate change, and the role of historical analogies in that process. Featured articles and books: Charles Edel, Lessons of Tragedy: Statecraft and World Order (Yale University Press, 2019) Ernest May, "Lessons" of the Past: The Use and Misuse of History in American Foreign Policy (Oxford University Press, 1973) Emma Ashford, "Strategies of Restraint," Foreign Affairs, September/October 2021 Joshua Shifrinson and Stephen Wertheim, "Biden the Realist," Foreign Affairs, September 9, 2021 Andrew S. Erickson and Gabriel Collins, "Competition With China Can Save the Planet," Foreign Affairs, May/June 2021 David Kang and Xinru Ma, "Power Transitions: Thucydides Didn't Live in East Asia," The Washington Quarterly, Volume 41, 2018 - Issue 1 Episode recorded: Friday, September 10th, 2021. Episode image: Deputy Secretary Sherman Meets with People's Republic of China Appointed Ambassador to the U.S. Qin Gang at the U.S. Department of State in Washington, D.C. on August 12, 2021 [State Department photo/Public Domain]. Diplomatic Immunity: Frank and candid conversations about diplomacy and foreign affairs Diplomatic Immunity, a podcast from the Institute for the Study of Diplomacy at Georgetown University, brings you frank and candid conversations with experts on the issues facing diplomats and national security decision-makers around the world. For more, visit our website, and follow us on Twitter @GUDiplomacy. Send any feedback to firstname.lastname@example.org.
How did Russian imperial ambitions and expansionism eastward change over time?Joining me on this episode is Chris Miller, author of We Shall Be Masters: Russian Pivots to East Asia from Peter the Great to Putin. Chris is a history professor at the Fletcher School and Eurasia Director at the Foreign Policy Research Institute.Cohosting is independent researcher, journalist and fellow at the Wilson Center's Kennan Institute Kamil Galeev. Reach out to him on twitter if you have a place for him to live in DC!We also look at:How the fur trade spurred Russian interest in Alaska, California and HawaiiRussia, the Kuomintang and the Communist PartyWhy Xinjiang didn't end up like MongoliaChairman Mao's new shoesOuttro music: Kamil's suggestion of what he tells me was a Soviet anti-Japanese war song (it slaps) Три танкиста (three tank men) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kp22_BHJDJk Get bonus content on Patreon See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
How did Russian imperial ambitions and expansionism eastward change over time?Joining me on this episode is Chris Miller, author of We Shall Be Masters: Russian Pivots to East Asia from Peter the Great to Putin. Chris is a history professor at the Fletcher School and Eurasia Director at the Foreign Policy Research Institute.Cohosting is independent researcher, journalist and fellow at the Wilson Center's Kennan Institute Kamil Galeev. Reach out to him on twitter if you have a place for him to live in DC!We also look at:How the fur trade spurred Russian interest in Alaska, California and HawaiiRussia, the Kuomintang and the Communist PartyWhy Xinjiang didn't end up like MongoliaChairman Mao's new shoesOuttro music: Kamil's suggestion of what he tells me was a Soviet anti-Japanese war song (it slaps) Три танкиста (three tank men) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kp22_BHJDJk Get bonus content on Patreon See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
Some things aren't always what they seem. Greg Williams and Brian Marren teach people what they need to know about human behavior, pattern recognition, and analysis. They stick to the basics about how we are wired. We repeat patterns. How do I leave my house and read what's not normal? There has to be an explanation. Find out today how to be more aware of the lurkers. Better Call Daddy: The Safe Space For Controversy. Greg Williams is the President and Founder of Arcadia Cognerati, a consulting firm specializing in assessing, developing, and conducting training and education to address urgent safety and security needs in some of the most challenging environments on the planet. Prior to starting his own company, Greg was the former Director of Human Behavior Pattern Recognition & Analysis / Irregular Warfare for Orbis Operations in McLean, Virginia. Previous to that, Greg was the Director, Human Behavior Pattern Recognition & Analysis / Irregular Warfare for Cubic Applications in San Diego, California USA. Greg is a decorated, veteran urban law enforcement professional and a decorated, veteran former soldier with over 30 years of combined experience and expertise. He is an adjunct professor of Sociology and has done work for Western State University, San Diego State University and the University of Southern California as well as USC's Institute for Creative Technology. Greg is an industry expert in Irregular Warfare for the Defense Community. Greg has worked with the Drug Enforcement Administrations (DEA) Mobile Enforcement Team (MET) and the 5th Judicial District's Drug Task Force and Shooting Task Force in Colorado. Greg has held virtually every law enforcement position from patrol officer, shift supervisor, SWAT director, undercover Narcotics operations supervisor, Undersheriff and Interim Chief of Police. Greg has a US Department of Defense (DoD) Top Secret security clearance and has worked as a subject matter expert, contractor or consultant for many US DoD Agencies including the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, the Center for Emerging Threats and Opportunities (CETO), Joint Forces Command (JFCOM), Joint IED Defeat Organization (JIEDDO) and the US Marine Corps Special Operations Training Group (SOTG) to name but a few. Outside of the USA, Greg has worked with NATO Commands including Strategic Allied Command Transformation (Four Star Command), the Hungarian Defence Forces and the NATO Maritime Interdiction Operational Training Center (NMIOTC). Greg has done work for the Ministry of Defense of Iraq, Afghanistan and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Greg has been a subject matter expert (SME) for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) as well as for the future immersive training environment joint capability training demonstration (FITE JCTD). Greg has trained every Tier One military force in the United States and much of the world. Greg has trained the DEA, FBI, ATF, CIA, DIA, and the US Department of Homeland Security, US Border Patrol, US Border Patrol Tactical Unit (BORTAC), US Border Patrol Search, Trauma, and Rescue team (BORSTAR), US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and many other agencies tasked with the protection of US Citizens domestically and abroad. Greg Williams created Combat Profiling and the Combat Profiling Program of Instruction (POI) and the USJFCOMs highly successful Border Hunter Program of Instruction (POI). Greg Williams was the architect of the world-renowned US Marine Corps' highly successful and lifesaving Combat Hunter program. In addition to the Combat Hunter program of instruction (POI); Greg Williams was instrumental in designing and refining the USMCs' Lioness and Law Enforcement Professionals programs for combat zones. Greg has developed programs for Private Security Firms, Delta Air Lines, numerous school systems, First Responders and Law Enforcement agencies. Greg has lectured at Universities in Michigan, Ohio, Florida, Colorado and California. Greg was the co-author on two white papers for scientific journals. Greg has multi-conflict, full spectrum operational experience with conventional and special operations forces, law enforcement professionals, and other government agencies. The Commander of the United States Central Command (CENTCOM) General James Mattis referred to Greg Williams as “a National treasure”. Brian Marren is a decorated Marine, High Threat Protection security professional and Subject Matter Expert on Human Behavior Pattern Recognition & Analysis. He has spent the last eighteen years conducting both real world and training operations all over the United States, the Middle East and both Central and East Asia. Brian is a highly experienced, highly motivated professional that has the ability to adapt to any environment whether he is on the battlefield, in a classroom or at a board meeting. While in the Marine Corps, Brian served as a Marine Scout/Sniper with multiple combat deployments to the Al Anbar Province of Iraq during the height of counterinsurgency operations. As a Team Leader, he successfully led hundreds of both combat and training missions. During this time, Brian was meritoriously promoted ahead of his peers on three separate occasions due to his leadership capability and overall professionalism. After being honorably discharged from the Marine Corps, Brian was hired by Cubic Applications to be a Tactics Analyst at the newly constructed Infantry Immersive Trainer (IIT) aboard Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton. During his time at the IIT Brian trained and advised thousands of Marines on how to make better tactical decisions during highly complex and chaotic live fire training exercises. Under his guidance, thousands of Marines became more adaptable and better at sense making during highly stressful situations. While working as an instructor, Brian assisted with a number of scientific studies conducted by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and Pacific Science and Engineering (PSE) in order to help determine the efficacy of the Infantry Immersive Trainer and the Marine Corps Combat Hunter program. Brian also worked as a security contractor for the U.S. State Department High Threat Protection program. During this time, he was responsible for personally protecting hundreds of U.S. Government personnel in multiple high threat environments including Iraq and Afghanistan. Brian performed all major duties of a security detail to include leading numerous small teams on highly sensitive protection operations. Brian has trained and advised numerous Tier One military units, conventional forces, and private sector clients on the art and science of Human Behavior Pattern Recognition & Analysis. Brian has also trained and advised hundreds of Law Enforcement Professionals to include US Border Patrol, DEA, ICE, TSA, US Marshals and other federal, state and local law enforcement agencies. Currently, Brian serves as the Vice President of Operations for Arcadia Cognerati, a service provider specializing in assessing, developing and conducting training and education to addressurgent safety and security needs in some of the most challenging environments in the world. Brian continues to serve the veteran community as an Ambassador for Carry The Load. Brian holds a Masters of Science in Applied Psychology from the University of Southern California and a Bachelors of Science in Political Science from Arizona State University. The Left Of Greg Podcast https://linktr.ee/Left_Of_Greg Me and my daddy would love to hear from you! ratethispodcast.com/bettercalldaddy
It's the Foreign Influence Podcast, with American Bill Poorman and Dutchman Nikolaj Groeneweg taking you on a humorously serious and seriously humorous romp through international events. This time: • Searching for good news, we find a country that has achieved top-level vaccination rates. Only to not open up again! • Learning to live with covid. • Afghanistan is bad, but don't lose sight of how bad it could get in East Asia. • For crying out loud, we needed more good news. Your computer might - maybe, just maybe - be making you a bit richer on paper! Thanks for listening!
Abdul Karim Hanif, Rania Saadi, and Ahmad Dawud speak to Polly Michelle Cunanan, Regional Communications Manager at Southeast & East Asia and Pacific (SEEAP Project,) about the impact the pandemic had on children's mental health and how to deal with it. Listen to #Pulse95Radio in the UAE by tuning in on your radio (95.00 FM) or online on our website: www.pulse95radio.com ************************ Follow us on Social. www.facebook.com/pulse95radio www.twitter.com/pulse95radio www.instagram.com/pulse95radio
In the late nineteenth century, as much of the world adopted some variant of the gold standard, China remained the most populous country still using silver. Yet China had no unified national currency; there was not one monetary standard but many. Silver coins circulated alongside chunks of silver and every transaction became an "encounter of wits." China and the End of Global Silver, 1873–1937 (Cornell UP, 2020) focuses on how officials, policy makers, bankers, merchants, academics, and journalists in China and around the world answered a simple question: how should China change its monetary system? Far from a narrow, technical issue, Chinese monetary reform is a dramatic story full of political revolutions, economic depressions, chance, and contingency. As different governments in China attempted to create a unified monetary standard in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, the United States, England, and Japan tried to shape the direction of Chinese monetary reform for their own benefit. Austin Dean argues convincingly that the Silver Era in world history ended owing to the interaction of imperial competition in East Asia and the state-building projects of different governments in China. When the Nationalist government of China went off the silver standard in 1935, it marked a key moment not just in Chinese history but in world history. Austin Dean is Assistant Professor of History at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. His work has appeared in Modern China and the Journal of American-East Asian Relations. He is on twitter @thelicentiate. Ghassan Moazzin is an Assistant Professor at the Hong Kong Institute for the Humanities and Social Sciences and the Department of History at the University of Hong Kong. He works on the economic and business history of 19th and 20th century China, with a particular focus on the history of foreign banking, international finance and electricity in modern China. His first book, tentatively titled Foreign Banks and Global Finance in Modern China: Banking on the Chinese Frontier, 1870–1919, is forthcoming with Cambridge University Press. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/east-asian-studies
In the late nineteenth century, as much of the world adopted some variant of the gold standard, China remained the most populous country still using silver. Yet China had no unified national currency; there was not one monetary standard but many. Silver coins circulated alongside chunks of silver and every transaction became an "encounter of wits." China and the End of Global Silver, 1873–1937 (Cornell UP, 2020) focuses on how officials, policy makers, bankers, merchants, academics, and journalists in China and around the world answered a simple question: how should China change its monetary system? Far from a narrow, technical issue, Chinese monetary reform is a dramatic story full of political revolutions, economic depressions, chance, and contingency. As different governments in China attempted to create a unified monetary standard in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, the United States, England, and Japan tried to shape the direction of Chinese monetary reform for their own benefit. Austin Dean argues convincingly that the Silver Era in world history ended owing to the interaction of imperial competition in East Asia and the state-building projects of different governments in China. When the Nationalist government of China went off the silver standard in 1935, it marked a key moment not just in Chinese history but in world history. Austin Dean is Assistant Professor of History at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. His work has appeared in Modern China and the Journal of American-East Asian Relations. He is on twitter @thelicentiate. Ghassan Moazzin is an Assistant Professor at the Hong Kong Institute for the Humanities and Social Sciences and the Department of History at the University of Hong Kong. He works on the economic and business history of 19th and 20th century China, with a particular focus on the history of foreign banking, international finance and electricity in modern China. His first book, tentatively titled Foreign Banks and Global Finance in Modern China: Banking on the Chinese Frontier, 1870–1919, is forthcoming with Cambridge University Press. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/new-books-network
In the late nineteenth century, as much of the world adopted some variant of the gold standard, China remained the most populous country still using silver. Yet China had no unified national currency; there was not one monetary standard but many. Silver coins circulated alongside chunks of silver and every transaction became an "encounter of wits." China and the End of Global Silver, 1873–1937 (Cornell UP, 2020) focuses on how officials, policy makers, bankers, merchants, academics, and journalists in China and around the world answered a simple question: how should China change its monetary system? Far from a narrow, technical issue, Chinese monetary reform is a dramatic story full of political revolutions, economic depressions, chance, and contingency. As different governments in China attempted to create a unified monetary standard in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, the United States, England, and Japan tried to shape the direction of Chinese monetary reform for their own benefit. Austin Dean argues convincingly that the Silver Era in world history ended owing to the interaction of imperial competition in East Asia and the state-building projects of different governments in China. When the Nationalist government of China went off the silver standard in 1935, it marked a key moment not just in Chinese history but in world history. Austin Dean is Assistant Professor of History at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. His work has appeared in Modern China and the Journal of American-East Asian Relations. He is on twitter @thelicentiate. Ghassan Moazzin is an Assistant Professor at the Hong Kong Institute for the Humanities and Social Sciences and the Department of History at the University of Hong Kong. He works on the economic and business history of 19th and 20th century China, with a particular focus on the history of foreign banking, international finance and electricity in modern China. His first book, tentatively titled Foreign Banks and Global Finance in Modern China: Banking on the Chinese Frontier, 1870–1919, is forthcoming with Cambridge University Press. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/history
In the late nineteenth century, as much of the world adopted some variant of the gold standard, China remained the most populous country still using silver. Yet China had no unified national currency; there was not one monetary standard but many. Silver coins circulated alongside chunks of silver and every transaction became an "encounter of wits." China and the End of Global Silver, 1873–1937 (Cornell UP, 2020) focuses on how officials, policy makers, bankers, merchants, academics, and journalists in China and around the world answered a simple question: how should China change its monetary system? Far from a narrow, technical issue, Chinese monetary reform is a dramatic story full of political revolutions, economic depressions, chance, and contingency. As different governments in China attempted to create a unified monetary standard in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, the United States, England, and Japan tried to shape the direction of Chinese monetary reform for their own benefit. Austin Dean argues convincingly that the Silver Era in world history ended owing to the interaction of imperial competition in East Asia and the state-building projects of different governments in China. When the Nationalist government of China went off the silver standard in 1935, it marked a key moment not just in Chinese history but in world history. Austin Dean is Assistant Professor of History at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. His work has appeared in Modern China and the Journal of American-East Asian Relations. He is on twitter @thelicentiate. Ghassan Moazzin is an Assistant Professor at the Hong Kong Institute for the Humanities and Social Sciences and the Department of History at the University of Hong Kong. He works on the economic and business history of 19th and 20th century China, with a particular focus on the history of foreign banking, international finance and electricity in modern China. His first book, tentatively titled Foreign Banks and Global Finance in Modern China: Banking on the Chinese Frontier, 1870–1919, is forthcoming with Cambridge University Press. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/world-affairs
Greg Williams is a decorated, veteran urban law enforcement professional and a decorated, veteran former soldier with over 45 years of combined experience and expertise. An adjunct professor of Sociology and an industry expert in human behavior pattern recognition and irregular Warfare for the Defense Community, Greg held virtually every law enforcement position from patrol officer, shift supervisor, SWAT director, undercover Narcotics operations supervisor, Undersheriff and Interim Chief of Police. He has worked with the DEA's Mobile Enforcement Team (MET), the 5th Judicial District's Drug Task Force, Shooting Task Force and has worked RICO racketeering influenced corrupt organizations cases and OCDETF Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force cases. Greg maintained a US Department of Defense (DoD) Top Secret security clearance and worked as a subject matter expert, contractor or consultant for many US DoD Agencies including the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, the Center for Emerging Threats and Opportunities (CETO), Joint Forces Command (JFCOM), Joint IED Defeat Organization (JIEDDO) and the US Marine Corps Special Operations Training Group (SOTG). Outside of the USA, Greg has worked with NATO Commands including Strategic Allied Command Transformation (Four Star Command), the Hungarian Defence Forces and the NATO Maritime Interdiction Operational Training Center (NMIOTC). Greg built a number of highly successful programs for the DoD including Combat Hunter, Border Hunter, Advanced Situational Awareness training and their progeny, including programs targeting suicide and sexual harassment and assault. Brian Marren is the Senior Vice President of Operations for Arcadia Cognerati. Brian is a decorated Marine, High Threat Protection security professional, and Subject Matter Expert on Human Behavior Pattern Recognition & Analysis. Brian has spent the last eighteen years conducting both real world and training operations all over the United States, the Middle East, and both Central and East Asia supporting the U.S. Military, foreign partners, private industry, and local, state and federal agencies. Brian holds a Masters in Applied Psychology from the University of Southern California and he is an ambassador for Carry The Load, a non-profit organization that provides an active way to connect Americans to the sacrifices made by our military, veterans, first responders and their families.
In this episode of the ChinaPower Podcast, Dr. M. Taylor Fravel joins us to discuss whether China has become more militarily assertive toward its neighbors during the pandemic. Dr. Fravel argues that, although some expected the People's Liberation Army (PLA) to halt or reduce its activity during the Covid-19 pandemic, the level of Chinese assertiveness seen prior to the pandemic has continued during the pandemic. He adds that the PLA's ability to dispatch medical teams within China during the pandemic while maintaining its pace of operations in regional disputes shows that China is reaping the rewards of two decades of PLA modernization. Lastly, Dr. Fravel describes the benefits of increasing US collaboration with countries on the front lines of Chinese disputes. Dr. Fravel is the Arthur and Ruth Sloan Professor of Political Science and Director of the Security Studies Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Fravel studies international relations, with a focus on international security, China, and East Asia. His books include, Strong Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in China's Territorial Disputes, (Princeton University Press, 2008) and Active Defense: China's Military Strategy Since 1949 (Princeton University Press, 2019). His other publications have appeared in International Security, Foreign Affairs, Security Studies, International Studies Review, The China Quarterly, The Washington Quarterly, Journal of Strategic Studies, Armed Forces & Society, Current History, Asian Survey, Asian Security, China Leadership Monitor, and Contemporary Southeast Asia.
A young man claiming responsibility for the T-Mobile breach talks to the Wall Street Journal. A new cyberespionage group, “SparklingGoblin,” seems particularly interested in educational institutions, especially in Southeast and East Asia. Are governments training AI with stolen data? Mitigations for Microsoft issues. Cellebrite tools may still be available to Chinese police. Kevin Magee from Microsoft wonders if leaders have over pivoted toward technical skill. Our guest is Bill Wright of Splunk on the ongoing geopolitical ransomware trend. And another ransomware gang says it's going out of business...we'll wait and see. For links to all of today's stories check out our CyberWire daily news briefing: https://www.thecyberwire.com/newsletters/daily-briefing/10/166
A berry vine found in Asia proves useful in combating lung cancer Okayama University (Japan), August 17, 2021 Lung cancer is known to be the most fatal form of cancer. Chemicals like 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) found in tobacco are usually the main culprits behind smoking-related lung cancer causing cancer biologists to actively explore targeted treatments. Now, a research group led by Associate Professor ARIMOTO-KOBAYASHI Sakae at Okayama University has reported the potential of a berry-producing vine, Vitis coignetiae Pulliat (colloquially known as Yamabudo in Japan), against lung cancer in mice. The team has previously shown that juice extracted from the Yamabudo fruit and 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DBQ), a chemical found within it, have protective effects against skin cancer. Thus, in this study the potential of both these chemicals was investigated. Mice were first treated with NNK to establish lung cancer models and tumors that subsequently developed within their lungs were assessed. After 30 weeks, mice given Yamabudo juice or DBQ showed greatly reduced tumor size. To understand the mechanism of Yamabudo further, human lung cancer cells were employed. NNK induces cancer by facilitating a chemical change in the DNA structure, known as DNA methylation. To mimic this process, cells were exposed to MNNG (a chemical that artificially induces DNA methylation) and the effects of Yamabudo were studied. Indeed, cells that were treated with Yamabudo juice or DBQ showed lower levels of DNA methylation. The DNA methylation induced by NNK also plays a role in mutating the DNA, making all exposed cells susceptible to cancer. The methylated forms of DNA tend to form large complexes which can undergo damage more easily. Therefore, NNK-induced mutations were analyzed next to see if Yamabudo also plays a protective role in this regard. The number of NNK-induced mutations was, in fact, found to be considerably reduced by Yamabudo juice or DBQ. Yamabudo thus mitigated lung cancer by repairing the DNA damage caused by toxins. Lastly, the team also assessed biological pathways which typically help cancer cells proliferate. While all such pathways were active in the lung cancer cells, treatment with Yamabudo showed a dampening of these cancer-facilitating signals. “Stimulation of repair of alkyl DNA adducts and suppressed growth signaling pathways are potential anti-tumorigenic targets of Yamabudo juice and DBQ in NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis,” conclude the researchers. Given the broad range of tumor-suppressing properties Yamabudo displays, it is one herbal medicine that should be explored further in lung cancer research. Background Yamabudo: Vitis coignetiae Pulliat, also known as crimson glory vine or “Yamabudo” in Japan, is a berry-producing vine that grows primarily in East Asia. The juice extracted from Yamabudo berries comprises several chemical compounds that have medicinal properties. While its protective properties against skin cancer have briefly been shown before, this is the first study that explores the potential of Yamabudo in lung cancer. DNA methylation: DNA methylation is a natural chemical process intended to regulate proper functioning of our genes. A chemical group known as the “methyl” group is usually bound onto specific regions of the DNA as a mechanism to prevent genes from being turned on when not in use. However, certain toxins and other external factors can also induce DNA methylation which sometimes prevents important genes (such as those that suppress cancer) from being active. Unfortunately, the methylated forms of DNA are passed on when cells replicate. DNA methylation thereby also abets the spread of cancer. Controlling DNA methylation is an important strategy in keeping certain cancers in check. Vitamin D may protect against young-onset colorectal cancer Dana Farber Cancer Institute, August 17, 2021 Consuming higher amounts of Vitamin D – mainly from dietary sources – may help protect against developing young-onset colorectal cancer or precancerous colon polyps, according to the first study to show such an association. The study, recently published online in the journal Gastroenterology, by scientists from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, and other institutions, could potentially lead to recommendations for higher vitamin D intake as an inexpensive complement to screening tests as a colorectal cancer prevention strategy for adults younger than age 50. While the overall incidence of colorectal cancer has been declining, cases have been increasing in younger adults – a worrisome trend that has yet to be explained. The authors of the study, including senior co-authors Kimmie Ng, MD, MPH, of Dana-Farber, and Edward Giovannucci, MD, DSc., of the T.H. Chan School, noted that vitamin D intake from food sources such as fish, mushrooms, eggs, and milk has decreased in the past several decades. There is growing evidence of an association between vitamin D and risk of colorectal cancer mortality. However, prior to the current study, no research has examined whether total vitamin D intake is associated with the risk of young-onset colorectal cancer. “Vitamin D has known activity against colorectal cancer in laboratory studies. Because vitamin D deficiency has been steadily increasing over the past few years, we wondered whether this could be contributing to the rising rates of colorectal cancer in young individuals,” said Ng, director of the Young-Onset Colorectal Cancer Center at Dana-Farber. “We found that total vitamin D intake of 300 IU per day or more – roughly equivalent to three 8-oz. glasses of milk – was associated with an approximately 50% lower risk of developing young-onset colorectal cancer.” The results of the study were obtained by calculating the total vitamin D intake – both from dietary sources and supplements – of 94,205 women participating in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II). This study is a prospective cohort study of nurses aged 25 to 42 years that began in 1989. The women are followed every two years by questionnaires on demographics, diet and lifestyle factors, and medical and other health-related information. The researchers focused on a primary endpoint – young-onset colorectal cancer, diagnosed before 50 years of age. They also asked on a follow-up questionnaire whether they had had a colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy where colorectal polyps (which may be precursors to colorectal cancer) were found. During the period from 1991 to 2015 the researchers documented 111 cases of young-onset colorectal cancer and 3,317 colorectal polyps. Analysis showed that higher total vitamin D intake was associated with a significantly reduced risk of early-onset colorectal cancer. The same link was found between higher vitamin D intake and risk of colon polyps detected before age 50. The association was stronger for dietary vitamin D – principally from dairy products – than from vitamin D supplements. The study authors said that finding could be due to chance or to unknown factors that are not yet understood. Interestingly, the researchers didn't find a significant association between total vitamin D intake and risk of colorectal cancer diagnosed after age 50. The findings were not able to explain this inconsistency, and the scientists said further research in a larger sample is necessary to determine if the protective effect of vitamin D is actually stronger in young-onset colorectal cancer. In any case, the investigators concluded that higher total vitamin D intake is associated with decreased risks of young-onset colorectal cancer and precursors (polyps). “Our results further support that vitamin D may be important in younger adults for health and possibly colorectal cancer prevention,” said Ng. “It is critical to understand the risk factors that are associated with young-onset colorectal cancer so that we can make informed recommendations about diet and lifestyle, as well as identify high risk individuals to target for earlier screening.” The study was funded by grants from the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the Department of Defense; by the American Cancer Society Mentored Research Scholar Grant; and by the Project P Fund. Ng's disclosures include research funding from Pharmavite, Revolution Medicines, Janssen, and Evergrande Group; Advisory boards for Array Biopharma, Seattle Genetics, and BiomX; and consulting for X-Biotix Therapeutics. Lack of exercise and poor nutrition could increase the risk of diseases like dementia Kings College London, August 17, 2021 New research from the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience (IoPPN) at King's College London has found that both diet and exercise can influence the risk of cognitive decline (CD) and dementia by potentially influencing hippocampal neurogenesis (the process by which the brain produces new brain cells) long before their onset. The study, published in Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association, suggests that altered neurogenesis in the brain could potentially represent an early biomarker for both CD and dementia. The investigation studied how the blood of participants with and without CD and dementia could influence hippocampal neurogenesis in laboratory settings and whether diet and exercise were important factors. Specifically, blood samples of 418 French adults over the age of 65 were collected 12-years prior to CD and dementia diagnosis and tested on human hippocampal stems cells. Additionally, information on each participant's sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical data were collected and incidence cognition status and dementia were measured every 2 to 3 years over a 12-year period. Over the course of the study, the researchers established that 12 years prior to diagnosis, both CD and Alzheimer's were associated with levels of neural stem cell death. The team also found that exercise, nutrition, vitamin D levels, carotenoid and lipid levels are all associated with the rate at which cells die off. Furthermore, physical activity and nutrition were key factors that then also determined CD status. Specifically, researchers found that reduced physical activity and increased malnutrition both increased cell death which in turn increased the risk for future CD. While previous studies have established that diet and exercise have some protective effects against CD and dementia, these roles have been poorly understood at the neurobiological level. To date, studies on animals have shown how diet and exercise can directly influence hippocampal neurogenesis, potentially explaining how exercise and diet may biologically exert their effects, but this study sheds further light on this in the context of a human model. Doctor Sandrine Thuret, the study's lead investigator from King's IoPPN said “Our study has demonstrated not only that there are individual markers of hippocampal neurogenesis associated with CD and dementia 12 years later, but also that there is some degree of specificity with respect to diagnoses of dementia subtypes. “Specifically, if an individual displays an increase in their levels of cell death during differentiation (when neural stem cells are becoming neurons), we can look at this as a potential warning sign of CD. Conversely, a decrease in levels of cell death during proliferation (the process by which a single cell divides into a pair) and reduced hippocampal progenitor cell integrity could be viewed as a predictor for Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular dementia, respectively.” According to Alzheimer's Research UK, there were a total of 525,315 people living with a dementia diagnosis in the UK in 2020. Rates of cognitive decline and dementia are expected to triple in prevalence by 2040. Dr Andrea du Preez, the study's first author from King's IoPPN said, “While more work is undoubtedly needed to fully understand how diet and exercise might modulate hippocampal neurogenesis, our findings may represent an effective early preventative strategy against CD and dementia.” Acupuncture improves symptoms of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome compared to sham treatment China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, August 17, 2021 A multicenter randomized trial showed that 20 sessions of acupuncture over 8 weeks resulted in greater improvement in symptoms of moderate to severe chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) compared with sham therapy. Treatment effects endured over 24 weeks follow up. The findings are published in Annals of Internal Medicine. CP/CPPS manifests discomfort or pain in the pelvic region for at least 3 of the previous 6 months without evidence of infection. Lower urinary tract symptoms, psychological issues, and sexual dysfunction may also be involved. Men with CP/CPPS may have a poor quality of life due to the many neuropsychophysiologic pathophysiology factors associated with the disorder, such as inflammation in the prostate, anxiety and stress, and dyssynergic voiding. Antibiotics, a-blockers, and anti-inflammatories are the mainstays of treatment in clinical practice, but they have limited effectiveness and are associated with adverse events with long-term use. Acupuncture has shown promise as an alternative treatment, but high-quality evidence is scarce. Researchers from the China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences randomly assigned 440 male participants (220 in each group) to either 8 weeks of acupuncture or sham therapy to assess the long-term efficacy of acupuncture for improving symptoms of CP/CPPS. The treatment was considered effective if participants achieved a clinically important reduction of at least 6 points from baseline on the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index at weeks 8 and 32. Ascertainment of sustained efficacy required the between-group difference to be statistically significant at both time points. The researchers found that compared with the sham acupuncture group, larger proportions of participants in the acupuncture group reported marked or moderate improvements in symptoms at all assessment points. No significant difference was found in changes in International Index of Erectile Function 5 score at all assessment time points or in peak and average urinary flow rates at week 8. No serious adverse events were reported in either group. According to the researchers, these findings show long-term efficacy of acupuncture and provide high-quality evidence for clinical practice and guideline recommendations. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) decreases amyloid beta-induced neurotoxicity by decreasing neuroinflammation through regulation of microglial polarization Yunnan University (CHina), August 16, 2021 According to news reporting originating in Yunnan, People's Republic of China, research stated, “Although the cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still controversial, it is generally accepted that neuroinflammation plays a key role in AD pathogenesis. Thus, regulating the polarization of microglia will help in recovering from AD since microglia can be polarized into classical M1 and alternative M2 phenotypes, M1 microglia leading to neuroinflammation and M2 microglia acting as anti-inflammatory effectors.” Financial support for this research came from National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC). The news reporters obtained a quote from the research from Yunnan University, “Our previous study demonstrated that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, may modulate glial cell activity and functions, but it is not clear whether EPA plays a role in microglial polarization. Here, we aimed to test the hypothesis that EPA may regulate the polarization of microglia and subsequently alleviate neuroinflammation and neuronal damage. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed an EPA -supplemented diet or a palm oil -supplemented diet for 42 days. On day 28 of diet feeding, the mice received a single intracerebroventricular injection of beta-peptide fragment 1-42(A beta(1-42)) or saline. The polarization of M1 and M2 microglia was evaluated by western blot using the respective markers. Changes in inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels were examined using real-time PCR. Neurological deficits were analysed using the Morris water maze and TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assays. EPA supplementation effectively reversed the increasing trend of M1 microglial markers and the decreased expression of M2 microglial markers in the hippocampus mediated by A beta(1-42) and normalized the A beta-induced upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and the downregulation of anti-inflammatory factors. Consistent with these findings, EPA significantly improved cognitive function and inhibited apoptotic neuronal death in the hippocampus.” According to the news reporters, the research concluded: “These results demonstrated that EPA appears to have potential effects on regulating microglial polarization, which contributes to alleviating neuroinflammation and may have beneficial effects for preventing and treating AD.” This research has been peer-reviewed. Yoga and meditation improve mind-body health and stress resilience University of Southern California August 19, 2021 Many people report positive health effects from practicing yoga and meditation, and experience both mental and physical benefits from these practices. However, we still have much to learn about how exactly these practices affect mind-body health. A new research article published in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience investigates the effects of yoga and meditation on brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the activity on the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) effects and inflammatory markers. By studying the participants of an intensive 3-month yoga and meditation retreat, the researchers found that the practices positively impacted BDNF signaling, the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and immunological markers, and in addition improved subjective wellbeing. In this study, the retreat participants were assessed before and after participating in a 3-month yoga and meditation retreat that involved daily meditation and Isha yoga, accompanied by a vegetarian diet. The yogic practices consisted of physical postures, controlled breathing practices, and seated meditations during which the participants focused on mantra repetition, breath, emptying the mind and bodily sensation. The researchers measured psychometric measures, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), circadian salivary cortisol levels, as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. They also collected data on psychometric variables including mindfulness, absorption, depression and anxiety, and investigated the relationship between psychological improvements and biological changes. The data showed that participation in the retreat was associated with decreases in both self-reported anxiety and depression as well as increases in mindfulness. The research team observed increases in the plasma levels of BDNF, a neuromodulator that plays an important role in learning, memory and the regulation of complex processes such as inflammation, immunity, mood regulation, stress response and metabolism. They also observed increases in the magnitude of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) which is part of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA), suggesting improved stress resilience. Moreover, there was a decrease in inflammatory processes caused by an increase of the anti-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-10 and a reduction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-12 after the retreat. "It is likely that at least some of the significant improvements in both HPA axis functioning as exemplified by the CAR as well as neuroimmunologic functioning as exemplified by increases in BDNF levels and alterations in cytokines were due to the intensive meditation practice involved in this retreat," says corresponding author Dr Baruch Rael Cahn (University of Southern California, USA). The research team hypothesize that the pattern of biological findings observed in their study is linked to enhanced resilience and wellbeing. "The observed increased BDNF signaling possibly related to enhanced neurogenesis and/or neuroplasticity, increased CAR likely related to enhanced alertness and readiness for mind-body engagement, and increased anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines possibly indicating enhanced immunological readiness," explains Dr Cahn. "An intriguing possible link between the effects on BDNF and the CAR is hippocampal functional integrity, since increased BDNF levels due to physical exercise has previously been shown to relate with hippocampal neurogenesis and likely relate to its positive effects on well-being and depression." In the light of previous studies of the positive effects of meditation on mental fitness, autonomic homeostasis and inflammatory status, the researchers think that their findings are related to the meditative practices that the retreat participants engaged in. However, they suggest that some of the observed changes may also be related to the physical aspects of the retreat - yoga practice and diet - and that the observed change patterns are a reflection of wellbeing and mind-body integration. The next step will be to conduct further research in order to clarify the extent to which the positive changes on mind-body wellness and stress resilience are related to the yoga and meditation practices respectively, and to account for other possible contextual factors such as social dynamics, diet and the impact of the teacher. "To our knowledge, our study is the first to examine a broad range of pro- and anti-inflammatory markers in a healthy population before and after a yoga-meditation intervention. Our findings justify further studies of yoga and meditation retreats assessing for the replicability, specificity and long-term implications of these findings," concludes Dr Cahn.
LAWRENCE SELLIN, retired international businessman and medical researcher, Veteran, US Army Reserve, @LawrenceSellin: Pakistan's role in the fall of Afghanistan How will the Chinese relationship with the Taliban change after the U.S. withdrawal? The connection between "globalists" and the Chinese Communist Party Assessing the capability of the Chinese biological warfare program LANI ELLIOTT, Economist specializing in the economic and interdisciplinary study of instability and internal conflict at field, policy and strategic levels, Washington assignments covered East Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East as well as functional areas such as refugees, counter-narcotics and energy sector reform: A history of US involvement in South Vietnam Parallels between the withdrawal from Vietnam and Afghanistan Lani's personal experience in the U.S. government
The results of China's once-a-decade census, released in May after a one-month delay, showed that the population of mainland China grew at an average rate of 0.53 percent each year between 2010 and 2020. The official results contradicted an earlier report by the Financial Times, which indicated the census figures would actually show a population decline. What is certain, though, is that the combination of higher life expectancies and lower fertility rates poses a huge challenge for East Asia's largest economy, and for other major economies in the region as well. Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore all have population growth rates that are in negative territory or will be in the coming years. It's an issue with global implications, given the important role that these countries play in the world economy. This week on Trend Lines, Ronald D. Lee, a demographer and economist at the University of California, Berkeley, joins WPR's Elliot Waldman to talk about how East Asia is coping with its major demographic changes. If you like what you hear on Trend Lines and what you've read on WPR, you can sign up for our free newsletter to get our uncompromising analysis delivered straight to your inbox. The newsletter offers a free preview article every day of the week, plus three more complimentary articles in our weekly roundup every Friday. Sign up here. Then subscribe. Relevant Articles on WPR: China's Demographic Dividend Is Tapering Off Japan Says ‘Yes' to Foreign Workers, but ‘No' to Immigration Africa's ‘Demographic Dividend' Won't Pay Off Without Purpose and Policy Women and the Demography-Security Nexus Trend Lines is produced and edited by Peter Dörrie, a freelance journalist and analyst focusing on security and resource politics in Africa. You can follow him on Twitter at @peterdoerrie. To send feedback or questions, email us at email@example.com.
Dr. Jackson Wu is the theologian in residence at Mission One in Phoenix, AZ. His 15 years spent as a missionary and training church planters in East Asia gives him a unique perspective on Western Christianity, and especially - you guessed it - Individualism. We cover a LOT of ground, including: the “decolonizing” language that's part of our Deconstruction “moment,” the inherent tension between “belonging” and our Individuality, and how American Evangelicalism's hyper-focus on Individualism precludes the Gospel's resolution of unaddressed shame. Referenced Articles & Resources: “Forsaking Identity is the Logical Consequence of Individualism” by Jackson Wu “Where does the South End and Christianity Begin?” By David French Follow Dr. Jackson Wu on Twitter
Learn about whether being too clean makes kids sick; an ancient coronavirus epidemic; and a black hole-neutron star merger. Is being too hygienic making kids sick? These researchers say the public has it all wrong by Grant Currin Being clean and hygienic need not impair childhood immunity. (2021). EurekAlert! https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-07/ucl-bca070221.php Rook, G. A. W., & Bloomfield, S. F. (2021). Microbial exposures that establish immunoregulation are compatible with targeted hygiene. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 148(1), 33–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2021.05.008 Cara, E. (2021, July 6). Being Clean Doesn't Have to Be Bad for Our Immune System, Scientists Say. Gizmodo; Gizmodo. https://gizmodo.com/being-clean-doesnt-have-to-be-bad-for-our-immune-system-1847238686 Genome study reveals East Asian coronavirus epidemic 20,000 years ago by Cameron Duke Souilmi, Y., Lauterbur, M. E., Tobler, R., Huber, C. D., Johar, A. S., Moradi, S. V., Johnston, W. A., Krogan, N. J., Alexandrov, K., & Enard, D. (2021). An ancient viral epidemic involving host coronavirus interacting genes more than 20,000 years ago in East Asia. Current Biology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2021.05.067 Queensland University of Technology (2021, June 24). Genome study reveals East Asian coronavirus epidemic 20,000 years ago. Phys.org. https://phys.org/news/2021-06-genome-reveals-east-asian-coronavirus.html We got the first ever detection of a black hole gobbling up a neutron star by Briana Brownell Black holes swallow neutron stars like “Pac Man.” (2021). EurekAlert! https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-06/anu-bh062521.php Astrophysicists detect first black hole-neutron star mergers. (2021). EurekAlert! https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-06/nu-adf062821.php Abbott, R., Abbott, T. D., Abraham, S., Acernese, F., Ackley, K., Adams, A., ... & Boudart, V. (2021). Observation of gravitational waves from two neutron star–black hole coalescences. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 915(1), L5. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/2041-8213/ac082e/pdf Betz, E. (2020). How Big Are Neutron Stars? Discover Magazine; Discover Magazine. https://www.discovermagazine.com/the-sciences/how-big-is-a-neutron-star By Pallab Ghosh. (2021, June 29). Rare black hole and neutron star collisions sighted twice in 10 days. BBC News; BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-57639520 What Is a Black Hole? (2015). NASA. https://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/k-4/stories/nasa-knows/what-is-a-black-hole-k4.html Follow Curiosity Daily on your favorite podcast app to learn something new every day withCody Gough andAshley Hamer. Still curious? Get exclusive science shows, nature documentaries, and more real-life entertainment on discovery+! Go to https://discoveryplus.com/curiosity to start your 7-day free trial. discovery+ is currently only available for US subscribers. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
The collapse of the Berlin Wall has come to represent the entry of an isolated region onto the global stage. On the contrary, this study argues that communist states had in fact long been shapers of an interconnecting world, with '1989' instead marking a choice by local elites about the form that globalisation should take. Published to coincide with the thirtieth anniversary of the 1989 revolutions, 1989: A Global History of Eastern Europe (Cambridge UP, 2019) draws on material from local archives to international institutions to explore the place of Eastern Europe in the emergence, since the 1970s, of a new world order that combined neoliberal economics and liberal democracy with increasingly bordered civilisational, racial and religious identities. An original and wide-ranging history, it explores the importance of the region's links to the West, East Asia, Africa, and Latin America in this global transformation, reclaiming the era's other visions such as socialist democracy or authoritarian modernisation which had been lost in triumphalist histories of market liberalism. Jill Massino is a scholar of modern Eastern Europe with a focus on Romania, gender, and everyday life. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/history
The collapse of the Berlin Wall has come to represent the entry of an isolated region onto the global stage. On the contrary, this study argues that communist states had in fact long been shapers of an interconnecting world, with '1989' instead marking a choice by local elites about the form that globalisation should take. Published to coincide with the thirtieth anniversary of the 1989 revolutions, 1989: A Global History of Eastern Europe (Cambridge UP, 2019) draws on material from local archives to international institutions to explore the place of Eastern Europe in the emergence, since the 1970s, of a new world order that combined neoliberal economics and liberal democracy with increasingly bordered civilisational, racial and religious identities. An original and wide-ranging history, it explores the importance of the region's links to the West, East Asia, Africa, and Latin America in this global transformation, reclaiming the era's other visions such as socialist democracy or authoritarian modernisation which had been lost in triumphalist histories of market liberalism. Jill Massino is a scholar of modern Eastern Europe with a focus on Romania, gender, and everyday life. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/new-books-network
Asian American Mental Health An interview with Linda Yoon, LCSW, on specific mental health needs of Asian American clients. Curt and Katie talk with Linda about what therapists often get wrong when working with Asian clients and colleagues. We explore the model minority myth, fetishization of Asian women, and the complexity of the heterogeneous group that falls under the term “Asian American.” We also talk about steps therapists can take to better support Asian American people. It's time to reimagine therapy and what it means to be a therapist. To support you as a whole person and a therapist, your hosts, Curt Widhalm and Katie Vernoy talk about how to approach the role of therapist in the modern age. Interview with Linda Yoon, LCSW, Founder and Co-Director of Yellow Chair Collective Linda is the founder and the co-director of Yellow Chair Collective, a multicultural psychotherapy group with a special focus on Asian mental health. Linda has over 10 years of experience in the field of social work and mental health. Before starting Yellow Chair Collective, she worked in residential and outpatient mental health clinics, domestic and intimate relationship violence programs, and affordable and inclusive housing services, often serving Asian and Asian Pacific Islanders and the immigrant/refugee population. Linda is passionate about community outreach and provides workshops on social and mental health topics including diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI), cultural sensitivity, parenting, self and community care, family violence, refugee/immigrant issues, and Asian American mental health. Her work has been featured in the LA Times, KXN, CBS Radio, KPBS, Al Dia Politics, and Crushing the Myth. Linda also has been a panelist for KQED Forum, NPR Podcast, and USC Center for Health Journalism speaking about Asian Mental Health needs during the pandemic and anti-Asian hate crime surge. Linda is also an active committee member of NASW-CA Asian Pacific Islander Council - Southern California. In this episode we talk about: Why Asian American Mental Health is so important What therapists are getting wrong when working with Asian clients and colleagues The Model Minority myth, bias and stereotypes The lack of understanding of who Asian Americans are (and the heterogeneity of this group – there's over 20 Asian countries with different languages and characteristics) Self-gaslighting, dismissal of Asian American racism experiences Accurate assessment and important questions to ask Looking at different immigration stories, languages spoken, what culture they relate to if their families come from more than one culture The barriers Asian Americans face in seeking mental health treatment The different perspective on mental health and the understanding of body and mind Collectivism and the impact on an individual seeking mental health services How different generations may perceive mental health treatment Culturally and linguistically appropriate services The potential missing data due to Asian Americans not reporting to or trusting the census The current spotlight on Asian hate and racism, and the history of violence against Asian people Common microaggressions The importance of educating oneself and avoiding assumptions, the value of consultation Ways to help with antiracism relevant to Asian Americans Questions to ask yourself to support Asian clients and colleagues Our Generous Sponsor: Buying Time, LLC Buying Time is a full team of Virtual Assistants, with a wide variety of skill sets to support your business. From basic admin support, customer service, and email management to marketing and bookkeeping. They've got you covered. Don't know where to start? Check out the systems inventory checklist which helps business owners figure out what they don't want to do anymore and get those delegated asap. You can find that checklist at http://buyingtimellc.com/systems-checklist/ Buying Time's VA's support businesses by managing email communications, CRM or automation systems, website admin and hosting, email marketing, social media, bookkeeping and much more. Their sole purpose is to create the opportunity for you to focus on supporting those you serve while ensuring that your back office runs smoothly. With a full team of VA's it gives the opportunity to hire for one role and get multiple areas of support. There's no reason to be overwhelmed with running your business with this solution available. Book a consultation to see where and how you can get started getting the support you need - https://buyingtimellc.com/book-consultation/ Resources mentioned: We've pulled together resources mentioned in this episode and put together some handy-dandy links. Please note that some of the links below may be affiliate links, so if you purchase after clicking below, we may get a little bit of cash in our pockets. We thank you in advance! yellowchaircollective.com Yellow Chair Collective on Instagram The Inadequacy of “Asian American” as a term (article) Relevant Episodes: Let's Talk About Race Again Therapy for Intercountry Transracial Adoptees Dr. Joy Cox: How to Stay in Your Lane to Support Diversity and Inclusion Connect with us! Our Facebook Group – The Modern Therapists Group Get Notified About Therapy Reimagined Conferences Our consultation services: The Fifty-Minute Hour Who we are: Curt Widhalm is in private practice in the Los Angeles area. He is the cofounder of the Therapy Reimagined conference, an Adjunct Professor at Pepperdine University and CSUN, a former Subject Matter Expert for the California Board of Behavioral Sciences, former CFO of the California Association of Marriage and Family Therapists, and a loving husband and father. He is 1/2 great person, 1/2 provocateur, and 1/2 geek, in that order. He dabbles in the dark art of making "dad jokes" and usually has a half-empty cup of coffee somewhere nearby. Learn more at: www.curtwidhalm.com Katie Vernoy is a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist, coach, and consultant supporting leaders, visionaries, executives, and helping professionals to create sustainable careers. Katie, with Curt, has developed workshops and a conference, Therapy Reimagined, to support therapists navigating through the modern challenges of this profession. Katie is also a former President of the California Association of Marriage and Family Therapists. In her spare time, Katie is secretly siphoning off Curt's youthful energy, so that she can take over the world. Learn more at: www.katievernoy.com A Quick Note: Our opinions are our own. We are only speaking for ourselves – except when we speak for each other, or over each other. We're working on it. Our guests are also only speaking for themselves and have their own opinions. We aren't trying to take their voice, and no one speaks for us either. Mostly because they don't want to, but hey. Stay in Touch: www.mtsgpodcast.com www.therapyreimagined.com Our Facebook Group – The Modern Therapist's Group https://www.facebook.com/therapyreimagined/ https://twitter.com/therapymovement https://www.instagram.com/therapyreimagined/ Credits: Voice Over by DW McCann https://www.facebook.com/McCannDW/ Music by Crystal Grooms Mangano http://www.crystalmangano.com/ Transcript (Autogenerated) Curt Widhalm 00:00 This episode of the Modern Therapist Survival Guide is sponsored by Buying Time, Katie Vernoy 00:04 Buying Time is a full team of virtual assistants with a wide variety of skill sets to support your business. from basic admin support customer service and email management to marketing and bookkeeping, they've got you covered. Don't know where to start, check out the system's inventory checklist, which helps business owners figure out what they don't want to do anymore and get those delegated ASAP. You can find that checklist at Buying Timellc.com/system-checklist Announcer 00:31 Listen at the end of the episode for more information. You're listening to the Modern Therapist Survival Guide where therapists live, breathe and practice as human beings to support you as a whole person and a therapist. Here are your hosts, Curt Widhalm and Katie Vernoy. Curt Widhalm 00:49 Welcome back modern therapists. This is the Modern Therapist Survival Guide. I'm Curt Widhalm with Katie Vernoy. And this is the podcast for therapists about therapists about things the therapist should know and one of the topics that I think often gets overlooked in any discussion about cross cultural representation, diversity awareness and, and is something that admittedly, we here at Modern Therapist Survival Guide have done probably the bare minimum about in our four years of podcasting. Here we've had one episode about working with Asian American clients. And today we're joined by Linda Yoon, a licensed clinical social worker, and founder and all sorts of cool things over at the yellow chair collective talking to us today about things going on with the Asian American community and things that therapists should know and working with Asian American clients, especially with huge spikes in anti-Asian hate crimes and anti-Asian microaggressions. and everything in between, especially here over the last couple of years, with the corona virus pandemic going on. So thank you very much for spending some time with us today and helping us in our audience. better serve the world. Linda Yoon 02:12 Hi, thank you. Thank you, Curt and Katie, for inviting me to speak on this topic. Katie Vernoy 02:17 We are so excited to have you here. You and I have had a conversation and I just really respect and I'm very excited about the work that you're doing. The first question that we ask all of our guests is Who are you? And what are you putting out into the world? Linda Yoon 02:31 As Curt introduce, my name is Linda Yoon, I'm a licensed clinical social worker in California have over 10 years of experience in mental health, social services, advocacy, mainly working with a lot of immigrants and refugee population, we're often Asian Americans. I'm also the founder and co director of Yellow Chair Collective, which is a multicultural psychotherapy group, we have a special focus on Asian mental health at this time. To answer your second question. I'm actually not sure what I'm putting out into the world currently, I'll have to see, you know, maybe in 20 years and reflect on what I have done. But however, today for this podcast, my intention is to put out inclusion and awareness of Asian American issues and mental health. And that is a goal for me today. Curt Widhalm 03:23 One of the questions we like to ask towards the beginning of our episodes here is there's a lot of mistakes that people can make in any variety of ways. And if we can help our audience not make those same kinds of mistakes, that's one of the great services that we can offer. From your perspective, what are therapists getting wrong in working with Asian clients or interacting with Asian colleagues? Linda Yoon 03:48 Yeah, first, I do want to share a little bit update on why this is important. Especially for therapists in America. Actually, Asians are the fastest growing population in the United States between 2020 18 Asian population grew 81%, which is even more than Hispanic population who are 70% growth. And yeah, Asian population is expected to grow past 35 million by 2060. But because Asian Americans are actually least likely group to understand and be poor their senses. So the number could be actually even more higher. And now to answer the what therapists may be getting wrong, or working with Asian clients or Asian colleagues, I mean, there are obviously, you know, biases and stereotypes that therapists of non Asian descent may have about Asian people, right? model minority myth, I'm sure you've heard about it before is a huge issue of this biases and stereotypes, whether they are good or not. model minority myth will often say Asians are smart, they are hard workers. They do not cause trouble. They do all, you know, economic sense. And it creates a lot of this homogeneous and model, that thick idea of Asian Americans are, when there's tremendous diversity within Asian American community, Asia actually has over 20 countries, East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, Indian subcontinent, each with unique history, you know their languages and characteristics. And then we just get often forgotten in the media in the US. Also, maybe what I want to point out is maybe not misunderstanding or getting it wrong, but maybe the lack of understanding of who Asian Americans are, especially the community of therapists, because there's not much education, or knowledge around multicultural issues. And, you know, especially within Asian communities, so we got to be seeing more and more people with multicultural issues in our within our clients, just in society, you know, we will have a cultural cross cultural couples, families and identity issues. And there isn't really a lot of education around that. And I can give an example, perhaps in the context of Asian verti cross cultural issue that can happen, that therapists may miss. If you're a non Asian therapist, oh, no, white therapists, you know, let's say you have an Asian couple coming in. And let's say they're both East Asians. Yeah. So assumptions may be like, you know, they share a similar background, you know, and there wouldn't be necessarily assessment around, you know, what languages do they speak? What languages do they grew up with? or different cultural backgrounds, you know, what's their immigration story of their families, there may be, they're all bringing in to therapy room in their relationship, right. So I have a good friend named Susan. She's also my co director, at yellow chair collected, she has a partner, Jimmy and Jimmy and Susan are both East Asians. Now, if they go to couples therapy, because they're both East Asians, it's so easy to assume that they share similar culture, right? However, Susan is Korean 1.5 generation Korean. And Jimmy is second generation Chinese who actually also grew up with four different Chinese dialect languages. And that that created a lot of like, communication and language issues, as he grew up, that might have affected him, you know, attachment or communication style, that maybe some keys to their relationship and their relationship issues perhaps. And without education around it, we will miss it. You know, without knowledge, we don't know what to look for how to assess, and how they affect. Katie Vernoy 07:44 So what I'm hearing is that there is such a huge diversity within this monolithic term, Asian American especially. And I read recently that it that even the term Asian American was about trying to bring together political power. And maybe that isn't quite a term that that's helpful anymore, because it does create such a monolithic perspective. And I'll link to the article in the show notes. But it's something where I'm hearing that there's a lot more questions maybe that should be asked when you're working with clients that fall under this huge umbrella so that you can actually get to some of these things. What are some of the questions that you would recommend when you're when you're setting with potentially any client of any culture but but specifically that are being left out in these conversations with Asian American clients? Linda Yoon 08:33 I do want to note that historically, Asian American term was coined to bring Asian Americans together because before the term do us, a lot of people actually refer to their ethnic heritage. You know, I'm Japanese American, Filipino American, or if there were, it was called Orientals, which has racist connotation to it. During the time that word was coined, there were a lot of different movements like anti war movement, Black Power movement, and Asians voices were getting lost. And then there was intention to bring people together. In my opinion, there is not the best way, there are similar experiences Asian American full share, I think the term is helpful. I think what I want to point out is not forgetting that there is a lot of diversity and how they may play so kind of like you know, this band diagram share like being Asian and American, or Japanese or Korean, even though they're very close together in East Asia, they do have a difference. They speak different languages. They have different culture and South Asian and Southeast Asians who are often kind of forgotten. A lot of people think of East Asians when we say Asian Americans know that they are also included in this term. So I think it's just really about education, being mindful to be culturally sensitive, by gaining those knowledge right? I'd also released listening to people, you're individualizing as well, Curt Widhalm 10:05 Can you give us a little bit of a deeper dive into the model minority myth? I think many of us have heard it in one capacity or another. And I think it probably just gets shortened down into kind of like that. Oh, yeah, model minority. But there's apparently a lot more to this. Linda Yoon 10:22 Yeah. So a lot of history context is, in this term model, minority myth. A lot of people don't know about it, why it was created, why it was pushed, why is there we have to kind of go back to World War Two, actually, when Japanese internment camps happen, and they came out and they're given, you know, just a little government, a compensation or a to rebuild their life. And a lot of Japanese Americans worked hard and really rebuild their lives. Around 1960s when there was rising of civil rights, right, black Americans civil rights movement, why society media really started create this propaganda of, Oh, look, look at this Japanese Americans, they're thriving out of ashes, you know, look at them, they were, everything was taken away. And they got a little aid that black Americans also got. And they made a very successful businesses and successful people. And they will cherry pick this people write the success stories, right? To create this opposing view, to discourage and diminish the effort of civil rights movement, in 1960s. So much of America, including other people color, I say, really took this narrative, even Asian Americans themselves out of survival, right? So they want to survive. And to survive, it's just really embracing this model minority destined to have some advantage and privilege and position themselves more like, you know, quote, unquote, white, right? However, this really created this opposing there between a lot of people color, and make Asians really invisible, that Asians are not, sometimes we're like, oh, they're not people color, or they're just honorary whites, right. And they really made it difficult and harder. And that's that model, minority myth was created, not to maintain the systematic racism for all races. And the narrative was created as if the racism was just binary in a black and white. And then systemic racism doesn't exist, and they're different THERE IS THAT COUNTLESS model minority myth to put the blacks at the bottom, white Americans at the top and Asian Americans like somewhere in our chart, but not white. Not Wow. Yeah. So that really asked to how Asian American experience has been dismissed. And that was not taken seriously for a long time. And that led a lot of self gaslighting dismissing of their personal rates and experiences, because like, Asian Americans, especially East and South Asians, who really embraced this model, minor e myth, live up to pressure to this myth, Katie Vernoy 13:09 What are the questions that you would ask a new client coming in to make sure that you understand the different elements of their story and the uniqueness of their experience? Linda Yoon 13:18 I mean, there is definitely standard intake a lot of people use as a therapist, and I would like to always ask, you know, their cultural background or ethnicity and kind of go beyond that, you know, immigration story, their immigration stories, you know, do they identify themselves in the culture, cultural biracial cultures that I have seen in my clients, sometimes, they might look in a past more like one ethnicity more, but they actually family or relate to more to another culture they grew up in. So kinda like that aspect, you know, just not have assumption. Now biases asking, and how was it growing up by culturally, you know, how was language book in the family? Because it makes difference in the relationship dynamic, you know, with different speaking languages at home, like I had a client whose parent was Japanese or Korean, and they spoke in English, and then, you know, they never really got to really learn each other's language. So that was kind of hard, you know? And that how did that impact that? So we wouldn't know unless really go deep into their, you know, cultural history, immigrants history, like, how did they How did that family resettle? Because that also has that identity, generational identity that they bring where the immigrants, were they refugees, you know, one of the reasons they moved, right, so all those questions that could be considered Curt Widhalm 14:51 What kind of barriers do Asian Americans face in seeking out mental health services? Linda Yoon 14:58 So Asian Americans are Actually, three times less likely to seek out mental health services in the US. So, you can see how little the service is utilized by Asian Americans. First there is lack of understanding of what mental health is, because it can be very poor and concept. In many traditional Eastern medicine, wellness confirm body and mind is a balance of body and mind concept is connection between body and mind in traditional Western concept of mental health and separating, right, that mental health and physical health, so it really wasn't in Asian people to capillary Asian medicine vocabulary, when this concept of mental health in a Western psychology was introduced. So that's one of them. And there's also cultural collectivism, which values family community over individual needs. Many Asian Americans as you grew up in a household that don't really talk about mental health, or emotions in general, and it can, when you seek out mental health services, it can seen as kind of personal failure, that not just on you, but also as a family earlier, it brings shame to the family, because whatever you do, whatever you represent, is not just a reflection of you, but also your family and community. So a lot of Asians will comment, not seeking our mental health services earlier was afraid of how their family will perceive it. And if they will bring shame to the family and their community. This is really true, especially for the first generation immigrants, and then older generations. But I do want to note that second American born, younger generations are more open, and perhaps more westernized, you say, and have more understanding of mental health. And they're utilizing mental health more and encouraging older generation to seek out help and it's needed. Some other external barriers that I might point out is for those who need therapy services, in their native language, or they need a therapist that understands the culture, because the issue is very cultural. There just isn't enough, culturally or linguistically competent service providers and programs out there. And I mentioned earlier that Asians are less likely group to understand or report to US Census, because it has historical context to it like Japanese and campaign, that census was used against them. So census means that you get representation, right, and you get funding. So when we don't know who's there, the funding and resources do not go there. So there is this lack of research done on Asian mental health and funding for the programs that Asian Americans need. So those are some barriers, I will say that are more prominent. Katie Vernoy 17:55 When we're looking at Asian Americans seeking mental health services, I just think about it, you know, and Kurt nodded to this earlier in the episode, just how much there could be a huge need right now, given all of the anti Asian hate crimes that microaggressions and just terrorism, I mean, like there just seems like there has been big attacks on Asian Americans. And maybe some of it has been more of a spotlight because of, of the time and that the the kind of worse. I think, as a society, we're trying to pay attention to this more. So we've got the model minority myth that basically made this experience invisible, but there's also kind of the objectification of Asian women and the fetishization that occurred. Can you talk with us a little bit about what that is? Linda Yoon 18:47 Yeah, definitely. There has been a fetishization of Asian woman like historically that a lot of times Asian woman was seen as no going again perpetrator foreigner right, like foreign exotic in some rumors know about Asian woman's body. And I think it really has to do with military like wars, right, where military personnel will go for a long time, you know, Korea, China, Philippines, and then they you know, they needed you know, quote, unquote, they will call comfort woman or they call it a prostitute, but I wonder if they had a choice to do so. They all really added up to this idea of Asian woman because model monetary myth also said, you know, Asian woman's are quiet, obedient. Just Good, good woman. If you want a non troubling woman and give your sexual pleasure is Asian woman so that that narrative, you know, with the military, seeing woman, Asian woman's exotic husband there, and I'm not sure why he was invisible because there's a lot of movies that also fantasize Asian woman, right? Yeah, I've heard penetrating that ideas. And I personally got stories to a lot of Asian woman will have the stories that this you know, creepy old man will come and talk about how they always want to be with an Asian woman, like, out of nowhere. And I know I'm not the only one a lot of Asian women actually do share similar experiences on that. And it's led to the spouse shooting right at once a shooting in March, he really associated the shooter associated Asian woman, as sexual beings in I think he may have statements something about that he wants to eliminate, kill all sexual because he has sex addiction. So he has sex addiction, and then he blamed that on Asian woman. So there are some narratives that came out that he stated around sexual distractions he was trying to fight off, and he blamed Asian woman, associated Asian spouse, you know, with a lot of sexual services. And that was one of the his intention of going to Asian spouse and creating this mass shooting killing of eight people. Katie Vernoy 21:11 I feel like I know, enough to kind of know what I don't know a little bit. And so I just wanted to get from, from your perspective, what you're seeing what you're hearing what Asian Americans are facing today, because I think therapists need to know. And they need to be prepared to support their clients in in the sessions that they're having with them. Linda Yoon 21:30 How difficult it is a lot more awareness, especially with anti Asian hate crimes getting more attention. But I do want to note that racism and violence against Asians always been in the US history for centuries. And some notable things that people don't know about as there were anti Chinese movement that causes massacres and lynching of many Chinese people in 1800s. All the way to Chinese Exclusion Act, and more. You know, with the visor model, minority myth narrative, I think that narrative really try to make Asians struggles really invisible. Because like, oh, they're doing so well, right. And although there always been this discrimination and racism, it wasn't really shown. And that really caused a lot of Asians to invalidate their own experience dismissible. They want to experience this because nobody did the media and why society didn't really believe in racism against Asians. And actually, as the pandemic started, like, it's officially started recording. In America, there were a lot of hate crimes being reported, especially shared through social media. However, media didn't really get that on like, there wasn't really attention to it. And it was when the shooting in Atlanta that killed eight people, six Asian woman, that's when media actually really started. agonize, but for many Asians, the rise of hate crimes were very distressful. Even before, it was almost like we had to wait for mass shooting to happen to get some attention. Wow. Yeah, we sell attention and of anti Asian racism, and the hate crime rising made a lot of Asian Americans reflect on their everyday quiet, you know, racism microaggressions, you know, we can say, and as we know, micro aggression is like a paper cut, right? It's like a small paper cup, but you get so much the wound become bigger, and it actually really hurts and it can get infected. Right? And for many, many years, microaggression against Asians were considered acceptable, or even funny, like, I internalize it myself, too, and made myself by identity as Asians, you know, some kind of joke and then people laugh about it. I'm like, okay, but inside of myself, it doesn't feel right and no, I so, I can share some common microaggressions that Asian people do get very most common one is like, Where are you from? Right, because we're professional foreigners, you know, no matter how many generations you have been here, you're a third fourth, fifth generation, you still have the Asian Look, you're not from here, right? And then not taking answer like oh, I was born in the US as an answer. It's like no, where are you really far off? And sometimes, you know, without the person, you know, letting the other person know like, they struggle with English you just say oh, you speak good English. It's not like usually a compliment unless the person you know says something about it insecurity about English, or Asian look the same. Or I'm not attracted to Asian boys. That's a big one. As if that's a preference right for the whole, putting hallways like this regarding whole race just because of race. Or assuming all Asians are good at math. All It seems like a good myth. It really overlook a lot of students who really hate math or not good at math, and not be able to get the proper health. And big one that I shared earlier is you know, Asians are homogeneous monolith, I definitely got some comments like, Oh, where are you from? Right. And I actually was born in Korea. So when they like, Oh, where are you born? And then I'm like, Oh, I see. I was born in Korea. And they start talking about how their niece was adopted from China. Like, that's a poor cultural connection that has no relevance to what I'm talking about. So as if that connection was appropriate, you know, yeah. So my hope is that there will be continual dialogue and education around how harmful motto My name is, has been for everybody, and the stereotypes and biases that come with it, as we really try to validate the Asian experiences that have been on Santa invisibles for a long time. So and that's, I think, May, there's a lot of different things Asian Americans really struggle today. But I think that's one of the main things that this stereotypes and biases are harmful and hurt people. Curt Widhalm 26:13 For a lot of clinicians who may not have much experience of working with Asian American clients, and their first Asian American client overcome some of these barriers that you've talked about. They finally, you know, feel, hey, I'm going to seek out some services. For those clinicians in those first sessions. There's probably a lot of opportunities to just stumble all over yourself trying to fit in all of these questions in the first place. And trying to say, you know, hey, I've listened to Linda's episode with Curt and Katie. And there's both kind of this taking what's going on with them right now, in all of this current Zeitgeist of what's going on all of the Asian hate, that's, you know, being finally kind of seen in a consistent way across media, social media. What's the best advice that you can give those clinicians kind of in that first experience, as they are trying to create a good therapeutic environment for those clients that invites them back to therapy and isn't just kind of reinforcing some of this mental health divide that exists here, Linda Yoon 27:30 I believe it will be really balanced of, you know, doing work, to be aware of knowledge and education of, you know, Asian American culture, and also not having any assumptions of the client who comes in who's, who stood in front of you, right, like the basic therapeutic therapy process, like hear their story. Now, there are so many different intersectionality, of individual and Bellamy's story that we might not, we might miss it, we have preconceptions of who they are. So but then we also don't want to not have any cultural background, right? So I think it's just really about balance all of it. But if you don't know a lot about Asian culture, and you know, hopefully, you're committed to it, but you have this client that you just don't have a lot of knowledge at this point. How is it just hear the story and be mindful not to ask the client to be a teacher, though, because it really puts a lot of burden on the client to teach their culture. So really, really hard lineup, like finding that balance, listening, understanding, but also not putting that burden? Unfortunately, I don't think there's a simple answer to it. But if you are present, and you are listening, and doing your own research and understand the consultation, if you need to, I think that will be a good place to start Curt Widhalm 28:57 Broadening that out for even some of the more savvy clinicians or clinicians who might be more familiar with some of the nuances here. What's kind of the best way to support Asian clients and larger Asian American community for mental health professionals right now. Linda Yoon 29:13 Best way to support Asian clients and larger Asian American community right now? is being proactive on being anti racist. Like I want to make a point that and being anti racist is not same as not being racist. Yes, it's a proactive term. It's a proactive way of approaching values that work towards fighting racism. You know, not being racist, just not being racist means that you know, I'm avoiding racist situation. I'm not making racist statements. You know, it's very neutral, non active, it doesn't really add to, you know, any work of eliminating racism and we are just holding into Asian American issues because There has been on the news on the media. In the last year, we saw with George for us that there were a lot of attention towards racism against black Americans. And this year, not so much corporate anymore. And Asians racism against Asians will lose interest. And then I can still, I can see the media is covering less and less, even though it is still happening. But the racism because media is not covering, it doesn't go anywhere. It still exists, people still experiences, trauma happens. And fighting and speaking out against racism is not a trend. Right. So regarding the topic, I'm speaking up today, the question I want to ask people is, ask yourself, how am I going to support and be inclusive of my Asian clients and colleagues, now invest in my career, and it really comes down to one thing, being mindful of studying the culture and getting to know the person individually, and really just being less open to listen and learn? I think really being teachable learnable is the biggest thing and ask if you need to, like, Is there something you need individually? or do some research google it different ways that Asian clients or Asian colleagues may want to be supportive? I mean, there's definitely fundraise for anti Asian hate crime prevention, right? Like, I think donations are good way, and just letting people know, hey, like, I'm thinking of you. One thing that I do want to point out is like, if you haven't spoken, this one particular agent, colleague, you know, that you have for years, you know, don't just you know, are polluters contact, it just feels a little impersonal. And then there are some agent clients, actually, and other people that are here to me that they felt a little bit like out of blue, a little insensitive. It's like, now this is a time that you make connection, like you didn't try it for years. So we do want to be mindful that but if you have a relationship with this particular colleague or community, yeah, let them know your support or get involved, really educate yourself on Asian cultures and how it is impacting the Asian cultures or an Asian American culture. Katie Vernoy 32:17 Yeah. I really liked that advice. It's something where we had some similar advice with Dr. Joy Cox came on and talked about intersectionality, as well as kind of how to support diversity and inclusion. And, and that was one of the things she was saying is like, build real relationships. You know, that's really important. And, and I think that's, that's what you're saying as well. It's like, reach out to the people you actually have relationships with, whether it's therapy clients, or colleagues or friends in that caring, connected way, not as a checkbox or not as like, Hey, can I pick your brain on what's going on in the world right now? Because I think either of those things are very impersonal and harmful. Yeah, definitely. So to summarize kind of what I am hearing, because I think this is this is very, very, very helpful. Thank you, Linda, I think being able to to hold the space for each person's experience is unique, there's going to be a lot of complexity there. You don't say Where are you from? I was, you know, even though that's one of the things that that may be important for therapists to know. But maybe what's your cultural heritage? Is there, you know, is there an immigration story that's relevant to you and your family, kind of being able to get to a place where you can learn more about this individual in front of you, and understand the uniqueness of their experience? And then do research and not have them teach you about all of their culture? Because I think that's important. I just, I'm reflecting on some of the conversations I've had with Asian colleagues, clients, friends, and there is so much that I didn't know about the Asian experience in the United States that I've started learning more about, especially the model minority myth, fetishization and kind of the exotic nature of for Asian women. I think there's just so much that is happening just all over the place that we've been so unaware of. It's been hidden. It's been, it's been invisible. And so I'm so glad we've had this conversation. And I just really encourage people to reach out like you had suggested within their relationships to, to learn more about that person's experience and to support them in whatever way we can. Yeah, definitely. Where can people find more about you? Because this has been very helpful. I'm sure there's gonna be folks that want to learn more about what you're doing and potentially seeking out some consultation. Linda Yoon 34:40 Yeah, I mean, you can definitely find more about us at yellow chair collected calm. As a psychotherapy group. We do provide individual couples family therapy for all ages. We also run Asian American teen and adult support groups where Asian American teens and adults can come together and learn about how their Racial, intergenerational trauma and Asian American experiences has been. And we are also actively providing trainings and consultation right now to government sectors, corporations, nonprofits, communities on creating dialogue and, and learning about Asian American culture. All of our Asian Americans need to be acknowledged and acknowledged in our communities and workplaces. We have trained therapists that can lead this conversation in safe manner. And we also provide individual consultations for any clinicians who are working with Asian clients and community with any capacity. Thank you. Curt Widhalm 35:40 And we will include links to yellow chair collective and where you can get more information as well as our past episodes about working with the greater Asian American Pacific Islander communities. And you can find those in our show notes at mtsgpodcast.com, be sure to follow us on our social media as well or we'll continue to share some resources in being able to support the AAPI community. And check out the therapy reimagined conference website where you can get all the latest updates on our little conference that we're putting on at the end of September, here in the Los Angeles area and hybrid streaming to wherever you may be. So check that out at therapy reimagined conference calm. And until next time, I'm Curt Widhalm with Katie Vernoy and Linda. Katie Vernoy 36:32 Thanks again to our sponsor Buying Time Curt Widhalm 36:34 Buying Times VA's support businesses by managing email communications, CRM or automation systems, website admin and hosting email marketing, social media, bookkeeping and much more. Their sole purpose is to create the opportunity for you to focus on supporting those you serve while ensuring that your back office runs smoothly with a full team of vas gives the opportunity to hire for one role and get multiple areas of support. There's no reason to be overwhelmed with running your business with this solution available. Katie Vernoy 37:03 Book a consultation to see where and how you can get started getting the support you need. That's buyingtimellc.com/book-consultation.com once again, buyingtimellc.com/book-consultation.com. Announcer 37:19 Thank you for listening to the Modern Therapist Survival Guide. Learn more about who we are and what we do at MTSGpodcast.com. You can also join us on Facebook and Twitter. And please don't forget to subscribe so you don't miss any of our episodes.
In recent years, American Empire has increasingly faced criticism from across the political spectrum. Even as the Biden administration moves to terminate a generation-long war in Afghanistan, at least officially, the United States continues to maintain a vast overseas military presence. At the same time, it continues to intervene both directly and indirectly across a host of different theaters, from East Asia and Latin America to Africa and the Middle East. Although American political elites might disagree on specific aspects of imperial strategy, the notion that the United States has the moral right to exercise power overseas remains hegemonic. What explains this uniformity of opinion amongst political elites? What is “imperialist realism”? And what are the prospects for ending the empire? About Daniel (from http://danielbessner.com/): Daniel Bessner currently holds the Joff Hanauer Honors Professorship in Western Civilization at the University of Washington. He is a member of the Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies and was previously the Anne H.H. and Kenneth B. Pyle Associate Professor in American Foreign Policy. He is also a Non-Resident Fellow at the Quincy Institute for Responsible Statecraft and a Contributing Editor at Jacobin. Daniel is an intellectual historian of U.S. foreign relations. He is the author of Democracy in Exile: Hans Speier and the Rise of the Defense Intellectual (Cornell, 2018), which you may order here. http://danielbessner.com/book/ He is also co-editor, with Nicolas Guilhot, of The Decisionist Imagination: Sovereignty, Social Science, and Democracy in the Twentieth Century (Berghahn, 2019). Daniel has published scholarly articles in several journals and has also published pieces in The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Guardian, n+1, and other venues. Thank you, guys, again for taking the time to check this out. We appreciate each and every one of you. If you have the means, and you feel so inclined, BECOME A PATRON! We're creating patron only programing, you'll get bonus content from many of the episodes, and you get MERCH! Become a patron now https://www.patreon.com/join/BitterLakePresents? Please also like, subscribe, and follow us on these platforms as well, (specially YouTube!) THANKS Y'ALL YouTube: www.youtube.com/thisisrevolutionpodcast Twitch: www.twitch.tv/thisisrevolutionpodcast www.twitch.tv/leftflankvets Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Thisisrevolutionpodcast/ Twitter: @TIRShowOakland Instagram: @thisisrevolutionoakland The Dispatch on Zero Books (video essay series): https://youtu.be/nSTpCvIoRgw Medium: https://jasonmyles.medium.com/kill-the-poor-f9d8c10bc33d Pascal Robert's Black Agenda Report: https://www.blackagendareport.com/author/Pascal Robert Get TIR>podcast Merch here: www.thisisrevolutionpodcast.com
Photo: "Dresden, partial view of the destroyed city center on the Elbe to the new town. In the center of Neumarkt and the ruins of the Frauenkirche." 1945. CBS Eyes on the World with John Batchelor CBS Audio Network @Batchelorshow 2/2: Second World Wars and the East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere: Japan 1939 and PRC 2021. Victor Davis Hanson @VDHanson @HooverInst https://www.amazon.com/Second-World-Wars-Global-Conflict/dp/0465066984 Permissions: This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Germany license. Flag of Germany.svg Attribution: Bundesarchiv, Bild 146-1994-041-07 / Unknown author / CC-BY-SA 3.0 You are free: to share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work to remix – to adapt the work Under the following conditions: attribution – You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. The German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals (negative and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive.
Photo: A Japanese 10 sen stamp from 1942 depicting the approximate extension of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. CBS Eyes on the World with John Batchelor CBS Audio Network @Batchelorshow 1/2: Second World Wars and the East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere: Japan 1939 and PRC 2021. Victor Davis Hanson @VDHanson @HooverInst https://www.amazon.com/Second-World-Wars-Global-Conflict/dp/0465066984
China has been going around the world signing development deals with countries in an initiative it calls Belt and Road, formerly One Belt One Road. It's a massive infrastructure project that was started in 2013 and goes from East Asia to Europe. The goal of the program seems benign—invest in other countries' infrastructure using Chinese engineering and manufacturing. But like most things the Chinese Communist Party touches, it has come with corruption, subversion, and deceit. Are we seeing the expansion of Chinese communist colonialism? Joining us in this episode of China Unscripted is Dr. Rachel Winston, a professor and author of several books about China, including “Belts and Roads Under Beijing's Thumb.”
Red and processed meat linked to increased risk of heart disease, study shows Oxford University, July 21, 2021 Globally, coronary heart diseases (caused by narrowed arteries that supply the heart with blood) claim nearly nine million lives each year1, the largest of any disease, and present a huge burden to health systems. Until now, it has been unclear whether eating meat increases the risk of heart disease, and if this varies for different kinds of meat. Researchers at the University of Oxford's Nuffield Department of Population Health have conducted the largest systematic review of the prospective evidence to date, including thirteen cohort studies involving over 1.4 million people. The study participants completed detailed dietary assessments, and their health was tracked for up to 30 years. The results are published today in Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. Overall, the evidence from the analysis indicated that: Each 50 g/day higher intake of processed meat (e.g. bacon, ham, and sausages) increased the risk of coronary heart disease by 18%. Each 50 g/day higher intake of unprocessed red meat (such as beef, lamb and pork) increased the risk of coronary heart disease by 9%. There was no clear link between eating poultry (such as chicken and turkey) and an increased risk of coronary heart disease. The findings may be because of the high content of saturated fat in red meat, and of sodium (salt) in processed meat. High intakes of saturated fat increase levels of harmful low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, whilst excess salt consumption raises blood pressure. Both LDL cholesterol and high blood pressure are well-established risk factors for coronary heart disease. Previous work from the same research team has also indicated that even moderate intakes of red and processed meat are associated with increased risk of bowel cancer2. Dr. Keren Papier (Nuffield Department of Population Health), co-lead author of the study, said: "Red and processed meat have been consistently linked with bowel cancer and our findings suggest an additional role in heart disease. Therefore, current recommendations to limit red and processed meat consumption may also assist with the prevention of coronary heart disease." Dr. Anika Knüppel, from the Nuffield Department of Population Health and the other co-lead author of the study, added: "We know that meat production is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions and we need to reduce meat production and thereby consumption to benefit the environment. Our study shows that a reduction in red and processed meat intake would bring personal health benefits too." Currently in the UK, about 10 in 100 people would be expected to eventually die from coronary heart disease. Based on the findings from the present study and current red and processed meat intakes in the UK,4 if all these 100 people reduced their unprocessed red meat intake by three-quarters (for example from four times a week to one time a week), or if they stopped consuming processed meat altogether, deaths from coronary heart disease would decrease from 10 in 100 down to 9 in 100. The studies involved in this analysis were mostly based on white adults living in Europe or the U.S.. The research team say more data are needed to examine these associations in other populations, including East Asia and Africa. C is for Vitamin C -- a key ingredient for immune cell function Harnessing the combined power of Vitamin C and TET proteins may give scientists a leg up in treating autoimmune diseases La Jolla Institute for Immunology and Emory University, July 22, 2021 You can't make a banana split without bananas. And you can't generate stable regulatory T cells without Vitamin C or enzymes called TET proteins, it appears. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) help control inflammation and autoimmunity in the body. Tregs are so important, in fact, that scientists are working to generate stable induced Tregs (iTregs) in vitro for use as treatments for autoimmune diseases as well as rejection to transplanted organs. Unfortunately, it has proven difficult to find the right molecular ingredients to induce stable iTregs. Now scientists at La Jolla Institute for Immunology and Emory University School of Medicine report that Vitamin C and TET proteins can work together to give Tregs their life-saving power. "Vitamin C can be used to stabilize iTregs generated in vitro," says LJI Instructor Xiaojing Yue, Ph.D., who served as co-first author for the EMBO Reports study. "We hope that these kinds of induced Tregs can be used in the future for treatment of autoimmune diseases and organ transplantation." The recent study, led by LJI Professor Anjana Rao, Ph.D., and Emory Instructor Benjamin G Barwick, Ph.D., builds on the previous discovery that Vitamin C can enhance the enzymatic activity of TET proteins and prompt the generation of stable iTregs under lab conditions. This finding was encouraging, but the scientists did not want to work toward new autoimmune therapies without first analyzing the gene expression patterns and other key epigenetic features of the induced Tregs. "We wanted to study the entire system at a whole genome level using next generation sequencing technology to better understand the molecular features of these cells," says Yue. Study co-first author Daniela Samaniego-Castruita, a graduate student at LJI, spearheaded the analysis of gene expression and epigenetic changes in the iTregs. A major type of epigenetic modification involves the DNA itself through the addition or removal of molecules called methyl groups from cytosines, one of the four DNA bases. The methyl groups can be further oxidized by TET enzymes. All of these interactions can eventually change how cells "read" the DNA code. Another type of epigenetic change involves the alteration of DNA accessibility: whether DNA is loosely or tightly coiled. As the DNA coils unwind, regulatory regions become exposed which subsequently influence gene expression. In their analysis, the researchers found TET proteins are absolutely required for maintaining the gene expression and epigenetic features that make Tregs as what they are; and adding Vitamin C led to iTregs with similar similar gene expression and epigenetic features as normal "wild type" Tregs found in the body. The study also reveals an intriguing connection between TET enzymatic activity, Vitamin C and IL-2/STAT5 signaling. "In mice that are deficient for components of IL-2/STAT5 signaling, such as IL-2, IL-2 receptors or STAT5, the Tregs cannot develop properly or they can have impaired function," Yue says. The researchers demonstrate that on one hand, TET-deficiency in Treg cells leads to impaired IL-2/STAT5 signaling; on the other hand, Vitamin C confers iTregs enhanced IL-2/STAT5 signaling by increasing the expression level of IL-2 receptor and the functional form of STAT5, and STAT5 binding to essential regions in the genome, rendering these cells survive better in tough environments with low IL-2 supplementation. "We are looking for more small molecules to stabilize TET activity and generate induced Tregs that are even more stable," says Yue. "These induced Tregs could eventually be used to treat patients." "This research gives us a new way to think about treating autoimmune diseases," says Samaniego-Castruita. Resveratrol ameliorates high-fat-diet-induced abnormalities in liver glucose metabolism in mice via the AMPK pathway Hebei Medical Institute (China), July 19, 2021 A new study on high fat diet is now available. According to news originating from the Department of Internal Medicine by NewsRx correspondents, research stated, “Diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent worldwide.” Our news reporters obtained a quote from the research from Department of Internal Medicine: “High-fat-diet (HFD) consumption can lead to liver fat accumulation, impair hepatic glycometabolism, and cause insulin resistance and the development of diabetes. Resveratrol has been shown to improve the blood glucose concentration of diabetic mice, but its effect on the abnormal hepatic glycometabolism induced by HFD-feeding and the mechanism involved are unknown. In this study, we determined the effects of resveratrol on the insulin resistance of high-fat-diet-fed mice and a hepatocyte model by measuring serum biochemical indexes, key indicators of glycometabolism, glucose uptake, and glycogen synthesis in hepatocytes. We found that resveratrol treatment significantly ameliorated the HFD-induced abnormalities in glucose metabolism in mice, increased glucose absorption and glycogen synthesis, downregulated protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and activated Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase kinase b (CaMKKb), and increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, the administration of a PP2A activator or CaMKKb inhibitor attenuated the effects of resveratrol, but the administration of an AMPK inhibitor abolished the effects of resveratrol. Resveratrol significantly ameliorates abnormalities in glycometabolism induced by HFD-feeding and increases glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in hepatocytes.” According to the news editors, the research concluded: “These effects are mediated through the activation of AMPK by PP2A and CaMKKb.” Hundreds of chemicals, many in consumer products, could increase breast cancer risk List includes potential carcinogens that act by stimulating production of hormones that fuel breast tumors Silent Spring Institute, July 22, 2021 Every day, people are exposed to a variety of synthetic chemicals through the products they use or the food they eat. For many of these chemicals, the health effects are unknown. Now a new study shows that several hundred common chemicals, including pesticides, ingredients in consumer products, food additives, and drinking water contaminants, could increase the risk of breast cancer by causing cells in breast tissue to produce more of the hormones estrogen or progesterone. "The connection between estrogen and progesterone and breast cancer is well established," says co-author Ruthann Rudel, a toxicologist and research director at Silent Spring Institute. "So, we should be extremely cautious about chemicals in products that increase levels of these hormones in the body." For instance, in 2002, when the Women's Health Initiative study found combination hormone replacement therapy to be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, women stopped taking the drugs and incidence rates went down. "Not surprisingly, one of the most common therapies for treating breast cancer is a class of drugs called aromatase inhibitors that lower levels of estrogen in the body, depriving breast cancer cells of the hormones they need to grow," adds Rudel. To identify these chemical risk factors, Rudel and Silent Spring scientist Bethsaida Cardona combed through data on more than 2000 chemicals generated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s ToxCast program. The goal of ToxCast is to improve the ability of scientists to predict whether a chemical will be harmful or not. The program uses automated chemical screening technologies to expose living cells to chemicals and then examine the different biological changes they cause. Reporting in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives, Rudel and Cardona identified 296 chemicals that were found to increase estradiol (a form of estrogen) or progesterone in cells in the laboratory. Seventy-one chemicals were found to increase levels of both hormones. The chemicals included ingredients in personal care products such as hair dye, chemical flame retardants in building materials and furnishings, and a number of pesticides. The researchers don't yet know how these chemicals are causing cells to produce more hormones. It could be the chemicals are acting as aromatase activators, for instance, which would lead to higher levels of estrogen, says Cardona. "What we do know is that women are exposed to multiple chemicals from multiple sources on a daily basis, and that these exposures add up." The Silent Spring researchers hope this study will be a wakeup call for regulators and manufacturers in how they test chemicals for safety. For instance, current safety tests in animals fail to look at changes in hormone levels in the animal's mammary glands in response to a chemical exposure. And, although high throughput testing in cells has been used to identify chemicals that activate the estrogen receptor, mimicking estrogen, the testing has not been used to identify chemicals that increase estrogen or progesterone synthesis. "This study shows that a number of chemicals currently in use have the ability to manipulate hormones known to adversely affect breast cancer risk," says Dr. Sue Fenton, associate editor for the study and an expert in mammary gland development at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. "Especially concerning is the number of chemicals that alter progesterone, the potential bad actor in hormone replacement therapy. Chemicals that elevate progesterone levels in the breast should be minimized." The researchers outlined a number of recommendations in their study for improving chemical safety testing to help identify potential breast carcinogens before they end up in products, and suggest finding ways to reduce people's exposures, particularly during critical periods of development, such as during puberty or pregnancy when the breast undergoes important changes. The project is part of Silent Spring Institute's Safer Chemicals Program which is developing new cost-effective ways of screening chemicals for their effects on the breast. Knowledge generated by this effort will help government agencies regulate chemicals more effectively and assist companies in developing safer products. Antioxidant activity of limonene counteracts neurotoxicity triggered by amyloid beta 1-42 oligomers in cortical neurons University of Naples (Italy), July 19, 2021 According to news reporting from Naples, Italy, by NewsRx journalists, research stated, “Many natural-derived compounds, including the essential oils from plants, are investigated to find new potential protective agents in several neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD).” The news editors obtained a quote from the research from School of Medicine: “In the present study, we tested the neuroprotective effect of limonene, one of the main components of the genus * * Citrus* * , against the neurotoxicity elicited by Ab [ [1-42] ] oligomers, currently considered a triggering factor in AD. To this aim, we assessed the acetylcholinesterase activity by Ellman's colorimetric method, the mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity by MTT assay, the nuclear morphology by Hoechst 33258, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by DCFH-DA fluorescent dye, and the electrophysiological activity of K [ [V] ] 3.4 potassium channel subunits by patch-clamp electrophysiology. Interestingly, the monoterpene limonene showed a specific activity against acetylcholinesterase with an IC [  ] almost comparable to that of galantamine, used as positive control. Moreover, at the concentration of 10 g/mL, limonene counteracted the increase of ROS production triggered by Ab [ [1-42] ] oligomers, thus preventing the upregulation of K [ [V] ] 3.4 activity. This, in turn, prevented cell death in primary cortical neurons, showing an interesting neuroprotective profile against Ab [ [1-42] ] -induced toxicity.” According to the news editors, the research concluded: “Collectively, the present results showed that the antioxidant properties of the main component of the genus * * Citrus* * , limonene, may be useful to prevent neuronal suffering induced by Ab [ [1-42] ] oligomers preventing the hyperactivity of K [ [V] ] 3.4.” Meditation And Yoga Change Your DNA To Reverse Effects Of Stress, Study Shows Coventry University (UK), July 22, 2021 Many people participate in practices such as meditation and yoga because they help us relax. At least those are the immediate effects we feel. But much more is happening on a molecular level, reveal researchers out of Coventry University in England. Published in the journal Frontiers in Immunology, this new research examined 18 studies on mind-body interventions (MBIs). These include practices such as mindfulness meditation and yoga. Comprehensively, these studies encompassed 846 participants over 11 years. The new analysis reveals that MBIs result in molecular changes in the human body. Furthermore, researchers claim that these changes are beneficial to our mental and physical health. Body's Response to Stress Causes Damage To elaborate, consider the effect that stress has on the body. When we are under stress, the body increases the production of proteins that cause cell inflammation. This is the natural effect of the body's fight-or-flight response. It is widely believed that inflammation in the body leads to numerous illnesses, including cancer. Moreover, scientists also deduct that a persistent inflammation is more likely to cause psychiatric problems. Unfortunately, many people suffer from persistent stress, therefore they suffer from pro-inflammatory gene expression. But there is good news! According to this new analysis out of Coventry, people that practice MBIs such as meditation and yoga can reverse pro-inflammatory gene expression. This results in a reduced risk of inflammation-related diseases and mental conditions. Lead investigator Ivana Buric from Coventry University's Centre for Psychology, Behaviour and Achievement stated: Millions of people around the world already enjoy the health benefits of mind-body interventions like yoga or meditation, but what they perhaps don't realise is that these benefits begin at a molecular level and can change the way our genetic code goes about its business. These activities are leaving what we call a molecular signature in our cells, which reverses the effect that stress or anxiety would have on the body by changing how our genes are expressed. Put simply, MBIs cause the brain to steer our DNA processes along a path which improves our wellbeing. More needs to be done to understand these effects in greater depth, for example how they compare with other healthy interventions like exercise or nutrition. But this is an important foundation to build on to help future researchers explore the benefits of increasingly popular mind-body activities. Large-scale study finds greater sedentary hours increases risk of obstructive sleep apnea Study finds that maintaining an active lifestyle can reduce the risk of OSA, encourages physicians to recommend exercise-based interventions for those at risk Brigham and Women's Hospital, July 22, 2021 A new study by investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital examined the relationship between active lifestyles and the risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The study followed around 130,000 men and women in the United States over a follow-up period of 10-to-18 years and found that higher levels of physical activity and lower levels of sedentary behavior were associated with a lower risk of OSA. Their results are published in the European Respiratory Journal. "In our study, higher levels of physical activity and fewer hours of TV watching, and sitting either at work or away from home were associated with lower OSA incidence after accounting for potential confounders," said Tianyi Huang, MSc, ScD, an Associate Epidemiologist at the Brigham. "Our results suggest that promoting an active lifestyle may have substantial benefits for both prevention and treatment of OSA." OSA is a type of sleep apnea in which some muscles relax during sleep, causing an airflow blockage. Severe OSA increases the risk of various heart issues, including abnormal heart rhythms and heart failure. Using the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII) and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS), the research team used statistical modeling to compare physical activity and sedentary hours with diagnoses of OSA. Both moderate and vigorous physical activity were examined separately and both were strongly correlated with lower risk of OSA, showing no appreciable differences in the intensity of activity. Moreover, stronger associations were found for women, adults over the age of 65 and those with a BMI greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2. "Most prior observational studies on the associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior with OSA were cross-sectional, with incomplete exposure assessment and inadequate control for confounding," said Huang. "This is the first prospective study that simultaneously evaluates physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to OSA risk." This study also differs from others because of its large sample size and detailed assessment pf physical activity and sedentary behaviors. The research team was able to take many associated factors into account, making the findings more credible. The authors note that all collected data, both of OSA diagnosis and physical activity or sedentary behavior, were self-reported. While all study participants were health professionals, mild OSA is often difficult to detect and can remain clinically unrecognized. Furthermore, only recreational physical activity was taken into consideration, leaving out any physical activity in occupational settings. Sedentary behavior was only counted as sitting while watching TV and sitting away from home or at work. According to Huang, the next research steps would be to collect data using actigraphy, home sleep apnea tests and polysomnography, rather than self-reports. In light of the findings, investigators encourage physicians to highlight the benefits of physical activity to lower OSA risk. "We found that physical activity and sedentary behavior are independently associated with OSA risk," said Huang. "That is, for people who spend long hours sitting every day, increasing physical activity in their leisure time can equally lower OSA risk. Similarly, for those who are not able to participate in a lot of physical activity due to physical restrictions, reducing sedentary hours by standing or doing some mild activities could also lower OSA risk. However, those who can lower sedentary time and increase physical activity would have the lowest risk."
Check out CuriosityStream: https://curiositystream.com/ChinaUnscripted How the U.S. and its allies respond to China in the Indo-Pacific could have major repercussions for decades to come. That's because China is trying to get a foothold in the area, and if the U.S. and its allies don't increase their presence there, China will—with very real consequences for geopolitics, national security and trade. Joining us in this episode of China Unscripted is Cleo Paskal, an associate fellow in the Energy, Environment and Resources Program and Asia-Pacific Program at Chatham House. She's also the research lead on Chatham House's project on perceptions of strategic shifts in the Indo-Pacific from the points of view of the United States, the United Kingdom, India, Japan, Oceania and France. Follow her on Twitter @CleoPaskal
Photo: A surrogate missile is launched from a water-piercing missile launcher at Naval Surface Warfare Center Crane during proof of concept testing. . CBS Eyes on the World with John Batchelor CBS Audio Network @Batchelorshow Readiness in East Asia and the Surface Warfare Officer class of the US Navy, 2021.@GordonGChang, Gatestone, Newsweek, The Hill. James Holmes @TheNavalWarCollege Blogger at The Naval Diplomat (https://navaldiplomat.com/), on these: https://www.reuters.com/world/china/china-says-drove-away-us-warship-schina-sea-2021-07-12/ https://news.usni.org/2021/07/12/lawmakers-survey-94-of-sailors-say-damaging-operational-failures-related-to-navy-culture-leadership-problems