Podcasts about Sikhs

Members of the Sikh religion

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Roundtable
Leicester Unrest: Rise of Hindu nationalism

Roundtable

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 29, 2022 26:00


SHOW DESCRIPTION: Rising Hindu nationalism in India fuelled by the ruling BJP party has led to widespread attacks on Muslims, Sikhs and Christians in the country. Now these tensions are being exported to the UK. Violence in Leicester - a city with a substantial British Asian population - erupted after a cricket match between India and Pakistan local teams, but many weren't surprised and said tensions had been brewing for months. GUESTS: Sharmen Rahman Labour Councilor from Leicester Ashok Swain Uppsala University Roundtable is a discussion program with an edge. Broadcast out of London and presented by David Foster, it's about bringing people to the table, listening to every opinion, and analysing every point of view. From fierce debate to reflective thinking, Roundtable discussions offer a different perspective on the issues that matter to you. Watch it every weekday at 15:30 GMT on TRT World.

The Pete Kaliner Show
09-26-2022--Hour1: UNC Charlotte Sikh student cuffed. Outrage ensues.

The Pete Kaliner Show

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 26, 2022 31:48


A UNC Charlotte student was handcuffed as campus police investigated his religious ceremonial knife that he was wearing on his chest. From WSOC-TV: According to a message sent to the UNC Charlotte community Friday, campus police responded to a 911 call regarding someone with a knife Thursday. Once at the student union, officers approached the person and put them in handcuffs. During the interaction, the university said police took an item from the person and then removed the handcuffs. After further investigation, university officials said the object was a kirpan, an article of faith in Sikhism. According to the Sikh Coalition, an organization that defends the civil rights of members of the religion, initiated Sikhs must have articles of faith with them at all times. According to the statement from UNCC, state law and university policy “prohibit the possession of a knife or other edged instruments on campus.”  Get exclusive content here!: https://thepetekalinershow.com/See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

Srijan Foundation Talks
Decoding The Great SIKHS - The Birth of Khalsa | Rapper Pandit |#SangamTalks SrijanTalks

Srijan Foundation Talks

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 24, 2022 74:47


Decoding The Great SIKHS - The Birth of Khalsa | Rapper Pandit |#SangamTalks SrijanTalks

That's So Hindu
Most people in the West have no idea how dangerous the Khalistanis actually are | Puneet Sahani

That's So Hindu

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 22, 2022 61:02 Very Popular


In this episode Samir Kalra speaks with Puneet Sahani, coordinator of Sikhs for Enlightenment Association, a volunteer effort of Sikh researchers across the world, who are pushing back against Khalistani propaganda. @puneet_sahani@SikhsSeva 

Metro Morning from CBC Radio Toronto (Highlights)

Hindus and Sikhs celebrate Diwali on October 24th -- Municipal Election Day. Can Ontario change the vote date? GTA International Students fall through many gaps, in life and death.

Common Threads: An Interfaith Dialogue
Khalistan: Anatomy of Terror Parts 1 & 2

Common Threads: An Interfaith Dialogue

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 15, 2022 57:00


There are several forces at work to break up India into separate ethno-religious states. The odd thing here is that the vast majority of Sikhs in the Punjab really enjoy being Indian. Yet, there is a small minority that want to create Khalistan, a Sikh theocracy. However, the real problem is that a large number of Sikhs in North America are strong backers of the idea; including those who would honor terrorists who would further their cause. Terry Milewski is an award winning journalist who has covered this story for over a decade. In these episodes we discuss his book Blood for Blood.

The Sikh Cast
1947: South Asia, Panjab & Sikhs | The Sikh Cast | SikhRI

The Sikh Cast

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 8, 2022 93:20


Several new South Asian nation-states were born as the British Raj ended in 1947. The Panjab of the Indus Valley civilization (3300-1300 BCE) and the Sikh Rulers (1710-1849) was annexed by the British in 1849 and partitioned by their Radcliffe line in 1947. Akalis have been representing the Sikh political consciousness since 1920. After 75 years of the Partition: Why are the significant sections of Panjabis and the Sikhs feeling estranged? What are the historical, cultural, geopolitical, trade, and economic contexts and realities? How can those mentioned above be addressed, given the current trends? ~~~ Presenters Harinder Singh - https://sikhri.org/people/harinder-singh Amandeep Singh Sandhu - https://sikhri.org/people/amandeep-sandhu Tridivesh Singh Maini - https://sikhri.org/people/tridivesh-singh-maini Listen to all podcasts at: https://sikhri.org/podcasts ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ABOUT OUR CHANNEL

The ਸੋਚ (Sōch) Podcast
The Rise of the Sikh Soldier | Gurinder Mann

The ਸੋਚ (Sōch) Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 31, 2022 84:36


Today I'm joined once again by Gurinder Singh Mann and we're discussing  his latest book - Rise of the Sikh Soldier - as well as a whole host of  other topics.    ★ Join the Ramblings of a Sikh YouTube Channel ★ ★ Support this podcast on Patreon ★ ★ Buy this podcast a coffee ★ You can find a time stamped breakdown of the full podcast below:   00:00 - Teaser 00:55 - Introduction 01:27 - What made you write the book? 04:01 - How did you go about your research for this book? 05:54 - Out of the 4 pages of illustrations listed in the book, which are worth mentioning? 08:30 - How did you go about picking who to include? 11:17 - Could you tell us a little bit about the upbringing of Jassa Singh Ahluwalia? 14:50 - Why did you not include Nawab Kapur Singh? 16:25 - What could you tell us about Jassa Singh Ahluwalia's reading of the political landscape? 22:32 - What could you tell us about the communications between the Misls and the British? 26:23 - In the letters between the Misls and the British - besides military matters - what else do they discuss? 29:24 - What is the political system of the time? 32:07 - How did the rakhi system work? Was it akin to racketeering? 38:10 - In a nutshell, who is Charat Singh Sukerchakia? 43:34 - What leads to the Sukerchakia's rise to power? 46:19 - Who is Lehna Singh Majithia? 50:19 - Is there a particular reason why the artillery was predominantly composed of Muslims? 52:58 - Although not included in the book, what could you say about Akali Phula Singh and Hari Singh Nalwa? 59:06 - Who is Sada Kaur & why is she important? 01:05:32 - What could you tell us about the military system of Ranjit Singh's Empire & the influence of European generals? 01:09:12 - Who are the elite troops of the Sikh Empire? 01:13:21 - Did the Sikhs ever conquer Afghanistan? 01:19:03 - Anything you wanted to mention or we've missed out? 01:21:27 - Where can I get a copy of ‘Rise of the Sikh Soldier'? 01:22:11 - Conclusion   

Indian History with Dr. Veenus
Sikhism: An Introduction

Indian History with Dr. Veenus

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 29, 2022 5:34


Sikhism is the world's fifth-largest religion with more than 25 million Sikhs worldwide. The Sikh Gurus, known as spiritual guides or teachers, established the religion. Guru Nanak was the first Guru and was born in the 15th Century in the Punjab region of India. Sikhs believe in the Oneness of all beings and the equality of everyone. Guru Nanak taught that one must honour God by honouring others and the Earth, God's creation. --- Send in a voice message: https://anchor.fm/venus-jain3/message

Basics of Sikhi Podcast
Experiences with Sant Baba Isher Singh Ji - Bhai Inderjit Singh Ji and Sunny Singh | Gurmukh Series

Basics of Sikhi Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 25, 2022 150:41


In this podcast, we are joined by Bhai Inderjit Singh Ji, who had the blessed opportunity to meet and do Sangat of Sant Baba Isher Singh Ji and their son, Sunny Singh; who organises the Annual Barsi Smagam in UK. Throughout this podcast, we speak about their many experiences, from direct conversations, captured recordings, and encounters with Ghosts! We touch upon Sant Baba Isher Singh Ji's daily routine, the effect they had on the Sikhs and the different Bachans (prophesies) that Sant Baba Isher Singh Ji gave. The conversation goes further where we discuss their experiences with other highly revered Sikhs of the time, such as Sant Baba Attar Singh Ji and Sant Baba Gurbachan Singh Ji, to name a few. Now we couldn't give away everything in this description but be sure to watch the whole thing; this podcast is full of unique gems you can keep with you for life. https://www.youtube.com/hashtag/santbabaishersinghjirarasahib (#santbabaishersinghjirarasahib) https://www.youtube.com/hashtag/sikh (#Sikh) https://www.youtube.com/hashtag/podcast (#Podcast) ————————————————

How To Die Happy
Ep 27 Mala Beads, Mantras, and Meditation, with Aum Rudraksha's Soma Temple

How To Die Happy

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 24, 2022 76:12


Amidst her travels some years ago, Soma Temple visited India, where she met the sage and guru, Papaji. From her first meeting with the spiritual leader, she knew there was something extraordinary about this man. She travelled between the US, Bali, and India for some time to visit with him. On one such visit, Papaji asked to meet with Soma, and at that meeting, he tasked her with a profoundly life-changing mission - to share Rudraksha beads with the world. Rudraksha is a fruit, the dried stones of which are used as prayer beads (mala beads) by Hindus, Buddhists and Sikhs. The stones are commonly worn for protection and use when chanting mantras. Rudraksha seeds can be found all over the world, but the most powerful (containing the most prana (lifeforce energy)) come from Java, right here in Indonesia. And so, tasked with the dharma outlined by Papaji, Soma returned to her home in Indonesia and created what would later become Aum Rudraksha, a global brand designing and distributing mala beads worldwide. Soma's been in Bali for 38 years now and, as you might expect, has some incredible stories and a unique understanding of Balinese culture. Having attended a Rudraksha bead mala workshop hosted by Aum Rudraksha, Martin and Jules visited Soma at her home in central Bali to learn more about this incredible woman, Rudraksha beads and their importance in spiritual practice. This conversation covers the magic surrounding malas, the spellcasting power of mantras, how to incorporate Rudraksha mala beads into meditation, and Bali's fascinating and richly spiritual Hindu culture. Some people have a special kind of energy, immediately putting you at ease, allowing you to feel centred even if they're a total stranger to you. Soma Temple's one such being - a beautiful soul to whom we are grateful for inviting us into her home and taking the time to sit and talk to us about her passion and dharma - to introduce Rudraksha beads to the world, just as Papaji requested. CONTACT US Love or hate what we're doing? Got a topic you'd like us to cover? A guest you'd like to introduce to the show or a question for an upcoming guest? Whatever's on your mind, feel free to send us a voice message here: https://anchor.fm/howtodiehappy/message --- Send in a voice message: https://anchor.fm/howtodiehappy/message

Razib Khan's Unsupervised Learning
Ed West: Albion past and future

Razib Khan's Unsupervised Learning

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 19, 2022 83:10 Very Popular


Despite the fundamental reality that the US exists thanks to a rebellion against the power of the British Crown in the 1700's, for the last century, the two dominant English-speaking powers have enjoyed a relatively positive geopolitical relationship. Whereas the US is younger, Britain has settled into the role of junior partner, as the daughter nation outstrips the parent in economic, military and cultural reach. And yet despite the commonalities between these two Anglo-Atlantic polities, there are also profound differences rooted in history. Chief among them, Britain, particularly England, has vastly more history than the US. The oldest church still in use in England, St. Martin's, dates to the last quarter of the 6th century AD, whereas the oldest building still in use in the continental US dates to 1610 AD, Santa Fe, NM's Palace of the Governors.   In this podcast episode, Razib discusses the history and culture of England with Ed West, author of the Wrong Side of History, an eminently writerly Substack that is ideal for a connoisseur of all things ancient (or at least medieval) and English. West, the author of many books on English history, expands on the importance of figures like Alfred the Great, Athelstan, the forgotten first true king of all England, and the Magna Carta, the document that set the template for later English political history, and possibly set the course toward the liberal democracy that dominates the world today. West also argues that Britain today has lost much of its distinctiveness as it becomes swallowed by America's cultural and political currents. He also contends that Britain is now importing subcontinental Hindu-Muslim rivalries into the British political system, as Hindus and Sikhs vote Conservative, while Muslims are aligned with Labour.

This Matters
Quebec's Bill 21 and its latest controversy

This Matters

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 19, 2022 18:03


Guest: Allan Woods, a Montreal-based reporter for The Star Quebec's controversial Bill 21 has been law for three years now, and what's known as the secularism law continues to cause controversies. The most recent one centres on a well known writer and his offence of a picture of an international student on a school's website. As Quebec prepares to enter another provincial election, Bill 21 is sure to come up again as court challenges to the law loom in the future. This episode was produced by Alexis Green, Matthew Hearn and Raju Mudhar Audio Sources: CSPAN, CBC and Global News

Consider This from NPR
Trying To Heal The Wounds Of Partition, 75 Years Later

Consider This from NPR

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 18, 2022 11:22 Very Popular


75 years ago this week, British colonial rule ended in India. Two new nations emerged - Muslim-majority Pakistan and Hindu-majority India. But that freedom was followed by chaos and bloodshed. Partition triggered a mass migration across a shared border, as millions of Muslims fled to Pakistan and millions of Hindus and Sikhs fled to India. Violent attacks happened on both sides of the border. An estimated one million people were killed. Pakistan and India still grapple with the repercussions of Partition and the effects are still felt today. NPR's Lauren Frayer tells us about an effort to heal some of those old wounds by reconnecting elderly survivors of Partition with the homes and villages they haven't seen in decades. Additional reporting in this episode from NPR's Diaa Hadid.You can read more about Diaa and Lauren's reporting on this story here.In participating regions, you'll also hear a local news segment to help you make sense of what's going on in your community.Email us at considerthis@npr.org.

Sikh History Sakhi
The Hidden Treasure

Sikh History Sakhi

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 16, 2022 6:54


Do you know about the hidden treasure of Sikhs that will come into use in future?  It still exists, to know more tune into this episodemusic: Arms of Heaven by Aakash Gandhi 

Witness History
India's Partition - Part Two

Witness History

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 16, 2022 10:37


The partition of India led to millions of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs fleeing their homes during horrific religious violence. This is the second of two programmes remembering that time. Lucy Williams spoke to Chandra Joashi, was only 12-years-old when his family was caught on the wrong side of the dividing line. This episode was first broadcast in 2010. Photo: Millions of families became refugees after the partition of India in 1947 Credit: Keystone-France / Contributor

Anticipating The Unintended
#181 We Shall Overcome

Anticipating The Unintended

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 15, 2022 54:59


Happy Independence Day!- Pranay Kotasthane and RSJThis newsletter can often seem pessimistic about India. That isn’t true, though. Every year, on Independence Day, we remind ourselves and our readers why we write this newsletter. This is how we ended the Independence Day edition of 2020:“What we have achieved so far is precious. That’s worth reminding ourselves today. We will go back to writing future editions lamenting our state of affairs.We will do so because we know it’s worth it.”  This year we thought it would be fun (?) to run through every year since 1947 and ask ourselves what happened in the year that had long-term repercussions for our nation. This kind of thing runs a serious risk. It can get tedious and all too familiar. Most of us know the landmark events of recent history and what they meant for the nation. Maybe. Maybe not. We’ve given an honest try (of over 8000 words) to see if there’s a different way of looking at these familiar events and their impact on us. Here we go.1947 - 1960: Sense Of A Beginning 1947Perhaps the most significant “What, if?” question for independent India surfaced on 17th August 1947 when the Radcliffe Line was announced. The partition of the Indian subcontinent has cast a long shadow. What if it had never happened? What if Nehru-Jinnah-Gandhi were able to strike a modus vivendi within a one-federation framework? These questions surface every year around independence.The indelible human tragedy of the partition aside, would an Akhand Bharat have served its citizens better? We don’t think so. We agree with Ambedkar’s assessment of this question. In Pakistan or the Partition of India, he approaches the question with detachment and realism, concluding that the forces of “communal malaise” had progressed to such an extent that resisting a political division would have led to a civil war, making everyone worse off. The partition must have been handled better without the accompanying humanitarian disaster. But on the whole, the partition was inevitable by 1947.“That the Muslim case for Pakistan is founded on sentiment is far from being a matter of weakness; it is really its strong point. It does not need deep understanding of politics to know that the workability of a constitution is not a matter of theory. It is a matter of sentiment. A constitution, like clothes, must suit as well as please. If a constitution does not please, then however perfect it may be, it will not work. To have a constitution which runs counter to the strong sentiments of a determined section is to court disaster if not to invite rebellion.” [Read the entire book here]1948What if Mahatma Gandhi wasn’t killed that year? How would the course of our history change? Gandhi spoke like an idealist and worked like a realist. He was possibly the most aware of the gap between the lofty ideals of our constitution and the reality of the Indian minds then. He knew the adoption of the constitution was only half the work done. He’d likely have devoted the rest of his life to building a liberal India at the grassroots level. His death pushed a particular stream of right-wing Hindu consciousness underground. We still carry the burden of that unfinished work.1949The Constituent Assembly met for the first time in December 1946. By November 26th 1949, this assembly adopted a constitution for India. Even a half-constructed flyover in Koramangala has taken us five years. For more context, Pakistan’s Constituent Assembly began work on 10th August 1947, and their first constitution came into force in March 1956, only to be abrogated two years later. India’s founding fathers and mothers were acutely aware that they were elite, unelected, and unrepresentative of the median Indian. They dared to imagine a new nation-state while grappling with that period's harsh economic, social, and political realities. Their work should inspire us to strengthen, improve, and rebuild—but never to give up on—the Republic of India.For more, check out the miracle that is India’s Constitution in our Republic Day 2021 special edition.1950We have written about our Constitution a number of times. It is an inspiring and audacious document in its ambition to shape a modern nation. It has its flaws. Some consider it too liberal; others think it makes the State overbearing. Some find it too long; others feel it comes up short. This may all be true. However, there is no doubt our constitution has strengthened our democracy, protected the weak and continues to act as a tool for social change. It is our North Star. And a damn good one at that. 1951Few post-independence institutions have stood the test of time as the Finance Commission (FC), first established in 1951. In federal systems, horizontal and vertical imbalances in revenue generation and expenditure functions are commonplace. Closing the gap requires an impartial institution that is well-regarded by various levels of government and the people. The Finance Commission is that institution.It’s not as if it didn’t face any challenges. As a constitutional body established under article 280 of the Constitution, it was sidelined by an extra-constitutional and powerful Planning Commission until 2014. But we have had 15 FCs in total, and each key tax revenue-sharing recommendation has become government policy.1952Our Constitution adopted a universal adult franchise as the basis for elections. Every citizen was to be part of the democratic project. There was to be no bar on age, sex, caste or education. And this was to be done in one of the most unequal societies in the world. The ambition was breathtaking. To put this in context, women were allowed to vote in Switzerland only in 1971. Not only did we aim for this, but we also moved heaven and earth to achieve it in 1952. In his book India After Gandhi, Ram Guha describes the efforts of the government officials led by the first Election Commissioner, Sukumar Sen, to reach the last man or woman for their ballot. The elites may lament vote bank politics or cash for votes scams and question the wisdom of universal franchise. But we shouldn’t have had it any other way. And, for the record, our people have voted with remarkable sophistication in our short independent history. 1953 For a new nation-state, the Republic of India punched above its weight in bringing hostilities on the Korean peninsula to an end. Not only did the Indian government’s work shape the Armistice Agreement, but it also chaired a Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission (NNRC) that was set up to decide the future of nearly 20,000 prisoners of war from both sides. This experience during the Cold War strengthened India’s advocacy of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM).  1954Article 25 guaranteed the freedom of conscience and the freedom to profess, practice, and propagate religion to all citizens. But how does one define a religious practice? And can a practice under the garb of religion breach the boundary of individual rights or public morality? This is a familiar conflict zone in secular States and would inevitably show up in India because everything in India can be construed as a religious practice. Like Ambedkar said during the constituent assembly debates:“The religious conceptions in this country are so vast that they cover every aspect of life from birth to death…there is nothing extraordinary in saying that we ought to strive hereafter to limit the definition of religion in such a manner that we shall not extend it beyond beliefs and such rituals as may be connected with ceremonials which are essentially religious..."In 1954, the Supreme Court gave a landmark judgment on what constitutes a religious practice in what’s known as the Shirur Math case. It held that the term religion would cover all practices integral to that religion. Further, the Court will determine what practice will be deemed essential with reference to doctrines within that religion itself.This test of ‘essentiality’ in religion has kept the public, the legislature and the courts busy since (entry of women in Sabarimala, headscarf in Islam, to name two). The outcome has bent towards individual liberty in most contexts, but the ambiguity in the definition of essential means it could go the other way too.1955Another wild "What, if” moment that we like to recall relates to Milton Friedman’s visit to the Indian finance ministry in 1955. What shape would India’s economy have taken had his seminal document “A Memorandum to the Government of India 1955” been heeded?In this note, Friedman gets to the root of India’s macroeconomic problems—an overburdened investment policy, restrictive policies towards the private sector, erratic monetary policy, and a counterproductive exchange control regime. Being bullish about India’s prospects was courageous when most observers wrote epitaphs about the grand Indian experiment. But Friedman was hopeful and critical both.The Indian government, for its part, was humble enough to seek the advice of foreigners from opposing schools of thought. At the same time, it was too enamoured by the Soviet command and control model. In fact, many items from Friedman’s note can be repurposed as economic reforms even today.Here’re our points from Friedman’s note.1956The idea of One Nation, One ‘X’ (language, election, song, tax, choose any other) is both powerful and seductive. It is not new, however. Back in the 50s, there was a view that we must not strengthen any identity that divides us. So when the question of reorganisation of the colonial provinces into new states came up, an argument was made that it must be done on factors other than language. Nehru, ever the modernist, thought the creation of language-based states would lead us down the path of ethnic strife. The example of nation-states in Europe built on language in the 19th century and the two devastating world wars thereafter were too recent then. So, he demurred.Agitation, hunger strikes and deaths followed before we chose language as the primary basis for reorganising the states. It was perhaps the best decision taken by us in the 50s. As the years since have shown, only a polity assured of its heritage and identity will voluntarily accept diversity. The melding of our diversity into a single identity cannot be a top-down imposition. We should never forget this.1957India’s economic strategy of state-led industrialisation through deficit financing in pursuit of import substitution took off with the Second Five-Year Plan. Heavy industries needed imported machinery, inflating India’s import bill. Since the exchange rate was pegged to the British pound, it meant that Indian exports became pricier. This imbalance between rising imports and flagging exports was financed by running down the foreign exchange reserves. By 1957, India witnessed its first foreign exchange crisis. This event had a significant effect on India’s economy. Instead of devaluing the rupee, the government opted for foreign exchange budgeting - every investment in a project needed government approval for the foreign exchange required to buy foreign inputs. The immediate crisis in 1957 led to controls that worsened India’s economic prospects over the next 35 years.1958The government nationalised all insurance companies a couple of years earlier. India hadn’t gotten into a socialist hell yet, so this was a bit of a surprise. The proximate cause was a fraud that few private life insurers had committed by misusing the policyholders’ funds to help their industrialist friends. A run-of-the-mill white-collar crime that should have been dealt with by the criminal justice system. But the government viewed it as a market failure and moved to nationalise the entire industry. It would take another 45 years for private players to come back to insurance. Insurance penetration in India meanwhile remained among the lowest in the world.  Also, in 1958, Feroze Gandhi took to the floor of Lok Sabha to expose how LIC, the state insurer, had diverted its funds to help Haridas Mundhra, a Calcutta-based businessman. The same crime that private insurers had done.The government would repeat this pattern of getting involved where there was no market failure. The outcomes would inevitably turn out to be worse. Seven decades later, we remain instinctively socialist and wary of capital. Our first reaction to something as trifling as a surge price by Ola or a service charge levied by restaurants is to ask the State to interfere.1959“The longest guest of the Indian government”, the 14th Dalai Lama pre-empted the Chinese government’s plans for his arrest and escaped to India. Not only did India provide asylum, but it also became home to more than a hundred thousand Tibetans. Because of the bold move by the Indian government in 1959, the Central Tibetan Administration continues its struggle as a Nation and a State in search of regaining control over their Country to this day. This event also changed India-China relations for the decades to come.1960Search as hard as we might; we hardly got anything worth discussing for this year. Maybe we were all sitting smugly waiting for an avalanche of crisis to come our way. Steel plants, dams and other heavy industries were being opened. The budget outlay for agriculture was reduced. We were talking big on the international stage about peace and non-alignment. But if you had looked closer, things were turning pear-shaped. The many dreams of our independence were turning sour.The 60s: Souring Of The Dream1961The Indian Army marched into Goa in December 1961. The 450-year Portuguese colonial rule ended, and the last colonial vestige in India was eliminated. It took this long because Portugal’s dictator Antonio Salazar stuck to his guns on controlling Portuguese colonies in the subcontinent, unlike the British and the French. Portugal’s membership in NATO further made it difficult for the Indian government to repeat the operations in Hyderabad and Junagadh. Nevertheless, that moment eventually arrived in 1961. This was also the year when India’s first indigenous aircraft, the HAL HF-24 Marut, took its first flight. Made in Bengaluru by German designer Kurt Tank, the aircraft was one of the first fighter jets made outside the developed world. The aircraft served well in the war that came a decade later. It never lived up to its promises, but it became a matter of immense pride and confidence for a young nation-state.1962Among the lowest points in the history of independent India. We’ve written about our relationship with China many times in the past editions. The 1962 war left a deep impact on our psyche. We didn’t recover for the rest of the decade. The only good thing out of it was the tempering of idealism in our approach to international relations. That we take a more realist stance these days owes its origins to the ‘betrayal’ of 1962.1963ISRO launched the first sounding rocket in November 1963. Over the years, this modest beginning blossomed into a programme with multiple launch vehicles. The satellite programmes also took off a few years later, making India a mighty player in the space sector. 1964If you told anyone alive in 1964 that less than 60 years later, Nehru would be blamed for all that was wrong with India by a substantial segment of its population, they would have laughed you out of the room. But here we are in 2022, and there’s never a day that passes without a WhatsApp forward that talks about Nehru’s faults. It seems inevitable that by the time we celebrate the centenary of our independence, he would be a borderline reviled figure in our history. But that would be an aberration. In the long arc of history, he will find his due as a flawed idealist who laid the foundation of modern India. 1964 was the end of an era.1965As the day when Hindi would become the sole official language of the Indian Union approached, the anti-Hindi agitation in the Madras presidency morphed into riots. Many people died in the protests, and it led to the current equilibrium on language policy. The “one State, one language” project moved to the back burner, even as Hindi became an important link language across the country. The lesson was the same as in the case of the 1956 states reorganisation: melding our diversity into a single identity cannot be a top-down imposition.1966The two wars in the decade's first half, the inefficient allocation of capital driven by the second and third five-year plans, and the consecutive monsoon failure meant India was on the brink in 1966. The overnight devaluation of the Rupee by over 50 per cent, the timely help with food grains from the US and some providence pulled us back from it. The green revolution followed, and we have remained self-sufficient in food since.The experience of being on the brink taught us nothing. We still believe in the Pigouvian theory of market failure, where government policies are expected to deliver optimality.  Strangely, the idea that we reform only in crisis has only strengthened. There cannot be worse ways to change oneself than under the shadow of a crisis. But we have made a virtue out of it.1967This was the year when the Green Revolution took baby steps, and the Ehlrichian prediction about India’s impending doom was put to rest. But it was also the year when the Indian government made a self-goal by adopting a policy called items reserved for manufacture exclusively by the small-scale sector. By reserving whole product lines for manufacturing by small industries, this policy kept Indian firms small and uncompetitive. And like all bad ideas, it had a long life. The last 20 items on this list were removed only in April 2015. We wrote about this policy here. 1968In the past 75 years, we have reserved some of our worst public policies for the education sector. We have an inverted pyramid. A handful of tertiary educational institutions produce world-class graduates at the top. On the other end, we have a total failure to provide quality primary education to the masses. It is not because of a lack of intent. The National Education Policy (NEP) that first came up in 1968 is full of ideas, philosophy and a desire to take a long-term view about education in India. But it was unmoored from the economic or social reality of the nation. We often say here that we shouldn’t judge a policy based on its intentions. That there’s no such thing as a good policy but bad implementation because thinking about what can work is part of policy itself. NEP is Exhibit A in favour of this argument.1969 The nationalisation of 14 private-sector banks was a terrible assault on economic freedom under the garb of serving the public interest. The sudden announcement of a change in ownership of these banks was challenged in the courts, but the government managed to thwart it with an ordinance. Fifty years later, we still have low credit uptake even as governments continue to recapitalise loss-making banks with taxpayer money.1970The dominant economic thinking at the beginning of the 70s in India placed the State at the centre of everything. But that wasn’t how the world was moving. There was a serious re-examination of the relationship between the State and the market happening elsewhere. The eventual shift to a deregulated, small government economic model would happen by the decade's end. This shift mostly passed India by. But there were a few voices who questioned the state orthodoxy and, in some ways, sowed the intellectual seeds for liberalisation in future. In 1970, Jagdish Bhagwati and Padma Desai published their monograph, India: Planning for Industrialisation, which argued that our economic policies since independence had crippled us. It showed with data how central planning, import substitution, public sector-led industrial policy and license raj have failed. But it found no takers. In fact, we doubled down on these failed policies for the rest of the decade. It was a tragedy foretold. What if someone had gone against the consensus and paid attention to that paper? That dissent could perhaps have been the greatest service to the nation. It is useful to remember this today when any scepticism about government policies is met with scorn. Dissent is good. The feeblest of the voice might just be right.The 70s: Losing The Plot1971Kissinger visited China in July 1971 via Pakistan. Responding to the changing world order, India and the USSR signed an Indo–Soviet Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cooperation in August of that year. India had become an ally of the USSR. Four months later, the India-Pakistan war pitted India and the USSR against Pakistan, China, and the US. The Indian strategic community came to internalise USSR as a super-reliable partner and the West as a supporter of India’s foes. It took another three decades, and the collapse of the USSR, for a change in this thinking. Even today, Russia finds massive support in the Indian strategic establishment. We had problematised this love for Russia here. 1972India won the 1972 war with Pakistan and liberated Bangladesh. India’s unilateral action stopped a humanitarian disaster. The victory was decisive, and the two parties met in Simla to agree on the way forward. This should have been a slam dunk for India in resolving festering issues on the international boundary, Kashmir and the role of the third parties. But international diplomacy is a two-level game, and Bhutto played that to his advantage. We explained this in edition 30. We paid a high price for giving away that win to Bhutto.1973The Kesavananda Bharti verdict of the Supreme Court rescued the Republic of India from a rampaging authoritarian. The basic structure doctrine found a nice balance to resolve the tension between constitutional immutability and legislative authority to amend the constitution. Bibhu Pani discussed this case in more detail here. 1974You are the State. Here are your crimes. You force import substitution, you regulate the currency, you misallocate capital, you let the public sector and a handful of licensed private players produce inferior quality products at a high cost, you raise the marginal tax rate at the highest level to 97 per cent, you run a large current account deficit, and you cannot control Rupee depreciation.Result?People find illegal ways to bring in foreign goods, currency and gold. And so was born the villain of every urban Bollywood film of the 70s. And a career option for a capitalist-minded kid like me. The Smuggler.But the State isn’t the criminal here. The smuggler is. And the State responded with a draconian law to beat all others. An act the knowledge of whose expanded form would serve kids well in those school quizzes of the 80s. COFEPOSA — The Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Act. A predatory state's defining feature is how it forces ordinary citizens to do unlawful activities. COFEPOSA was the mother of such laws. It has spawned many children. 1975This blank editorial by the Indian Express says it all. 1976We view our population as a core problem. The politicians, the public servants and the ordinary citizens share this view. We don’t want to acknowledge our governance deficit. Calling population a problem allows us to shirk the responsibility of running a functioning State. We have written about the flaw in thinking about the population as a problem on many occasions.How far could we go to control the population? Well, in 1976, during the peak of the Emergency, the State decided to sterilise male citizens against their wishes. This madness ended when the Emergency was lifted. But even today calls for population control keep coming back. 1977The first non-Congress union government was an important milestone for the Indian Republic. While Morarji Desai’s government did reverse the worst excesses of the Emergency rule, its economic policies were less successful. This period went on to witness a demonetisation in search of black money (2016 from the future says Hi!), and the same old counter-productive policies in search of self-reliance.1978Despite all available evidence that statist socialism was an abject failure, the Janata government that came to power decided to double down on it. One of the great ideas of the time was to force MNCs to reduce their stake in their Indian subsidiaries to below 40 per cent. A handful agreed, but the large corporations quit India. One of those who left was IBM in 1978. The many existing installations of IBM computers needed services and maintenance. In a delightful case of unintended consequences, this led to the nationalisation of IBM’s services division (later called CMC). Domestic companies started to serve this niche. Soon there were the likes of Infosys, Wipro and HCL building a business on this. CMC provided a good training ground for young engineers. And so, the Indian IT services industry got underway. It would change the lives of educated Indians forever.1979In a classic case of violating the Tinbergen rule, the Mandal Commission recommended that the reservation policy should be used to address relative deprivation. While the earlier reservations for oppressed castes stood on firm ground as a means for addressing unconscionable historical wrongs, the Mandal Commission stretched the logic too far. Its recommendation would eventually make reservation policy the go-to solution for any group that could flex its political muscles. We wrote about it here. 1980After ditching the Janata experiment and running out of ideas to keep Jan Sangh going, the BJP was formed. It wasn’t a momentous political occasion of any sort then. A party constitution that aimed for Gandhian socialism and offered vague promises of a uniform civil code and nationalism didn’t excite many. Everything else that would propel the party in later years was to be opportunistic add-ons to the ideology. The founding leaders, Advani and Vajpayee, would have been shocked if you told them what the party would be like, four decades later.The 80s: A Million Mutinies Now1981This year witnessed a gradual shift away from doctrinaire socialism in economic policymaking. “The Indira Gandhi government lifted restrictions on the expansion of production, permitted new private borrowing abroad, and continued the liberalisation of import controls,” wrote Walter Anderson. The government also “allowed” some price rises, leading to increased production of key input materials. The government also permitted foreign companies to compete in drilling rights in India. All in all, a year that witnessed changes for the better. 1982The great textile strike of Bombay in 1982 was inevitable. The trade unions had gotten so powerful that there was a competitive race to the bottom on who could be more militant. Datta Samant emerged intent on breaking the monopoly of RMMS on the city's workers. And he did this with ever spiralling demands from mill owners in a sector that was already bloated with overheads and facing competition from far eastern economies. There was no way to meet these demands. The owners locked the mills and left. Never to come back. The old, abandoned mills remained. The workers remained. Without jobs, without prospects and with kids who grew up angry and unemployed. The rise of Shiv Sena, political goondaism and a malevolent form of underworld followed. Bombay changed forever. It was all inevitable.1983The Nellie massacre in Assam and the Dhilwan bus massacre in Punjab represent the year 1983. Things seemed really dark back then. It seemed that the doomsayers would be proved right about India. Eventually, though, the Indian Republic prevailed. 1984Her Sikh bodyguards assassinated India Gandhi. The botched Punjab policy of the previous five years came a full circle with it. An unforgivable backlash against innocent Sikhs followed. A month later, deadly gas leaked out of a Union Carbide factory in Bhopal, killing and paralysing thousands. 1984 will rank among the worst years of our republic. There were two silver linings in retrospect. One, we would learn to manage secessionist movements better from the harrowing Punjab experience. Two, had Indira continued, would we have had 1991? Our guess is no.1985This was an eventful year in retrospect. Texas Instruments set up shop in Bangalore. It was to begin one of modern India’s true success stories on the world stage. This was also the year when the Anti-defection law transformed the relationship between the voter and her representative. Political parties became all-powerful, and people’s representatives were reduced to political party agents. We have written about this changing dynamic here. This was also the year when the then commerce minister, VP Singh, visited Malaysia. The visit was significant for India because it served as a reference point for Singh when he visited that country again in 1990, now as the Prime minister. Surprised by Malaysia’s transformation in five years, he asked his team to prepare a strategy paper for economic reforms. This culminated in the “M” document, which became a blueprint for reforms when the time for the idea eventually came in 1991.1986Who is a citizen of India?  This vexing question roiled Assam in the early 80s. The student union protests against the widespread immigration of Bangladeshis turned violent, and things had turned ugly by 1985. The Assam accord of 1985 sought to settle the state's outstanding issues,, including deporting those who arrived after 1971 and a promise to amend the Citizenship Act. The amended Citizenship Act of 1986 restricted the citizenship of India to those born before 1987 only if either of their parents were born in India. That meant children of couples who were illegal immigrants couldn’t be citizens of India simply by virtue of their birth in India. That was that, or so we thought.But once you’ve amended the definition of who can be a citizen of India, you have let the genie out. The events of 2019 will attest to that.1987Rajiv Gandhi’s ill-fated attempt to replicate Indira Gandhi’s success through military intervention in another country began in 1987. In contrast to the 1971 involvement, where Indian forces had the mass support of the local populace, the Indian Peacekeeping Force (IPKF) got itself embroiled in a bitter Sri Lankan civil war. Not only did this involvement end in a failure, it eventually led to Rajiv Gandhi’s brutal murder in a terrorist attack. The policy lesson internalised by the strategic community was that India must stay far away from developing and deploying forces overseas.1988Most government communication is propaganda in disguise. However, there are those rare occasions when government messaging transcends the ordinary. In 1988, we saw that rare bird during the peak era of a single government channel running on millions of black and white TV sets across India. A government ad that meant something to all of us and that would remain with us forever. Mile Sur Mera Tumhara got everything right - the song, the singers, the storyline and that ineffable thing called the idea of India. No jingoism, no chest beating about being the best country in the world and no soppy sentimentalism. Just a simple message - we might all sing our own tunes, but we are better together. This is a timeless truth. No nation in history has become better by muting the voice of a section of their own people. Mile Sur Mera Tumhara, Toh Sur Bane Hamara, indeed.  19891989 will be remembered as the year when the Indian government capitulated to the demands of Kashmiri terrorists in the Rubaiya Sayeed abduction case. It would spark off a series of kidnappings and act as a shot in the arm of radicals. 1990VP Singh dusted off the decade-long copy of the Mandal Commission report and decided to implement it. This wasn’t an ideological revolution. It was naked political opportunism. However, three decades later, the dual impact of economic reforms and social engineering has increased social mobility than ever before. Merit is still a matter of debate in India. But two generations of affirmative action in many of the progressive states have shown the fears of merit being compromised were overblown. The task is far from finished, but Mandal showed that sometimes you need a big bang to get things going, even if your intentions were flawed.1990 also saw the exodus of Kashmiri Pandits (KPs) from the valley. A tragedy that would bookend a decade of strife and violence in India. The only lesson one should draw from the sad plight of KPs is that the State and the people must protect minority rights. We’re not sure that’s what we have taken away from it. And that’s sad.The 90s: Correcting The Course1991With the benefit of hindsight, the 1991 economic reforms seem inevitable. But things could well have been different. In the minority government, powerful voices advocated in favour of debt restructuring instead of wholesale reforms. In the end, the narrative that these changes were merely a continuation—and not abandonment—of Nehru and Indira Gandhi’s vision for India carried the day. This political chicanery deserves some credit for transforming the life of a billion Indians. 1992Harshad Mehta scammed the stock markets. It wasn’t a huge scam. Nor did it hurt the ordinary Indians. Fewer than 1% invested in markets back then. Yet, the scam did something important. It set in motion a series of reforms that made our capital markets stronger and safer for ordinary investors. Notably, over the years, Mehta came to be seen as some kind of robber baron figure. Capitalism needed an anti-hero to catch the imagination of people. Someone who could reprise in the 90s the Bachchan-esque angry young man roles of the 70s. Mehta might not have been that figure exactly, but he helped a generation transition to the idea that greed could indeed be good.Also, Babri Masjid was brought down by a mob of kar sevaks in 1992. It will remain a watershed moment in our history. The Supreme Court judgement of 2019 might be the final judicial word on it. But we will carry the scars for a long time.1993The tremors of the demolition of the Babri Masjid were felt in 1993. Twelve bombs went off in Bombay on one fateful day. The involvement of the city’s mafia groups was established. The tragic event finally led to the government rescuing the city from the underworld. Not to forget, the Bombay underworld directly resulted from government policies such as prohibition and gold controls. 1994One of the great acts of perversion in our democracy was the blatant abuse of Section 356 of the constitution that allowed the union to dismiss a state government at the slightest pretext. Indira Gandhi turned this into an art form. S. R. Bommai, whose government in Karnataka was dismissed in this manner in 1988, took his case up to the Supreme Court. In 1994, the court delivered a verdict that laid out the guidelines to prevent the abuse of Section 356. It is one of the landmark judgments of the court and restored some parity in Union and state relationship.Article 356 has been used sparingly since. We are a better democracy because of it.1995India joined the WTO, and the first-ever mobile phone call was made this year. But 1995 will forever be remembered as the year when Ganesha idols started drinking milk. This event was a precursor to the many memes, information cascades, and social proofs that have become routine in the information age. 1996Union budgets in India are occasions for dramatic policy announcements. It is a mystery why a regular exercise of presenting the government's accounts should become a policy event. But that’s the way we roll. In 1996 and 1997, P. Chidambaram presented them as the FM of a weak ragtag coalition called the United Front. But he presented two budgets for the ages. The rationalisation of income tax slabs and the deregulation of interest rates created a credit culture that led to the eventual consumption boom in the next decade. We still carry that consumption momentum.1997The creation of the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) is an important public policy milestone for India. By no means perfect, the setting up of TRAI helped overturn a norm where government departments were both players and umpires. TRAI made the separation of “steering” and “rowing” functions a new normal. That template has been copied in several sectors thereafter, most recently in the liberalisation of the space sector. 1998India did Pokhran 2, which gave it the capability to build thermonuclear weapons. We faced sanctions and global condemnation. But the growing economy and a sizeable middle class meant those were soon forgotten. Economic might can let you get away with a lot. We have seen it happen to us, but it is a lesson we don’t understand fully.Also, in 1998, Sonia Gandhi jumped into active politics. The Congress that was ambling towards some sort of internal democracy decided to jettison it all and threw its weight behind the dynasty. It worked out for them for a decade or so. But where are they now? Here’s a question. What if Sonia didn’t join politics then? Congress might have split. But who knows, maybe those splinters might have coalesced in the future with a leader chosen by the workers. And we would have had a proper opposition today with a credible leader.1999This was a landmark year for public policy. For the first time, a union government-run company was privatised wholly. We wrote about the three narratives of disinvestment here. 2000We have a weak, extended and over-centralised state. And to go with it, we have large, unwieldy states and districts that make the devolution of power difficult. In 2000, we created three new states to facilitate administrative convenience. On balance, it has worked well. Despite the evidence, we have managed to create only one more state since. The formation of Telangana was such a political disaster that it will take a long time before we make the right policy move of having smaller states. It is a pity.The 2000s: The Best Of Times2001Not only was the Agra Summit between Musharraf and Vajpayee a dud, but it was followed by a terrorist attack on the Indian parliament. It confirmed a pattern: PM-level bilateral meetings made the Pakistani military-jihadi complex jittery, and it invariably managed to spike such moves with terrorist attacks. 2002There was Godhra and the riots that followed. What else is there to say?2003The Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act and the Civil Services Pension Reform are two policy successes with many lessons for future policymakers. We have discussed these on many occasions. 2004The NDA government called for an early election, confident about its prospects. India Shining, its campaign about how good things were, wasn’t too far from the truth. It is how many of us felt during that time. The NDA government had sustained the reform momentum of the 90s with some of the best minds running the key departments. Its loss was unexpected. Chandrababu Naidu, a politician who fashioned himself like a CEO, was taken to the cleaners in Andhra Pradesh. Apparently, economic reforms didn’t get you votes. The real India living in villages was angry at being left out. That was the lesson for politicians from 2004. Or, so we were told.Such broad narratives with minimal factual analysis backing them have flourished in the public policy space. There is no basis for them. The loss of NDA in 2004 came down to two states. Anti-incumbency in Andhra Pradesh where a resurgent Congress under YS Reddy beat TDP, a constituent of NDA. TDP lost by similar margins (in vote share %) across the state in all demographics in both rural and urban areas. There was no rural uprising against Naidu because of his tech-savvy, urban reformist image. Naidu lost because the other party ran a better campaign. Nothing else. The other mistake of the NDA was in choosing to partner with the ruling AIADMK in Tamil Nadu (TN) over DMK. TN was famous for not giving split verdicts. It swung to extremes between these two parties in every election. And that’s what happened as AIADMK drew a blank.Yet, the false lesson of 2004 has played on the minds of politicians since. We haven’t gotten back on track on reforms in the true sense. 2005The Right to Information Act and the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act came into force in 2005. The “right to X” model of governance took root.2006In March 2006, George W Bush visited India and signed the Civil Nuclear Cooperation Agreement with Manmohan Singh. From facing sanctions in 1998 for Pokhran 2 to the 123 Agreement, this was a victory for Indian diplomacy and its rising status in the world. You would think this would have had bipartisan support among the political class in India. Well, the Left that was part of UPA and the BJP that worked on the deal when it was in power, opposed it. Many shenanigans later, the deal was passed in the parliament in 2008. It is often said there’s no real ideological divide among parties in India. This view can be contested on various grounds. But events like the opposition to the nuclear deal make you wonder if there are genuine ideological positions on key policy issues in India. Many sound policy decisions are opposed merely for the sake of it. Ideology doesn’t figure anywhere. 2007It was the year when the Left parties were out-lefted. In Singur and Nandigram, protests erupted over land acquisition for industrial projects. The crucible of the resulting violence created a new political force. As for the investment, the capital took a flight to other places. The tax on capital ended up being a tax on labour. Businesses stayed away from West Bengal. The citadel of Left turned into its mausoleum.2008Puja Mehra in her book The Lost Decade traces the origin of India losing its way following the global financial crisis to the Mumbai terror attack of 2008. Shivraj Patil, the home minister, quit following the attack and Chidambaram was shifted from finance to fill in. For reasons unknown, Pranab Mukherjee, a politician steeped in the 70s-style-Indira-Gandhi socialism, was made the FM. Mehra makes a compelling case of how that one decision stalled reforms, increased deficit and led to runaway inflation over the next three years. Till Chidambaram was brought back to get the house in order, it was too late, and we were halfway into a lost decade. It is remarkable how bad policies always seem easy to implement while good policies take ages to get off the blocks.2009The Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) was established in January 2009 to architect a unique digital identity for persons in a country where low rates of death and birth registrations made fake and duplicate identities a means for corruption and denial of service. Under the Modi government, the digital identity — Aadhaar — became the fulcrum of several government services. This project also set the stage for later projects such as the Unified Payments Interface (UPI) and Abha (Health ID).2010There’s petty corruption everywhere in India. It is pervasive. Not surprisingly, it is one political issue leading to mass movements in India. The anti-corruption mood gripped India in 2010 on the back of the 2G spectrum scam, where the chief accountant of the government claimed a notional loss of about Rs. 1.8 trillion to the exchequer. Auctioning of natural resources wasn’t exactly a transparent process then. It was evident there was a scam in the allotment of the 2G spectrum. But the 1.8 trillion number was a wild exaggeration that anyone with a semblance of business understanding could see through. It didn’t matter. That number caught the imagination. UPA 2 never recovered from it. More importantly, the auction policy for resources was distorted forever. We still suffer the consequences.The 2010s: Missed Opportunity2011India’s last case of wild poliovirus was detected in 2011. Until about the early 1990s, an average of 500 to 1000 children got paralysed daily in India. The original target for eradication was the year 2000. Nevertheless, we got there eleven years later. India’s pulse polio campaign has since become a source of confidence for public policy execution in India. We internalised the lesson that the Indian government can sometimes deliver through mission mode projects. 2012If you cannot solve a vexing public policy issue, turn it into a Right. It won’t work, but it will seem like you’ve done everything. After years of trying to get the national education policy right, the government decided it was best to make education a fundamental right in the Constitution. Maybe that will make the problem go away. A decade later, nothing has changed, but we have an additional right to feel good about.2013This year saw the emergence of AAP as a political force via the anti-corruption movement. AAP combines the classic elements of what makes a political party successful in India - statist instincts, focus on aam aadmi issues, populism and ideological flexibility. Importantly, it is good at telling its own version of some future utopia rather than questioning the utopia of others. 2014The BJP came to power with many promises; the most alluring of them was ‘minimum government, maximum governance’. Over the past eight years it has claimed success in meeting many of its promises, but even its ardent supporters won’t claim any success on minimum government. In fact, it has gone the other way. That a party with an immensely popular PM, election machinery that rivals the best in the world, and virtually no opposition cannot shake us off our instinctive belief in the State's power never ceases to surprise us.2015The murder of a person by a mob on the charges of eating beef was the first clear indication of the upsurge of a new violent, majoritarian polity. It was also one of the early incidents in India of radically networked communities using social media for self-organisation. Meanwhile, 2015 also witnessed the signing of a landmark boundary agreement between India and Bangladesh, which ended the abomination called the third-order enclave. The two States exchanged land peacefully, upholding the principle that citizen well-being trumps hardline interpretations of territorial integrity. 2016There will be many case studies written in future about demonetisation. Each one of them will end with a single conclusion. Public policy requires discussion and consensus, not stealth and surprise. We hope we have learnt our lesson from it.2017Until 2017, many in India still held the hope of a modus vivendi with China. Some others were enamoured by the Chinese model of governance. However, the Doklam crisis in 2017, and the Galwan clashes in 2020, changed all that. Through this miscalculation, China alienated a full generation of Indians, led to better India-US relations, and energised India to shift focus away from merely managing a weak Pakistan, and toward raising its game for competing with a stronger adversary. For this reason, we wrote a thank you note to Xi Jinping here. 2018It took years of efforts by the LGBTQ community to get Section 377 scrapped. In 2018, they partially won when the Supreme Court diluted Section 377 to exclude all kinds of adult consensual sexual behaviour. The community could now claim equal constitutional status as others. There’s still some distance to go for the State to acknowledge non-heterosexual unions and provide for other civil rights to the community. But the gradual acceptance of the community because of decriminalisation is a sign that our society doesn’t need moral policing or lectures to judge what’s good for it.2019The J&K Reorganisation Act changed the long-standing political status quo in Kashmir. Three years on, the return to political normalcy and full statehood still awaits. While a response by Pakistan was expected, it was China that fomented trouble in Ladakh, leading to the border clashes in 2020. 2020We have written multiple pieces on farm laws in the past year. The repeal of these laws, which were fundamentally sound because of a vocal minority, is the story of public policy in India. Good policies are scuttled because of the absence of consultation, an unclear narrative, opportunistic politicking or plain old hubris. We write this newsletter in the hope of changing this. 2021The second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic left behind many bereaved families. People are still trying to pick up the pieces. The sadness was also interrupted by frustration because of the delays in getting the vaccination programme going. India benefited immensely from domestic vaccine manufacturing capability in the private sector. Despite many twists and turns in vaccine pricing and procurements, the year ended with over 1 billion administered doses. In challenging times, the Indian State, markets, and society did come together to fight the pandemic. So, here we are. In the 75th independent year of this beautiful, fascinating and often exasperating nation. We are a work in progress. We might walk slowly, but we must not walk backwards. May we all live in a happy, prosperous and equal society. Thanks for reading Anticipating the Unintended! Subscribe for free to receive new posts and support our work. This is a public episode. If you would like to discuss this with other subscribers or get access to bonus episodes, visit publicpolicy.substack.com

covid-19 tv ceo china europe peace state british french west russia chinese government friendship german lgbtq left public congress indian supreme court political court overcome union states portugal muslims businesses whatsapp islam emergency insurance switzerland responding economic korean prevention republic constitution pakistan independence day tn ibm prime capitalism twelve steel cold war nato malaysia conservation domestic indians soviet portuguese result george w bush fifty singh agreement bangladesh surprised hindu mumbai dalai lama bollywood gandhi hindi north star friedman cooperation ideology ussr rs xi jinping pakistani tibetans merit bangalore kashmir anticipating modi importantly notably bombay dissent lic calcutta nda mehta mahatma gandhi strangely goa punjab sri lankan indo fcs wto happy independence day cmc trai one nation hyderabad partition 2g milton friedman aap bangladeshi smuggler unintended assam information act bjp memorandum bengaluru karnataka ganesha sikhs foreign exchange agitation nep west bengal texas instruments madras infosys ladakh green revolution upa planning commission bhopal hcl india pakistan rupee india china kashmiri andhra pradesh mehra wipro republic day nehru united front mncs naidu indira gandhi telangana mandal ambedkar tdp indian express aadhaar bhutto lost decade lok sabha industrialisation auctioning advani gandhian dmk india us constituent assembly kps indian it shiv sena bachchan chidambaram rajiv gandhi manmohan singh sonia gandhi union carbide citizenship act indian state babri masjid sabarimala musharraf janata aiadmk vajpayee doklam tinbergen walter anderson ram guha chandrababu naidu jagdish bhagwati pranay kotasthane
Radio Islam
THE 1947 PARTITION – PAKISTAN 75 YEARS LATER

Radio Islam

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 15, 2022 9:39


It has been 75 years since British-ruled India was carved into two new states – independent India and Pakistan, a homeland for Muslims. The Partition of the subcontinent in 1947 was violent, leading to one of the biggest migrations of the 20th century. An estimated 10 million people fled across the newly drawn borders, Hindus, and Sikhs to India and Muslims to Pakistan. Perhaps a million people were killed. Families were torn apart. Dost Muhammad Barrech is a former Research Associate of Institute of Strategic Studies Islamabad ISSI. He is currently lecturer in the International Relations IR Department at the University of Balochistan, Quetta. He is also Ph.D. IR candidate joined Radio Islam International to discuss The Partition – 75 years ago and today.

Witness History
India's Partition - Part One

Witness History

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 15, 2022 10:43


The partition of India led to millions of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs fleeing their homes amid horrific violence. This is the first of two programmes remembering that time. Listen to the story of Saleem, who was only five-years-old when his family tried to escape to the new Muslim country of Pakistan. This programme was first broadcast in 2010. Photo: Wrecked buildings after communal riots in Amritsar, Punjab, during the Partition of British India, March 1947 Credit: Keystone Features / Stringer

Canadian History Ehx
The Komagata Maru

Canadian History Ehx

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 13, 2022 28:12


For two months in 1914, the Komagata Maru sat in Vancouver Harbour as Canadian authorities worked to prevent the hundreds of Sikhs, Muslims and Hindus from disembarking and immigrating to Canada. It was a dark chapter in our history, and it would take a century for Canada to accept responsibility for it.Boris Fundraiser: https://gofund.me/e2b58b58Sublime Lime: https://www.sublimelime.ca/canadaehxDigital History Atlas: https://atlas.digitalhistory.caSupport: patreon.com/canadaehxDonate: https://www.buymeacoffee.com/craigUDonate: canadaehx.com (Click Donate)E-mail: craig@canadaehx.comTwitter: twitter.com/craigbairdTiktok: https://www.tiktok.com/@cdnhistoryehxYouTube: youtube.com/c/canadianhistoryehx

Heart and Soul
The last Afghan Sikhs

Heart and Soul

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 12, 2022 26:29


Once Afghanistan's Sikh population numbered more than 100,000 in the 1970's. Today, it's estimated around only 100 Sikhs remain, following the return to Taliban rule. The BBC's Kawoon Khamoush speaks to those who have been forced to leave in recent years. Producer: Nina Robinson

Cyrus Says
CnB ft. Shreyas, Amit & Antariksh | Trash Bag Worth ₹1.4 Lakh & Sausage Photo Shared As A Star

Cyrus Says

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 8, 2022 67:57


On Cock & Bull today, we are joined by Shreyas, Amit & Silverie. Today Cyrus is ranting about the extra co-curricular activities that take place over the weekends for which he had to take his daughter and her friends to IMUN, and of course, that does not go well with his weird but rigid schedule. In the show: Birthday wishes pour in for Cyrus from the panelists and the chat. Cyrus talks about his horrible experiences as chief guest at her daughter's school. Shreyas showcases a live demonstration of expensive trash items. And the panel discusses toiletries and kleptomaniacs who take all the toiletries from hotels. Topics discussed by the panel were: Balenciaga's 'trash pouch' worth ₹1.4 Lakh, French physicist sharing sausage photo as ‘star' and Taliban's urge to Hindus & Sikhs to return. Tune in for this and much more!Check out Cyrus Says merch:ivm.today/3PLKo1mJoin the Cyrus Says fan created Discord Server: https://discord.gg/BMNJ3ftkMmYou can follow Shreyas on Instagram at @shreyas_manoharYou can follow Amit on Instagram at @doshiamitYou can follow Antariksh on Instagram at @antarikshtDo send in AMA questions for Cyrus by tweeting them to @cyrussaysin or emailing them at whatcyrussays@gmail.comDon't forget to follow Cyrus Broacha on Instagram @cyrus_broacha (https://www.instagram.com/cyrus_broacha)In case you're late to the party and want to catch up on previous episodes of Cyrus Says you can do so at: www.ivmpodcasts.com/cyrussaysYou can listen to this show and other awesome shows on the new and improved IVM Podcasts App on Android: https://ivm.today/android or iOS: https://ivm.today/ios

The Takeaway
Asian American Histories of the United States

The Takeaway

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 4, 2022 20:40


Ten years ago this week, a white supremacist gunman entered the Sikh Temple of Wisconsin, in Oak Creek, and shot ten people. Six people were killed on August 5, 2012, and they were part of Wisconsin's Indian immigrant community. This was no random act of violence. Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, targeted acts of violence directed at Sikhs increased significantly. Still, the FBI did not begin to collect data on anti-Sikh hate crimes until 2015. That decade of heightened hostility went largely unmarked by federal data and ended in a massacre. Dr. Catherine Ceniza Choy says that this pattern of violence and erasure is critical to understanding the histories and experiences of Asian Americans. But there is also a third element to this pattern — resistance.  Dr. Choy is a professor of Asian American and Asian Diaspora Studies, and Comparative Ethnic Studies at the University of California Berkeley. We speak with her about her new book, Asian American Histories of the United States, which upends cultural narratives about Asian Americans, highlights overlooked identities, and catalogs stories of resistance in these communities across the decades.

The Story Of The Sikhs
(36) The Rising Sons

The Story Of The Sikhs

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 3, 2022 85:27


Ghulam Qadir Rohilla returns to Delhi and blinds the Emperor Shah Alam, replacing him with his puppet. George Thomas becomes the commander of one of the four battalions of Sardhana, the kingdom of Begum Samru and also becomes her paramour. Ghulam Qadir is defeated and killed by the Marathas, who restore Shah Alam to the throne. Maha Singh lays siege to the fort of Sodhra, which is under the control of the Bhangis and falls ill during the expedition. Before passing away he formally anoints his son as his successor. Taimur Shah, the King of Afghanistan passes away and is succeeded by his son Shah Zaman. In late 1793, Shah Zaman, who wants to reassert Afghan control over the Punjab,  crosses the Indus and arrives at Hasan Abdal in early 1794, skirmishing with the Sikhs before returning to Peshawar. Madhaji Scindia passes away and is succeeded by his great nephew Daulat Rao Scindia, who is confirmed by the Emperor Shah Alam as the new regent. 

AUDIO GURBANI
July 19,2022 Hukamnama Sahib

AUDIO GURBANI

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 19, 2022 12:11


The daily Hukamnama Sahib from Sri Darbar Sahib Amritsar including English and Punjabi audio translations ਸਲੋਕੁ ਮਃ ੩ ॥ ਭਗਤ ਜਨਾ ਕੰਉ ਆਪਿ ਤੁਠਾ ਮੇਰਾ ਪਿਆਰਾ ਆਪੇ ਲਇਅਨੁ ਜਨ ਲਾਇ ॥ ਪਾਤਿਸਾਹੀ ਭਗਤ ਜਨਾ ਕਉ ਦਿਤੀਅਨੁ ਸਿਰਿ ਛਤੁ ਸਚਾ ਹਰਿ ਬਣਾਇ ॥ ਸਦਾ ਸੁਖੀਏ ਨਿਰਮਲੇ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਕੀ ਕਾਰ ਕਮਾਇ ॥ ਅਰਥ: ਪਿਆਰਾ ਪ੍ਰਭੂ ਆਪਣੇ ਭਗਤਾਂ ਤੇ ਆਪ ਪ੍ਰਸੰਨ ਹੁੰਦਾ ਹੈ ਤੇ ਆਪ ਹੀ ਉਸ ਨੇ ਉਹਨਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਆਪਣੇ ਨਾਲ ਜੋੜ ਲਿਆ ਹੈ, ਭਗਤਾਂ ਦੇ ਸਿਰ ਤੇ ਸੱਚਾ ਛੱਤ੍ਰ ਝੁਲਾ ਕੇ ਉਸ ਨੇ ਭਗਤਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਪਾਤਸ਼ਾਹੀ ਬਖ਼ਸ਼ੀ ਹੈ; ਸਤਿਗੁਰੂ ਦੀ ਦੱਸੀ ਕਾਰ ਕਮਾ ਕੇ ਉਹ ਸਦਾ ਸੁਖੀਏ ਤੇ ਪਵਿਤ੍ਰ ਰਹਿੰਦੇ ਹਨ। ਰਾਜੇ ਓਇ ਨ ਆਖੀਅਹਿ ਭਿੜਿ ਮਰਹਿ ਫਿਰਿ ਜੂਨੀ ਪਾਹਿ ॥ ਨਾਨਕ ਵਿਣੁ ਨਾਵੈ ਨਕੀ ਵਢੀ ਫਿਰਹਿ ਸੋਭਾ ਮੂਲਿ ਨ ਪਾਹਿ ॥੧॥  ਅਰਥ: ਰਾਜੇ ਉਹਨਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਨਹੀਂ ਆਖੀਦਾ ਜੋ ਆਪੋ ਵਿਚ ਲੜ ਮਰਦੇ ਹਨ ਤੇ ਫਿਰ ਜੂਨਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਪੈ ਜਾਂਦੇ ਹਨ, (ਕਿਉਂਕਿ) ਹੇ ਨਾਨਕ! ਨਾਮ ਤੋਂ ਸੱਖਣੇ ਰਾਜੇ ਭੀ ਨਕ-ਵੱਢੇ ਫਿਰਦੇ ਹਨ ਤੇ ਕਦੇ ਸੋਭਾ ਨਹੀਂ ਪਾਂਦੇ।੧। ਮਃ ੩ ॥ ਸੁਣਿ ਸਿਖਿਐ ਸਾਦੁ ਨ ਆਇਓ ਜਿਚਰੁ ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਸਬਦਿ ਨ ਲਾਗੈ ॥ ਸਤਿਗੁਰਿ ਸੇਵਿਐ ਨਾਮੁ ਮਨਿ ਵਸੈ ਵਿਚਹੁ ਭ੍ਰਮੁ ਭਉ ਭਾਗੈ ॥  ਅਰਥ: ਜਦ ਤਾਈਂ ਸਤਿਗੁਰੂ ਦੇ ਸਨਮੁਖ ਹੋ ਕੇ ਮਨੁੱਖ ਸਤਿਗੁਰੂ ਦੇ ਸ਼ਬਦ ਵਿਚ ਨਹੀਂ ਜੁੜਦਾ ਤਦ ਤਾਈਂ ਸਤਿਗੁਰੂ ਦੀ ਸਿੱਖਿਆ ਨਿਰੀ ਸੁਣ ਕੇ ਸੁਆਦ ਨਹੀਂ ਆਉਂਦਾ, ਸਤਿਗੁਰੂ ਦੀ ਦੱਸੀ ਸੇਵਾ ਕੀਤਿਆਂ ਹੀ ਨਾਮ ਮਨ ਵਿਚ ਵੱਸਦਾ ਹੈ ਤੇ ਅੰਦਰੋਂ ਭਰਮ ਤੇ ਡਰ ਦੂਰ ਹੋ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ। ਜੇਹਾ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਨੋ ਜਾਣੈ ਤੇਹੋ ਹੋਵੈ ਤਾ ਸਚਿ ਨਾਮਿ ਲਿਵ ਲਾਗੈ ॥ ਨਾਨਕ ਨਾਮਿ ਮਿਲੈ ਵਡਿਆਈ ਹਰਿ ਦਰਿ ਸੋਹਨਿ ਆਗੈ ॥੨॥  ਅਰਥ: ਜਦੋਂ ਮਨੁੱਖ ਜਿਹੋ ਜਿਹਾ ਆਪਣੇ ਸਤਿਗੁਰੂ ਨੂੰ ਸਮਝਦਾ ਹੈ, ਤਿਹੋ ਜਿਹਾ ਆਪ ਬਣ ਜਾਏ (ਭਾਵ, ਜਦੋਂ ਆਪਣੇ ਸਤਿਗੁਰੂ ਵਾਲੇ ਗੁਣ ਧਾਰਨ ਕਰੇ) ਤਦੋਂ ਉਸ ਦੀ ਬ੍ਰਿਤੀ ਸੱਚੇ ਨਾਮ ਵਿਚ ਜੁੜਦੀ ਹੈ; ਹੇ ਨਾਨਕ! ਇਹੋ ਜਿਹੇ ਜੀਊੜਿਆਂ ਨੂੰ) ਨਾਮ ਦੇ ਕਾਰਨ ਏਥੇ ਆਦਰ ਮਿਲਦਾ ਹੈ ਤੇ ਅੱਗੇ ਹਰੀ ਦੀ ਨਿਗਾਹ ਦੀ ਦਰਗਾਹ ਵਿਚ ਉਹ ਸੋਭਾ ਪਾਉਂਦੇ ਹਨ।੨। ਪਉੜੀ ॥ ਗੁਰਸਿਖਾਂ ਮਨਿ ਹਰਿ ਪ੍ਰੀਤਿ ਹੈ ਗੁਰੁ ਪੂਜਣ ਆਵਹਿ ॥ ਹਰਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਵਣੰਜਹਿ ਰੰਗ ਸਿਉ ਲਾਹਾ ਹਰਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਲੈ ਜਾਵਹਿ ॥  ਅਰਥ: ਗੁਰਸਿੱਖਾਂ ਦੇ ਮਨ ਵਿਚ ਹਰੀ ਦਾ ਪਿਆਰ ਹੁੰਦਾ ਹੈ ਤੇ (ਉਸ ਪਿਆਰ ਦਾ ਸਦਕਾ ਉਹ) ਆਪਣੇ ਸਤਿਗੁਰੂ ਦੀ ਸੇਵਾ ਕਰਨ ਆਉਂਦੇ ਹਨ; (ਸਤਿਗੁਰੂ ਦੇ ਕੋਲ ਆ ਕੇ) ਪਿਆਰ ਨਾਲ ਹਰੀ-ਨਾਮ ਦਾ ਵਪਾਰ ਕਰਦੇ ਹਨ ਤੇ ਹਰੀ-ਨਾਮ ਦਾ ਲਾਭ ਖੱਟ ਕੇ ਲੈ ਜਾਂਦੇ ਹਨ। ਗੁਰਸਿਖਾ ਕੇ ਮੁਖ ਉਜਲੇ ਹਰਿ ਦਰਗਹ ਭਾਵਹਿ ॥  ਅਰਥ: (ਇਹੋ ਜਿਹੇ) ਗੁਰਸਿੱਖਾਂ ਦੇ ਮੂੰਹ ਉਜਲੇ ਹੁੰਦੇ ਹਨ ਤੇ ਹਰੀ ਦੀ ਦਰਗਾਹ ਵਿਚ ਉਹ ਪਿਆਰੇ ਲੱਗਦੇ ਹਨ। ਗੁਰੁ ਸਤਿਗੁਰੁ ਬੋਹਲੁ ਹਰਿ ਨਾਮ ਕਾ ਵਡਭਾਗੀ ਸਿਖ ਗੁਣ ਸਾਂਝ ਕਰਾਵਹਿ ॥ ਤਿਨਾ ਗੁਰਸਿਖਾ ਕੰਉ ਹਉ ਵਾਰਿਆ ਜੋ ਬਹਦਿਆ ਉਠਦਿਆ ਹਰਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਧਿਆਵਹਿ ॥੧੧॥  ਅਰਥ: ਗੁਰੂ ਸਤਿਗੁਰੂ ਹਰੀ ਦੇ ਨਾਮ ਦਾ (ਮਾਨੋ) ਬੋਹਲ ਹੈ, ਵੱਡੇ ਭਾਗਾਂ ਵਾਲੇ ਸਿੱਖ ਆ ਕੇ ਗੁਣਾਂ ਦੀ ਭਿਆਲੀ ਪਾਉਂਦੇ ਹਨ; ਸਦਕੇ ਹਾਂ ਉਹਨਾਂ ਗੁਰਸਿੱਖਾਂ ਤੋਂ, ਜੋ ਬਹਦਿਆਂ ਉਠਦਿਆਂ (ਭਾਵ, ਹਰ ਵੇਲੇ) ਹਰੀ ਦਾ ਨਾਮ ਸਿਮਰਦੇ ਹਨ।੧੧। SHALOK, THIRD MEHL: He Himself is pleased with His humble devotees; my Beloved Lord attaches them to Himself. The Lord blesses His humble devotees with royalty; He fashions the true crown upon their heads. They are always at peace, and immaculately pure; they perform service for the True Guru. They are not said to be kings, who die in conflict, and then enter again the cycle of reincarnation. O Nanak, without the Name of the Lord, they wander about with their noses cut off in disgrace; they get no respect at all. || 1 || THIRD MEHL: Hearing the teachings, he does not appreciate them, as long as he is not Gurmukh, attached to the Word of the Shabad. Serving the True Guru, the Naam comes to abide in the mind, and doubts and fears run away. As he knows the True Guru, so he is transformed, and then, he lovingly focuses his consciousness on the Naam. O Nanak, through the Naam, the Name of the Lord, greatness is obtained; he shall be resplendent in the Court of the Lord hereafter. || 2 || PAUREE: The minds of the Gursikhs are filled with the love of the Lord; they come and worship the Guru. They trade lovingly in the Lord's Name, and depart after earning the profit of the Lord's Name. The faces of the Gursikhs are radiant; in the Court of the Lord, they are approved. The Guru, the True Guru, is the treasure of the Lord's Name; how very fortunate are the Sikhs who share in this treasure of virtue. I am a sacrifice to those Gursikhs who, sitting and standing, meditate on the Lord's Name. || 11 || --- Send in a voice message: https://anchor.fm/gsjhampur/message Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/gsjhampur/support

Sikhism in Snippits
Three types of Sikhs

Sikhism in Snippits

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 19, 2022 0:37


In this katha by Giani Jiva Singh (Damdami Taksal wale) talks the three different types of Sikhs Any issues please contact me on kam1825@hotmail.com I would also like to thank my sponsors who have donated towards the podcasts financially. Thank you with your continuing support this podcast can become self sustaining

Suraj Podcast
Episode 239 - Puranas vs the Guru's Grace

Suraj Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 6, 2022 10:09


In this episode hear how Sikhs react to Pandit Nitanand's katha, and how Bhai Gurdas responds to the concerns of the Pandit. This relates to Chapter 52 of Raas 6.

KUOW Newsroom
Does SCOTUS ruling on public school prayer cross the line dividing church and state?

KUOW Newsroom

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 1, 2022 5:04


‘This is a Navy town. We have kids that have come with their families. We've got Sikhs, and Muslims, and Jews, and Christians of all brands and stripes. You cannot pray one prayer and have it fit all. It doesn't work.'

The ਸੋਚ (Sōch) Podcast
A Global Tour of Sikh History That Will Fascinate You | Rav Singh (A Little History of the Sikhs)

The ਸੋਚ (Sōch) Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 30, 2022 163:33


Today I have the chance to talk to Rav Singh from 'A Little History of the Sikhs'. We explore all the fascinating and obscure parts of Sikh history that are scattered across the UK, Europe and further afield. ★ Support this podcast on Patreon ★ ★ Buy this podcast a coffee ★ 00:00 - Teaser 00:37: - Intro 01:55 - Who Is Rav Singh? 04:00 - Work & A Little History - How Do You Balance Them? 06:33 - What Spurned You To Start A Little History Of The Sikhs? 09:46 - Trafalgar Square - The Governor Of Punjab & The Ferozepore Sikhs 13:35 - The 1999 Exhibition 15:09 - Allegience To Whom? 22:22 - The Kohinoor 25:12 - Accessing Archives 25:24 - Maidstone Museum & The Sikh Cannon 26:10 - The Blood Soaked Jacket 27:12 - How Durham University Archives Have Got It Wrong 28:41 - The Secrets Of The Antiques Road Show 29:25 - Maharaj Singh 30:35 - Growing Up In East London 36:57 - Bhangra Day Timers & Sikh History 37:55 - Memorialising Anglo-sikh History - Generals, A Cherry & A Mosquito 40:06 - History Of Empire 41:42 - From University To A Little History Of The Sikhs 46:27 - Sikh History In London And Monopoly 46:44 - Sikhopoly & The Singh Twins 47:23 - Further Development Of A Little History Of The Sikhs 51:46 - Quotes, Meanings & Why They're Important To You 54:07 - Christy Campbell & Maharajah Duleep Singh 54:54 - 2nd Hand Book Shops In London & Online 55:31 - Finding Out More About Duleep Singh 01:01:49 - The Quote For Me 01:03:42 - The Most Obscure Bit Of Sikh History In London? 01:04:06 - The Mice, The Cheese & Other Obscurities 01:07:02 - The Team Behind A Little History 01:14:41 - Sikh History In 32 Boroughs Of London 01:16:09 - Sikh Cannons In London 01:22:27 - The Silent Painting From Amritsar 01:24:25 - Sikhs & Hampton Court Palace 01:40:31 - Interesting Pit Stops On Your Tours Related To Sikh History 01:41:00 - The Sikh Chapel 01:49:14 - Psychology of Recruiting 01:52:23 - From A Church On Old Kent Road To The Guru Ka Bagh Morcha In Punjab 01:57:53 - What Are Your Plans For 2022? - Malaga To Madrid 01:59:40 - Sikh History In Malta 02:02:31 - Sikh History In Spain? A Princess, An Argument And Jinnah 02:04:37 - Sikh History In Madrid 02:07:02 - The Little History Of The Sikhs Museum 02:09:31 - Tours In Europe & The Uk 02:14:09 - How To Get Involved? 02:21:45 - Bhangra Daytimers Walking Tour 02:26:27 - The Udham Singh Experience 02:28:06 - Things You Haven't Seen Before 02:29:54 - Controversy? 02:33:37 - Random Messages - Guru Nanak Dev Ji In Europe 02:36:12 - History & Emotions, Guru, Gurbani & Life 02:40:51 - Conclusion

New Books in East Asian Studies
Yin Cao, "From Policemen to Revolutionaries: A Sikh Diaspora in Global Shanghai, 1885-1945" (Brill, 2017)

New Books in East Asian Studies

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 28, 2022 53:17


In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Shanghai became a cosmopolitan hub with communities of Japanese, British, Russians, Jews, and others including Indians – most of whom were Sikhs. The story of Indians in Shanghai has however been largely elided. From Policemen to Revolutionaries: A Sikh Diaspora in Global Shanghai, 1885-1945 (Brill, 2017) by Yin Cao uncovers the lesser-known story of Sikh emigrants in Shanghai across the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, from their arrival in the city in 1885 through the end of World War II in 1945. Cao argues that the cross-border circulation of personnel and knowledge across the British colonial and the Sikh diasporic networks, facilitated the formation of the Sikh community in Shanghai, eventually making this Chinese city one of the overseas hubs of the Indian nationalist struggle. Initially brought in as policemen by British colonial authorities to discipline the local Chinese population, Sikhs in Shanghai transformed into anti-colonial revolutionaries. Shanghai became a conduit within Indian anti-imperial connections that linked the Punjab to Canada and California. Rather than just doing a local history of Shanghai's Sikhs and just seeing Shanghai as a gateway to China, Cao places this community within a global context and sees Shanghai within a transnational network in East and Southeast Asia and beyond, stretching from India to North America. By adopting a translocal approach, this study elaborates on how the flow of Sikh emigrants, largely regarded as subalterns, initially strengthened but eventually unhinged British colonial rule in East and Southeast Asia. Yin Cao is associate professor and Cyrus Tang Scholar in the Department of History at Beijing's Tsinghua University. He studies global history, modern Indian history, the British Empire, and India-China connections. Shatrunjay Mall is a PhD candidate at the Department of History at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He works on transnational Asian history, and his dissertation explores intellectual, political, and cultural intersections and affinities that emerged between Indian anti-colonialism and imperial Japan in the twentieth century. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/east-asian-studies

New Books Network
Yin Cao, "From Policemen to Revolutionaries: A Sikh Diaspora in Global Shanghai, 1885-1945" (Brill, 2017)

New Books Network

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 28, 2022 53:17


In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Shanghai became a cosmopolitan hub with communities of Japanese, British, Russians, Jews, and others including Indians – most of whom were Sikhs. The story of Indians in Shanghai has however been largely elided. From Policemen to Revolutionaries: A Sikh Diaspora in Global Shanghai, 1885-1945 (Brill, 2017) by Yin Cao uncovers the lesser-known story of Sikh emigrants in Shanghai across the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, from their arrival in the city in 1885 through the end of World War II in 1945. Cao argues that the cross-border circulation of personnel and knowledge across the British colonial and the Sikh diasporic networks, facilitated the formation of the Sikh community in Shanghai, eventually making this Chinese city one of the overseas hubs of the Indian nationalist struggle. Initially brought in as policemen by British colonial authorities to discipline the local Chinese population, Sikhs in Shanghai transformed into anti-colonial revolutionaries. Shanghai became a conduit within Indian anti-imperial connections that linked the Punjab to Canada and California. Rather than just doing a local history of Shanghai's Sikhs and just seeing Shanghai as a gateway to China, Cao places this community within a global context and sees Shanghai within a transnational network in East and Southeast Asia and beyond, stretching from India to North America. By adopting a translocal approach, this study elaborates on how the flow of Sikh emigrants, largely regarded as subalterns, initially strengthened but eventually unhinged British colonial rule in East and Southeast Asia. Yin Cao is associate professor and Cyrus Tang Scholar in the Department of History at Beijing's Tsinghua University. He studies global history, modern Indian history, the British Empire, and India-China connections. Shatrunjay Mall is a PhD candidate at the Department of History at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He works on transnational Asian history, and his dissertation explores intellectual, political, and cultural intersections and affinities that emerged between Indian anti-colonialism and imperial Japan in the twentieth century. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/new-books-network

The Khalis Podcast
The Khalis Podcast - S2 - EP9 - Shamsher Singh and Baljit Singh - Discussing the Battle of Amritsar (1984)

The Khalis Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 28, 2022 104:28


In this episode I sit down with Shamsher Singh and Baljit Singh to discuss the groundbreaking new documentary film, 'Battle of Amritsar (1984). We start with thoughts on how the documentary has been received before moving on to the issues of censorship and overcoming the challenges associated with that. We then look how and why 1984 remains this pivotal moment for Sikhs across the world and then spend some time discussing battle itself before moving on to the importance of honouring the sacrifices and achievements of the Khalsa, by centering the conversation on sovereignty and Khalistan.Be sure to hit subscribe and let us know your thoughts!You can find details of upcoming screenings at www.BattleOfAmritsar.com and follow the team on IG @nsyf_uk and for specific updates about the documentary follow @junghindpunjab

New Books in the Indian Ocean World
Yin Cao, "From Policemen to Revolutionaries: A Sikh Diaspora in Global Shanghai, 1885-1945" (Brill, 2017)

New Books in the Indian Ocean World

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 28, 2022 53:17


In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Shanghai became a cosmopolitan hub with communities of Japanese, British, Russians, Jews, and others including Indians – most of whom were Sikhs. The story of Indians in Shanghai has however been largely elided. From Policemen to Revolutionaries: A Sikh Diaspora in Global Shanghai, 1885-1945 (Brill, 2017) by Yin Cao uncovers the lesser-known story of Sikh emigrants in Shanghai across the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, from their arrival in the city in 1885 through the end of World War II in 1945. Cao argues that the cross-border circulation of personnel and knowledge across the British colonial and the Sikh diasporic networks, facilitated the formation of the Sikh community in Shanghai, eventually making this Chinese city one of the overseas hubs of the Indian nationalist struggle. Initially brought in as policemen by British colonial authorities to discipline the local Chinese population, Sikhs in Shanghai transformed into anti-colonial revolutionaries. Shanghai became a conduit within Indian anti-imperial connections that linked the Punjab to Canada and California. Rather than just doing a local history of Shanghai's Sikhs and just seeing Shanghai as a gateway to China, Cao places this community within a global context and sees Shanghai within a transnational network in East and Southeast Asia and beyond, stretching from India to North America. By adopting a translocal approach, this study elaborates on how the flow of Sikh emigrants, largely regarded as subalterns, initially strengthened but eventually unhinged British colonial rule in East and Southeast Asia. Yin Cao is associate professor and Cyrus Tang Scholar in the Department of History at Beijing's Tsinghua University. He studies global history, modern Indian history, the British Empire, and India-China connections. Shatrunjay Mall is a PhD candidate at the Department of History at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He works on transnational Asian history, and his dissertation explores intellectual, political, and cultural intersections and affinities that emerged between Indian anti-colonialism and imperial Japan in the twentieth century. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/indian-ocean-world

New Books in South Asian Studies
Yin Cao, "From Policemen to Revolutionaries: A Sikh Diaspora in Global Shanghai, 1885-1945" (Brill, 2017)

New Books in South Asian Studies

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 28, 2022 53:17


In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Shanghai became a cosmopolitan hub with communities of Japanese, British, Russians, Jews, and others including Indians – most of whom were Sikhs. The story of Indians in Shanghai has however been largely elided. From Policemen to Revolutionaries: A Sikh Diaspora in Global Shanghai, 1885-1945 (Brill, 2017) by Yin Cao uncovers the lesser-known story of Sikh emigrants in Shanghai across the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, from their arrival in the city in 1885 through the end of World War II in 1945. Cao argues that the cross-border circulation of personnel and knowledge across the British colonial and the Sikh diasporic networks, facilitated the formation of the Sikh community in Shanghai, eventually making this Chinese city one of the overseas hubs of the Indian nationalist struggle. Initially brought in as policemen by British colonial authorities to discipline the local Chinese population, Sikhs in Shanghai transformed into anti-colonial revolutionaries. Shanghai became a conduit within Indian anti-imperial connections that linked the Punjab to Canada and California. Rather than just doing a local history of Shanghai's Sikhs and just seeing Shanghai as a gateway to China, Cao places this community within a global context and sees Shanghai within a transnational network in East and Southeast Asia and beyond, stretching from India to North America. By adopting a translocal approach, this study elaborates on how the flow of Sikh emigrants, largely regarded as subalterns, initially strengthened but eventually unhinged British colonial rule in East and Southeast Asia. Yin Cao is associate professor and Cyrus Tang Scholar in the Department of History at Beijing's Tsinghua University. He studies global history, modern Indian history, the British Empire, and India-China connections. Shatrunjay Mall is a PhD candidate at the Department of History at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He works on transnational Asian history, and his dissertation explores intellectual, political, and cultural intersections and affinities that emerged between Indian anti-colonialism and imperial Japan in the twentieth century. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/south-asian-studies

New Books in History
Yin Cao, "From Policemen to Revolutionaries: A Sikh Diaspora in Global Shanghai, 1885-1945" (Brill, 2017)

New Books in History

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 28, 2022 53:17


In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Shanghai became a cosmopolitan hub with communities of Japanese, British, Russians, Jews, and others including Indians – most of whom were Sikhs. The story of Indians in Shanghai has however been largely elided. From Policemen to Revolutionaries: A Sikh Diaspora in Global Shanghai, 1885-1945 (Brill, 2017) by Yin Cao uncovers the lesser-known story of Sikh emigrants in Shanghai across the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, from their arrival in the city in 1885 through the end of World War II in 1945. Cao argues that the cross-border circulation of personnel and knowledge across the British colonial and the Sikh diasporic networks, facilitated the formation of the Sikh community in Shanghai, eventually making this Chinese city one of the overseas hubs of the Indian nationalist struggle. Initially brought in as policemen by British colonial authorities to discipline the local Chinese population, Sikhs in Shanghai transformed into anti-colonial revolutionaries. Shanghai became a conduit within Indian anti-imperial connections that linked the Punjab to Canada and California. Rather than just doing a local history of Shanghai's Sikhs and just seeing Shanghai as a gateway to China, Cao places this community within a global context and sees Shanghai within a transnational network in East and Southeast Asia and beyond, stretching from India to North America. By adopting a translocal approach, this study elaborates on how the flow of Sikh emigrants, largely regarded as subalterns, initially strengthened but eventually unhinged British colonial rule in East and Southeast Asia. Yin Cao is associate professor and Cyrus Tang Scholar in the Department of History at Beijing's Tsinghua University. He studies global history, modern Indian history, the British Empire, and India-China connections. Shatrunjay Mall is a PhD candidate at the Department of History at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He works on transnational Asian history, and his dissertation explores intellectual, political, and cultural intersections and affinities that emerged between Indian anti-colonialism and imperial Japan in the twentieth century. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/history

The ਸੋਚ (Sōch) Podcast
Curry, Kheer & Kirstie | Thorka Beans

The ਸੋਚ (Sōch) Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 26, 2022 76:39


This is the 2nd episode in something a little different. Thorka Beans includes myself and a few other friends, who get together to discuss all sorts of different topics. A full time stamped breakdown of this episode can be found below: 00:29 - Oats, Dominos & Pizza Hut 01:55 - Birthday cake for breakfast? 02:23 - Digestives & Kheer? 04:01 - The verdict on overnight oats 06:14 - Oat milk 07:29 - Is there a correlation between height & the environment? 09:34 - Race, ethnicity and stereotypes 15:17 - What does South Asian mean? 22:16 - Curry? Is it a useless term or an anchor point? 33:00 - Best mixed grill? 33:38 - Origins of the tikka masala 37:45 - Origins of the term ‘desi' 39:00 - Bananas and American imperialism 40:58 - Sikhs as an ethnicity for census purposes 46:20 - What data is gathered around Sikh as an ethnicity? 51:00 - The Mirabai recension 58:29 - “So for you to sit there and say we all have the same 24 hours in a day is not correct.” 01:00:00 - Kirstie Allsopp: Cancel Netflix & Buy a House

The Jaipur Dialogues
Khalistani Silence on Atrocities on Sikhs in Afghanistan and Pakistan Puneet Sahani, Vibhuti Jha, Sanjay Dixit

The Jaipur Dialogues

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 23, 2022 44:18


The recent attack on the last Gurudwara in Afghanistan found Khalistanis tight-lipped on Jihad. Instead they blamed Hindus, believe it or not. This is consistent behaviour of Khalistanis in all past attacks on them by Jihad in AfPak. Puneet Singh Sahani joins Sanjay Dixit and Vibhuti Jha to discuss.

The Jaipur Dialogues
Vimarsh-Attack on Gurudwara by Taliban - Why are Khalistani Silent Sanjay Dixit and Varun Upasani

The Jaipur Dialogues

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 21, 2022 17:54


The silence of the Khalistanis is baffling regarding the recent attack by Taliban against Sikhs in Afghanistan. Why this hypocrisy? Don't Sikh lives matter elsewhere?

Friends of Kijabe
Dayalan Clark

Friends of Kijabe

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 21, 2022 23:13


Dayalan: I'm Dayalan Clark. I'm a breast surgeon from the UK. I came out to Kijabe mainly to help because Beryl [Akinyi] has been on maternity leave. Beryl is the surgeon who does most of the breast work here, and Peter Bird, who we have known for many, many years, asked if we could if I could come and help. Peter grew up in India as a missionary child with his father being a surgeon and a missionary hospital, at a mission hospital in India in a place called Mysore. And it so happened that my wife's father was also a surgeon in the same hospital, and they grew up together across a wall as neighbors growing up in India. And that was my connection with Peter Bird. I think my wife and Peter lost connection, though our respective parents kept in touch. And then when we were visiting Nairobi for a safari in 2006, we heard that Peter was here. So we were going for a safari with my wife's parents. It was their 50th wedding anniversary and they loved wildlife. So that was our treat for them for their 50th wedding anniversary. And they said, “Oh, Peter is in Kijabe, let's try and meet up with Peter.” So we came and visited Kijabe had lunch with Peter.  In 2006 I took an early retirement from my work in the NHS in the UK with the express purpose to go and help mission hospitals in need. And then in 2019 I came out to Nairobi with a group of breast surgeons from the UK to train to do a training course and a teaching course in Nairobi, and who was on the local faculty to spread the word. So we met up again and I was telling Peter how I had taken an early retirement with the express view of going in and helping mission hospitals in need. And then he turned around said, Oh, would you be able to help in Kijabe if we needed us at all? I'd love to come to catch up if he needed me. And then of course, Peter was leaving last year and Beryl was going on maternity leave. So he contacted me and said, Can you come and help us while on maternity leave? And so I'm here. That's how I'm here.  David: That's amazing. Did you and your wife meet? How did you meet? Dayalan: I went to medical school in India, which is a Christian medical school called CMC Christian Medical College Vellore. And we were classmates in Vellore and we met there and got married after we finished our house jobs and then did some mission service, which is part of our obligation in India, then did our respective postgraduate training and in Vellore again, myself in general surgery and my wife in pediatrics. And then it worked again in mission hospitals in India and then went out to the UK in 1991, never intending to settle in the UK. But God, God's wills are strange and we never thought that's going to be the plan. But that's what happened. And I was very conscious that because we've trained in Vellore, I've always grown with the feeling that I consider myself very fortunate, coming from a very average background in India. My father was a minister in the church and retired as the Bishop of Madras. So very ordinary background, but consider ourselves very fortunate to have been able to have gone to the UK and to made a career there, to become consultants there and always felt as soon as my children were on their own feet, I'm going to stop working, retire and try to give back to people who been less fortunate than myself. Wow. David: Wow. That brings up so many interesting questions. I'm not super familiar with India, but one of my dreams is - this is why I was so excited to meet you is I heard from from Dr. Nthumba when we were starting Friends of Kijabe - he said, "you need to learn about Vellore, you need to learn about this place." And so, I'd love to hear about that. But then also I'm curious just what. . .you said your father is a minister and then became a bishop. Most people in America associate India with Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism.  Is Christianity regional? Dayalan: Christianity is much more common in South India than in North India.  Where I come from, which is South India, but the population of India is huge. As you know, 1.3 billion people and 2% are Christians. So, 80% Hindus, about 10% are Muslims. And then, like you said, the other communities like Sikhs, Jains and such like from the rest of it with Christianity being 2%. So even Clark, which is my surname, is a very Indian name, but the background to that is one of my forefathers must have been converted. And when you convert it from Hinduism to Christianity, the way you denounced your previous religion was either you took on a biblical name or you took on a very western sounding name, often a missionary who converted you. I presume one of my forefathers was probably converted by someone called Clark or decided to take on a Western sounding name. And that's how Clark has come down the generations. David: Wow. So, there's a tradition that the Apostle Thomas went to India, right? Dayalan: It's historic. Legend is that he came down to this west coast of India, which is Kerala, and then traveled down and then actually came through Tamil Nadu where I'm from, near Chennai. It's called Saint Thomas Mount. And they say that that's where he probably last either left India or died there. We don't know. But I don't think there's enough factual evidence but that's what they think happened. Yeah. David: Interesting. It's not until really spending time in this part of the world that realize Christianity developed very differently than I perceived. Southeast Asia, Africa, a lot of the early church fathers were in those places. It was not a European thing until much later on, which I think is fascinating. Dayalan: Yes.  Considering Christianity arose, Christ lived in Jerusalem in the Middle East, I think proximity-wise you can see why it happened that way. Egypt is not far from where it was and you have flight to Egypt when Christ was born. But it doesn't surprise me. Definitely there was quite a lot of Christianity around this region and moving both east to us [in India]. David: Wow. I think my understanding of our previous conversation - tell me if this is accurate - that Vellore is probably a picture of what Kijabe could be like in, I don't know, what you would say, maybe 20 or 30 years? Dayalan: Quite possibly so. I mean, the first thing that struck me when I came to Kijabe, I saw the community spirit, the closeness, and how well people got on together. And the first thing that struck me, especially with a lot of missionaries here, the first thing that struck me was this is below in the fifties or sixties because Vellore was very similar. There's a Christ-centered Mission Hospital, which was largely supported by Americans and some British missionaries, both in terms of the day-to-day running of the hospital and in personnel, which I see exactly what is happening here. And Vellore has then gone on to become one of the leading institutions in India, both in teaching and in terms of health delivery. And my only prayer is that hopefully 30, 40 years Kijabe is going to get there. One of the things that Vellore has, which probably is an advantage for them, having developed so quickly and so well, is a medical school, which I think we don't have yet in Kijabe. But I think if we have Christ at the center, everything else will follow. And I can see great things happening in Kijabe, just in the services that I've seen, in breast cancer care itself, I can see there's huge scope because we've just had a mammogram machine installed. Oh, yes, which is fantastic. And then I've helped in helping the radiographers from here, going to Aga Khan and MP Shah to get some training and of course, we're going to have a breast radiologist coming from America, starting in August. So, with this mammogram machine, we have a state-of-the-art absolutely fantastic machine, and then if we have a breast radiologist to actually drive that forward. I can see Kijabe being a fantastic breast unit going forward.  David: That's amazing. So you went from Vellore, you went from a very faith-based medical system to the NHS, which I assume was not the same. No, no. What was that like? Dayalan: The NHS as a health provider is absolutely fantastic.  You have, which I think most developed countries should aspire for, a health delivery system that is free at the point of delivery irrespective of your social status, your economic status, or who you are. Absolutely fantastic health delivery system. But one of the issues with that is that it's very secular, even though the British consider themselves a Christian country. I think that's far from what's practically happening there. So, it wasn't an issue for me. I am still involved in my church. I sing in the church choir. I'm actively involved in church activities. They've been very supportive of me coming here and by their prayers. So that balanced it out. And yes, it was different. But I think the professional satisfaction that I got from treating my patients, knowing that irrespective of whatever treatment they needed, they got it, irrespective of their economic status. And I think that is something most countries should aspire for. Any developed country that doesn't do that I think is really failing their people. And so I think Britain and the NHS is a fantastic health delivery system. It's huge and any huge system like that will have flaws, will have deficiencies. But as a principle where they can deliver good quality care which is completely free at the point of delivery, I think the NHS is fantastic. David: What does India's delivery system look like? Because you're doing a lot of fundraising for the people who are not able to pay, correct? Dayalan: Yes. So now in the UK, we have a group very much like Friends of Kijabe called the Friends of Vellore UK. And because Vellore has been training medical students for about 80 years, they have people in various countries. We have friends of Vellore in the US and the UK and Australia and in different parts. And the original role of these organizations, are charities that were set up by mission. Those who went from the UK to the Vellore worked there, came back, and raised funds from their local churches. Equipment that was not being used by discarded by the NHS was being shipped back to Vellore. So, Vellore depended a lot on these Friends of Vellore in the different countries. But the law has now got grown so big and it's completely self-sufficient for their day-to-day running for their equipment. So they don't need the Friends of the Vellore UK anymore for that. So, we've turned our focus towards paying poor patients' bills. And one of the things that often used to worry me is that, yes, the law is a fantastic institution. They give brilliant care, tertiary care for people. But what about the poor man living on the street outside or just two miles away from the law? Where does he go? I mean, he doesn't have a chance of paying those bills. Vellore has now moved on in that 15% of their income, which is a large amount, is completely for charity. Dayalan: And they're moving towards no patient will ever be turned away from the law because of lack of funds. So that's where we come in and we have said no more capital investment from us. We are going to concentrate on paying for poor patients' bills and they have a very good system which was set up in the seventies called person to person. So, a person in the UK donates money for a person in the Vellore. So that money is then raised and sent to Vellore. Vellore administers that. Every penny that that person in the UK donates goes directly to paying that poor patient's bill. And the person who in Vellore UK who donates that money gets a report of the patient that they treated and whose bill they helped to pay. That was set up in the seventies and is a very popular way of helping poor patients because the donors love it. They know exactly what's happened, the social standard, how much the bill cost, and what either the patient or their parents earn. So that was that's a very popular program and Friends of Vellore the UK that is our main contribution. David: I just had to pause. In 1970. So that meant you had to send a letter for every single patient that was helped. Dayalan: That's right. It was snail mail in those days. I remember as interns and as house officers actually filling in the form for a PCP form. Whenever the consultant knew that this patient is is not going to affect, they'll turn round to the junior, which was us. Can you please fill in a PDP form? We would then go into the patient's history, the economic background, where they live, what they earn, how many meals they have, how big their house is, and then all that details are then put together. Then the money is sent from PCP and then a sort of report is compiled by the administrator and by Vellore, and then sent by mail to the people in the UK. David: I'm just absolutely floored because I associate this with organizations like Compassion International. This is normal now. This was not normal in 1970 by any stretch of the imagination. For somebody working in the charity space, it's just mind-bogglingly cutting edge. That's so cool. Dayalan: I think Vellore has been just miles ahead of everybody else in India and even abroad. One of the other things, just to give you an example was the medical admissions when we got into medical college. So, you did an entrance exam where you qualified and then you were called for an interview and the interview took three days and the interview was hardly anything on the subject material. But it's basically to understand what is the aptitude of this individual person. Does the CMC think that this person is someone who has the aptitude to go back and serve? That was the main crux of the interview. We had personal interviews, we had group tasks, we had individual tasks, we had psychometric tasks. This is going back 50 years when it wasn't even envisaged. In the UK we now started bringing this in for our medical admission. And I was saying, “Guys, we've been doing this for 50 years at Vellore.” I think Vellore was really miles ahead of everybody else in lots of their programs and lots of their thinking and a lot of their projects. David: Yeah, that's just amazing. Wow. Is there anything you see at KJB that reminds you of what that's like? Like what are common threads? Dayalan: Well, I think the common thread is the Christ-centered attitude of what you're doing for your patients. Nobody is interested in personal gain or personal glory.  All you are interested in is that God's name be praised and that patient getting well. And I think that's probably the first thing that struck me when I came here. That's it, I think the most important thing in health delivery system within a Christian ethos. So that was the first thing that struck me. The second thing that struck me is the training system is so similar. Vellore was started by an American missionary, Ida Scudder. The training system where residents do what they were doing here, like the PAACS (Pan African Academy of Christian Surgeons) training system, the residents take personal responsibility for the patient they're looking after. They present in rounds. They know everything about that patient. And the training system was very similar. And I think what I appreciate with PAACS, even more than what we had in Vellore is ours was mainly service-oriented. Here you've introduced some teaching into it. Also, you have, at least in surgery, regular teaching sessions which we didn't have in the Vellore. The onus was on the individual to go read up. And whereas here [in Kijabe] you have a structured training program with structured teaching from starting from the basic sciences, going right up to the operating skills, which is fantastic. David: How do how does the skill level of our [Kijabe] trainees match up to other places you've been? Dayalan: I think the training here, the skill level is fantastic, and I think it's what I like about the system is it's actually geared towards the African setting in that they have a general training which we don't have in the UK. We've moved away completely, but the UK can afford to do it because it's a developed country and they have the NHS which will look after everyone, whatever they need is, whereas here it's not the case. And so, I think the training is very broad here, very good here. And having seen the final-year residents, I know they're going to be doing the exams shortly and they will go out and I'm confident they would be able to manage most surgical conditions. And when I say surgical, not in the narrow sense of the UK, but in the broad sense of what Africa needs. So I think the skill levels are absolutely fantastic for this residency.  David: For some of the non-medical people listening. What are the biggest surgical needs for Africa? Dayalan: I think the surgical need for Africa is to be a generalist where you can actually have a basic understanding of surgical diseases, know what the pathology is, and be able to quite rightly identify the problem and treat it adequately. One of the things I've noticed here is I've seen lots of patients being referred from elsewhere who actually have no knowledge of how that disease should have been treated but are willing to have a go because of either bravado or there's a financial incentive because if they did something surgical, they're going to get paid for it. And I think that's where PAACS really stands out in that they've grown them quite well and by the end of their training they know exactly what to do. David: Do we know why breast cancer is so common? I know we're a referral center, so I have a skewed sense because that's so much of what we see in Kijabe. Why is it so prevalent? Why is it affecting young people? Do we have answers to those questions? Dayalan: Interestingly, the statistics we have shown that breast cancer is a disease of the developing country. When I was in India, working in rural India and Assam in the last few years, I didn't see very much breast cancer, rural India, villages, not so much. You go to the urban cities in India, it's more common. And similarly, Kijabe seems to get a track because of the reputation we have of having treated breast cancer for a long time. With Peters reputation, we are a referral center for lots of people around the area and so I think Kijabe and Kenya are also going in the direction of the other developing countries where breast cancer is getting more common. And I have a simplistic view to this and I've discussed this with you before in that the things that increase your risk for breast cancer, even though each of them is small, are much more common in the developed countries. Things like the oral contraceptive pill, and hormone replacement treatment, all of these are extraneous estrogens which your body is not used to and taking them increases your risk. Things related to childbirth. Not having children increases your risk.  Having children and the number of children you have is protective. If you have more children, you are more protected against breast cancer. The same way breastfeeding. In the West, there was a huge fad against breastfeeding and using artificial milk.  Breastfeeding is protective in developing countries like India and Kenya. It's a necessity. If you don't breastfeed, it's economically not possible to actually buy powdered milk. And so, it's because of necessity, you have to do it. Everyone breastfed. Each of these is a small risk, but if you add them cumulatively, they become a higher risk. And I think as more countries, the developing countries are getting more developed and getting more Westernized, all of them are following the same trend that we have in the West, and this is increasing the risk. And so, breast cancer is getting more common in developing countries, unlike it was 20 or 30 years ago. David: Wow. This just sounds both sad and scary. Dayalan: It is. Because statistics in the cities in India show that they're almost catching up with the West in terms of prevalence of breast cancer. And it's probably this whole modernization shaping the West and doing all the things that they think the West is doing, which is good. David: I was having a conversation with Rich Davis today about research. The thing that comes to mind is autism. How rare it is for for it to be seen here? Yet in Nairobi, it's much more common each year that goes by. I don't know if your wife has had this experience in anywhere else you travel. Each year that goes by, Arianna sees a few more children [with autism]. And it's I wonder if there are similar factors. I wonder what the correlations are and where it comes from? Dayalan: I think definitely you can. My wife's in the same field, she's a pediatrician also. And there's no doubt that that incidence is increasing. But also, I think we're more aware of conditions that we didn't know 20 years ago. So 20 years ago, autism was just about coming, making it very similar to screening for breast cancer, pre-invasive breast cancer like DCIS, we didn't know these conditions before, but slowly we're getting more. Research helps with that. We've got good screening programs both in the US and in the UK, fantastic breast screening programs, and so we're learning much more as we go along with each intervention that comes about like screening. So I think we're going to see more of it. And the more you see of it, the more you get to know of it and the more you get to know of it, the better it gets for patients and health benefits. David: What would have happened in Kijabe, if you did have breast cancer 20 years ago? There were probably very few chemotherapy options? I guess you could have done a mastectomy, but there was no reconstruction. I mean, was it a death sentence? Dayalan: Almost.  One of the problems we have in Kijabe and in Kenya and the whole I think is patients present much later, as a result of which the prognosis is not going to be as good as countries like yours and mine, where we have good screening programs, we pick it up early. If you take breast cancer in the UK now, two-thirds of the patients are going to be alive and well in 20 years' time. In Kijabe it's going to be a complete opposite statistic, roughly just off the top of my head, where two-thirds would be dead after 20 years. But that's because they present so late. So, yes. We've got much better in the treatment everywhere. And the problem we have is a lot of the new treatments in breast cancer, i.e., chemotherapy.  Monoclonal antibodies unfortunately are very expensive. So while in the UK where you have the NHS, where [cost] doesn't matter, in Kijabe and in Kenya, it's much more difficult to access all of these. But saying that, in the three months that I've been here, patients are being given the same chemotherapy regime that we use in the UK. Thanks to NHIF, thanks to patients' awareness, they're able to access monoclonal antibodies, not to the extent we would in the UK, but definitely, it's available and now we give our patients that treatment, and of course reconstructive surgery has moved on miles. Dayalan: In terms of the treatment options we have, it's increased phenomenally. When I started in the UK 30 years ago, we had one chemotherapy regime for breast cancer. Now we have 20, maybe 30 regimes that we can use - different chemotherapeutic agents and if one fails, you go on to the next and so on and so forth, which we didn't have 20 years ago. I think treatment for breast cancer is really looking up. And with the new mammogram machine, I think one of the big things that we should be looking at is setting up a screening program for the local people because the mammogram machine is not going to be busy with the amount of breast cancer work that we do. So really what we need to be doing is developing a screening program, going out into the community and telling them, come, let's have a look, get some mammograms. Let's pick this up early. If you have a cancer, we'll sort it out for you. 

World News with BK
Podcast#303: Afghanistan Sikh attack, China seeks aliens, Brit cop grabs co-worker's crank as "Joke"

World News with BK

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 19, 2022 152:47


Got started this week by talking about the attack on the few remaining Sikhs in Afghanistan, and then went into whether or not China found an alien radio signal. Then it was the stock market/crypto meltdown, Hershel Walker says weird shit, record number of illegal crossings at border, and a British cop is fired after grabbing rookie's genitals; yelling to other cops, "he's got a small one!" Music: 2 Chainz/"Million Dollars Worth of Game"

News Headlines in Morse Code at 15 WPM

Morse code transcription: vvv vvv Heres what it would mean to these Americans if Biden canceled student loan debt Afghanistan gurdwara attack Sikhs say We dont feel safe Moroccans accuse French tycoon Jacques Bouthier of sexual harassment Uvalde police officers drove by suspect, missed chance to shoot him before rampage deputy Protests intensify over India military recruitment plan Dom Phillips and Bruno Pereira were shot with hunting ammunition, say police Ukraine war Zelensky visits front line cities of Mykolaiv and Odesa Vitali Klitschko Russians are dying for Putins ambitions French National Assembly vote decides battle between Macron and left Woman charged with hate crimes after police say she pepper sprayed 4 people, made anti Asian remarks Marcelo Pecci Killers who shot Paraguayan prosecutor on honeymoon convicted Gun Sellers Stoke Fears to Boost Weapon Sales In pictures Europe swelters in blistering June heat Spanish firefighters tackle wildfires Mark Shields, TV Pundit Known for His Sharp Wit, Dies at 85 Building collapse after fire kills 1 firefighter 5 injured Eurovision Ukraine deserves to host 2023 contest, says Boris Johnson Church shooting suspect was licensed gun dealer warned by federal agents about missing guns Biden Falls Off Bike During Visit to Rehoboth Beach

Sikhism in Snippits
Taking the heads of the Sikhs and not goats

Sikhism in Snippits

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 17, 2022 2:46


In this katha by Sant Hardev Singh Lulo Wale talks about the event at the Khalsa Sirjana and questions whether it was the heads of the Panj Piyaray or goats taken? Any issues please contact me on kam1825@hotmail.com I would also like to thank my sponsors who have donated towards the podcasts financially. Thank you with your continuing support this podcast can become self sustaining

The SouthSide Unicorn Show
The Democrats are Jug Heads

The SouthSide Unicorn Show

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 13, 2022 57:45


Listen in today as we discuss the J6 Kangaroo, Nick Cannon, Brittany Spears, and a new kind of crime called "Jugging" as done by JUG DOG, also listen in for the question of the day the right answer can win you a Tshirt while supplies last. we also pay homage to an international Rapper known as Sidhu MOOSE WALA ...Win Tshirt go to

Suraj Podcast
Episode 231 - Funeral Rites for Martyred Sikhs

Suraj Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 11, 2022 10:27


In this episode hear how Guru Hargobind takes care of the funeral rites of the martyred Sikhs in battle. This relates to Chapter 44 of Raas 6.

UNSHACKLED! Audio Dramas
Sundar Singh Part 1

UNSHACKLED! Audio Dramas

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 6, 2022 33:42


Sundar Singh hailed from a family of Sikhs, but his mother taught him to value all religions. After burning a Bible and deciding that the Christian God was dead, Sundar would have an encounter than would lead him on the mission of a lifetime. Join us, won't you? So you don't miss Part 1 of Sundar's adventurous story, another true dramatization, right now, on UNSHACKLED! Visit our podcast website to learn more about this ministry, unshackledpodcast.org.

Basics of Sikhi Podcast
#11 June 1984 | Operation Blue Star | An Overview with Bhai Mandeep Singh

Basics of Sikhi Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 6, 2022 86:24


June 1984 is a time that many Sikhs remember, but what actually happened? Bhai Mandeep Singh goes through the before, during and after Operation Blue Star. This powerful podcast highlights the eye-witness accounts of both Sikhs and Non-Sikhs. We speak about the psyche of Sikhs when it comes to weaponry, the courage and spirits that the Sikhs fought with, and the atrocities and human rights violations of the "authorities." Please watch the full podcast, let us know about your favourite parts and don't forget to share this with your friends and family. To gain more knowledge about the events that took place in 1984, here is a list of books that you can read and some videos you can watch: In no particular order: "The Sikh Martyrs volume 1" (available from nsyf.org.uk) "The Sikhs of Punjab," by Joyce J M Pettigrew "Fighting for faith and nation," By Cynthia Keppley Mahmood "1984 India's guilty secret," by Pav Singh "1984 the Anti Sikh violence and after" by Sanjay Suri "When a tree shook Delhi- the 1984 carnage and its aftermath," by Manoj Mitta and HS Phoolka "Lost in history, 1984 reconstructed," by Gunisha Kaur "Giani Kirpal Singh's eye witness account of operation blue star," Translated and edited by Anurag Singh "Struggle for justice- Speeches and conversations of Sant Jarnail Singh Khalsa Bhindranwale,"- By Ranbir Singh Sandhu "Reflections on 1984," By Harjinder singh (Akaal publishers) "The Gallant defender," By AR Darshi "Amritsar- Mrs Gandhi's last battle," - by Mark Tully and Satish Jacob "Surhird Sant Khalsa," (in Punjabi) by Singh Sahib Bhai Jasveer Singh "Kurbani-the life of Shaheed Bhai Fauja Singh" -Akhand Kirtani Jatha NEW 1984 DOCUMENTARY: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?event=video_description&redir_token=QUFFLUhqbWw1dWVvZUR3RWs5U1dIMUd3R280amlBai1aUXxBQ3Jtc0tuQlJYbFBGaC1vUVps