Podcasts about Western Hemisphere

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  • 513PODCASTS
  • 676EPISODES
  • 42mAVG DURATION
  • 5WEEKLY NEW EPISODES
  • May 21, 2022LATEST
Western Hemisphere

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Best podcasts about Western Hemisphere

Latest podcast episodes about Western Hemisphere

PBS NewsHour - Segments
Hundreds of years after Haiti paid to be free from slavery the costs are still being felt

PBS NewsHour - Segments

Play Episode Listen Later May 21, 2022 4:34


Haiti is one of the poorest nations in the Western Hemisphere, yet the reasons for that are often overlooked. The New York Times recently conducted an unprecedented investigation into those root causes, which includes revelations about Haiti's former colonizer: France. The Times' Catherine Porter, who led the team that uncovered the story, joins Ali Rogin to discuss. PBS NewsHour is supported by - https://www.pbs.org/newshour/about/funders

PBS NewsHour - World
Hundreds of years after Haiti paid to be free from slavery the costs are still being felt

PBS NewsHour - World

Play Episode Listen Later May 21, 2022 4:34


Haiti is one of the poorest nations in the Western Hemisphere, yet the reasons for that are often overlooked. The New York Times recently conducted an unprecedented investigation into those root causes, which includes revelations about Haiti's former colonizer: France. The Times' Catherine Porter, who led the team that uncovered the story, joins Ali Rogin to discuss. PBS NewsHour is supported by - https://www.pbs.org/newshour/about/funders

The 'X' Zone Radio Show
Rob McConnell Interviews - DAVID J PITKIN - Ghosts, Hauntings, and the Paranormal

The 'X' Zone Radio Show

Play Episode Listen Later May 14, 2022 41:30


Retired teacher David J. Pitkin has sought answers to mysteries throughout his life, an activity spurred by a bout with cancer in 1973. Fascinated by the workings of the unconscious mind and on the growing evidence for consciousness surviving body death, he has written five books of researched ghost stories. He studied dream analysis with Dr. Montague Ullman, pioneer dream researcher at Maimonides Hospital. Pitkin believes that dreams of the deceased are often genuine "contact experiences." David lectures widely on parapsychology themes, including ghost stories and near-death experiences. His first collection of New England ghost stories is found in Ghosts of the Northeast (2002), which has sold over 25,000 copies. On September 1, 2010 he published New England Ghosts, containing about 150 more stories, most of which have never before been in print. Pitkin has served as a professional numerologist and spiritual counselor, using his degree in Counseling Psychology (Goddard College, 1990) to analyze peoples' dreams, personalities and spiritual goals. His book, Spiritual Numerology: Caring for Number One, outlining his unique numerological analytical system, was published in 2000. Though he has visited haunted sites throughout Western Hemisphere, his favorite haunts are in the northeast U.S., where the spirits are usually polite, though stubborn. He regales audiences with humorous ghost tales throughout the region. Pitkin's motto is "Enlighten, Don't Frighten," as he stimulates readers and listeners to ponder the profound issues surrounding death-and life. He frequently appears on radio and television, addressing issues of the strange phenomena and the unseen world around us. In 2006 Pitkin completed Adirondack Journey, Glens Falls, NY TV-8's series on haunts in the Adirondack Mountains. His updated Saratoga County book, Haunted Saratoga County, was published in 2005, and has become another local best seller. He published New York State Ghosts, Volume 1 in 2006, and Volume 2 in October, 2008, both of which have become regional best sellers. More people than one would suspect are interested in their life's ending and want it to be a happy one. Pitkin offers suggestions on how to achieve that. His first novel, The Highest Mountain: Death & Life in the Adirondacks, was published in June 2007, and Pitkin is currently working on a sequel, The Explorer: An Adirondack Search, due out in 2014. In March 2009 he released his first CD album of narrated ghost stories with an Adirondack theme: Adirondack Ghost Stories, Volume One.Now listen to all our XZBN shows, with our compliments go to: https://www.spreaker.com/user/xzoneradiotv or www.xzoneuniverse.com *** AND NOW ***The ‘X' Zone TV Channel on SimulTV - www.simultv.comThe ‘X' Zone TV Channel Radio Feed (Free - No Subscription Required) - https://www.spreaker.com/show/xztv-the-x-zone-tv-show-audio The ‘X' Chronicles Newspaper - www.xchroniclesnewspaper.com (Free)To contact Rob McConnell - misterx@xzoneradiotv.com

The Best of The 'X' Zone Radio/TV Show with Rob McConnell
Rob McConnell Interviews - DAVID J PITKIN - Ghosts, Hauntings, and the Paranormal

The Best of The 'X' Zone Radio/TV Show with Rob McConnell

Play Episode Listen Later May 14, 2022 41:30


Retired teacher David J. Pitkin has sought answers to mysteries throughout his life, an activity spurred by a bout with cancer in 1973. Fascinated by the workings of the unconscious mind and on the growing evidence for consciousness surviving body death, he has written five books of researched ghost stories. He studied dream analysis with Dr. Montague Ullman, pioneer dream researcher at Maimonides Hospital. Pitkin believes that dreams of the deceased are often genuine "contact experiences." David lectures widely on parapsychology themes, including ghost stories and near-death experiences. His first collection of New England ghost stories is found in Ghosts of the Northeast (2002), which has sold over 25,000 copies. On September 1, 2010 he published New England Ghosts, containing about 150 more stories, most of which have never before been in print. Pitkin has served as a professional numerologist and spiritual counselor, using his degree in Counseling Psychology (Goddard College, 1990) to analyze peoples' dreams, personalities and spiritual goals. His book, Spiritual Numerology: Caring for Number One, outlining his unique numerological analytical system, was published in 2000. Though he has visited haunted sites throughout Western Hemisphere, his favorite haunts are in the northeast U.S., where the spirits are usually polite, though stubborn. He regales audiences with humorous ghost tales throughout the region. Pitkin's motto is "Enlighten, Don't Frighten," as he stimulates readers and listeners to ponder the profound issues surrounding death-and life. He frequently appears on radio and television, addressing issues of the strange phenomena and the unseen world around us. In 2006 Pitkin completed Adirondack Journey, Glens Falls, NY TV-8's series on haunts in the Adirondack Mountains. His updated Saratoga County book, Haunted Saratoga County, was published in 2005, and has become another local best seller. He published New York State Ghosts, Volume 1 in 2006, and Volume 2 in October, 2008, both of which have become regional best sellers. More people than one would suspect are interested in their life's ending and want it to be a happy one. Pitkin offers suggestions on how to achieve that. His first novel, The Highest Mountain: Death & Life in the Adirondacks, was published in June 2007, and Pitkin is currently working on a sequel, The Explorer: An Adirondack Search, due out in 2014. In March 2009 he released his first CD album of narrated ghost stories with an Adirondack theme: Adirondack Ghost Stories, Volume One.Now listen to all our XZBN shows, with our compliments go to: https://www.spreaker.com/user/xzoneradiotv or www.xzoneuniverse.com *** AND NOW ***The ‘X' Zone TV Channel on SimulTV - www.simultv.comThe ‘X' Zone TV Channel Radio Feed (Free - No Subscription Required) - https://www.spreaker.com/show/xztv-the-x-zone-tv-show-audio The ‘X' Chronicles Newspaper - www.xchroniclesnewspaper.com (Free)To contact Rob McConnell - misterx@xzoneradiotv.com

Stuff You Missed in History Class
A Brief History of Rabies

Stuff You Missed in History Class

Play Episode Listen Later May 9, 2022 45:44


Today's rabies prophylaxis is almost 100% effective at preventing human death from the bite of a rabid animal. How did people come to understand rabies, and then develop a vaccination for it? Research: Etymologia: Rabies. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2012 Jul [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.ET1807 Velasco-Villa, Andres et al. “The history of rabies in the Western Hemisphere.” Antiviral research vol. 146 (2017): 221-232. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2017.03.013 Pearce JLouis Pasteur and Rabies: a brief noteJournal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 2002;73:82. Wendt, Diane. “Surviving rabies 100 years ago.” National Museum of American History. 10/28/2013. https://americanhistory.si.edu/blog/2013/10/surviving-rabies-100-years-ago.html Blancou, Jean. “The Evolution of Rabies Epidemiology in Wildlife.” Director General, Office International des Épizooties. https://www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/sites/g/files/dgvnsk491/files/inline-files/EVOLUTION_RABIES_EPIDEMIOLOGY_WILDLIFE.pdf Lite, Jordan. “Medical Mystery: Only One Person Has Survived Rabies without Vaccine--But How?.” Scientific American. 10/8/2008. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/jeanna-giese-rabies-survivor/ Zeiler, Frederick A., and Alan C. Jackson. “Critical Appraisal of the Milwaukee Protocol for Rabies: This Failed Approach Should Be Abandoned.” Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences / Journal Canadien Des Sciences Neurologiques, vol. 43, no. 1, 2016, pp. 44–51., doi:10.1017/cjn.2015.331. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. “Mass Treatment of Humans Exposed to Rabies -- New Hampshire, 1994.” 7/7/1995. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00038110.htm Ledesma, Leandro Augusto et al. “Comparing clinical protocols for the treatment of human rabies: the Milwaukee protocol and the Brazilian protocol (Recife).” Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical vol. 53 e20200352. 6 Nov. 2020, doi:10.1590/0037-8682-0352-2020 Braus, Patricia. "Rabies." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science, edited by Katherine H. Nemeh and Jacqueline L. Longe, 6th ed., vol. 6, Gale, 2021, pp. 3671-3673. Gale In Context: Science, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX8124402043/GPS?u=mlin_n_melpub&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=fb022ca3. Accessed 13 Apr. 2022. Gelfand, Toby. “11 January 1887, the Day Medicine Changed: Joseph Grancher's Defense of Pasteur's Treatment for Rabies.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Volume 76, Number 4, Winter 2002, pp. 698-718 (Article). Published by Johns Hopkins University Press https://doi.org/10.1353/bhm.2002.0176 Nadal, Deborah. “A Child, A Dog, A Virus and an Anthropologist.” Practicing Anthropology, Fall 2016, Vol. 38, No. 4. Via JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/26539805 Botting, Jack H. “Rabies.” From Animals and Medicine: The Contribution of Animal Experiments to the Control of Disease. Open Book Publishers. (2015). Via JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt15m7ng5.7  Baer, George M. “The History of Rabies.” From Rabies: Second Edition. Edited by Alan C. Jackson and William H. Wunner. 2007. Jackson, Alan C. “History of Rabies Research.” From: Rabies: Scientific Basis of the Disease and Its Management. Third Edition. 2013. Hansen, Bert. “America's First Medical Breakthrough: How Popular Excitement about a French Rabies Cure in 1885 Raised New Expectations for Medical Progress.” The American Historical Review , Apr., 1998, Vol. 103, No. 2. Via JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2649773 See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

Argus Media
The Crude Report: WCS Houston - A sour marker at the sweet spot of market transparency

Argus Media

Play Episode Listen Later May 9, 2022 18:52


Join Argus VP of business development Jeff Kralowetz and Americas crude editor Gus Vasquez for this podcast on the rapid rise of the WCS Houston price assessment as a benchmark for sour crude throughout the Western Hemisphere, and beyond.  The podcast looks at rising Canadian oil sands production, increased pipeline capacity to the Gulf coast, and the potential for growing competition between Padd 2 (US Midcontinent) and Padd 3 (US Gulf coast) refiners for Canadian crude. It also provides updates on the potential for increased re-exports of Canadian heavy crude from the Gulf coast to Asia, and the possible impacts of the TMX project in western Canada and closure or change of ownership at Lyondell's Houston refinery. Learn more about the Argus Crude report.    

American Diplomat
Tweeting Is Not Acting

American Diplomat

Play Episode Listen Later May 5, 2022 56:19


Immigration expert Eric Farnsworth is back to parse our "unilateral disarmament" diplomatically in the Western Hemisphere, due to bipartisan failure to compromise.  "We're doing it to ourselves," explains Eric. And here comes the Summit of the Americas in LA in June.

Two Minutes in Trade
Two Minutes in Trade - Trade in the Western Hemisphere and Summit of the Americas

Two Minutes in Trade

Play Episode Listen Later May 2, 2022 3:15


The Summit of the Americas is about a month away and we expect to see some initiatives related to trade to be discussed as part of this gathering of political, business and civil society leaders in LA during the week of June 6.

Americas 360
Ukraine and the Western Hemisphere

Americas 360

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 28, 2022 26:17


The shocking images of Russia's unprovoked attacks on Ukraine have galvanized Western countries to create a united front against Russia. In the Americas, the response to Russia's aggression has been mixed and even tepid in light of the extent of the destruction. Canada is a notable exception. Our experts discuss the response of governments from the Western Hemisphere to the conflict and its implications for global diplomacy and economic well-being.

Arizona's Morning News
Timeline for April 27th

Arizona's Morning News

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 27, 2022 1:13


On April 27th in 2006 construction started on the Freedom Tower. It's the tallest building in the U.S. and Western Hemisphere.  See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

Stratfor Podcast
Essential Geopolitics A New Plan Emerges To Manage Migration into the US

Stratfor Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 21, 2022 11:17


In this episode of RANE's Essential Geopolitics podcast, we focus on migration in the Americas. The Biden administration appears to be shifting its strategy to curb migration flows in the Western Hemisphere from a large focus on Central America to a push for broader regional cooperation. Carmen Colosi is RANE's Latin America analyst and has details. Stay ahead of developments in the Americas with RANE Worldview. Visit stratfor.com to subscribe.

Transforming Truth (audio)
What Really Is A Pastor?

Transforming Truth (audio)

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 18, 2022 49:06


Most churches in the modern day Western Hemisphere are led by a person with the title of Pastor. The pastor is responsible for providing visionary direction. The pastor is expected to win the lost and make them into disciples. The pastor is paid to visit the sick, marry the engaged, bury the deceased, counsel the struggling, resolve conflicts, study the Word and preach it with skill, mentor and lead the church staff, and pray without ceasing. The Church in the West thinks of a one-stop-shop type of leader when it uses the term Pastor. Yet, God actually never endorsed this type of thinking. God's blueprint for the Church does not include the notion that a pastor is to provide everything the local church needs. Is it any wonder that church members often find themselves disappointed in their Pastor? Is it any wonder why pastors frequently burn out and quit. The problem is found in our lack of understanding about what God actually gifts a true pastor for, and what He expects them to do. The solution to the problem is for pastors and churches to embrace what the Bible teaches about the office of the Pastor. As we continue our series on 5-Fold Ministry, it is time to realign with the biblical presentation of what a Pastor really is, and how he/she is to fulfill that calling in the plan of God for the Church.

STL Leaders Podcast
Read the book, Vance Crowe

STL Leaders Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 18, 2022 26:12


Vance Crowe is a communications consultant that has worked for corporations and international organizations around the world. He has spoken before more than 150,000 people, answering questions about some of the most sophisticated and controversial technologies in the modern age.  Vance helps organizations realize why the general public doesn't agree with their perspective and offers new ways to communicate effectively, resolve disagreements, and build rapport with critics and stakeholders.    Vance is the former Director of Millennial Engagement for Monsanto. He previously worked as a Communications Strategist for the World Bank Group, as a U.S. Peace Corps Volunteer stationed in Kenya, as a Communications Coordinator at a National Public Radio affiliate in Northern California, and as a deckhand on an eco-tourism ship that traveled the Western Hemisphere.  His stories and lessons illuminate aspects of communications that remain hidden to most people. Vance holds a degree in communications from Marquette University and a master's degree in cross-cultural negotiations from the Seton Hall School of Diplomacy.  Vance is the CEO of Articulate Ventures LLC. a boutique public relations and marketing firm in Saint Louis, Missouri.

自然英语
Pitcher Plant

自然英语

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 15, 2022 2:12


Hello, this is wild suzhou.Today, we will be talking about the pitcher plants, another type of unique and clever carnivorous plant. Pitcher plants are, of course, named for their shape, which is that of a pitcher, or a jug that you might put a drink in. They are found in areas with poor soil, such as swamps or sandy areas. This is because they don't need good soil to grow since they get enough nutrients from catching insects to eat. There are three groups of pitcher plants: Sarracenia, Nepenthes, and Cephalotus.Pitcher plants eat mainly insects, and they are able to attract them using nectar. If an insect gets close enough and lands on the area where the nectar is, they will fall into the bottom of the pitcher, because the top part of the plant is very slippery. Prey cannot get out of the pitcher since downward facing hairs make sure they can't climb out, and prey eventually drowns. At the bottom of the pitcher are digestive enzymes and bacteria, which will digest the prey.Sarracenia is the group of pitcher plants found in the New World. The New World refers to the Western Hemisphere, mainly the Americas. They can be found in bogs, swamps, meadows, and savannas. In these areas, the water is soggy and does not contain much nutrients. Most of the plants in Sarracenia look like trumpets, and are fairly long and thin. The pitchers also shoot out of the ground, and are able to support themselves. Nepenthes are the group of tropical pitcher plants found in the Old World. This means places like Asia, Europe, Africa, and Australia. Plants in this group are usually found in acidic soil but can also grow in trees. Some species like Attenborough's pitcher plant are large enough to catch small animals, like mice and rats. These pitcher plants are shaped more like pitchers, and are fatter, like a very round and wide pot. Unlike Sarracenia, they droop from the plant that they are attached to. Cephalotus is the final group of pitcher plants, and only has one species, the Western Australia pitcher plant, which is found only in southwestern Australia. It lives in sandy and swampy soil, which is once again very low in nutrition. The pitchers are red, white, and green, and are very short and hairy.For Wild Suzhou, I'm Ciana, thanks for listening and see you next time.

Hallowed Waters
13: LIVE PODCAST! Pere Marquette Guide Legends and its Brown Trout Ground-Zero Hallowed Waters –The Iconic Trout Guide: Jac Ford, and his new book-” A View from the Middle Seat”

Hallowed Waters

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 15, 2022 89:01


This is a special live recording on the banks of the hallowed Pere Marquette River in Michigan at the new 1884 Fly Shop. Host/Guide Matthew Supinski comes back to the waters that were the subject of his first authored book back in 1995, “River Journal: Pere Marquette”, to interview the oldest, most talented and vibrant guide legend (80 plus years young)-Michigan's iconic Jac Ford, who still rows a boat everyday and has a new book filled with amazing trout stories, lethal tactics and incredible photography and fly patterns. The legendary Pere Marquette was the site of the first Western Hemisphere introduction of brown trout from Germany's Black Forest in the spring of 1884- hence the name for Dan' White's amazing new fly shop on its waters!...don't miss this podcast! Podcast Artwork by Igor Vinnik and Caleb Denman Engineered and Produced by Caleb Denman at Jupiter Sound Reasearch TAGS #hallowedwatersjournal #hallowedwaterspodcast #matthewsupinski #jacford #troutfishing #flyfishing #peremarquetteriver #dryflyfishing #mayflyhatches #matchingthehatch #michiganguides #steelhead #browntrout #rainbowtrout #baldwinmichigan #1884flyshop #danwhite1884flyshop #troutstreams #streamers #nymphfishing #riverjournal #groundzerobrowntrout #browntrout #blackforestbrowntrout #germanbrowntrout #michigantroutlegends #browntroutatlanticsalmonnexus #hexhatch #mousing #nightfishingfortrout #wetflies #softhackles #gloomisnrxrods #orvismissionspey #harelinedubbin #daiichihooks #maxima #anglerssportgroup --- Send in a voice message: https://anchor.fm/hallowedwaters/message

Chasing Kangaroos - An International Rugby League Podcast
RLA 201 | Ravens, Redtails and more!

Chasing Kangaroos - An International Rugby League Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 10, 2022 74:19


Dustin and Jim have been allowed back for a second time by “the powers that be”.  Featured this week are interviews with the new Acting Director of CRLA Josh Knight and the Executive Director of the US Women's RL, Garen Casey. Join them as they discuss the historical match between the Ravens and Redtails. They also do their best to talk about all the latest around rugby league in the Western Hemisphere. All this and more on Rugby League in America

The Times: Daily news from the L.A. Times

Reporter Sandra Dibble spent more than 25 years covering the U.S.-Mexico border for the San Diego Union-Tribune. And what she found out after her first day on the job is that Tijuana is ... complicated.The impact of being home to the Western Hemisphere's busiest border crossing — how the border has shaped Tijuana — is a big part of what Sandra spent her career digging into.And she pulls all that work together in "Border City," a new eight-part narrative podcast series. Today, we air its debut episode.Host: Sandra DibbleMore reading:Border City: A podcast about beauty, violence and belonging in Tijuana from a journalist who spent more than 25 years reporting at the borderThe Backstory: Sandra Dibble discusses “Border City,” her upcoming podcast about reporting in TijuanaOpinion: After writing about Tijuana for decades, I can't imagine my life without this city 

Culinary Historians of Chicago
Often Overlooked Spring Fungi with Andrew Methven, PhD

Culinary Historians of Chicago

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 5, 2022 77:19


Andrew S. Methven Emeritus Professor of Biological Sciences Eastern Illinois University While most people are scouring the woods for morels in the Spring, there is a treasure trove of other fungi that are often overlooked or ignored in our haste to find food for the table. This talk will focus on some of the fungi, including morels and false morels, which are encountered in Midwestern forests in spring and early summer. You will see images of edible fungi, fascinating pathogens, and a number of fungi which are ecologically important or mycologically interesting. Andrew Methven is emeritus professor of mycology and lichenology at Eastern Illinois University. He has taught courses in mycology, lichenology, medical mycology, and field mycology, and curated the Cryptogamic Herbarium (with more than 15,000 collections of fungi and lichens). Included among his research interests are systematics and ecology of fungi, mycogeography, the application of molecular techniques to fungal systematics, and the identification and distribution of lichens in Eastern North America. His research program has examined the distribution of the mushroom genus Lactarius in the Western Hemisphere, the utilization of biological species concepts in systematics studies of fungi, and the application of molecular techniques to phylogenetic studies in Clavariadelphus, Lentaria, and Macrotyphula. Recent research projects involving undergraduate and graduate students have examined: The effects of sugar maple removal on the occurrence and distribution of fleshy fungi from endemic oak-hickory forests; the occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in sugar maple leaves; systematics and ecology of rust fungi on endemic plants; the use of lichens to assess habitat restoration in fragmented forest ecosystems; fungi which inhabit Spartina (cord grass) in the estuaries of coastal Georgia and North Carolina; and, more recently, systematic studies of species complexes in Gyromitra. If you have any questions or wish for a zoom link, please direct them to Illinois Mycological Association illinoismyco@gmail.com. Recorded via Zoom on April 4, 2022. IllinoisMyco.org Often Overlooked Spring Fungi of the Midwest Phylum Basidiomycota Agrocybe dura Candellomyces candolleanus Coprinellus micaceus Crepidotus crocophyllus Galerina marginata Gymnopus subsulphureus Megacollybia rodmanii Mycena galericulata Panus conchatus Pluteus petasatus Rhodotus palmatus Xeromphalina tenuipes Cerioporus squamosus Lentinus arcularius Neofavolus alveolaris Polyporus umbellatus Auricularia americana Ductifera pululahuana Exidia glandulosa Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae Puccinia mariae-wilsoniae Puccinia podophylli Uromyces ari-tryphylli Phylum Ascomycota Aleuria aurantia Dumontinia tuberosa Galiella rufa Helvella costifera Hymenoschyphus fructigenus Microstoma floccosum Pachyella clypeata Phylloscypha phyllogena Sarcoscypha dudleyi Sarcoscypha occidentalis Urnula craterium Disciotis venosa Gyromitra brunnea Gyromitra caroliniana Gyromitra korfii Morchella angusticeps Morchella diminutiva Morchella esculentoides Morchella punctipes Verpa conica

Hallowed Waters
12: Michigan's Trout/Steelhead/Salmon Grand Legacy featuring James Dexter: Michigan Department of Natural Resources Fisheries Cheif

Hallowed Waters

Play Episode Listen Later Mar 31, 2022 121:27


New Series-"Introductions, Invasive's and Indigenous Restorations" With more cold, clean fresh water than anywhere on the planet, the grand Great Lakes State of Michigan is a true Trout, Salmon and Steelhead utopia for anglers form all over the world! Along with Hallowed Waters Podcast host Matthew Supinski, James Dexter and the host discuss the amazing species introduction accomplishments of Michigan to bring the brown trout from Europe to the Western Hemisphere, Steelhead rainbow trout to the Great Lakes from the West Coast, and the innovative Pacific Salmon experiment to Lake Michigan to combat the alewife bait explosion, and thus created a whole new epic era of angling for the entire Great Lakes system. Michigan's vision to establish a world-class Atlantic Salmon fishery, which produced and still holds the IGFA world record ,and it's pioneering vision to restore the Coaster Brook Trout and now recently the indigenous Arctic Grayling populations in it's home state waters that border on 4 of the 5 Great Lakes is truly ground-breaking! On a more sobering side, the exotic invasive species brought here by intercontinental ocean-going freighters to the Graet Lakes as a whole are sending biologists into a tail-spin to have to deal with them, and which are disrupting the food chains and prey/predator balances at an alarming rate. Along with climate change and its impacts, there are many challenges in the coming years and to what the future holds to maintaining a world-class salmonid fishery that most take for granted. Join the host/publisher of Hallowed Waters Journal /Pod cats and his guests for these very thought provoking podcasts-don't miss this one! #hallowedwatersjournal #hallowedwaterspodcasts #puremichigan #michigandnr #jamesdexter #matthewsupinski #greatlakes #greatlakeschinooksalmon #greatlakescohosalmon #michigansalmon #michiganfishing #michigansteelhead #greatlakessteelhead #browntrout #groundzerobrowntrout #1884browntrout #germanbrowntrout #rainbowtrout #steelhead #littlemanisteesteelhead #paulseelbach #michiganrivers #wildtrout #wildsteelhead #wildsalmon #chinooksalmon #cohosalmon #atlanticsalmon #landlockedatlanticsalmon #igfalandlockedatlanticsalmon #greatlakesatlanticsalmon #stmarysatlanticsalmon #rogergreil #LSSU #Torchlake #ausablerivermichigan #lakehuron #lakesuperior #lakemichigan #coasterbrooktrout #brooktrout #arcticgrayling #graylingmichigan --- Send in a voice message: https://anchor.fm/hallowedwaters/message

NASA EDGE Audiofiles
The GOES-T Rollout Show

NASA EDGE Audiofiles

Play Episode Listen Later Mar 29, 2022 28:38


On February 28, 2022, NASA EDGE provided live coverage of the rollout of NOAA's GOES-T satellite from the Cape Canaveral Space Force Station in Florida. GOES-T is the third in a series of four satellites specifically flown to provide a continuous record of high-quality imagery, weather, environmental, and space weather data for the entire Western Hemisphere. Guest on the show include NOAA's GOES-R Program System Program Director Pam Sullivan, NOAA's GOES-R Chief Scientist Dan Lindsay, NASA GOES-R Deputy System Program Director Ed Grigsby, NASA GOES-R Flight Project Manager Candace Carlisle, and our good buddy, Mic Woltman from NASA's Launch Services Program. Today's forecast: 100% visibility with a slight chance of buffering.

Engines of Our Ingenuity
Engines of Our Ingenuity 2203: The Chankillo Observatory

Engines of Our Ingenuity

Play Episode Listen Later Mar 28, 2022 3:53


Episode: 2203 The Chankillo Observatory, first in the Western Hemisphere.  Today, we learn the time of the year.

Inspirational Thoughts
Mayan Scientific Achievements

Inspirational Thoughts

Play Episode Listen Later Mar 25, 2022 8:01


The ancient Maya, a diverse group of indigenous people who lived in parts of present-day Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras, had one of the most sophisticated and complex civilizations in the Western Hemisphere. Between about 300 and 900 A.D. Lets dive deep into the past of the Amazing ancient mayan people. Enjoy our podcast and want to support us in a more fashionable way, head on over to NewAgeCinematics.com for fantastic Clothing designs created by our team, that directly supports this show! Support Inspirational Thoughts: Individuals that donate to Inspirational Thoughts, ensure that we are able to continue sharing stories that inform and inspire audiences. Donations of any size help advance this essential public service. https://anchor.fm/inspirationalthoughts/support Website: Inspirational Thoughts - https://newagejax.wixsite.com/newagecinematics Clothing Store: NewAgeCinematics.com Donation Support: https://anchor.fm/nomanslandbynac/support --- This episode is sponsored by · Anchor: The easiest way to make a podcast. https://anchor.fm/app --- Send in a voice message: https://anchor.fm/nomanslandbynac/message Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/nomanslandbynac/support

Srsly Wrong
252 – The Indigenous Paleolithic of the Western Hemisphere W/ Dr. Paulette Steeves

Srsly Wrong

Play Episode Listen Later Mar 25, 2022 77:02


This week on the show, the Wrong Boys speak with Canadian Cree-Métis Archaeologist Dr. Paulette Steeves about the evidence for peopling of the Americas, going back at least 60,000 years, but as...

Global Oil Markets
Americas shipping, bunkers hit rough waters on crude volatility

Global Oil Markets

Play Episode Listen Later Mar 24, 2022 21:57


As global oil markets continue to react in real time to the ongoing conflict in Europe, downstream sectors and interconnected industries are also beginning to see marked impacts on trade flows, fundamentals and most notably spot pricing. Long a key refining and import/export hub for the Western Hemisphere, the US Gulf Coast has seen swift reactions from logistics operations and energy majors as the region deals with a lack of Russian imports amid sanctions. Americas shipping manager Barbara Troner and dirty products manager Patrick Burns speak with clean tanker editor Eugenia Romero and US bunkers editor Phillipe Craig to break down how spot pricing for freight rates and marine fuels has reacted, and what those key segments can expect going forward.

Breaking Hezbollah's Golden Rule
Hezbollah “Black Ops” in the Western Hemisphere

Breaking Hezbollah's Golden Rule

Play Episode Listen Later Mar 23, 2022 32:46


On June 1, 2017, U.S. authorities arrested two Hezbollah sleeper agents. The operatives had created targeting packages with ready-to go-plans for possible attacks, in the event Iranian or Hezbollah leaders deemed them necessary. They traveled on their American passports when Hezbollah sent them on missions in Asia and South America. Where were their targets? Who was their handler? And what were they sent to do abroad?Guests: Mitchell Silber, former director of intelligence analysis, NYPDRebecca Weiner, assistant commissioner for intelligence analysis, NYPDEmil Bove, former co-chief for national security, U.S. Attorney's Office for the Southern District of New YorkAmbassador Nathan Sales, former ambassador-at-large and coordinator for counterterrorism, State Department Breaking Hezbollah's Golden Rule is hosted Dr. Matthew Levitt from the Washington Institute for Near East Policy. It is produced by Anouk Millet from Earshot Strategies, and written by Dr. Levitt and Lauren Fredericks, a Washington Institute research assistant. Explore my map and timeline of Hezbollah's Worldwide activities. For a full transcript of the episode, a list of sources, recommended reading, and information on our guests, visit our website. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

Americas 360
Breaking Barriers: Women in the Americas

Americas 360

Play Episode Listen Later Mar 14, 2022 23:48


Across the Americas, women have broken new ground in politics and in business. Elections held under new gender parity laws have yielded successful increases in female participation in congresses and parliaments. During the pandemic, women have found and taken advantage of new digital avenues to successfully pursue entrepreneurial ventures. In this episode, our Wilson Center experts discuss the opportunities and challenges women face in the Western Hemisphere.

Business Bros
The 3,000 mile long ride for HOPE with Eric Gillman

Business Bros

Play Episode Listen Later Mar 8, 2022 35:40


914 My reason why dates back to 2010, when a massive 7.2 magnitude earthquake stuck the island of Haiti. The country is the poorest nation in the Western Hemisphere and was rocked to its core by the earthquake. They were in desperate need of help. It started with my own monetary donations and then transitioned to me running my own fundraising events. Prior to the Ride for Hope was “The Run for Hope” and “The Fight for Hope”. During the “Run for Hope” I ran the San Diego Rock and Roll Marathon and raised $3,800. On March 17th, 2022 I will depart from Miami on a mission to ride by bicycle to San Diego. It is over 3,000 miles and will take 8 weeks. We will raise $250,000 for the Angel Wings International clinic, while positively impacting communities along the way. I am also the author of “The Power to Change; Creating the life of your dreams through healthy choices.” As an obese teenager who struggled with behavior issues, I was eventually kicked out of high school and had many run ins with local law enforcement. Through making small changes every day, over a long period of time, I was able to turn my life around. As I bike across country I will also be speaking to young people about my message of, “Creating hope through healthy choices.” ________ Want your customers to talk about you to their friends and family? That's what we do! We get your customers to talk about you so that you get more referrals with video testimonials. Go to www.BusinessBros.biz to be a guest on the show or to find out more on how we can help you get more customers! --- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/businessbrospod/support

Atlanta Born & Brand
Georgia Aquarium (Season 5 | Episode 11)

Atlanta Born & Brand

Play Episode Listen Later Mar 8, 2022 12:57


We've got a fun episode for you today with VP of Sales for Georgia Aquarium, Will Ramsey. Georgia Aquarium is the largest aquarium in the Western Hemisphere and houses hundreds of species in over 12 million gallons of water. Like so many businesses, Georgia Aquarium had to close its doors at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, with the unique challenge of still having to care for the numerous animals that call the aquarium home. We talk with Will about how they navigated those closures, their new shark exhibit and the excitement now as they welcome back guests. For tickets and more information about Georgia Aquarium head to georgiaaquarium.org. To watch the full Bounce Back video feature, click here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BuA58VR0h_w

Reggae Hour
Mr. E Live Interview of Quatro Badnis on B.O.S.S. Radio

Reggae Hour

Play Episode Listen Later Mar 4, 2022 38:21


Tonight we bring you the best in up and coming reggae artist in the Western Hemisphere. QUATRO!!!Born in Spanish Town, the tale this artistbrings to your brain would get him an Oscar for the imagery. So, tune in to see why this young artist talents surpasses just mere music... but, EMOTION.https://music.apple.co/fr/album/earthstrang-feat-quatro-badnis-fulliefct-single/1558778847?l=enhttps://www.iheart.com/artist/quatro-badnis-35563602/https://soundcloud.com/quatrobadnis

Deep South podcast
The White House's Juan Gonzalez on the Americas Summit, Ukraine and More

Deep South podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Mar 3, 2022 44:50


The war in Ukraine has become a litmus test for how governments in Latin America view the changing global order. How is Washington positioning itself as the region's preferred partner for development and economic growth? How have the Biden administration's relationships with countries like Mexico, Brazil and El Salvador evolved since taking office last year? Ahead of June's Summit of the Americas in Los Angeles, the White House's top aide on Latin America, Juan Gonzalez, joins the AQ podcast for a special extended edition. Guests: Juan Gonzalez is senior director for the Western Hemisphere at the National Security Council. Brian Winter is AQ's editor-in-chief Supplemental reading How Biden Can Get the Summit of the Americas Right by Oliver Stuenkel (https://americasquarterly.org/article/how-biden-can-get-the-summit-of-the-americas-right) Latin America Looks East by Brian Winter (https://www.foreignaffairs.com/reviews/review-essay/2022-02-24/latin-america-looks-east)

Carolina Weather Group
America's new weather satellite

Carolina Weather Group

Play Episode Listen Later Mar 3, 2022 25:05


NOAA's GOES-T launched on March 1, 2022, from Cape Canaveral Space Force Station in Florida. NOAA's GOES-T is the third satellite in the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) – R Series, the Western Hemisphere's most sophisticated weather-observing and environmental-monitoring system. The GOES-R Series provides advanced imagery and atmospheric measurements, real-time mapping of lightning activity, and monitoring of space weather. Once in orbit, GOES-T will become known as GOES-18. It will be positioned to monitor weather systems and hazards affecting the western contiguous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Mexico, Central America, and the Pacific Ocean. In this position, the satellite will be known as "GOES West". GOES-18 will work in tandem with GOES-16, now serving as "GOES East". Together, these satellites will watch over more than half the globe – from New Zealand to the west coast of Africa. The current GOES West (GOES-17) will become an on-orbit spare. This week on the Carolina Weather Group, we look at highlights from live NASA TV coverage, as originally seen on the Carolina Weather Net, to learn more about how the weather satellite works. ** FREE WEATHER CLASS SIGN-UP. Join us for SKYWARN Storm Spotter Training: https://www.weather.gov/media/cae/Spotter_Classes.pdf LEAVE A TIP: https://streamelements.com/carolinawxgroup/tip SUBSCRIBE TO OUR PODCAST: https://anchor.fm/carolinaweather SUPPORT US ON PATREON: https://patreon.com/carolinaweathergroup VISIT OUR WEBSITE: https://carolinaweathergroup.com --- Send in a voice message: https://anchor.fm/carolinaweather/message

History of North America
80. Columbian Exchange Part 2

History of North America

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 23, 2022 13:10


Named after the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus, the Columbian Exchange is related to the European colonization and global trade following his 1492 voyage. Special guest podcaster Jack Henneman of The History of the Americans shares his analyses on the widespread transfer of human populations, plants, animals, precious metals, commodities, culture, technology, diseases, religion, and ideas between North America in the Western Hemisphere, and the Afro-Eurasian Old World in the Eastern Hemisphere. Part 2 of 2 Check out the YouTube version of this episode at https://youtu.be/oquuTAXW5ms which has accompanying visuals including maps, charts, timelines, photos, illustrations, and diagrams. Surf the web safely and anonymously with ExpressVPN. Protect your online activity and personal info like credit cards, passwords, or other sensitive data. Get 3 extra months free with 12-month plan by using our custom link at http://tryexpressvpn.com/markvinet Get exclusive access to Bonus episodes, Ad-Free content, and Extra materials when joining our growing community on Patreon at https://patreon.com/markvinet or Donate on PayPal at https://bit.ly/3cx9OOL and receive an eBook welcome GIFT of The Maesta Panels by Mark Vinet. Support our series by purchasing any product on Amazon using this FREE entry LINK https://amzn.to/33evMUj (Amazon gives us credit at no extra charge to you). It costs you nothing to shop using this FREE store entry link and by doing so encourages, supports & helps us to create more quality content for this series. Thanks! Want a FREE audiobook of your choice? Get your Free audiobook with a 30 day Free membership by using our customized link http://www.audibletrial.com/MarkVinet Denary Novels by Mark Vinet are available at https://amzn.to/33evMUj Mark Vinet's TIMELINE video channel at https://youtube.com/c/TIMELINE_MarkVinet Website: https://markvinet.com/podcast Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/denarynovels Twitter: https://twitter.com/TIMELINEchannel Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/mark.vinet.9 YouTube Podcast Playlist: https://www.bit.ly/34tBizu Podcast: https://anchor.fm/mark-vinet Linktree: https://linktr.ee/WadeOrganization

Breaking Down Bad Books
Eclipse - Chapters 12 and 13

Breaking Down Bad Books

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 20, 2022 45:10


Join me as I break down Chapters 12 and 13 of Eclipse, 'Time' and 'Newborn', in which Bella forgets what month it is, Alice can't see what is going on in Seattle but can predict concert tickets, and Jasper tells us a story about the southern part of North America in the Western Hemisphere... 'Breaking Down Bad Books' is a podcast analysing trashy bestsellers from a literary perspective. Currently covering Stephenie Meyer's third entry into the Twilight Saga, Eclipse, and Veronica Roth's Divergent sequel, Insurgent on Patreon. Previously covered Twilight, New Moon, 365 Days, Fifty Shades of Grey, Fifty Shades Darker, and Divergent.Sign up to be a patron at www.patreon.com/breakingdownbadbooks for access to exclusive bonus episodes where I will be breaking down Veronica Roth's Insurgent with new episodes every Friday. You can also gain access to the previously published 365 Days and Fifty Shades Darker recaps.Read along with me and let me know your thoughts on Twitter @PodBreakingDown or Instagram @breakingdownbadbooks or email me at breakingdownpod@gmail.com. You can also leave a voicemail at www.speakpipe.com/breakingdownbadbooks.Hosted by Nathan Brown, who you can find on Twitter and Instagram @nathanbrown90. Support this show http://supporter.acast.com/breaking-down. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.

History of North America
79. Columbian Exchange

History of North America

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 19, 2022 14:12


The Columbian Exchange was the widespread transfer of human populations, plants, animals, precious metals, commodities, culture, technology, diseases, religion, and ideas between North America in the Western Hemisphere, and the Afro-Eurasian Old World in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is named after the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus and is related to the European colonization and global trade following his 1492 voyage. Special guest Jack Henneman of The History of the Americans podcast shares his interpretation on The Columbian Exchange. Check out the YouTube version of this episode at https://youtu.be/-rZVztH5pjY which has accompanying visuals including maps, charts, timelines, photos, illustrations, and diagrams. Visit the SHAUN and KYRA family friendly YouTube channel for Crafts, Science, Travel, Wildlife, and History videos for All Ages, including concise North American History capsules at www.youtube.com/shaunandkyra Get exclusive access to Bonus episodes, Ad-Free content, and Extra materials when joining our growing community on Patreon at https://patreon.com/markvinet or Donate on PayPal at https://bit.ly/3cx9OOL and receive an eBook welcome GIFT of The Maesta Panels by Mark Vinet. Surf the web safely and anonymously with ExpressVPN. Protect your online activity and personal info like credit cards, passwords, or other sensitive data. Get 3 extra months free with 12-month plan by using our custom link at http://tryexpressvpn.com/markvinet Support our series by purchasing any product on Amazon using this FREE entry LINK https://amzn.to/33evMUj (Amazon gives us credit at no extra charge to you). It costs you nothing to shop using this FREE store entry link and by doing so encourages, supports & helps us to create more quality content for this series. Thanks! Denary Novels by Mark Vinet are available at https://amzn.to/33evMUj Mark Vinet's TIMELINE video channel at https://youtube.com/c/TIMELINE_MarkVinet Want a FREE audiobook of your choice? Get your Free audiobook with a 30 day Free membership by using our customized link http://www.audibletrial.com/MarkVinet Website: https://markvinet.com/podcast Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/denarynovels Twitter: https://twitter.com/TIMELINEchannel Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/mark.vinet.9 YouTube Podcast Playlist: https://www.bit.ly/34tBizu Podcast: https://anchor.fm/mark-vinet Linktree: https://linktr.ee/WadeOrganization

The Gary Null Show
The Gary Null Show - 02.17.22

The Gary Null Show

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 17, 2022 58:57


Why iodine deficiency during pregnancy may have disastrous consequences Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology February 7, 2022 Higher mammals, such as humans, have markedly larger brains than other mammals. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics in Dresden recently discovered a newmechanism governing brain stem cell proliferation. It serves to boost the production of neurons during development, thus causing the enlargement of the cerebral cortex – the part of the brain that enables us humans to speak, think and dream. The surprising discovery made by the Dresden-based researchers: two components in the stem cell environment – the extracellular matrix and thyroid hormones – work together with a protein molecule found on the stem cell surface, a so-called integrin. (NEXT) Broccoli and kale microgreens pack a nutritional punch that varies with growing conditions American Chemical Society, February 16, 2022 Although microgreens were initially gourmet ingredients for upscale restaurants, they've become popular among gardeners and home cooks. Despite their “superfood” label, the levels of healthful compounds, such as phytonutrients, in most varieties of microgreens are unknown. Researchers in ACS Food Science & Technology now report that kale and broccoli microgreens grown in either windowsills or under commercial growing conditions are rich in phytonutrients, though the levels of some compounds varied considerably between the two environments. As indoor gardening has taken off in recent years, the most commonly planted varieties of these small seedlings are from the Brassica family, which includes broccoli, kale, cabbage and mustard. The mature, fully-grown versions of these vegetables are rich in vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals, and environmental conditions can impact the plants' nutritional contents. (NEXT) Can EPA-rich supplements help brains work ‘less hard' and boost mental performance? Swinburne University (Australia) February 10, 2022 Omega-3 supplements rich in EPA may improve cognitive performance with a reduction in neural activity observed, indicating that the brain worked ‘less hard', report researchers from Australia. On the other hand, DHA-rich supplements were associated with an increase in functional activation and no improvement in cognitive performance, according to results published in Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental . Isabelle Bauer from Swinburne University and her co-authors said that this indicated that DHA-rich supplements are less effective than EPA-rich supplements for boosting neurocognitive functioning. (NEXT) Study ‘leaves little doubt' about Pycnogenol's benefits for menopause symptoms Keii Medical Center (Japan), February 13, 2022 Daily supplements of extracts from the bark of French Maritime Pine may help reduce the symptoms of the menopause like hot flashes and night sweats, says a new study. Twelve weeks of supplementation with Pycnogenol were associated with significant reductions in scores of menopause symptoms,  according to findings published in The Journal of Reproductive Medicine. The researchers recruited 170 perimenopausal women to participate in their randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial. The women were randomly assigned to receive either daily Pycnogenol supplements (60 mg per day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Results showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the groups for estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, insulin-like growth factor, IGF binding protein 3, and dehydroepiandrosterone, which meant there were no hormonal effects of Pycnogenol, said the researchers. (NEXT) Yale study links common chemicals to osteoarthritis Yale University School of Environmental Studies, February 14, 2022 A new study has linked exposure to two common perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) with osteoarthritis. PFCs are used in more than 200 industrial processes and consumer products including certain stain- and water-resistant fabrics, grease-proof paper food containers, personal care products, and other items. Because of their persistence, PFCs have become ubiquitous contaminants of humans and wildlife. The study, published in Environmental Health Perspectives, looked at the associations between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), and osteoarthritis, in a study population representative of the United States. “We found that PFOA and PFOS exposures are associated with higher prevalence of osteoarthritis, particularly in women, a group that is disproportionately impacted by this chronic disease,” said Sarah Uhl, who authored the study. Women in the highest 25% of exposure to PFOA had about two times the odds of having osteoarthritis compared to those in the lowest 25% of exposure. (Videos) 1. Who Got the Covid Relief Money? | Real Time with Bill Maher (HBO) (3:51) 2. Tucker: The media played a starring role in the death of Canadian democracy 3. PRESS CONFERENCE – TAMARA LICH & BRIAN PECKFORD – Ottawa Freedom Convoy 2022  4. “I NEVER Imagined He Would F*CK UP This BAD” Jordan Peterson (OTHER NEWS) OPED:  The Earth Belongs to America Caitlin Johnstone, February 14, 2022 The Wall Street Journal has an article out titled “U.S. Aims to Thwart China's Plan for Atlantic Base in Africa“, subtitled “An American delegation wants to convince Equatorial Guinea against giving Beijing a launchpad in waters the U.S. considers its backyard.” The article quotes the former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Tibor Nagy saying, “We'd really, really not like to see a Chinese facility” on the Atlantic, and discusses “American concern about China's global expansionism and its pursuit of a permanent military presence on waters the U.S. considers home turf.” The Quincy Institute's Trita Parsi has discussed the irony of WSJ yelling about China's “global expansionism” over a potential military base in Equatorial Guinea without applying that label to the U.S., when the U.S. has hundreds of times the number of foreign military bases as China. Antiwar's Daniel Larison wrote an article back in December eviscerating the ridiculous claim that a military base some six thousand nautical miles from the U.S. coastline could be reasonably framed as any kind of threat to the American people. But what really jumps out is the insane way the U.S. political/media class routinely talks about virtually every location on this planet as though it is a territory of the United States. The Wall Street Journal referring to the entire Atlantic Ocean as “America's backyard” and “waters the U.S. considers home turf” follows a recent controversy over the U.S. president proclaiming that “Everything south of the Mexican border is America's front yard.” This provoked many references to the so-called “Monroe Doctrine”, a nineteenth-century imperialist assertion that Latin America is off limits to any power apart from the United States, effectively declaring the entire Western Hemisphere the property of Washington, DC. It also follows another incident in which Press Secretary Jen Psaki remarked on the ongoing tensions around Ukraine that it is in America's interest to support “our eastern flank countries”, which might come as a surprise to those who were taught in school that America's eastern flank was not Eastern Europe but the eastern coastline of the United States. The casual way these people say such things reflects a collectively held worldview that you won't find on any official document or in any schoolchild's textbook, but which is nonetheless a firmly held perspective among all the drivers of the modern empire: that the entire world is the property of the U.S. government. That the U.S. is not just the most powerful government in the world but also its rightful ruler, in the same way Rome ruled the Christian world. It's not something they can come out and directly say, because admitting they see themselves as the rulers of the world would make them look tyrannical and megalomaniacal. But it's certainly something they believe. They're about as obvious about it as could be. They make almost no effort to conceal it. And yet you'll still get empire apologists like Michael McFaul saying nonsense like this: McFaul knows very well that the U.S. is an imperial power and that it demands a very large “sphere of influence”. Would you like to see a picture of America's sphere of influence? Here you go: To live in the western world is to be constantly inundated with made-up stories about tyrants who want to terrorize the world while living under a globe-spanning power structure that is actually terrorizing the world. It's just so bizarre watching these imperial spinmeisters try to frame nations like China and Russia as freakish and backwards while working to literally rule the world like a comic book super villain. The U.S.-centralized empire is quantifiably the single most destructive and evil power structure in today's world. We shouldn't want anyone to rule over the entire planet with an iron fist, but these monsters are the very least qualified among us to do so.

The Gary Null Show
The Gary Null Show - 02.16.22

The Gary Null Show

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 16, 2022 55:08


New study reveals fresh avocado-substituted diet significantly changes lipid profile University of the Pacific, February 1, 2022  According to the recently released 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, small shifts in food choices can make a big difference; including a shift from solid fats to oils, like the oil in fresh avocados. On the heels of this advice, a new meta-analysis, published in the Journal of Clinical Lipidology, adds to the growing body of research that supports the use of avocados in lieu of solid fats (and foods that have higher saturated fat content) to significantly change lipid profiles. The research, “Impact of avocado-enriched diets on plasma lipoproteins, looked at 10 unique avocado studies with 229 participants, assessing the impact of avocados on cholesterol levels. Researchers found avocado consumption (1 to 1.5 per day) significantly reduced total cholesterol (TC), “bad” low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) when they were substituted for sources of saturated fat. Additionally, avocado consumption did not impact “good” high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL). However, the optimal amount of avocado and frequency of use needs further evaluation along with the nutritional similarities and differences between other different MUFA sources. Larger trials looking at the impact of avocados on major adverse cardiovascular events are warranted. (See conclusion of study) 20 mins of daily exercise at 70 may best stave off major heart disease in late old age Any physical activity is better late than never but earlier in older age, better still University of Padua (Italy), February 15, 2022 Twenty minutes of daily moderate to vigorous exercise in early old age (70-75) may best stave off major heart disease, including heart failure, in late old age (80+), suggests research published online in the journal Heart. The findings reinforce the maxim of ‘better late than never,' when it comes to exercise, but earlier on in older age is better still, concludes a linked editorial. To plug this knowledge gap, the researchers drew on data from the Progetto Veneto Anziani (ProVA), a study of 3099 older Italians (65 and above). The final analysis included 2754 participants with complete data, of whom 1398 were women (60%). The largest reduction in risk was observed for new cases of coronary heart disease and heart failure in late old age. No significant association between physical activity and stroke was observed.  Most of the participants had stable active physical activity patterns over time. Patterns of stable-high physical activity were associated with a significantly (52%) lower risk of cardiovascular disease among men compared with those with stable-low patterns. The greatest benefits seemed to occur at the age of 70. Risk was only marginally lower at the age of 75, and no lower at the age of 80-85, suggesting that improving physical activity earlier in old age might have the most impact, say the researchers.   Psilocybin treatment for major depression effective for up to a year for most patients, study shows Johns Hopkins University, February 15, 2022 Previous studies by Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers showed that psychedelic treatment with psilocybin relieved major depressive disorder symptoms in adults for up to a month. Now, in a follow-up study of those participants, the researchers report that the substantial antidepressant effects of psilocybin-assisted therapy, given with supportive psychotherapy, may last at least a year for some patients. A report on the new study was published on Feb. 15, 2022 in the Journal of Psychopharmacology. “Our findings add to evidence that, under carefully controlled conditions, this is a promising therapeutic approach that can lead to significant and durable improvements in depression,” says Natalie Gukasyan, M.D., assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. She cautions, however, that “the results we see are in a research setting and require quite a lot of preparation and structured support from trained clinicians and therapists, and people should not attempt to try it on their own.” The researchers reported that psilocybin treatment produced large decreases in depression, and that depression severity remained low one, three, six and 12 months after treatment.  Prevent memory loss with a powerful nutrient in cucumbers Salk Institute for Biological Studies, February 15, 2022 The results of a recent study are offering new hope that avoiding memory loss related to aging as well as Alzheimer's disease could be as simple as eating more cucumbers. Many older adults resign themselves to memory loss as part of the aging process. However, a study out of the the Salk Institute for Biological Studies has shown that this doesn't have to be the case. The health benefits of cucumbers are many, and one of them seems to be better memory and even the prevention of Alzheimer's disease. Researchers working with mice that normally developed the symptoms of Alzheimer's (including memory loss) discovered that a daily dose of a flavonol called fisetin prevented these and other related impairments. This improvement occurred despite the continued formation of amyloid plaques, the brain proteins commonly blamed for Alzheimer's. A natural food cure for memory loss The compound fisetin is found in numerous vegetables and fruits but is especially concentrated in strawberries and cucumbers. This flavonol is quite effective in stopping memory loss in mice and holds hope for humans as well. Polluted air may pollute our morality Columbia University Business School, February 7, 2022  Exposure to air pollution, even imagining exposure to air pollution, may lead to unethical behavior, according to findings published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. A combination of archival and experimental studies indicates that exposure to air pollution, either physically or mentally, is linked with unethical behavior such as crime and cheating. The experimental findings suggest that this association may be due, at least in part, to increased anxiety. “This research reveals that air pollution may have potential ethical costs that go beyond its well-known toll on health and the environment,” says behavioral scientist Jackson G. Lu of Columbia Business School, the first author of the research. “This is important because air pollution is a serious global issue that affects billions of people—even in the United States, about 142 million people still reside in counties with dangerously polluted air.” Previous studies have indicated that exposure to air pollution elevates individuals' feelings of anxiety. Anxiety is known to correlate with a range of unethical behaviors. Lu and colleagues hypothesized that pollution may ultimately increase criminal activity and unethical behavior by increasing anxiety. In one study, the researchers examined air pollution and crime data for 9,360 US cities collected over a 9-year period. The air pollution data, maintained by the Environmental Protection Agency, included information about six major pollutants, including particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. The researchers found that cities with higher levels of air pollution also tended to have higher levels of crime. This association held even after the researchers accounted for other potential factors, including total population, number of law enforcement employees, median age, gender distribution, race distribution, poverty rate, unemployment rate, unobserved heterogeneity among cities (e.g., city area, legal system), and unobserved time-varying effects (e.g., macroeconomic conditions). “Our findings suggest that air pollution not only corrupts people's health, but also can contaminate their morality,” Lu concludes. (Videos) 1. Libtard lunatic accuses unmasked kids of homicide calls em “Biological weapons” (after music) 2.  I Will Sacrifice Trophies for Bodily Autonomy   3. Charles Eisenstein: Why Normal Is Never Coming Back 4. Jonathan Haidt & Yuval Noah Harari: Adapting to Change in an Accelerating World (16:00) OTHER NEWS OPED:  The Earth Belongs to America Caitlin Johnstone, February 14, 2022The Wall Street Journal has an article out titled “U.S. Aims to Thwart China's Plan for Atlantic Base in Africa“, subtitled “An American delegation wants to convince Equatorial Guinea against giving Beijing a launchpad in waters the U.S. considers its backyard.”The article quotes the former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Tibor Nagy saying, “We'd really, really not like to see a Chinese facility” on the Atlantic, and discusses “American concern about China's global expansionism and its pursuit of a permanent military presence on waters the U.S. considers home turf.”The Quincy Institute's Trita Parsi has discussed the irony of WSJ yelling about China's “global expansionism” over a potential military base in Equatorial Guinea without applying that label to the U.S., when the U.S. has hundreds of times the number of foreign military bases as China. Antiwar's Daniel Larison wrote an article back in December eviscerating the ridiculous claim that a military base some six thousand nautical miles from the U.S. coastline could be reasonably framed as any kind of threat to the American people.But what really jumps out is the insane way the U.S. political/media class routinely talks about virtually every location on this planet as though it is a territory of the United States.The Wall Street Journal referring to the entire Atlantic Ocean as “America's backyard” and “waters the U.S. considers home turf” follows a recent controversy over the U.S. president proclaiming that “Everything south of the Mexican border is America's front yard.” This provoked many references to the so-called “Monroe Doctrine”, a nineteenth-century imperialist assertion that Latin America is off limits to any power apart from the United States, effectively declaring the entire Western Hemisphere the property of Washington, DC.It also follows another incident in which Press Secretary Jen Psaki remarked on the ongoing tensions around Ukraine that it is in America's interest to support “our eastern flank countries”, which might come as a surprise to those who were taught in school that America's eastern flank was not Eastern Europe but the eastern coastline of the United States.The casual way these people say such things reflects a collectively held worldview that you won't find on any official document or in any schoolchild's textbook, but which is nonetheless a firmly held perspective among all the drivers of the modern empire: that the entire world is the property of the U.S. government. That the U.S. is not just the most powerful government in the world but also its rightful ruler, in the same way Rome ruled the Christian world.It's not something they can come out and directly say, because admitting they see themselves as the rulers of the world would make them look tyrannical and megalomaniacal. But it's certainly something they believe.They're about as obvious about it as could be. They make almost no effort to conceal it. And yet you'll still get empire apologists like Michael McFaul saying nonsense like this: McFaul knows very well that the U.S. is an imperial power and that it demands a very large “sphere of influence”.Would you like to see a picture of America's sphere of influence? Here you go:To live in the western world is to be constantly inundated with made-up stories about tyrants who want to terrorize the world while living under a globe-spanning power structure that is actually terrorizing the world. It's just so bizarre watching these imperial spinmeisters try to frame nations like China and Russia as freakish and backwards while working to literally rule the world like a comic book super villain.The U.S.-centralized empire is quantifiably the single most destructive and evil power structure in today's world. We shouldn't want anyone to rule over the entire planet with an iron fist, but these monsters are the very least qualified among us to do so. World's Rivers Awash in Pharmaceuticals, Historic Study Reveals Researchers who examined water samples from over 1,000 locations warn that “pharmaceutical pollution poses a global threat to environmental and human health.”Common Dreams. February 14, 2022 Underscoring the value of collaboration, experts from around the world on Monday unveiled what they described as the first “truly global study” of pharmaceutical drugs contaminating rivers, which has “deleterious effects on ecological and human health.”The historic analysis, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, involved 127 authors from 86 institutions. They examined surface water samples from 1,052 sites in 104 countries—including 36 that had never been monitored before— across all continents for 61 different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs).Sample sites ranged from an Indigenous community in Venezuela where modern medicine is not used to highly populated urban areas such as Delhi, London, and New York City. Researchers also gathered samples from regions with political instability, including Baghdad, Nablus in the Palestinian West Bank, and Cameroon's capital, Yaoundé.The United States was the “most extensively studied” nation, with samples collected at 81 locations along 29 rivers across Colorado, Florida, Hawaii, Iowa, Missouri, Nevada, New York, and Texas. Samples were also taken in every European Union member state except MaltaThe paper notes that all four contaminants detected on every continent—caffeine, nicotine, acetaminophen or paracetamol, and cotinine—are “considered either lifestyle compounds or over-the-counter APIs.” Another 14 APIs, including various antidepressants and antihistamines, were found on all continents except Antarctica.Lead author John Wilkinson of the University of York told Carrington that “the World Health Organization and U.N. and other organizations say antimicrobial resistance is the single greatest threat to humanity—it's a next pandemic.” “In 19% of all of the sites we monitored, the concentrations of [antibiotics] exceeded the levels that we'd expect to encourage bacteria to develop resistance,” he said. 15 Monkeys Have Reportedly Died While Testing Elon Musk's Midlife Crisis Brain Chip TheGamer.com, February 12, 2022Neuralink, an Elon Musk-owned company that develops brain chip technology, has attracted controversy once more. Animal trials of the brain chips have been linked to the deaths of 15 monkeys used in experimentation, with only seven said to have survived. These allegations come from the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM), which says it has discovered this through over 700 pages of documents acquired through the University of California Davis. The apparent deaths span 2017 to 2020, which if true, would explain why human experimentation was pushed back two years from its projected date. The allegations come from reports in Business Insider and the New York Post. The sources say that monkeys used in animal trials of the Neuralink chips – which are apparently threaded into their brains – undergo “extreme suffering”. Both physical and neurological side effects are reported, ranging from brain haemorrhaging to self-harming behaviour. In one instance, a monkey was found to have missing fingers and toes, “possibly from self-mutilation or some other unspecified trauma”. Others are reported to have died of infection as a result of poor care after the chip was inserted. This report is a far cry from a video shared last year, which portayed a monkey calmly playing Pong. The company claims that the game was being played with the chip, without the need for a controller and using brain activity alone. Human trials were originally said to start in 2020, but this was pushed back to 2022. Recent reports say that the company is still going ahead with these plans, and has already started hiring for the experimentation.   US west ‘megadrought' is worst in at least 1,200 years, new study says University of California, Los Angeles, 15 Feb 2022  The American west has spent the last two decades in what scientists are now saying is the most extreme megadrought in at least 1,200 years. In a new study, published on Monday, researchers also noted that human-caused climate change is a significant driver of the destructive conditions and offered a grim prognosis: even drier decades lie ahead. “Anyone who has been paying attention knows that the west has been dry for most of the last couple decades,” says Park Williams, a climate scientist at the University of California, Los Angeles and the study's lead author. “We now know from these studies that is dry not only from the context of recent memory but in the context of the last millennium.” The research builds on conclusions from a previous study, also led by Williams, that ranked the period between 2000 and 2018 as the second driest in 12 centuries. The last two incredibly dry years – which were marked by record-setting heatwaves, receding reservoirs, and a rise in dangerously erratic blazes that burned both uncontrollably and unseasonably – were enough to push this period into first. Worryingly, the west is experiencing a point on an upward trajectory, the researchers warn. In the summer of 2021, both Lake Mead and Lake Powell – the largest reservoirs in North America – reached record-low levels. Nearly 65% of the American west is experiencing in severe drought according to the US drought monitor, even after record rainfall hit some areas late last year. For the first time, federal official curbed allocations from the Colorado River Basin, which supplies water and power for more than 40 million people. Wildfires in the last two years have left behind more blackened earth than ever before and performed feats never thought possible. California Lawmakers Fast-Tracking Child Health Bills to Erode Parental Rights ‘It's an underhanded move, meant to silence parents and hobble grassroots efforts across our state' California Globe, February 9, 2022 California lawmakers have chosen to fast-track several key child health bills that will further erode parental rights and infringe on parents' ability to maintain medical freedom. Specifically, three fast-tracked bills involve 1) forced COVID-19 vaccinations for children for school enrollment, 2) allowing minor children to make their own vaccine decisions away from a parent, and 3) require health care staff to complete cultural humility training to provide trans-inclusive health care. The Globe spoke with Karen England, Executive Director of the Capitol Resource Institute (CRI), a pro-family public policy organization educating, equipping, and engaging California citizens for 34 years. England shared her grave concerns about the bills, as well as the legislative processes being circumvented. “Typically, a bill must be in print for 30 days before it is acted upon, to give Californians time to read and understand the bill. But by conveniently suspending this established rule (Joint Rule 55 & Article IV Section 8(a)), the legislature is denying individual citizens and organizations like CRI the right to properly review and respond to these bills before they are passed,” England said. “It's an underhanded move, meant to silence parents and hobble grassroots efforts across our state.” The point of this rule is to give Californians time to read and understand these bills. “The fact is that they want to slide these bills through when there is plenty of time,” England said. “This should concern everyone.” 3,573 Fetal Deaths in VAERS Following COVID-19 Vaccines – 1,867% Increase Over Non-COVID Vaccines Brian Shilhavy, Health Impact News The U.S. Government's Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database was updated this past Friday, February 11, 2022, and it is now reporting that there have been 1,103,893 cases of injuries and deaths following COVID-19 vaccines since December of 2020, when the FDA issued emergency use authorizations for the COVID-19 vaccines.  By way of contrast, there were 918,856 cases of injuries and deaths following all FDA-approved vaccines for the previous 30+ years, from 1990 through November of 2020.  So there have been more injuries and deaths recorded in VAERS during the past 14 months following COVID-19 vaccines, than there were for the previous 30+ years combined following all vaccines recorded in VAERS. This most recent update of VAERS shows that there have now been 3,573 fetal deaths following COVID-19 vaccines.  To arrive at the number of fetal deaths recorded in VAERS I had to test several different searches on listed “symptoms” and then see if the search results documented fetal deaths, since there is no demographic for “fetal deaths.” The following is the current list of “symptoms” in VAERS that reveals fetal deaths: Aborted pregnancy Abortion Abortion complete Abortion complicated Abortion early Abortion incomplete Abortion induced Abortion induced incomplete Abortion late Abortion missed Abortion of ectopic pregnancy Abortion spontaneous Abortion spontaneous complete Abortion spontaneous incomplete Ectopic pregnancy Ectopic pregnancy termination Ectopic pregnancy with contraceptive device Foetal cardiac arrest Foetal death Premature baby death Premature delivery Ruptured ectopic pregnancy Stillbirth This list may not be exhaustive. But if we use the exact same search using these symptoms, we can compare “apples to apples” in examining fetal deaths following COVID-19 vaccines as compared to fetal deaths following all non-COVID vaccines. Here are the yearly averages: 82 fetal deaths per year following non-COVID vaccines 3063 fetal deaths per year following COVID-19 vaccines

School of War
Ep. 17: Alexander Mikaberidze on Napoleon

School of War

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 15, 2022 61:19


Alexander Mikaberidze, Professor of History and the Ruth Herring Noel Endowed Chair at Louisiana State University-Shreveport, joins the show to discuss the Napoleonic Wars. Times 01:12 - Introduction 07:38 - How did European attitudes toward Napoleon change over his life? 13:34 - Nuances of nationalist sentiment Napoleon inspired 15:13 - Napoleonic wars, French hegemony, and geopolitics 20:23 - Napoleon's youth and the French Revolution 24:49 - Napoleon's early campaigns and his rise to power 29:16 - What is the Napoleonic way of war? 33:43 - What is Combined Arms and what are its advantages? 37:42 - What is the Eastern Question to Napoleon?  45:55 - How did Napoleon think about the Western Hemisphere?  53:46 - What remains of Napoleon's legacy after the Congress of Vienna? Link Book: The Napoleonic Wars: A Global History

Going Rogue With Caitlin Johnstone
The US Government Truly Believes The Entire Planet Is Its Property

Going Rogue With Caitlin Johnstone

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 14, 2022 4:51


The Wall Street Journal referring to the entire Atlantic Ocean as "America's backyard" and "waters the U.S. considers home turf" follows a recent controversy over the US president proclaiming that "Everything south of the Mexican border is America's front yard.” This provoked many references to the so-called "Monroe Doctrine", a nineteenth-century imperialist assertion that Latin America is off limits to any power apart from the United States, effectively declaring the entire Western Hemisphere the property of Washington, DC. It also follows another incident in which Press Secretary Jen Psaki remarked on the ongoing tensions around Ukraine that it is in America's interest to support "our eastern flank countries", which might come as a surprise to those who were taught in school that America's eastern flank was not Eastern Europe but the eastern coastline of the United States.  Reading by Tim Foley.

Driven By Insight
David Rubenstein, Co-Founder and Co-Chairman of The Carlyle Group

Driven By Insight

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 12, 2022 48:05


American business leader, bestselling author, and patriotic philanthropist David Rubenstein proves that if you can live your legacy, the greater your impact. In this special episode of the Walker Webcast, David and Willy share the screen to discuss how private is the private equity world, living a legacy and why he thinks he won't ever pick up golf! Willy opens the conversation by introducing David with the remarks of Harvard University's Former President Drew Faust: "David Rubenstein's acumen in finance, his experience both in leading a complex organization and then serving as an institutional trustee, his capacious intellect and global outlook, his devotion to universities and to the arts and culture, and his capacity to inspire generosity in others, all promise to serve the corporation and the university well. He has served on a remarkable range of nonprofit boards, reflecting his equally remarkable span of interests — in higher education, the arts, public policy, medicine, international affairs and American history and culture." This sums up David's remarkable undertakings and contributions. Harvard Corporation is the oldest corporation in the Western Hemisphere, chartered in 1650, of which David is a member despite not having gone to Harvard. Willy mentions how David has also been very supportive of his alma mater, Duke University, and contributing with a rare book library, the art center, the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Institute, the School of Public Policy, The Freeman Center for Jewish Life and more. David shares that his parents didn't have a high school and university education. He is grateful to have received scholarships to go to Duke and University Law School. He feels very indebted to them and repays what he can after achieving his massive success. Willy poses how David finds the time and energy to be able to put energy in so many endeavors and as co-founder and co-chairman of the private equity firm The Carlyle Group. "I find organizations that I think are doing good jobs that I feel indebted to, and I want to stay involved with them if I feel they're doing a good thing for our country. Secondly, I don't play golf, which saves many hours and a lot of frustration. And then generally, I love doing this, so it's not work for me." Willy explores common themes that David outlined in his book How To Lead. David shares that luck was a significant factor in finding his two co-founders of the Carlyle Group, William Conway Jr. and Daniel D'Aniello. The desire to succeed also led to starting small as an investment firm in the buyout area in Washington, and riding through a massive failure during the Great Recession made the company what it is now. His philanthropy work makes up a considerable portion of David's life. He is an original signer of The Giving Pledge and continues to persuade people to give money for worthy causes and give away a huge chunk of his own net worth. As a celebrated interviewer hosting The David Rubenstein Show and Bloomberg Wealth with David Rubenstein, David was able to see the wisdom behind the successes of many accomplished entrepreneurs and game-changers and what cohort he discovered to seem to be the happiest or most content with their lives. GET NOTIFIED about upcoming shows: » Subscribe to our YouTube channel here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC5jhzGBWOTvQku2kLbucGcw » See upcoming guests on the #WalkerWebcast here: https://www.walkerdunlop.com/webcasts/

CFR On the Record
Academic Webinar: Democracy in Latin America

CFR On the Record

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 9, 2022


Patrick Dennis Duddy, director of the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies and senior visiting scholar at Duke University, leads a conversation on democracy in Latin America. This meeting is part of the Diamonstein-Spielvogel Project on the Future of Democracy. FASKIANOS: Welcome to today's session of the Winter/Spring 2022 CFR Academic Webinar Series. I'm Irina Faskianos, vice president of the National Program and Outreach at CFR. Today's discussion is on the record, and the video and transcript will be available on our website, CFR.org/academic. As always, CFR takes no institutional positions on matters of policy. We're delighted to have Patrick Dennis Duddy with us today to talk about democracy in Latin America. Ambassador Patrick Duddy is the director of Duke University's Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies and teaches in both Duke's Fuqua School of Business and Sanford School of Public Policy. From 2007 to 2010, he served as the U.S. ambassador to Venezuela under both the Bush and Obama administrations. Prior to his assignment to Venezuela, Ambassador Duddy served as deputy assistant secretary of state for the Western Hemisphere, and he's also held positions at embassies in Brazil, Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, and Panama, and has worked closely with Haiti. So it is my pleasure to have him with us today. He has served nearly three decades in the Foreign Service. He's taught at the National War College, lectured at the State Department's Foreign Service Institute, and is a member of CFR. So, Ambassador Duddy, you bring all of your experience to this conversation to talk about this very small question of the state of democracy in Latin America and what U.S. policy should be. It's a broad topic, but I'm going to turn it over to you to give us your insight and analysis. DUDDY: Well, good afternoon, or morning, to all of those who have tuned in, and, Irina, thank you to you and the other folks at the Council for giving me this opportunity. I thought I would begin with a brief introduction, partially rooted in my own experience in the region, and then leave as much time as possible for questions. To start with, let us remember that President Biden held a Democracy Summit in early December, and in opening that summit he emphasized that for the current American administration, in particular, the defense of democracy is, I believe he said, a defining challenge, going ahead. Now, I, certainly, subscribe to that assertion, and I'd also like to start by reminding folks how far the region has come in recent decades. I flew down to Chile during the Pinochet regime to join the embassy in the very early 1980s, and I recall that the Braniff Airlines flight that took me to Santiago, essentially, stopped in every burg and dorf with an airport from Miami to Santiago. It used to be called the milk run. And in virtually every country in which we landed there was a military dictatorship and human rights were honored more in the breach than in fact. Things have really changed quite substantially since then, and during much of the '80s we saw a pretty constant move in the direction of democracy and somewhat later in the '80s also, in many parts of Latin America, an embrace of a market-oriented economic policy. There was some slippage even in the early part of the new millennium. But, nevertheless, the millennium opened on 9-11-2001 with the signature in Lima, Peru, of the Inter-American Democratic Charter. Secretary Powell was, in fact, in Lima for the signing of that agreement, which was endorsed by every country in the region except Cuba. This was a major step forward for a region that had been synonymous with strongman politics, military government, and repression. The slippage since then has been significant and, indeed, as recently as a year or two ago during the pandemic the Institute for Democracy and Electoral Management or Electoral Administration—I believe it's called IDEA—noted that across much of the region, publics were losing faith in democracy as the preferred form of government. I would say, rather more pointedly, of real significance in recent years has been the deterioration of democracy in a series of countries and the inability of the rest of the hemisphere to do anything about it, notwithstanding the fact that the hemisphere as a whole had indicated that full participation in the inter-American system required democratic governance and respect for human rights. Venezuela now is pretty unapologetically an authoritarian government. So is Nicaragua, and there has been real slippage in a number of other countries in the region as well. I think it would be appropriate to ask, given the progress made from, say, the early '80s through the year 2000, what accounts for this, and I would say there are a number of key factors. By and large, I would note, the factors are internal. That is to say they derive from circumstances within the region and are not necessarily a consequence of external subversion. Poverty, inequality, crony capitalism in some cases, criminality, drug trafficking—these things continue to bedevil a range of countries within the region. Endemic corruption is something that individual countries have struggled with and, by and large, been unsuccessful in significantly reducing. In effect, governability, as a general heading, probably explains or is the heading under which we should investigate just why it is that some publics have lost faith in democracy. You know, we've had several really interesting elections lately. Let's set aside just for the moment the reality that, particularly since 2013, Venezuela has deteriorated dramatically in virtually every respect—politically, economically—in terms of, you know, quality of life indicators, et cetera, as has Nicaragua, and look, for instance, at Peru. Peru has held a free, fair—recently held a free, fair election, one that brought a significant change to the government in that the new president, a teacher, is a figure on the left. Now, I don't think we, collectively or hemisphere, there's, certainly, no problem with that. But what accounts for the fact that a place like Peru has seen wild swings between figures of the left and of the right, and has most recently, notwithstanding a decade of mostly sustained significant macroeconomic growth, why have they embraced a figure who so—at least in his campaign so profoundly challenged the existing system? I would argue it's because macroeconomic growth was not accompanied by microeconomic change—that, basically, the poor remained poor and the gap between rich and poor was, largely, undiminished. Arguably, much the same thing has happened recently in Chile, the country which was for decades the yardstick by which the quality of democracy everywhere else in the hemisphere was frequently judged. The new president or the president—I guess he's just taken office here—president-elect in Chile is a young political activist of the left who has, in the past, articulated an enthusiasm for figures like Hugo Chavez or even Fidel Castro, and now, as the elected president, has begun to use a more moderate rhetoric. But, again, the country which, arguably, has had the greatest success in reducing poverty has, nevertheless, seen a dramatic swing away from a more conventional political figure to someone who is advocating radical change and the country is on the verge of—and in the process of revising its constitution. How do we explain that? I think in both cases it has to do with frustration of the electorate with the ability of the conventional systemic parties, we might say, to deliver significant improvement to the quality of life and a significant reduction of both poverty and income inequality, and I note that income inequality persists even when at times poverty has been reduced and is a particularly difficult problem to resolve. Now, we've also seen, just to cite a third example, just recently this past weekend an election in Costa Rica, which was well administered and the results of which have been accepted unquestionably by virtually all of the political figures, and I point to Costa Rica, in part, because I've spent a good deal of time there. I've witnessed elections on the ground. But what is the reality? The reality is over decades, indeed, certainly, beginning in the late '40s during the administration of the first “Pepe” Figueres, the country has been successful in delivering quality services to the public. As a result, though, notwithstanding the fact that there have been changes, there's been no serious deterioration in the country's embrace of democracy or its enthusiasm for its own political institutions. This makes it not entirely unique but very closely unique in the Central American context. A number of other things that I'd like to just leave with you or suggest that we should consider today. So we—throughout much of Latin America we're seeing sort of plausibly well-administered elections but we are seeing often sort of dramatic challenges, sometimes to political institutions but often to economic policy, and those challenges have resulted in tremendous pendulum swings in terms of public policy from one administration to the next, which, at times, has undermined stability and limited the attractiveness of the region for foreign direct investment. Beyond that, though, we're also seeing a kind of fracturing of the region. In 2001, when the Inter-American Democratic Charter was embraced—was signed in Lima—an event that would have, perhaps, attracted a good deal more attention had other things not happened on that very same day—much of the region, I think, we would understand, was, largely, on the same page politically and even to some degree economically, and much of the region embraced the idea of—I'm sorry, I'm losing my signal here—much of the region embraced a deeper and productive relationship with the United States. The situation in Venezuela, which has generated over—right around 6 million refugees—it's the largest refugee problem in the world after Syria—has, to some degree, highlighted some of the changes with respect to democracy. The first—and I'm going to end very shortly, Irina, and give folks an opportunity to ask questions—the first is the frustration and the inability of the region to enforce, you know, its own mandates, its own requirement that democracy be—and democratic governance and respect for human rights be a condition for participation in the inter-American system. And further to that, what we've seen is a breakup of the one larger group of countries in the region which had been attempting to encourage the return to democracy in Venezuela, known as the Lima Group. So what we've seen is that the commitment to democracy as a hemispheric reality has, to some degree, eroded. At the same time, we are increasingly seeing the region as a theater for big power competition. You know, it was only within the last few days that President Fernández, for instance, of Argentina traveled to meet with both the Russian leadership and the Chinese. This is not inherently problematical but it probably does underscore the degree to which the United States is not the only major power active in the region. We may still have the largest investment stock in the region, but China is now the largest trading partner for Brazil, for Chile, for Peru, the largest creditor for Venezuela. I haven't yet touched on Central America and that's a particularly difficult set of problems. But what I would note is while we, in the United States, are wrestling with a range of issues, from refugees to drug trafficking, we are also simultaneously trying to deepen our trade relationships with the region, relationships which are already very important to the United States. And, unfortunately, our political influence in the region, I believe, has become diluted over time by inattention at certain moments and because of the rise or the introduction of new and different players, players who are frequently not particularly interested in local political systems much less democracy, per se. So, if I may, I'll stop there. As Irina has pointed out, I served extensively around the region for thirty years and I'd be happy to try and answer questions on virtually any of the countries, certainly, those in which I have served. FASKIANOS: So I'm going to go first to Babak Salimitari. If you could unmute yourself and give us your affiliation, Babak. Q: Good morning, Ambassador. My name is Babak. I am a third-year student at UCI and my question—you mentioned the far-left leaders who have gained a lot of traction and power in different parts of Latin America. Another guy that comes to mind is the socialist in Honduras. But, simultaneously, you've also seen a drift to the far right with presidents like President AMLO—you have President Bolsonaro—all who are, basically, the opposite of the people in Honduras and, I'd say, Chile. So what is—these are countries that—I know they're very different from one another, but the problems that they face like poverty, income inequality, I guess, drug trafficking, they exist there and they also exist there. Why have these two different sort of polarities—political polarities arose—arisen, arose— DUDDY: Risen. (Laughs.) Q: —in these countries? DUDDY: That's a great question. I would note, first of all, I don't see President Lόpez Obrador of Mexico as a leader of the right. He is, certainly—he, largely, comes from the left, in many respects, and is, essentially, a populist, and I would say populism rather than sort of a right/left orientation is often a key consideration. Returning to my earlier comment in that what I see is popular frustration with governments around the region, often, President Bolsonaro was elected in the—in a period in which public support for government institutions in Brazil, particularly, the traditional political parties, was at an especially low level, right. There had been a number of major corruption scandals and his candidacy appeared to be—to some, at least—to offer a kind of tonic to the problems which had beset the earlier governments from the Workers' Party. He, clearly, is a figure of the right but I think the key thing is he represented change. I think, you know, my own experience is that while some leaders in Latin America draw their policy prescriptions from a particular ideology, the voters, essentially, are looking at very practical considerations. Has the government in power been able to deliver on its promises? Has life gotten better or worse? President Piñera in Chile was a figure of the right, widely viewed as a conservative pro-market figure. The PT in Brazil—the Workers' Party—came from the left. Both were succeeded by figures from the other end of the political spectrum and I think it was more a matter of frustration than ideology. I hope that answers your question. FASKIANOS: I'm going to take the next written question from Terron Adlam, who's an undergraduate student at Delaware State University. Essentially, can you discuss the relationship between climate change and the future of democracy in Latin America? DUDDY: Well, that's just a small matter but it's an important one, actually. The fact is that especially in certain places climate change appears to be spurring migration and poverty, and there are people here at Duke—some of my colleagues—and elsewhere around the country looking very specifically at the links between, especially, drought and other forms of climate change, the, you know, recovery from hurricanes, et cetera, and instability, unemployment, decline in the quality of services. Overburdened countries, for instance, in Central America have sometimes not recovered from one hurricane before another one hits, and this has effects internally but it has also tended to complicate and possibly accelerate the movement of populations from affected areas to other areas. Sometimes that migration is internal and sometimes it's cross-border. FASKIANOS: Thank you. I'm going to go next to a raised hand, Arnold Vela. If you—there you go. Q: Good afternoon, Ambassador Duddy. DUDDY: Good afternoon. Q: I'm Arnold Vela. I served in the Foreign Service for a couple of years and I'm now retired teaching government at Northwest Vista College. I think you put your finger on a very important point, which is that of the economic inequality and poverty that exists in Latin America, and, you know, with that being the case, I think Shannon O'Neil makes a good case about focusing on economic policy. And I was wondering what your thoughts were on ways in which we could do that in terms of, for example, foreign development investment, which may be decreasing because of a tendency to look inward for economic development in the United States. But are there other mechanisms, such as through the U.S. Treasury Department, financial ways to cut corruption? And also what about the Inter-American Development Bank? Should it be expanded in its role for not just infrastructure development but for such things as microeconomic development that you mentioned? Thank you. DUDDY: You know, as deputy assistant secretary, I, actually had the economic portfolio for the Western Hemisphere for a couple of years within the State Department. Clearly, trade is important. Foreign direct investment is, I think, critical. One of the things that we need to remember when we talk about foreign direct investment is that, typically, it's private money, right—it's private money—and that means governments and communities need to understand that in order to attract private money they need to establish conditions in which investors can see a reasonable return and in which they can enjoy a reasonable measure of security. That can be very, very difficult in the—Arnold, as you probably will recall, in much of Latin America, for instance, in the energy sector—and Latin America has immense energy resources—but the energy resources are frequently subject to a kind of resource nationalism. And so my experience is that in some parts of Latin America it's difficult to attract the kind of investment that could make a very substantial difference in part because local politics, largely, preclude extending either ownership or profit participation in the development of some resources. The fact that those things were not initially permitted in Mexico led to a constitutional change in order to permit both profit sharing and foreign ownership to some degree of certain resources. Investors need a certain measure of security and that involves, among other things, making sure that there is a reasonable expectation of equal treatment under the law, right. So legal provisions as well as a determination to attract foreign investment. Places like—little places, if you will, like Costa Rica have been very, very successful at attracting foreign investment, in part because they've worked hard to create the conditions necessary to attract private money. I would note—let me just add one further thought, and that is part of the problem in—I think, in some places has been something that we in the United States have often called crony capitalism. We need to make sure that competition for contracts, et cetera, is, in fact, transparent and fair. As for international institutions, there are many in the United States that are sometimes with which the region is unfamiliar like, for instance, the Trade and Development Agency, which promotes, among other things, feasibility studies, and the only condition for assistance from the TDA is that subsequent contracts be fairly and openly competed and that American companies be allowed to compete. So there are resources out there and I, certainly, would endorse a greater concentration on Latin America and I think it can have a real impact. FASKIANOS: Thank you. I'm going to take the next question—a written question—from Chaney Howard, who is a business major at Howard University. You spoke about the erosion of democratic push in Latin America growth, specifically with the Lima Group. What do you feel would need to happen for a new power to be established or encouraged to help nations band together and improve democratic growth? DUDDY: Well, the Lima Group was—which was organized in 2017 for the express purpose of advocating for the restoration of democracy in Venezuela, fell apart, essentially, as countries began to look more internally, struggling, in particular, with the early economic consequences of the pandemic. Some of you will remember that, particularly, early on, for instance, cruise ships in the Caribbean, essentially, stopped sailing. Well, much of the Caribbean depends absolutely on tourism, right. So the pandemic, effectively, turned people's attention to their own internal challenges. I think that we have good institutions still. But I think that we need to find ways other than just sanctions to encourage support for democracy. The U.S. has been particularly inclined in recent years not to interventionism but to sanctioning other countries. While sometimes—and I've sometimes advocated for sanctions myself, including to the Congress, in very limited circumstances—my sense is that we need to not only be prepared to sanction but also to encourage. We need to have a policy that offers as many carrots as sticks, and we need to be prepared to engage more actively than we have in the last fifteen years on this. Some of these problems date back some time. Now, one particularly important source of development assistance has always been the Millennium Challenge account, and there is a key issue there, which, I think, largely, limits the degree to which the Millennium Challenge Corporation can engage and that is middle income countries aren't eligible for their large assistance programs. I think we should revisit that because while some countries qualify as middle income, when you only calculate per capita income using GDP, countries with serious problems of income inequality as well as poverty are not eligible and I think that we should consider formulae that would allow us to channel more assistance into some of those economies. FASKIANOS: Thank you. I'm going to take the next question from Kennedy Himmel, who does not have access to a mic, a student at University of Wisconsin-Green Bay. There seems to be surmounting evidence that suggests that U.S. imperialism has waged both covert warfare and regime change itself in Central American countries through the last century and our current one. The most notable cases was Operation Condor, which peaked during Reagan's administration. You suggested the problems plaguing these countries' embrace of primarily right-wing dictatorships is a product of crony capitalism, poverty, and corruption, which are all internal problems. Do you think some of these problems of these countries are a byproduct of U.S. and Western meddling, economic warfare, the imposition of Western neoliberalism? DUDDY: Well, that's a good question. My own experience in the region dates from the early '80s. I mean, certainly, during the Cold War the United States tended to support virtually any government that we perceived or that insisted that they were resolutely anti-communist. For decades now the U.S. has made support for democracy a pillar of its policies in the region and I think we have, largely, evolved out of the—you know, our earlier, you know, period of either interventionism or, in a sense, sometimes even when we were not entirely—when we were not active we were complicit in that we applied no standard other than anti-communism with the countries we were willing to work with. That was a real problem. I note, by the way, for any who are interested that several years ago—about five years ago now, if I'm not mistaken, Irina—the Foreign Affairs, which is published by the Council on Foreign Relations, ran a series of articles in one issue called “What Really Happened?”, and for those interested in what really happened in Chile during the Allende government, there is a piece in there by a man named Devine, who was actually in the embassy during the coup and was working, as he now acknowledges, for the CIA. So I refer you to that. My sense in recent decades is that the U.S. has, certainly, tried to advance its own interests but has not been in the business of undermining governments, and much of the economic growth which some countries have sustained has derived very directly from the fact that we've negotiated free trade agreements with more countries in Latin America than any other part of the world. I remember very distinctly about five years into the agreement with Chile that the volume of trading both directions—and as a consequence, not just employment, but also kind of gross income—hence, had very substantially increased; you know, more than a hundred percent. The same has been true with Mexico. So, you know, we have a history in the region. I think it is, largely, explained by looking at U.S. policy and understanding that it was—almost everything was refracted through the optic of the Cold War. But, you know, it's now many decades since that was the case. FASKIANOS: Thank you. I'm going to go to Elizabeth McDowell, who has a raised hand. Q: Hi. I'm Elizabeth McDowell. I'm a graduate student in public policy at Duke University. Ambassador Duddy, thanks for your talk. I want to ask a question about a potential tradeoff between good governance and— DUDDY: I lost your audio. Please repeat. Q: How's my audio now? OK. My— DUDDY: You'll have to repeat the question. Q: My question is about critical minerals and metals in the region and, essentially, these metals and minerals, including lithium, cobalt, and nickel, copper, others, are essential for clean energy transition, and there are a lot of countries that have instituted new policies in order to gain financially from the stores since these minerals are very prevalent in the region. And my question is do you think that there's a tradeoff between sustainable development and having the minerals that we need at low cost and countries being able to benefit economically from their natural resource stores? DUDDY: Yeah. I'm not quite sure how I would characterize the tradeoffs. But, you know, as I mentioned with respect, for instance, to oil and gas but the same applies to lithium, cobalt, et cetera, in much of Latin America the resources that are below the surface of the Earth belong to the nation, right. They belong to the nation. And in some places—I very vividly remember in Bolivia—there was tremendous resistance at a certain point to the building of a pipeline by a foreign entity which would take Bolivian gas out of the country. And that resistance was rooted in Bolivia's history in the sense that much of the population had—that the country had been exploited for five hundred years and they just didn't trust the developers to make sure that the country shared appropriately in the exploitation of the country's gas resources. Just a few years ago, another—a major company, I think, based in—headquartered in India, opened and then closed a major operation that was going to develop—I think it was also lithium mining—in Bolivia because of difficulties imposed by the government. I understand why those difficulties are imposed in countries which have been exploited but note that the exploitation of many of these resources is capital intensive and in many of these countries is going to require capital from outside the country. And so countries have to find a way to both assure a reasonable level of compensation to the companies as well as income to the country. So that's the challenge, right. That is the challenge. For the time being, in some places the Chinese have been able to not just exploit but have been able to do business, in part, because they have a virtually insatiable appetite for these minerals and as well as for other commodities. But long-term development has to be vertically integrated and that—and I think that's going to take a lot of external money and, again, certain countries are going to have to figure out how to do that when we're talking about resources which, to a very large degree, are viewed as patrimony of the nation. FASKIANOS: Thank you. I'm going to take the next question from Leah Parrott, who's a sophomore at NYU. Do you find that globalization itself, the competitive global markets, vying for influence in the region are a cause of the rise in the populist frustration that you have been talking about? DUDDY: Hmm. Interesting question. I suppose it has—you know, there is a connection. Just to give sort of a visceral response, the fact is that there are cultural differences in certain markets and regions of the world. Some countries have—you know, have taken a different approach to the development of their own labor markets as well as trade policy. I would say that, today, the reality is we can't avoid globalization so—and no one country controls it. So countries that have heretofore been unsuccessful in inserting themselves and seeing the same kind of growth that other countries have experienced are going to have to adapt. What we do know from earlier experiences in Latin America is that high tariff barriers are not the way to go, right—that that resulted in weak domestic industries, endemic corruption, and, ultimately, very, very fragile macroeconomic indicators. FASKIANOS: Thank you. I'm going to go next to Alberto Najarro, who's a graduate student at Duke Kunshan University. DUDDY: Well. Q: Hi. Good afternoon. Thank you for your time. My question is about El Salvador. I'm from El Salvador, and I'll just provide a brief overview. Since assuming the presidency and, particularly, over the last six months, President Bukele and the National Assembly dominated by Bukele's allies have moved quickly to weaken checks and balances, undermine the rule of law, and co-opt the country's judiciary, consolidating power in the executive. What do you think should be the United States' role, if any, in reversing trends of democratic backsliding in El Salvador? Given the recent events like the abrupt exit of the United States interim ambassador Jean Manes from the country, can the United States continue to engage with El Salvador, particularly, as Bukele strengthens relationship with leaders like Xi Jinping and Erdoğan? DUDDY: Well, first, my recollection is that Ambassador Jean Manes, who, by the way, is an old friend of mine, had returned to El Salvador as chargé, and I'm not sure that the Biden administration has, in fact, nominated a new ambassador yet. I tend to think that it's important to remember that we have embassies in capitals to advance U.S. interests and that when we withdraw those embassies or cease talking to a host government it hurts us as often—as much as it does them. To some degree, what we, I think, collectively, worry about is that Salvador is, essentially, on the path to authoritarianism. I note that Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala, none of those three, along with Nicaragua, were invited to President Biden's Democracy Summit in December, and, you know, it may well be that the U.S. should explore a range of inducements to the government there to restore independence to the judiciary and respect for the separation of powers. I, certainly, think that it is in the interest of the United States but it's also interest—in the interest of the region. That's why the whole region came together in 2001 to sign the Inter-American Democratic Charter. How exactly that should be effected—how we should implement the—you know, the will of the region is something that, I think, that governments should work out collectively because it is my sense that collective action is better than unilateral action. Certainly, the U.S. is not going to intervene, and there are many American companies already active in El Salvador. You know, the region has found the restoration of democracy—defense of democracy, restoration of democracy—a very, very difficult job in recent years and that is in no small measure because—it's not just the United States, it's the rest of the region—even sanctions are only effective if they are broadly respected by other key players. And I'm not always sure that sanctions are the way to go. FASKIANOS: Thank you. I'm going to take two written questions together since we have so many. The first is from Molly Todd from Virginia Tech. She's a PhD candidate there. When thinking of the U.S. role in democracy promotion in Latin America, how do you account for U.S. support of dictators in the region as well? And then William Weeks at Arizona State University—how much does China's influence encourage authoritarian rule and discourage democracy in Latin America? DUDDY: I'm not sure that—I'll take the last question first. I'm not sure that China's activity in the region discourages democracy but it has permitted certain strongmen figures like Nicolás Maduro to survive by serving as an alternative source of sometimes funding markets for locally produced goods and also the source of technology, et cetera, to the United States and the rest of what is euphemistically called the West, right. So China has, effectively, provided a lifeline. The lifeline, in my experience, is not particularly ideological. Now, you know, Russians in the region frequently seem interested in—to be a little bit flip, in sticking their finger in our eye and reminding the United States that they can project power and influence into the Western Hemisphere just as we can into Eastern Europe and Central Asia. But the Chinese are a little bit different. I think their interests are mostly commercial and they are uninterested in Latin American democracy, generally. So being democratic is not a condition for doing business with China. More generally, I think, I would refer to my earlier response. The U.S., basically, has not been supportive of the strongmen figure(s) who have arisen in Latin America in recent decades. But, you know, the tendency to embrace what many in Latin America call caciques, or strongmen figures—men on horseback—was established in Latin America, right—became evident in Latin America even in the nineteenth century. In the twentieth century, beginning, say, in particular, after World War II, we, definitely, considered things more through the optic of the Cold War, and I'm sure I'm not the only one who recalls that President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, at a certain moment in, I think it was 1947, commented on Anastasio Somoza that he was an SOB but, oh, well, he was our SOB. I think that approach to Latin America has long since been shelved. FASKIANOS: Thank you. I'm going to go next to Gary Prevost. Q: Ambassador, I share your skepticism about sanctions and I'll just ask a very direct question. It's my belief that the Biden administration is, at the moment, missing real opportunities for dialogue with both Venezuela and Cuba, partly because of this bifurcation of the world into democracy and authoritarianism, something which the Obama administration really avoided and, I think, as a result, gained considerable prestige and understanding in wider Latin America. So I've been very concerned that there are opportunities being missed in both of those cases right now. DUDDY: I'll disagree with you on one part of that, noting that I've already—and, actually, I wrote a piece for the Council several years ago in which I talked about the desirability of finding an off ramp for Venezuela. But I note that the—that many of the sanctions that are—sanctions were imposed on Venezuela, in particular, over a period of time by both Republicans and Democrats, and the problem for the U.S., in particular, with Venezuela is that as the country has become less productive, more authoritarian, they have pushed out 6 million refugees and imposed huge burdens on almost all of the other countries in the subregion. I'm not sure that the U.S. is, at the moment, missing an opportunity there and, for that matter, the changes that were brought into Cuba or to Cuba policy by the Obama administration, which I endorsed, were for the most part left in place by the Trump administration, interestingly enough. There were some changes but they were not as dramatic as many who opposed those—the Obama reforms—often hoped and who wanted to reverse them. So these are both tough nuts to crack. I think that it is at least worth noting that the combination of incompetence, corruption, authoritarianism, in particular, in Venezuela, which has transformed what was at one point the most successful democracy in the region into a basket case or a near basket case, I'm not sure, you know, how we get our arms around that at the moment. But I, certainly, endorse the idea of encouraging dialogue and looking for a formula that would promote the return of democracy. And, again, you know, having lived in Venezuela, I have a sense that many—you know, Venezuelans love their country. Most of those who have left did not do so willingly or, you know, with a happy heart, if you will. These are people who found the circumstances on the ground in the country to be unbearable. Now, how we respond to that challenge, I haven't seen any new thinking on it lately. But, certainly, dialogue is a part of it. Similarly, with Cuba, we have—you know, we saw fifty years of policy that didn't work. So I would hope to, sometime in the near future, see some fresh thinking on how to proceed on that front, too. You know, the difficult thing to get around is that these are not countries which respect human rights, freedom of expression, freedom of the press. They are, in fact, repressive, which is why we have hundreds of thousands of Cuban Americans living in the United States and why we have now millions of Venezuelans living outside their own national borders. It's a real dilemma. I wish I had a solution but I don't. FASKIANOS: We are almost out of time. We have many more written questions and raised hands, and I apologize that we're not going to be able to get to them. But I am going to use my moderator power to ask you the final one. DUDDY: Uh-oh. FASKIANOS: You have served—oh, it's a good one. You've served for most of your career, over thirty years, in U.S. government and now you're teaching. What advice or what would you offer to the students on the call about pursuing a career in the Foreign Service, and what do you say to your students now and the professor, or to your colleagues about how to encourage students to pursue? We saw that it's become less attractive—became less attractive in the Trump administration. It may be up—more on the upswing. But, of course, there is, again, the pay problem and private sector versus public. So what thoughts can you leave us with? DUDDY: Well, first of all, there's—in my personal experiences, there's virtually nothing quite like being an American diplomat abroad. My personal experience is—you know, dates from the '80s. I was actually very briefly an Air Force officer in the early '70s. I think public service is inherently rewarding in ways that often working in the private sector is not, where you can really have an impact on relations between peoples and nations, and I think that's very, very exciting. I come from a family, you know, filled with, you know, lawyers, in particular, in my generation, even in the next, and I know that that can be—that kind of work or work in the private sector, the financial community, whatever, can be very exciting as well. But diplomacy is unique, and one also has the sense of doing something that benefits our own country and, one hopes, the world. At the risk of, once again, being flip, I always felt that I was on the side of the angels. You know, I think we've made many mistakes but that, by and large, our engagement in the countries in which I was working was positive. FASKIANOS: Wonderful. Well, on that note, Ambassador Patrick Duddy, thank you for your service to this country. Thank you very much for sharing your insights with us. I know this is very broad to cover the whole region and we didn't do all the countries justice. DUDDY: And we have yet to—and we have yet to mention Haiti, about which I worry all the time. FASKIANOS: I know. There are so many things to cover. Not enough time, not enough hours in a day. And we appreciate everybody for your time, being with us for your great questions and comments. Again, I apologize for not getting to everybody. But we will just have to have you back. So thank you again. For all of you, our next Academic Webinar will be on Wednesday, February 23, at 1:00 p.m. (ET)with Roger Ferguson, who is at CFR, on the future of capitalism. So, as always, please follow us on Twitter at @CFR_Academic. Go to CFR.org, ForeignAffairs.com, and ThinkGlobalHealth.org for research and analysis on global issues. We will circulate a link to the Foreign Affairs edition that Ambassador Duddy mentioned so that you can take a look at that. And thank you, again, for your time today. We appreciate it. DUDDY: It's been a pleasure. Thank you. (END

This Date in Weather History
1835: Bitter cold kills orange trees in Florida

This Date in Weather History

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 8, 2022 2:08


Citrus, namely oranges have been farmed commercially in Florida groves since the early 1800s. The first citrus was brought to the Western Hemisphere in 1493 by Christopher Columbus. In the mid-1500s one of the early Spanish explorers, most likely Ponce de Leon, planted the first orange trees around the current location of St. Augustine, Florida. Florida's unique sandy soil and subtropical climate proved to be ideal for growing the seeds that the early settlers planted and have flourished ever since. Today it is a $9 billion industry, employing nearly 76,000 Floridians. In 1835 the citrus industry was just getting on it's feet, but it almost ended before it got going. On February 8, 1835 a bitter cold arctic blast reached into the southern part of the United States and produced low temperatures unknown in that region. The mercury reached below zero as far south as Savannah Georgia and on the morning of February 8 the temperature read 8 degrees in Jacksonville killing most of the orange trees and setting back the citrus industry more than 10 years. The first groves were originally planted in northern Florida far from where they currently exist. As time went on and more killing freezes occurred the groves were moved further and further south and are now hundreds of miles south of their original loculation. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit podcastchoices.com/adchoices

The Takeaway
Four Mexican Journalist Have Already Been Killed in 2022

The Takeaway

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 7, 2022 8:34


On January 31, 2022, Mexican journalist Roberto Toledo was shot and killed in the town of Zitácuaro. Toledo is the fourth Mexican journalist murdered in 2022 alone. While investigative work is being done to determine if Toledo and the other slain journalists were killed in retaliation for their reporting, Mexico has been one of the most dangerous countries for journalists in the Western Hemisphere in recent years, according to the Committee to Protect Journalists. The Takeaway spoke with reporter Andalusia Soloff about the risks faced by reporters in Mexico and what can be done to protect them.