Today we're talking about The Gift / Atiye: Season 2, Episode 1. We will go over the plot, spill the tea, and say WTF. We will also name the episode's Sultan of Success and talk about who is next on Fatma's Hitlist. For our history section we're talking about Gaia and mother-goddesses. Atiye Sezon 2, Bolum 1 hakkında sohbet ediyoruz. --- This episode is sponsored by · Anchor: The easiest way to make a podcast. https://anchor.fm/app Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/turkish-teav-time/support
01. Martin Jensen, Amber Van Day, N.F.I - Can't Come To The Phone (Record Mix) 02. Bissett - Every Single Time (Record Mix) 03. Hook N Sling, Galantis, Karen Harding - The Best (Record Mix) 04. R3Hab, A Touch Of Class - All Around the World (La La La) (Record Mix) 05. Farruko, Tiesto - Pepas (Record Mix) 06. Nicky Romero - Back To You (Record Mix) 07. Benny Blanco, Calvin Harris - I Found You (Record Mix) 08. Phao, Kaiz - 2 Phut Hon (Record Mix) 09. Swedish House Mafia, John Martin - Save the World (Record Mix) 10. Ps1, Alex Hosking - Fake Friends (Record Mix) 11. Yves V, Sesa, Pollyanna - Alone Again (Record Mix) 12. Modern Clvb, Katana Angels, Dayana - On The Floor (Record Mix) 13. Martin Solveig, Ina Wroldsen - Places (Record Mix) 14. Faruk Sabanci, Mingue - Your Call (Record Mix) 15. Motivee, Julia Turano - Waiting for tonight (Record Mix) 16. Bklava - Only for Tonight (Record Mix) 17. Ida Corr, Fedde Le Grand - Let Me Think About It (Record Mix) 18. Atb, Ben Samama - Like That (Record Mix) 19. Le Pedre, Sexycools, Paolo Pellegrino - Million Voices (Record Mix) 20. Ross Couch - Vibe (Record Mix) 21. Tony Igy, Vicetone - Astronomia (Record Mix) 22. Mabel - Let Them Know (Record Mix) 23. Lost Frequencies, Janieck Devy - Reality (Record Mix) 24. Gaullin, Julian Perretta - Seven Nation Army (Record Mix) 25. Watermat, Kelli-Leigh, Bob Sinclar, The Cube Guys - Won't Stop (Record Mix) 26. Joel Corry, Raye, David Guetta - Bed (Record Mix) 27. Remady, Jessica Jolia - A Little Taste (Record Mix) 28. Swanky Tunes, Dj Dimixer - Human (Record Mix) 29. Louis The Child, Icona Pop, East & Young - Weekend (Record Mix) 30. Tobtok, Fubu, Kate Wild, Tom Hall - Freak Like Me (Record Mix) 31. Junona Boys - Relax (Record Mix) 32. Don Diablo, Ar Co - Hot Air Balloon (Record Mix) 33. Faul, Wad, Pnau - Changes (Record Mix) 34. Kynemon - Follow Me (Record Mix) 35. 220 Kid, Lany - Stupid Feelings (Record Mix) 36. Raffaella Papa - Let It Go (Record Mix) 37. The Stickmen - Don't Even Know Your Name (Record Mix) 38. Bodybangers, Stephen Oaks, Just Mike - Quit Playing Games (With My Heart) (Record Mix) 39. Noizu - Summer 91 (Looking Back) (Record Mix) 40. Eric Prydz - Pjanoo (Record Mix) 41. Twocolors - Bloodstream (Record Mix) 42. Fredrik Ferrier, Crazy Cousinz - You (Record Mix) 43. Eqric, Bottle Flip - Love You Like a Love Song (Record Mix) 44. Nrd1, Renomty - Summer Jam (Record Mix) 45. Adam Lambert - Ghost Town (Record Mix) 46. Alok, Vize, Alida - Love Again (Record Mix) 47. Redondo, Shayee - Feeling Good (Record Mix) 48. Alesso, Roy English - Cool (Record Mix) 49. Tcts - Day & Night (Record Mix) 50. Sickotoy, Elvana Gjata, Inna, Arroy, Sergey Raf - Papa (Record Mix) 51. Because Of Art, Ruth Royall, Simon Doty Day - Lost in the Sun (Record Mix) 52. Dubdogz, Cat Dealers - Good Good (Record Mix) 53. Basto!, Yves V - Cloud Breaker (Record Mix) 54. The Aston Shuffle, Liz Jai - Enough For You (Record Mix) 55. Moonway - 2 Times (Record Mix) 56. Dimitri Vegas, Like Mike, Timmy Trumpet, Edward Maya - Feel Your Love (Record Mix) 57. Duke Dumont - Won't Look Back (Record Mix) 58. Crazibiza - Work Your Body (Record Mix) 59. Ed Sheeran, Ofenbach - Shivers (Record Mix) 60. Stefy De Cicco, Ben Hamilton, Martin Jensen - Day 'N' Nite (Record Mix) 61. Alan Walker, Imanbek - Sweet Dreams (Record Mix) 62. Sam Feldt, Hook N Sling - Open Your Eyes (Record Mix) 63. Robin Schulz, Erika Sirola - Speechless (Record Mix) 64. Armin Van Buuren, Dubvision, You - I Should Be Loving You (Record Mix) 65. Joel Corry, Jax Jones, Charli Xcx, Saweetie - Out Out (Record Mix) 66. Camelphat, Elderbrook - Cola (Record Mix) 67. Philip George - Wish You Were Mine (Record Mix) 68. Beatmount, Oneil - Heads Will Roll (Record Mix) 69. Gamper, Dadoni - Bittersweet Symphony (Record Mix) 70. Janieck - Life (Record Mix) 71. Mr. Belt & Wezol - Not Dancing (Record Mix) 72. Shane Codd - Get Out My Head (Record Mix) 73. Pascal Letoublon - Feelings Undercover (Record Mix) 74. Lizot - Trippin (Record Mix) 75. Alok - Body On My Mind (Record Mix) 76. Newclaess, Keno - (I Just) Died in Your Arms (Record Mix) 77. Handsome Habibi, Yung Baby Tate - Don't Waste My Time (Record Mix) 78. Rudenko, Ana Whiterose - Stone Cold Heart (Record Mix) 79. Kye, Sones - Flowers (Record Mix) 80. Trfn, Siadou - Do It (Record Mix) 81. Dj Dimixer, Serge Legran, Murana, Harddope - It's a Fine Day (Record Mix) 82. Leony, Noon - Faded Love (Record Mix) 83. Loud Luxury, Wav3Pop - Wasted (Record Mix) 84. Tones & I, Dj Noiz - Dance Monkey (Record Mix) 85. Popp - Take on Me (Record Mix) 86. Anthony Keyrouz - Love Yourself (Record Mix) 87. New World Sound, J2, Sara Phillips - Outta My Head (Record Mix) 88. Ben Rainey, Danny Dearden - Only Love (Record Mix) 89. Feder, Emmi - Blind (Record Mix) 90. Hi_Tack, Le Pedre, Consilium - Hot (Record Mix) 91. Luca Debonaire, The Giver - Enough (Record Mix) 92. Galantis - Steel (Record Mix) 93. Atb, Nejtrino, Baur - Summer! (Record Mix) 94. Yves V, Hugel - Finally (Record Mix) 95. Ron May - Lose Control (Record Mix) 96. Nora En Pure, Redondo - I Got To Do (Record Mix) 97. Danny Avila, Ekko City - Bleeding Love (Record Mix) 98. Bodybangers, Lotus - Yeah (Record Mix) 99. Galantis, David Guetta Little Mix - Heartbreak Anthem (Record Mix) 100. Mickey, Malika - Harlem (Record Mix) 101. Punctual - I Don't Wanna Know (Record Mix) 102. Area21, Martin Garrix, Maejor - Lovin' Every Minute (Record Mix) 103. Fisher - Just Feels Tight (Record Mix) 104. Robin Schulz, Ilsey - Headlights (Record Mix) 105. Lost Found - Searching (Record Mix) 106. Victoria, Kohana Runstar - Desert Rose (Record Mix) 107. Cat Dealers, Swanky Tunes - Bring & Boy (Record Mix) 108. Gabry Ponte, Moti, Mougleta - Oh La La (Record Mix) 109. Martin Jensen, Amber Van Day, N.F.I - Can't Come To The Phone (Record Mix) 110. Bingo Players, A-Trak, Phantoms - Cry (Record Mix) 111. Calvin Harris, Rihanna - This Is What You Came For (Record Mix) 112. Max + Johann - Hotel Room Service (Record Mix) 113. Vinai - Touch (Record Mix) 114. Jonasu - Black Magic (Record Mix) 115. Vize, Tokio Hotel - White Lies (Record Mix) 116. Vanotek, Denitia, Arroy, Sergey Raf - Someone (Record Mix) 117. Yves Larock, Steff Da Campo, Jaba - Rise Up 2021 (Record Mix) 118. Jodie Harsh - No Sleep (Record Mix) 119. Ian Carey, Michelle Shellers, Manyfew, Joe Stone - Keep On Rising (Record Mix) 120. Rudimental, Ed Sheeran, Sultan & Shepard - Lay It All On Me (Record Mix) 121. Alok, Sofi Tukker, Inna - It Don't Matter (Record Mix) 122. Oneil, Titov - No Stress (Record Mix) 123. Dvbbs, Gattuso, Alida - Leave The World Behind (Record Mix) 124. Ella Henderson, Sigala, Joel Corry - We Got Love (Record Mix) 125. Filatov & Karas, Richard Judge - All Night (Record Mix) 126. Anne-Marie, Ksi, Digital Farm Animals - Don't Play (Record Mix) 127. Austins Groove - Hold You Now (Record Mix) 128. David Zowie - House Every Weekend (Record Mix) 130. Saint Jhn, Imanbek - Roses (Record Mix) 131. Fred Again.., The Blessed Madonna - Marea (Weve Lost Dancing) (Record Mix) 132. Jonas Blue, Jack & Jack, Tv Noise - Rise (Record Mix) 133. Jason Derulo - Acapulco (Record Mix) 134. Jess Bays, That Kind - Love We Had (Record Mix) 135. Serge Legran, Dj Dimixer - Love Bliss (Record Mix) 136. Tiesto, Sneaky Sound System, Wolfgang Gartner - I Will Be Here (Record Mix) 137. Clean Bandit, Jess Glynne - Rather Be (Record Mix) 138. Meduza, Dermot Kennedy - Paradise (Record Mix) 139. Basto! - Again & Again (Record Mix) 140. Zedd, Jon Bellion - Beautiful Now (Record Mix)
Today we're talking about The Gift / Atiye: Season 1, Episode 8. We will go over the plot, spill the tea, and say WTF. We will also name the episode's Sultan of Success and talk about who is next on Fatma's Hitlist. For our history section we're talking about parallel universes, alternate dimensions, and everything in-between. Atiye Sezon 1, Bolum 8 hakkında sohbet ediyoruz. --- This episode is sponsored by · Anchor: The easiest way to make a podcast. https://anchor.fm/app Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/turkish-teav-time/support
In this week's episode, Chris and Eric bring on the Sultan of Streaming, Michael Simione, to discuss 2021 breakout pitchers and how they value them moving forward. Some pitchers discussed include Kevin Gausman, Freddy Peralta, Alek Manoah, and Ranger Suarez.
Richard the Lionheart and Saladin were military masterminds. The Third crusade pit each man against the other. The prize was the city of Jerusalem. Contribute on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/FPHx Leave some feedback: email@example.com Follow along on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/FLASHPOINTHX/ Engage on Twitter: https://twitter.com/FlashpointHx Flash Point History YouTube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTYmTYuan0fSGccYXBxc8cA
01. Atb, Topic, A7S - Your Love (9PM) (Record Mix) 02. The Aston Shuffle, Liz Jai - Enough For You (Record Mix) 03. Meduza, Becky Hill, Goodboys - Lose Control (Record Mix) 04. Dubdogz, Cat Dealers - Good Good (Record Mix) 05. Rihanna, Calvin Harris - We Found Love (Record Mix) 06. Junona Boys, Nalyro - Don't Be (Record Mix) 07. Ella Henderson, Sigala, Joel Corry - We Got Love (Record Mix) 08. Shouse - Love Tonight (Record Mix) 09. David Guetta, Egg - Love Don't Let Me Go (Record Mix) 10. Harddope, Halvorsen - Heathens (Record Mix) 11. Alle Farben, Fools Garden - Lemon Tree (Record Mix) 12. Austins Groove - Hold You Now (Record Mix) 13. Redondo, Shayee - Feeling Good (Record Mix) 14. Yves V - Echo (Record Mix) 15. Jack Wins, Joe Stone - Light Up My Life (Record Mix) 16. Stadiumx, Sebastian Wibe, Moti, Mingue - We Are Life (Record Mix) 17. Whiteout, Depdramez, Mitti - Now You're Gone (Record Mix) 18. Rompasso, Imanbek, Karma Child - 123 (Record Mix) 19. Swanky Tunes - One Of Us (Record Mix) 20. Avicii, Sebastien Drums - My Feelings For You (Record Mix) 21. Oliver Heldens, Kstewart - Last All Night (Koala) (Record Mix) 22. Triticum - Bubble gum (Record Mix) 23. Anne-Marie, Ksi, Digital Farm Animals - Don't Play (Record Mix) 24. Jonas Blue, Jack & Jack, Tv Noise - Rise (Record Mix) 25. Trevor Daniel, Doublefast - Falling (Record Mix) 26. Filv, Vallhee - Cheri, Cheri Lady (Record Mix) 27. Ava Max - EveryTime I Cry (Record Mix) 28. Alessandro - Goes Deeper (Record Mix) 29. Shane Codd - Get Out My Head (Record Mix) 30. Sllash & Doppe - Off My Mind (Record Mix) 31. Nicky Romero - Back To You (Record Mix) 32. Gorgon City, Mk - There for You (Record Mix) 33. New World Sound, Thomas Newson - Flute (Record Mix) 34. Bebe Rexha, Gorgon City - Sacrifice (Record Mix) 35. Fox Stevenson - Arigatou (Record Mix) 36. Travis Scott, Hvme - Goosebumps (Record Mix) 37. Calvin Harris, Sam Smith - Promises (Record Mix) 38. Jonasu - Black Magic (Record Mix) 39. Becky Hill, Topic - My Heart Goes (La Di Da) (Record Mix) 40. Raye, Rudimental - Regardless (Record Mix) 41. Thomas Gold - Pump Up The Jam (Record Mix) 42. Feder, Ofenbach, Dawty Music - Call Me Papi (Record Mix) 43. Meduza, Goodboys - Piece of Your Heart (Record Mix) 44. Frey - Tom's Diner (Record Mix) 45. Camelphat, Elderbrook - Cola (Record Mix) 46. Galantis - Runaway (U & I) (Record Mix) 47. Le Pedre - Gimme! Gimme! Gimme! (A Man After Midnight) (Record Mix) 48. Timmy Trumpet, Smash Mouth - Camelot (Record Mix) 49. Bob Sinclar - World, Hold On (Record Mix) 50. Laidback Luke, Tribbs, Bertie Scott - Whistle (Record Mix) 51. Crazibiza - Work Your Body (Record Mix) 52. Cassette - My Way (Record Mix) 53. Joe Stone, Ferreck Dawn - Man Enough (Record Mix) 54. Martin Garrix - Animals! (Record Mix) 55. Going Deeper, Ritn - Don't Stop (Record Mix) 56. Oneil, Aize - I Can't Stop (Record Mix) 57. Paul Woolford, Amber Mark - Heat (Record Mix) 58. Spada - Stay Here (Record Mix) 59. David Guetta, Kid Cudi - Memories (Record Mix) 60. Bklava - Only for Tonight (Record Mix) 61. Rasster, Kye Sones - Nirvana (Record Mix) 62. Diplo, Sidepiece - On My Mind (Record Mix) 63. R3Hab, Nina Nesbitt - Family Values (Record Mix) 64. Tiesto, Karol G - Don't Be Shy (Record Mix) 65. Jax Jones, Years & Years, Vadim Adamov - Play (Record Mix) 66. Junona Boys, Tribeat & Robert, Dayana - Sunny (Record Mix) 67. Elektrik Disko, Jolyon Petch - Tell Me Why (Record Mix) 68. Klp, Stace Cadet - People Happy (Record Mix) 69. Martin Solveig, Sam White - +1 (Record Mix) 70. Bingo Players, A-Trak, Phantoms - Cry (Record Mix) 71. Robin Schulz, Alida - In Your Eyes (Record Mix) 72. Alok - Body On My Mind (Record Mix) 73. Black Eyed Peas, Shakira, Twocolors - Girl Like Me (Record Mix) 74. The Giver, Nyelo, Omix Zam - Hold It Back (Record Mix) 75. Solon, Chacel - Missing (Record Mix) 76. Filatov & Karas - TechNoNo (Record Mix) 77. Edx - Roadkill (Record Mix) 78. Alan Walker, Imanbek - Sweet Dreams (Record Mix) 79. Pascal Letoublon - Feelings Undercover (Record Mix) 80. Martin Jensen, Amber Van Day, N.F.I - Can't Come To The Phone (Record Mix) 81. Cat Dealers, Swanky Tunes - Bring & Boy (Record Mix) 82. Calvin Harris, Tom Grennan - By Your Side (Record Mix) 83. Louis The Child, Icona Pop, East & Young - Weekend (Record Mix) 84. C-Bool - Catch You (Record Mix) 85. Tungevaag, Kid Ink, Gabry Ponte - Ride With Me (Record Mix) 86. Loud Luxury, Wav3Pop - Wasted (Record Mix) 87. Michael Calfan - Treasured Soul (Record Mix) 88. Newclaess, Keno - (I Just) Died in Your Arms (Record Mix) 89. Tcts - Day & Night (Record Mix) 90. Rompasso - Take (Record Mix) 91. Victoria, Kohana Runstar - Desert Rose (Record Mix) 92. Nora En Pure, Redondo - I Got To Do (Record Mix) 93. Martin Garrix - Wizard (Record Mix) 94. Sickotoy, Elvana Gjata, Inna, Arroy, Sergey Raf - Papa (Record Mix) 95. Nrd1, Renomty - Summer Jam (Record Mix) 96. Nils Van Zandt, Julia Van Bergen - Million Miles (Record Mix) 97. Hugel - Back To Life (Record Mix) 98. Lee Cabrera, Joe Stone - Shake It (Record Mix) 99. Eqric, Narvent, Timmy Commerford - Let Me Love You (Record Mix) 100. David Guetta, Raye - Stay (Don't Go Away) (Record Mix) 101. Papa Zeus - Can't Stop (Oh No) (Record Mix) 102. Jax Jones, Ina Wroldsen - Breathe (Record Mix) 103. Shane Codd, Charlotte Haining - Always On My Mind (Record Mix) 104. Kye, Sones - Flowers (Record Mix) 105. Duboss, Imanbek - Voyage, Voyage (Record Mix) 106. Tiesto - The Business (Record Mix) 107. R3Hab, Jolin Tsai - Stars Align (Record Mix) 108. Tokio Hotel, Vize - Behind Blue Eyes (Record Mix) 109. Wh0, Zhana - Free (Record Mix) 110. Janieck - Does It Matter (Record Mix) 111. J. Balvin, Skrillex - In Da Getto (Record Mix) 112. Lost Found - Searching (Record Mix) 113. Pascal Letoublon - Palm Springs (Record Mix) 114. Oneil, Miscris - La La La (Record Mix) 115. Saison - Airs Graces (Record Mix) 116. Fred Again.., The Blessed Madonna - Marea (Weve Lost Dancing) (Record Mix) 117. Kc Lights, Leo Stannard - Cold Light (Record Mix) 118. John Newman, Max Sanna - Love Me Again 119. Atb, Ben Samama - Like That 120. Hi_Tack, Le Pedre, Consilium - Hot (Record Mix) 121. Gaullin - Moonlight (Record Mix) 122. Chris Lake, Armand Van Helden, Arthur Baker, Victor S - The Answer (Record Mix) 123. Bob Sinclar, Avicii - New New New (Record Mix) 124. Filatov & Karas, Busy Reno - Au Revoir (Record Mix) 125. Artlec - We'll Stay Together (Record Mix) 126. Klaas - The Way (Record Mix) 127. Timmy Trumpet - Cardio (Record Mix) 128. Jake Tarry, Tongue N Cheek - Nobody (Can Love Me) (Record Mix) 129. Alok, Bruno Martini, Zeeba - Hear Me Now (Record Mix) 130. 9T9Heroes, Bodybangers - No Luck (Record Mix) 131. Rudimental, Ed Sheeran, Sultan & Shepard - Lay It All On Me (Record Mix) 132. C-Bool - Never Go Away (Record Mix) 133. Rudenko, Ana Whiterose - Stone Cold Heart (Record Mix) 134. Foushee, Katana Angels - Deep End (Record Mix) 135. Sonny Fodera, Ella Eyre - Wired (Record Mix) 136. Rompasso, Playmen - Together (Record Mix) 137. Hugel, Stefy De Cicco, Hugo Cantarra, Nikol Apatini - 4 to the Floor (Record Mix) 138. Voost, Koolkid - Taste Of Your Love (Record Mix) 139. Sam Feldt, Yves V, Rozes - One Day (Record Mix) 140. Gabry Ponte, Moti, Mougleta - Oh La La (Record Mix) 141. Dave Spoon - Steels (Record Mix) 142. Lucas & Steve, Tungevaag - Paper Planes (Record Mix) 143. David Guetta, Skylar Grey - Shot Me Down (Record Mix)
On this episode of Sultans of Soil, our Tech Ag Team welcomes Kern County Farm Bureau's newly appointed President, Patty Poire, and newly minted Executive Director, Romeo Agbalog. Both Patty and Romeo have impressive resumes in advocacy here in Kern County and with their direction the best is yet to come. We discuss the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) in detail including the legislation's meaning for California's Farmers and Disadvantaged Communities. The team dives in to aspects of water supply delivery and accessibility, water banking, and the regulatory agencies in charge of critical infrastructure management. We examine the effects of new government regulations on Farmers and Landowners, and speculate on the future of agriculture in the Golden State. If you are interested in getting involved in agriculture advocacy to promote and preserve the farm and ranch industries, we highly recommend reaching out to the Kern County Farm Bureau at https://kerncfb.com/.
Today we're talking about The Gift / Atiye: Season 1, Episode 7. We will go over the plot, spill the tea, and say WTF. We will also name the episode's Sultan of Success and talk about who is next on Fatma's Hitlist. For our history section we're talking about the theory of cultural convergent evolution. Atiye Sezon 1, Bolum 7 hakkında sohbet ediyoruz. --- This episode is sponsored by · Anchor: The easiest way to make a podcast. https://anchor.fm/app Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/turkish-teav-time/support
It is the unlikeliest of stories. In 1540, Humayun was out of luck and on the run, while Sher Shah was victorious. Barely fifteen years later, Sher Shah was dead in a freak accident and his empire was in chaos. The Mughals returned to the plains of Hindustan with a renewed fury. But it was Humayun's brilliant young son, Akbar, that would bring fire and death to his enemies and create a world-changing empire. Check out our discussion on the mysterious Rajput warlord Silhadi here:https://takshashila.org.in/all-things-policy-the-other-rajputs-purbiya-warriors-in-16th-century-malwa/YUDDHA is made possible thanks to the support of the Takshashila Institution and the Independent and Public Spirited Media Foundation.Notes and sources will be available at https://www.anirudhkanisetti.com - sign up for updates!You can follow Anirudh on Twitter @AKanisetti and Instagram @aniryuddha, @connectedhistories, or @cholabhaturaempire.You can follow Aditya on Twitter @adityascripts or Instagram @adityaramanathan.
The hour begins with discussion on our current optimism for the Vikings at the 1-3 mark. Sinykin brings his Sultan of Smug aura to the airwaves for the Border Battle, then PJ Fleck makes his appearance following the win at Purdue!
November, 1335. The Khan of the Ilkhanate, Abu Sa'id Bahadur, is dead. Allegedly poisoned by a spurned wife, Baghdad Khatun, his death was the unravelling of the Ilkhanate. Facing an invasion by the mighty Ozbeg of the Golden Horde, and a succession crisis due to Abu Sa'id's failure to produce an heir, the Ilkhanate rapidly, and violently, tore itself to pieces. Today, we look at the disintegration of the Mongol Ilkhanate, the stories of two men named Hasan, and the history of the region up until the arrival of Emir Temur, fearsome Tamerlane, at the end of the fourteenth century. I'm your host David, and this is Kings and Generals: Ages of Conquest. Abu Sa'id had not been an incompetent monarch by any stretch of the means, and his rule was remembered as a golden age, at least in comparison to the mess that followed. A great-great-grandson of the Ilkhanid founder Hulegu, Abu Sa'id's reign had seen the consolidation of the islamization of the Mongol state, as well as the end of the long war with the Mamluks of Egypt. Il-Khan since 1316, Abu Sa'id had been controlled by the emir Choban, until he nearly eradicated the house of Choban in the late 1320s in an effort to marry Baghdad Khatun, one of Choban's daughters. For a few years Abu Sa'id had enjoyed a comparatively quiet majority, pursuing art, culture, poetry, building and architecture, as well as efforts to produce an heir. Baghdad Khatun, despite her beauty and the violence he had undertaken to acquire her- which included, among others things, killing her father, brothers and forcing her to divorce her husband- simply did not provide him his much desired son. When Abu Sa'id's eyes fell upon her niece, Dilshad Khatun, the Il-Khan basically forgot about his current wife, wed her niece and soon enough got her pregnant. For Baghdad Khatun to be humiliated like this, after suffering through the destruction of her family, this was the last straw. The widespread belief was that she had him poisoned in some manner- in Ibn Battuta's account, this was administered via a handkerchief that she used to clean themselves after sexual intercourse. So did Abu Sa'id die, aged 30 years old, in what is now Azerbaijan while marching north to repel an invasion by the Khan of the Golden Horde, Ozbeg. With Abu Sa'id's death, the line of Hulegu became extinct- or at least, the line through Hulegu's son Abaqa, which had provided most of the Il-Khans. Abu Sa'id uncle, Ghazan, had done much to prune the lineage during his reign, and it seems alcoholism took care of much of the rest. The fact that few Il-Khans lived past 35, with fewer and fewer heirs each generation, has led many to search for underlying causes beyond just alcohol. Scholars such as Charles Melville and Anne F. Broadbridge have pointed to possible consequences of consanguinity among the Il-Khans: that is, essentially inbreeding, given the Il-Khan's preferences for marrying into the same families, like the Oirats, over generations. The combined effects of rampant alcohol abuse among both men and women and the consanguinity may be the answer behind the alarming drop off in fertility of the Ilkhanid elite over the last decades of the thirteenth century. While Hulegu had produced quite the brood of little Chinggisids- at least 25 sons and daughters-, by the end of the century Ghazan had only a daughter survive childhood, while his brother Oljeitu Il-Khan had an alarming amount of children stillborn or died young. From his twelve wives, Oljeitu only had three children ever reach marriageable age; Abu Sa'id and two daughters, Sati Beg and Dawlandi: the last of whom still died before her father. For Abu Sa'id himself, despite considerable efforts, by his death he had only succeeded in getting his widow Dilshad Khatun pregnant. With no surviving brothers, sons or clear male figure to step into the role, the Ilkhanate suddenly faced a new problem; no clear monarch of the line of Hulegu to head the state. The explanation of Abu Sa'id's death without heir directly causing the fall of the Ilkhanate has been, in the opinion of scholars like Charles Melville, somewhat overstated. The image of the Ilkhanate falling without a decline -a counter to the model popularized by Edward Gibbon so long ago- encourages us to overlook problems which had developed. Essentially, Melville notes, a gap had widened between the military elite, the noyad, and the Il-Khan, which accompanied a lack of respect for the Chinggisids. The death of a monarch with no clear heir was hardly a new issue in the Mongol Empire- in fact, the quriltai system wherein a candidate put his name forward and was confirmed by the princes served to supply new khans at need. Additionally, neither were regents unheard of within the empire's history. The 1240s had seen two regencies, with Ogedai's widow Torogene and Guyuk's widow Oghul Qaimish steering the empire in the absence of a Khan- Oghul Qaimish of course, doing this much less successfully than her predecessor. In the form of Baghdad Khatun the Ilkhanate certainly had a powerful woman who could have stepped into the role. Well connected and from a prestigious family, she could have called upon connections established by her late father, Choban. Baghdad Khatun was described as an intimidating, intelligent and proud woman, who openly walked around with a sword strapped to her waist and greatly influenced matters of state. In the opinion of some, Abu Sa'id was bossed around by her. In a more classic Mongolian system, Baghdad Khatun would have guided the state until an heir could have been selected. But as Melville argues, the actions of the Khans from Ghazan onwards had alienated the military elite. More or less, they must have felt disenfranchised from the government and that the old Mongolian way of life was being abandoned. Certainly Islamization was the most obvious demonstration of this. Ghazan and Oljeitu both abandoned the traditional secret burials of Mongol Khans in favour of massive, expensive and very public mausoleums. The quriltai as a means of choosing the next ruler and affecting major decisions was abandoned, and even the end of the war with the Mamluks- not by conquest, but by diplomacy- must have felt like a betrayal of Mongol imperial ideology. Recall how the contemporary Chagatai Khan Tarmashirin was accused of abandoning the yassa as well- specifically by no longer continuing the annual assembles with the noyad in the eastern half of the Chagatai realm, and thus making them feel they no longer had a role, or a stake, in the Khanate's government. Tarmashirin was overthrown by a rebellion in 1334, a year before Abu Sa'id's death, which precipitated the descent of the Chagatai ulus into open war. By removing their stake in government, and not replacing it with a new loyalty to adhere to in the replacement system, the Ilkhans had gradually removed the need of the various noyans to maintain their loyalty to the Chinggisid ideology. When Abu Sa'id came to the throne in 1317, he was but a 12 year old boy. The long period of Choban's regency further reduced the khan's authority and increased that of the military elite. Abu Sa'id largely accepted and seems to have went along with Choban's oversight up until Choban denied him Baghdad Khatun, at that time married to Shaykh Hasan Jalayir. Only from the very end of the 1320s, after Choban's death, did Abu Sa'id really rule in his own right. While he did face minor rebellion, there is indication of resentment as efforts undertaken by the central Ilkhanid government. Abu Sa'id's vizier, Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad, the son of the former vizier Rashid al-Din Hamadani, sought to enforce tax reforms that in effect, would have restrengthened the hand of the central government towards the regional princes and their appanages. As Melville notes, the details are poorly known but it seems to have been an ineffective measure that angered these military princes. Per Melville's theory, the only outcome of such failed measures would only have been widening the gap between the Il-khan and the military elite. On Abu Sa'id's death at the end of November 1335, it fell to the vizier Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad to try and steer the ship in the face of Ozbeg's invasion. Only five days later, on December 5th, Ghiyath al-Din orchestrated the enthronement of a successor, a man named Arpa Ke'un. Arpa was a Chinggisid, and a member of the house of Tolui… but of the line of Ariq Boke, Hulegu's younger brother who had fought their brother Khubilai for the throne in the 1260s. Plucked from obscurity by Ghiyath al-Din, it seems he was chosen for his ability to lead the army, for all indication is that Arpa Khan was a man of military background, a “old school Mongol,” in the words of every secondary source that mentions him. Arpa was given command of the Il-Khanid army, and in the snows of the Caucasus he forced back Ozbeg in winter 1335, who once again retreated to the Golden Horde. Arpa Khan returned triumphant, and Ghiyath al-Din must have had high hopes for his new protege. Arpa was a competent commander who was militarily proven in his defence of the Ilkhanate- a promising figure to rally the Mongols around. Apparently he had little taste for court procedure or niceties, and it is unclear if he was a Muslim. One anonymous Armenian chronicler asserts Arpa was a Christian, and at the very least he was very proud of the “old ways.” At best, he was a Muslim with little care for the specifics of the faith. We might wonder if Ghiyath al-Din was deliberate here too, choosing a man who would be more palatable to the noyad due to his distaste of courtly life. In the opinion of Oleg Grabar and Sheila Blair, it was shortly after Arpa's ascension that Ghiyath al-Din ordered the commission of the Great Mongol Shahnama, a wonderful illustrated version of the Persian national epic, the Shahnama of Firdausi. An undertaking of massive expense, given the large and lovingly detailed artwork, it certainly indicates that the top levels of the Ilkhanid elite did not imagine they were entering into a crisis anytime soon. Arpa Khan was not on solid footing though. The fact that he was not of the line of Hulegu certainly hurt his legitimacy. The fact that Abu Sa'id's widow, Dilshad Khatun, was pregnant and had fled to Abu Sa'id's uncle, ‘Ali-Padshah, the governor of Diyarbakir, was unnerving too. ‘Ali-Padshah's sister, Abu Sa'id's mother Hajji Khatun, also opposed Arpa's enthronement. Thus, his position needed to be shored up. A marriage was arranged to Abu Said's sister, Sati Beg; commanders who had been alienated or jailed by Abu Sa'id were given expensive gifts or freed from prison. And the blame for Abu Sa'id's death was laid squarely on Baghdad Khatun, who had never had the chance to assume the regency. Accused not just of poisoning Abu Sa'id, but of being in correspondence with Ozbeg Khan and inviting him to attack the Ilkhanate, Baghdad Khatun was found guilty and executed, supposedly beaten to death by a Greek slave with a club while she was in the bathhouse. A number of other executions followed of potential rivals. But Arpa Khan looked for enemies in the wrong direction. ‘Ali-Padshah, the Oirat governor of Diyarbakir, was becoming something of a rallying point for those unhappy with Arpa's placement as Khan- or unhappy with an energetic man on the throne who might reduce their privileges. Dilshad Khatun had finally given birth to Abu Sa'id's only child, a girl, but this did not stop ‘Ali-Padshah's maneuvering. At the start of 1336 he raised his own candidate, Musa, as Il-Khan. Supposedly a grandson of Baidu, who had only held the throne for a few months before Ghazan's rise, Musa was, unlike Arpa, entirely a puppet of ‘Ali-Padshah. In alliance with Hajji Khatun and Shaykh Hasan Jalayir, who had once been forced to give up his wife Baghdad Khatun to Abu Sa'id and now knew Arpa killed her, ‘Ali-Padshah in the name Musa Il-Khan armed a revolt against Arpa Il-Khan. In the April of 1336, Arpa's army was defeated in the field. He and Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad fled to Sultaniyya, where they were captured and killed later that month. So ended the reign of Arpa Khan, the final Il-Khan to wield any individual authority. Arpa's death in many ways can be considered the true end of the Ilkhanate, for it seems to have removed any attachment the regional commanders held to the Ilkhanid state. ‘Ali-Padshah's enthronement of Musa Khan gave all of them the realization that each, too, could rule through his own puppet Chinggisid, if he happened to believe hard enough and have one on hand. From 1335 until 1343, no less than 8 Chinggisids were to be declared Il-Khan by these commanders. Little is known of most of them beyond their names and who controlled them. Shortly after Arpa's death Shaykh Hasan Jalayir announced his own puppet khan, a young boy named Muhammad, and attacked ‘Ali-Padshah. By July 1336, ‘Ali-Padshah was dead and Musa Il-Khan sent running. Shaykh Hasan married Abu Sa'id's widow, Dilshad Khatun. At the same time in the far east of the Ilkhanate, the noyans of Khurasan elected their own Il-Khan, Togha-Temur. Togha-Temur was not even a descendant of Chinggis Khan, but his brother Jochi-Qasar! But he came with military backing, and at the end of 1336 Togha-Temur's armies had overrun Iran and pushed into Iraq and Azerbaijan, forcing Shaykh Hasan Jalayir to flee before him. Even the wandering Musa found his way into Togha-Temur's employment, and it seemed that the Ilkhanate's period of disunity would soon be ended… only for Togha-Temur to suddenly withdraw back east in spring 1337. Musa was left with an army to attempt to crush Shaykh Hasan, but Hasan defeated and killed him in July 1337. Though he would threaten Iraq and the Caucasus again on occasion, Togha-Temur mostly contented himself with mastery over Khurasan and Mazandaran for the next 16 years, until his death in 1353 at the hands of the Sarbadars of Sabzavar. With Togha-Temur's withdrawal, Shaykh Hasan now faced a new challenger in the form of a different Shaykh Hasan. Our first Shaykh Hasan was of the Jalayirid lineage, a descendant of one of Hulegu's top generals. Often you'll see him called Hasan-i Buzurg, or “Big Hasan.” Hasan-i Kuchik, or “Little Hasan,” was meanwhile a grandson of Choban, via his son Temur-tash. Temur-tash had been governor of Anatolia and revolted twice against Abu Sa'id, before being killed by the Mamluk Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad when seeking support from him. Yet, Temur-tash's name still carried weight in Anatolia. While the other Ilkhanid claimants fought for power in the Caucasus and northern Mesopotamia, Little Hasan and his brother Malik Ashraf brought his father back to life, so to speak, in the form of a slave who looked a lot like him. Rather young, the boys lacked the experience or prestige to rally an army around themselves, and so required a puppet dead father. The slave, named Qarajari, in Mamluk accounts was the true leader of the uprising, while in Jalayirid and Temurid sources it was Little Hasan and his brother Malik Ashraf. At the very least, it indicates the level of friction in the movement was apparent.With an army composed of urban militias, nomadic cavalry and military slaves, it was a bit of a motley force, but the return of the Chobanids undermined Big Hasan Jalayir. Big Hasan's problem was the fact he just had so many members of Choban's family in his entourage. His new wife, Dilshad Khatun, was a granddaughter of Choban; one of his most important supporters, Oljeitu's daughter Sati Beg, had been married to emir Choban, and had a son by him, Surghan. With their help, and the help of a grandson of Choban named Pir Husayn, Big Hasan had overcome Musa Khan and retaken Tabriz, which had long been the capital of the Ilkhanate. But the rise of new Chobanid claimants made Big Hasan unsure of his own Chobanid supporters. Antagonizing his Chobanid followers, Sati Beg and her son Surghan fled to join Little Hasan, who forced Big Hasan from Tabriz in 1338, forcing him to retreat to Baghdad. In the process, Little Hasan succeeded in killing Big Hasan's puppet Chinggisid, the young Muhammad Khan. But seizing Tabriz weakened the bonds between Little Hasan and his fake father; the Fake Temurtash decided he wanted real power and stabbed Little Hasan, who survived and escaped, then publicized the news that Fake Temurtash was actually, well, a fake. “You're not my real dad!” We may imagine Little Hasan screamed as he ran out of the palace of Tabriz, blood dripping from a wound. Little Hasan fled to Georgia, meeting with Sati Beg and his cousin Surghan, while the isolated fake Temurtash was pushed from Tabriz by Big Hasan, who in turn was pushed out again by Little Hasan. Still, it was felt a non-Chinggisid could not rule yet in his own right, especially since Little Hasan had, in the eyes of most, simply been serving his “resurrected” father. So, Little Hasan made the nearest Chinggisid the new Il-Khan. And the nearest Chinggisid was none other than his grandfather Choban's widow, Sati Beg, daughter of the late Il-Khan Oljeitu, sister of Abu Sa'id and also widow of Arpa Khan. For the first time, late in 1338, a Chinggisid woman became Khan- not regent, not khatun, but Khan. Coins were minted in her name bearing the title, the khutba was read in her name and she was officially the ruler of the Ilkhanate, such as it was. But Sati Beg Khan, the only Chinggisid female Khan, held no real power, and largely was a tool through which Little Hasan maintained his power. A scheming, cruel man, Little Hasan offered Sati Beg to be the bride of a rival, solely in an effort to lure the rival into a trap. He also sought to portray himself as a restorer of the Ilkhanate and its protector by commandeering symbols and persons associated with it, such as appointing descendants of Rashid al-Din and other Ilkhanid viziers to chief posts, while continuing to promote Tabriz as the capital in an effort at continuity with the Ilkhanate. Little Hasan himself, along with Sati Beg's son and two other top figures, took the titles of the ulus emirs, the commanders of the realm, but there could be no question of who was actually in charge… … or could there be? Restoring a Chinggisid monarchy in place of their fake father Temurtash meant, in effect, the demotion of Little Hasan and his brother Malik Ashraf. Making Little Hasan but one of the ulus emirs further divided his power. Coins in the name of Sati Beg Khan are found even outside of territory the Chobanids directly controlled in this period, suggesting Sati Beg's enthronement had wider support. Rumours circulated that Sati Beg was in contact with Big Hasan Jalayir in Baghdad, and plotting to kill Little Hasan. Worse still, Togha-Temur, the “eastern Il-Khan,” returned to western Iran at the very start of 1339, having been invited to take the throne by Big Hasan. Togha-Temur's great army seemed poised to wash away Little Hasan's state. Sati Beg Khan and her soon fled west, leaving Little Hasan alone to face Togha-Temur. But the lil' guy had one last card play. Knowing he faced no chance of overcoming Togha-Temur Khan in battle, instead Little Hasan sent messengers to Togha-Temur offering his submission, and that he would gladly come to submit to Togha-Temur in person, but could not dare leave Tabriz yet due to the danger posed by Big Hasan, at that time in Baghdad. Togha-Temur accepted this gladly, happy to take the former Ilkhanid capital without trouble. He promised to keep Little Hasan in power, and sent a letter describing how he would rid them of Big Hasan… which Little Hasan promptly forwarded to Big Hasan. The latter had already allied with Togha-Temur and was naturally unhappy to find his new overlord so willing to remove him from the scene, so Big Hasan abandoned Togha-Temur Khan. Losing face, his local allies and commanders unsatisfied with the process, Togha-Temur withdrew back east. The entire incident served to strengthen Little Hasan's little hands. A few months later in July 1339, he forced Sati Beg Khan to marry another of Little Hasan's allies, a descendant of Hulegu's son Yoshmut, who took the throne name of Sulayman, and became Sulayman Khan, though the Mamluks suspected his ancestry was fictive. So ended Sati Beg's nine month tenure as Khan, losing whatever little authority she held and subsequently disappearing from the sources, though coinage in her name continued to be minted in Georgia well into the 1340s. Her final fate remains uncertain. In the meantime, Big Hasan down in Baghdad had another ploy to employ. His requests to the Mamluk Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad for miltiary aid in recognition of Mamluk overlordship did not materialize into any actual support, in addition to the failure of the affair with Togha-Temur. Taking matters into his own hands, he appointed a grandson of Geikhatu Il-Khan, Jahan-Temur, as Il-Khan, then marched north to face Little Hasan in battle. In June 1340, the two Hasans, each with their khans, met on the field. Little Hasan had the better of the engagement, forcing Big Hasan to flee back to Baghdad. Angered at the turn of events, Big Hasan deposed his puppet Khan Jahan-Temur, and ruled in his own name- the official start of the independent Jalayir Dynasty. Ruling from Baghdad, the Jalayirids oversaw most of modern Iraq to the border with Syria. The Chobanids kept their puppet Chinggisid only a little longer. Sulayman Khan actually outlasted Little Hasan: the little trickster finally met his end when murdered by his own wife in December 1343. With no heir, he was succeeded by his brother, Malik Ashraf, who soon after deposed Sulayman and appointed another puppet monarch, a non-Chinggisid called Anushirvan, from an epithet for the ancient Sassanian shahanshah, Khosrow I. It was an interesting dabble in movement away from legitimacy associated with the house of Chinggis Khan, harkening even back to pre-Islamic Iran. What sort of lineage he was supposed to represent is unclear, as the Mamluks thought that he had essentially crowned a stable boy and then locked him in a gilded cage. Coins were minted in Anushirvan's name until 1353, the year of Togha-Temur's death. Little Hasan had been unpopular in Tabriz and Azerbaijan, but Malik Ashraf was widely hated. Paranoid, violent men, their oppressive tendencies alienated many supporters: both found it easy to be cruel to their families and vassals on the slightest hints of disloyalty- such cruelty was the certain cause of Little Hasan's wife preemptively murdering him. Mongol allies were angered with the movement away from Chinggisid legitimacy or by the enfranchisement of non-Mongols. The cities of the Caucasus felt exploited as tax sources due to wild expenditure by both Little Hasan and Malik Ashraf, who built large public works in efforts to boost their images and to fund their standing army. The latter of which they struggled to fund, resulting in troops attempting to supply themselves by raiding Chobanid subjects from Azerbaijan, Georgia to eastern Anatolia. At one point at the very start of his reign, Malik Ashraf was locked out of Tabriz, the city barring its gates against him in reaction to his exploitative money grabbing. All of this was worsened by rounds of Plague- as in, Black Plague. The trade cities of the Caucasus which the Chobanids so relied upon were struck repeatedly and made the situation even more unstable, as the economy was disrupted, trade slackened and key demographic centres depopulated. To distract from troubles and bring in some glory- or share the suffering, Malik Ashraf decided to attack Baghdad in 1347, but the Jalayirids repulsed him. Either through order, or because he no longer had control over his troops, the Chobanid army then ravaged much of the Chobanid kingdom. Facing revolts and rebellions across his kingdom, somehow he managed to maintain his post into the 1350s, when faced with an overwhelming, ultimate threat: the new Khan of the Golden Horde, Jani Beg, son of Ozbeg Khan. Just as this episode began with the threat of a Jochid attack by Ozbeg, so this episode ends with his son coming to finish the job. The Jochids never forgot Hulegu's seizure of the Azerbaijani pastures, and repeated attempts to regain were met with failures. Even great and long-reigning Ozbeg Khan had failed to seize them. Jani Beg, in all things, was determined to outdo his father, and in 1357 his messages arrived in Tabriz, bearing a clear ultimatum to Malik Ashraf: “I am coming to take possession of the ulus of Hulegu. You are the son of Choban whose name was in the decree of the four uluses. Today three realms are under my command, and I also wish to appoint you commander of the ulus; get up and come to meet me.” Malik Ashraf put on a brave face, dismissing the messenger and replied that Jani Beg only had claim to rule within the lands of Jochi, while Malik Ashraf was the protector of the lands of Hulegu. Malik Ashraf's sudden claim to support the Toluids, not surprisingly, did not convince Jani Beg, or anyone else. His decision to then imprison Jani Beg's ambassador did not help matters either. But Malik Ashraf's defiance was hollow, and he was well aware of the danger he was in. We are told by the Azerbaijani writer al-Ahri, writing about 1360, that Malik Ashraf in fear turned to his attendants and admitted, “This is the son of Khan Ozbeg. He is of the family of Chinggis Khan and has an overwhelming army of three hundred thousand men. I cannot hold out against him.” Ashraf planned to flee to a fortress and hold out there until Jani Beg withdrew or, failing that, flee to Anatolia. News of his cowardice elicited a loud response from the elite and people of Tabriz, who cried out for resistance and claimed that Jani Beg's only strength was his numbers, and in terms of equipment the Chobanid troops would have the better. Only once it seemed that government was breaking down in the face of the Golden Horde attack, reluctantly Malik Ashraf summoned the troops and rode out to face the approaching Jani Beg Khan. Promptly, his men fled when they caught sight of Jani Beg's host. Years of mistreatment had generated no loyalty to the person of Malik Ashraf or his office, and none were willing to put their lives on the line in a doomed fight. His army disintegrated and looted his own coffers. Finally Malik Ashraf was betrayed, captured, and paraded through the streets of Tabriz and handed over to Jani Beg. Supposedly Jani Beg would have let him live, if the people of Tabriz had not demanded his death- though it should be said, mercy was not a quality Jani Beg ever had in abundance, so we might wonder about this detail. Malik Ashraf, son of Temur-Tash and brother of Little Hasan, grandson of Choban Noyan, was thus put to death on Jani Beg Khan's orders in 1357. The Chobanid state, after a tumultuous two decades, was dismantled, its few surviving representatives scattered to the winds. Jani Beg Khan succeeded where no Jochid Khan had before, in occupying Tabriz and the pastures of Azerbaijan, Arran and the Mughan Plain. Many of the other regional powers, including the Jalayirids recognized Jani Beg's overlordship. Jani Beg left his son Berdi Beg to govern Azerbaijan, then returned to the Qipchaq steppe- only to soon die, of sickness or, as some accuse, of being poisoned by Berdi Beg. This caused a general withdrawal of the Jochid troops as Berdi Beg left to assume the position of Khan, leaving one of Malik Ashraf's former deputies in charge on behalf of the Golden Horde. Finally, it was time for the Jalayirids to return to Tabriz. Big Hasan's son with Dilshad Khatun was Shaykh Uvays, who succeeded his father to the throne in 1356. Having accepted Jani Beg's overlordship, the Jalayirids had managed the storm of the Jochid assault well. With their long time Chobanid enemies annihilated, it was now time to seize the Azerbaijani pastures. In summer 1358 Shaykh Uvays successfully retook Tabriz twenty years after his father had last been pushed from the city. In the historical sources, Jalayirid rule is contrasted heavily with the Chobanids. Where the Chobanids appear as scheming, violent and oppressive men, the Jalayirids in contrast are presented as benevolent, respectful to Islamic and Chinggisid norms, ushering in an era of peace and prosperity after years of upheaval. Ruling from the Caucasus across Iraq, the Jalayirids were mighty, and deserved a new title for it. So did Shaykh Uvays begin to style himself Sultan. It was not an easy task, for many former supporters of the Chobanids had to be hunted down, and indeed, in 1359 Uvays was pushed out of Tabriz by another Ilkhanid successor state, the Muzaffarids, albeit briefly. But by the next year Uvays had retaken Tabriz, killed Malik Ashraf's still resisting son and properly secured Jalayirid control. The Jalayirid Sultanate saw a brief renaissance in art and culture, a restoration of economy and trade following the post-Ilkhanid disruptions. While respect was paid to the house of Chinggis Khan and certain norms associated with the Ilkhanate, this was no Chinggisid state. No Chinggisid puppet was maintained, and neither Uvays nor his sons based their rule on their Chinggisid ancestry, even though they could trace their lineage to a daughter of Arghun Il-Khan. Chinggisid legitimacy as the basis for governance did not long survive Abu Sa'id, and the Ilkhanid successors at most portrayed themselves as protectors of the Il-Khanid dynasty, rather than its continuators. Thus by the end of the fourteenth century, most of the western portion of the former Ilkhanate, that is the Caucasus, northwestern Iran and Iraq, was ruled by the Jalayirid Dynasty. Iran itself was largely divided between regional forces, the most prominent being the Muzaffarids and Injuids and Sarbadars of Sabzavar. None were of Mongol origin, but were rather local Persian dynasties which had emerged out of the Ilkhanid political structure. In rare cases, pre-existing dynasties like the Kartids of Herat simply reasserted themselves. A few Turkic nomadic confederations, of unclear political origins, emerged in the second half of the fourteenth century, most notably the Black Sheep Turkomans, the Qaraqoyunlu. In Anatolia, a number of Turkic beyliks rose out of the splintered ruins of the Ilkhanid government there, including one on the western end of the peninsula founded by a ghazi named Osman. You may know them better as the Ottomans. The Mamluks maintained their hold on Egypt, with al-Nasir Muhammad enjoying a very long third reign until his death in the 1340s, which then saw a rapid succession of his numerous sons and grandsons on the Mamluk throne, preventing any Mamluk expansion at the expense of the weak post-Ilkhanid states. Such was the more situation of the late fourteenth century post-Ilkhanid world, soon to be turned over by the rival of a powerful emir from the western Chagatai Khanate named Temur, or Tamerlane. But that's a story for another day, so be sure to subscribe to the Kings and Generals podcast for more. If you enjoyed this and would like to help up continue bringing you great content, then consider supporting us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals. This episode was researched and written by our series historian, Jack Wilson. I'm your host David, and we'll catch you on the next one.
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Ofenbach, Quarterhead, Norma Jean Martine - Head Shoulders Knees & Toes (Record Mix) 93. Jess Bays, That Kind - Love We Had (Record Mix) 94. Twocolors - Bloodstream (Record Mix) 95. Sonny Fodera, Ella Eyre - Wired (Record Mix) 96. Raye - Call on Me (Record Mix) 97. Pascal Letoublon - Feelings Undercover (Record Mix) 98. Hi_Tack, Le Pedre, Consilium - Hot (Record Mix) 99. Torren Foot, Tinnie, L Devine - More Life (Record Mix) 100. Dastic - Think About U (Record Mix) 101. Maruv, Boosin - Drunk Groove (Record Mix) 102. Calvin Harris - Feel So Close (Record Mix) 103. Martin Jensen, Amber Van Day, N.F.I - Can't Come To The Phone (Record Mix) 104. Aevion - Galaxy Garden (Record Mix) 105. Mabel - Let Them Know (Record Mix) 106. Shane Codd, Charlotte Haining - Always On My Mind (Record Mix) 107. Rudenko, Ana Whiterose - Stone Cold Heart (Record Mix) 108. Saison - Airs Graces (Record Mix) 109. Rihanna - Don't Stop the Music (Record Mix) 110. 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Six months after the election, the coalition merry-go-round comes full circle as the four parties from the last coalition agree to form the next one. A vegan restaurant in Utrecht becomes a cause célèbre for protesters against the coronavirus check pass. Mark Rutte gets some unwanted attention from the criminal underworld and a former councillor best known for his part in a penile pastry scandal. Supermarket chain Jumbo hopes its 'kletskassa's' can help to combat the epidemic of loneliness and atone for its in-store playlist. And former world champion Raymond van Barneveld is implicated in some sharp practice during a lockdown darts tournament.
Today we're talking about The Gift / Atiye: Season 1, Episode 6. We will go over the plot, spill the tea, and say WTF. We will also name the episode's Sultan of Success and talk about who is next on Fatma's Hitlist. For our history section we're talking about the language Syriac. Atiye Sezon 1, Bolum 6 hakkında sohbet ediyoruz. --- This episode is sponsored by · Anchor: The easiest way to make a podcast. https://anchor.fm/app Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/turkish-teav-time/support
Since the demise of the Ottoman Caliphate, the Muslim world has moved from one crisis to another. The parlous state of the ummah is now the subject of many discussions and numerous Islamic groups have attempted to find the magic formula to reverse this decline. Invariably and correctly, the subject of a return to Islamic governance has become a rallying call for many that seek to return to a place where the ummah was a leading one. Yet recently, the rise of ISIS and the return to the Taliban government has given us two very different yet for some, very troubling models of how a shariah ruled state should run. Beyond these examples, contemporary Islamic study on the topic either negates well-known Islamic precedents found in our tradition or offers models of authoritarianism where a caliph has the control over all and is one step away from repression. Today we have brought together two Islamic thinkers and scholars that have been working for some time on rethinking Islamic governance. Ustadh Iyad Hilal is no stranger to this show, he is an instructor at the al-Arqam Institute in California and is a regular imam and khateeb at Masajids across his state. Kamal Hussain is a lecturer and legal expert who recently delivered a paper to academics and scholars on ‘al Sultan-al Ummah' the authority of the Ummah, he argues that this Islamic principle has been lost over time, with many theorists viewing the role of the people as no more than passive citizens in a caliphate structure. An earlier version of this episode had some formatting errors. This has now been fixed. Follow us on Twitter here: https://twitter.com/jalalayn and https://twitter.com/thinking_muslim Website: thinkingmuslim.com
Today we're talking about The Gift / Atiye: Season 1, Episode 5. We will go over the plot, spill the tea, and say WTF. We will also name the episode's Sultan of Success and talk about who is next on Fatma's Hitlist. For our history section we're talking about the star Sirius. Atiye Sezon 1, Bolum 5 hakkında sohbet ediyoruz. --- This episode is sponsored by · Anchor: The easiest way to make a podcast. https://anchor.fm/app Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/turkish-teav-time/support
The establishment of the Mughal empire was by no means inevitable. In the 1530s and 40s, Farid, the grandson of a horse trader and daughter of an Afghan father and Rajput mother, would drive out Babur's heir, Humayun, and establish one of the most remarkable Indian polities: the Sur Empire. Join us as we explore his brilliant, ruthless career, witnessing how he innovated his way from humble beginnings to become the most powerful man in Hindustan: remembered today as Sher Shah.YUDDHA is made possible thanks to the support of the Takshashila Institution and the Independent and Public Spirited Media Foundation.Notes and sources will be available at https://www.anirudhkanisetti.com - sign up for updates!You can follow Anirudh on Twitter @AKanisetti and Instagram @aniryuddha, @connectedhistories, or @cholabhaturaempire.You can follow Aditya on Twitter @adityascripts or Instagram @adityaramanathan.
Rev. Terry Kyllo is a Lutheran pastor serving as the director of Paths to Understanding: Bridging Bias and Building Unity. He is the founder of Neighbors in Faith, answering Islamophobia with building the beloved community and recognizing and honoring one another's humanity. A graduate of the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, he began his pastoral career in 1991 and has served in partnership between Episcopalians and Lutherans since 2004. Terry was the recipient of the Faith Action Network Interfaith Leadership Award in 2016, the Interfaith Leadership Award from the Muslim Association of Puget Sound in 2017, and the Sultan and Saint Peace award in 2017, and the Called to Lead award in 2018 by the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago.
“Ket Buqa Noyan kept attacking left and right with all zeal. Some encouraged him to flee, but he refused to listen and said, “Death is inevitable. It is better to die with a good name than to flee in disgrace. In the end, someone from this army, old or young, will reach the court and report that Ket Buqa, not wanting to return in shame, gave his life in battle. The padishah should not grieve over lost Mongol soldiers. Let him imagine that his soldiers' wives have not been pregnant for a year and the mares of their herds have not folded. [...]The life or death of servants like us is irrelevant.” Although the soldiers left him, he continued to struggle in battle like a thousand men. In the end his horse faltered, and he was captured. [...] After that, Ket Buqa was taken before Quduz with his hands bound. “Despicable man,” said Quduz, “you have shed so much blood wrongfully, ended the lives of champions and dignitaries with false assurances, and overthrown ancient dynasties with broken promises. Now you have finally fallen into a snare yourself.”[...] “If I am killed by your hand,” said Ket Buqa, “I consider it to be God's act, not yours. Be not deceived by this event for one moment, for when the news of my death reaches Hülägü Khan, the ocean of his wrath will boil over, and from Azerbaijan to the gates of Egypt will quake with the hooves of Mongol horses. They will take the sands of Egypt from there in their horses' nose bags. Hülägü Khan has three hundred thousand renowned horsemen like Ket Buqa. You may take one of them away.” So the great Ilkhanid vizier and historian Rashid al-Din records the heroic, and certainly greatly dramatized, account of Kitbuqa Noyan's final stand at the battle of Ayn Jalut in September 1260. This was the famous Mongol defeat at the newly established, and rather fragile, Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. The Mongols however, did not see it as an irreversible cataclysm, but the defeat of a small force which would soon be avenged, for Heaven demanded nothing less. The defeat of the Mongols at Ayn Jalut in 1260 was not the end of the war between the Mongols and the Mamluks, and over the next 50 years Hulegu's successors, the Ilkhans, tried repeatedly to avenge their losses only to be halted by the Mamluks' valiant resistance. Here, we will look at the efforts by the Mongol Ilkhanate to bring their horses to the Nile. I'm your host David, and this is Kings and Generals: Ages of Conquest. First, we should note that for anyone wishing to read more about the war between the Mongols and the Mamluks, the most detailed work on the subject can be found in Reuven Amitai-Preiss' Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, released in 1995. No other work details the entire conflict and its sources so fully, and is an absolute must read for anyone desiring the most effective overview on the subject possible. With the death of Grand Khan Mongke in 1259, the Mongol Empire was irrevocably broken: while Hulegu and his successors stayed on good terms with his brother Khubilai, the nominal Great Khan, Hulegu was independent, ruler of vast domain stretching from Anatolia to the Amu Darya, known as the Ilkhanate. Hulegu's cousins in the neighbouring Golden Horde, Chagatai Khanate and the Neguderis were almost immediately antagonistic to the Ilkhans, who found themselves defending their distant frontiers from all three, in addition to internal revolts. For the Ilkhans, the Mamluks were but one frontier amongst several, one they could turn to only when the threat from the other Khanates was low. More often than not, this simple fact prevented any great Ilkhanid invasion of the Mamluk state. For the Mamluks though, their border with the Ilkhanate along the Euphrates river was of utmost importance. In the aftermath of Ayn Jalut, the Mamluk Sultan Qutuz was assassinated by the energetic Baybars, who had fought alongside Qutuz against Kitbuqa. We introduced Baybars back in episode 30 of this podcast. While much credit can be given to Qutuz and the quality of the Mamluk soldiery for the victory at Ayn Jalut, the reason for continued Mamluk successes against the Mongols can be attributed to Baybars. A Qipchaq from the great Eurasian steppe, as a young boy Baybars had been sold into slavery to the Ayybuid Sultan of Egypt. There, Baybars was converted to Islam and received extensive training in all matter of military affairs. An excellent soldier, coupled with immense ambition, endurance and drive, Baybars understood clearly the danger the Mongols posed, and set up his entire kingdom to defend against them. The new Sultan greatly expanded the Mamluk regiments, encouraging good relations with the Golden Horde, Genoese and Byzantine Empire to keep up the flow of Turkic slave soldiers from the Eurasian steppe, over the Mediterranean to the ports of Egypt. He established a sophisticated intelligence network to inform him on the Ilkhanate and spread misinformation within it, supported by a system of signal towers, messenger pigeons, improved roads, bridges and relay stations to rapidly send messages. This was the barid, which served as the Mamluks' answer to the Mongol yam system. Its riders reported directly to the Mamluk Sultan. Frontier fortifications along the Euphrates River like al-Bira and al-Rahba were strengthened, and they served as the first line of defence when the armies of the Ilkhanate advanced. When messengers raced down from Syria to Egypt with news of a Mongol assault, Baybars would immediately march with an army from Cairo to meet them head on. More often than not, the Mongol attack party would return to the Ilkhanate rather than face Baybars head on. His swift reaction kept border officials loyal, feeling their Sultan would soon be there to assist them, or to punish defections. Rather than face the Mongols in battle, garrisons of cities in Syria past the Euphrates border were ordered to withdraw and regrouped at designated locations during invasions, facing the Mongols with united forces or awaiting the Sultan. Baybars would not allow the Mongols to overrun his empire piecemeal, as they had the Khwarezmian Empire some forty years prior. Baybars cultivated relations with bedouin nomads across Syria, who provided valuable auxiliaries, intelligence and also to keep them from allying with the Mongols. Finally, he strengthed his position domestically, controlling the economy and appointing his own Caliphs to legitimize himself, presenting himself as the defender of Islam. Baybars prepared his entire kingdom for Mongol attacks, a highly effective system the Ilkhanate struggled against. For the Ilkhans, the theater with the Mamluks was a sideshow, one to attack only when other frontiers were secured. The Mamluk Sultanate itself had no hope of conquering the Ilkhanate or seriously threatening it, so the various Ilkhans felt no great rush to overwhelm the Mamluks. In contrast, for the Mamluks the Ilkhanid border was of utmost importance: Baybars had to levy almost entirety of the Mamluk army to repel the Mongols, and thus not even a single defeat could be afforded for it would allow the Mongols to overrun Egypt, and the remainder of the Islamic west. Thus did Baybars finetune a system that proved remarkably successful at defending against the house of Hulegu, although it demanded great personal ability on the part of the monarch, and Baybars' successors struggled to compare to his vision. Soon after Ayn Jalut in September 1260, a Mongol force of about 6,000 returned to Syria that December. Commanded by Baydar, an officer of Kitbuqa who had escaped Qutuz and Baybars' great advance earlier that year, it was a serious threat. At that time Sultan Baybars had not tightened his hold over Syria, attacks by the Crusader states had wrought further confusion, and some of Qutuz's loyalists had rebelled against Baybars' rule, one of whom even declared himself sultan. There is implication in the Mamluk sources that the attack was not launched on Hulegu's order, but Baydar's own initiative to avenge Kitbuqa. As his army marched, they found that the garrisons of Syria had retreated before them. Placing a governor in Aleppo and other major cities, as the Mongols neared Homs they found the combined garrisons of Homs, Hama and Aleppo had retreated there and rallied before them. Greatly outnumbering the Syrian forces, perhaps 6,000 troops under Baydar to 1,400 under the Syrians, Baydar was ultimately defeated in battle, the Syrians aided by thick fog and the timely flanking of local Bedouin. Coincidentally, it was fought near the grave of Khalid ibn al-Walid, the great commander of the early Islamic conquests and victor at Yarmouk, which earned it double the symbolic value. This first battle of Homs, as it was to become known, strengthened the feeling that the Mongols were not invincible. The Mongol army outnumbered the Mamluk garrisons, and keenly demonstrated the importance of unified defense rather than each garrison hiding behind city walls. For many Mamluk writers, it was the first battle of Homs that stood as the great victory over the Mongols, rather than Ayn Jalut. It was also the last major Mongol offensive into Syria in the 1260s. Hulegu spent the next years fighting with Berke Khan of the Golden Horde over the valuable territory of Azerbaijan, which Berke believed belonged to the house of Jochi. With Hulegu's death in February 1265, he was succeeded by his son Abaqa, who was distracted by Jochid attacks and the efforts of setting up a new empire. By then, the most entrenched Sultan Baybars could solidify his defences, and turn to the isolated Crusader strongholds. By this time, little remained of the former Crusader Kingdoms, baring some coastal cities like Antioch, Tripoli and Acre and a few inland fortresses like Krak des Chevaliers and Montfort. The Crusader States had shown neutrality to the Mongols, or even joined them such as the County of Tripoli in 1260 after the Mongols entered Syria. Their neutrality or allegiance to the Mongols, in addition to the possibility of them acting as a foothold to further European troops, meant that the Mamluks would unleash bloody vengeance on them whenever the opportunity arose. From February to April 1265 in the immediate aftermath of Hulegu's death, Baybars conquered Caesarea, Haifa, Arsuf, Galilee and raided Cilician Armenia, the vassals of the Ilkhanate. In 1268 Baybars took Antioch, and in 1270-71 when Abaqa was fighting with Chagatayid and Neguderi armies in the far east, Baybars took the fortresses of Krak des Chevaliers and Montfort, and planned to attack Tripoli, another Ilkhanid vassal. Though it remains popular in some circles to portray the Mamluk conquest of the Crusader holdouts as titanic clashes, they were side affairs, undertaken by the Mamluks whenever the Ilkhans were occupied. Such was the slow and humiliating coup de grace which ended the Crusader states. The Mamluks' ending of the Crusader kingdoms certainly served them strategically, for it was the most effective way to prevent any link up between European and Mongol forces. Hulegu and his successors sent letters to the Kings and Popes of Europe, encouraging them to take up crusade against the Mamluks and together defeat them, offering to return Jerusalem and other holy sites back into Christian hands, but this almost always fell on deaf ears or were greeted with empty promises. Louis IX's highly organized crusades had resulted in utter debacles at Mansura in 1250 and Tunis in 1270, which dampened whatever minor enthusiasm for crusade was left in Europe. Few European monarchs ever seriously took up Mongol offers at military alliances, with two exceptions. King James I of Aragon found himself the most motivated by the Il-Khan Abaqa's requests, encouraged by the promises of the Ilkhanate's logistical and military support once they reached the mainland. James made his preparations, and launched a fleet in September 1269. An unexpected storm scattered the fleet, and only two of James' bastard children made it to Acre, who stayed only briefly, accomplishing little there before departing. This was soon followed by the arrival of prince Edward of England, the future King Edward I, at Acre in May 1271 with a small force, and Abaqa sent an army under Samaghar, the Mongol commander in Rum, to assist him: but Samaghar's force withdrew with the arrival of Baybars. Edward's troops performed poorly on their own minor raids, and set sail for England in September 1272. One of the commanders who took part in Samaghar's raid was Mu'in al-Din Sulaiman, better known as the Pervane, from sahib pervana, the keeper of the seals, though it literally means “butterfly.” The Pervane was the dominant figure of the rump state of the Seljuqs of Rum: when the previous Mongol installed Seljuq Sultan, Kilij Arlan IV, had challenged the Pervane, he succeeded in getting Abaqa to execute the Sultan and instate Arslan's young son, a toddler enthroned as Ghiyath al-Din Kaykhusraw III. Thus did the Pervane, in coordination with Samaghar Noyan, act as the master of Anatolia. Essentially co-governors, Samaghar and the Pervane had a stable relationship, enriching themselves along the way. But when Abaqa appointed his younger brother Ejei to oversee the Pervana and Samaghar. The Pervane chafed under the increased financial burden and supervision, and asked Abaqa to recall his brother, claiming Ejei was in cooperation with Baybars. Abaqa promised to recall him, but delayed. In his frustration, the Pervane himself reached out to Baybars. The Sultan's curiosity was piqued, but didn't commit; by the time his response reached the Pervane in 1274, Ejei and Samaghar had been replaced by Toqa Noyan, and the Pervane didn't respond. Under Toqa Noyan, Mongol pressure was even greater in Anatolia, and the Pervane's powers were more limited than ever. What followed was a terrible mess of political machinations. The Pervane got Toqa Noyan removed, Ejei was reinstated, the Pervane's efforts to remove Ejei again frustrated Abaqa, who removed Ejei, killed some of his followers and reinstated the Pervane and Toqa Noyan. In November 1275, the Mongols besieged al-Bira, but Baybars had learned of it in advance allegedly due to contacts with the Pervane. After this, the Pervane was careful to rebuild trust with Abaqa, bringing him the Seljuq Sultan's sister to wed. At the same time, with or without the Pervane's support a group of Rumi amirs met with Baybars in July 1276, urging him to attack. Judging there was enough support in Rum for him he agreed, and Baybars mobilized his army over winter 1276, setting out in February 1277. As Baybars sped up the Levantine coast, the Pervane rapidly lost control of Rum as various Turkmen rebelled and a new Mongol army under Tudawan cracked down on the amirs who had contacted Baybars. In Syria, Baybars sent a diversionary force from Aleppo over the Euphrates, while his main army entered Anatolia in early April. After pushing off a Mongol advance force of 3,000 in the Taurus Mountains, news reaches Baybars that Tudawun was camped close by on a plain near the town of Abulustayn (Elbistan) and set out for them, the armies meeting on the 15th of April 1277. Tudawan's army was about 14,000 Mongols, Turk and heavily armoured Georgian cavalry was joined by an army of Rumi troops similar size under the Pervane, but Tudawan distrusted them, and kept them away from his lines. Tudawan's scouts had failed to judge the size of the Mamluk army, which he believed to be smaller and lacking Baybars. In reality, the Mamluks outnumbered the Mongols by a few thousand. As the Mamluks entered the plain at the narrow end they were unable to properly form up, and their centre was positioned before their left wing. The Mongol left flank began the battle, sending arrows into the Mamluk standard bearers in the centre before charging them. The Mamluk centre buckled under the charge, and the more exposed Mamluk left wing was similarly pounded by the Mongol right. The situation was critical for the Mamluks: likely at this stage, their bedouin irregulars fled. Baybars sent in his reserve, the garrison of Hama, to reinforce his left, and succeeded in forcing back the Mongols. A brief respite allowed the Mamluks to better deploy their lines, and counterattack. The Mongols fought fiercely, but the greater number of the Mamluks made the difference. Gradually forced back over the course of the day, their horses exhausted and unable to access remounts, the Mongols dismounted, signalling they were fighting to the death. With great struggle, the Mamluks defeated them and killed their commanders. The Rumi army took little part in the battle and dispersed, the Pervane escaping, with one of his sons captured by Baybars. The next day the Mamluk Sultan marched for Kayseri, reaching it on April 20th. Baybars ordered the Pervane and the Seljuq Sultan to him, but the Pervane held out in his own castle. Both realized that Baybars would not be able to hold this position, deep in enemy territory, supplies low and the rest of his kingdom unprotected while a furious Abaqa rallied his army. 5 days after entering Kayseri, Baybars was en route back to Syria and though his vanguard deserted to the Mongols, by June he was in Damascus. Abaqa arrived in Rum too late to catch Baybars, and in his fury was only narrowly persuaded out of massacring everything between Kayseri and Erzerum, while the summer heat kept him from invading Syria. He was able to catch the Pervane though, and put him to death: allegedly, his flesh was eaten by Abaqa and the senior Mongols. Thus ended one of Baybars' most skillfully executed campaigns: lightning quick and devastating, creating a terrible mess for the Ilkhanate, though in itself brought no strategic gain or shift in the status quo. It was a great shock when the Lion of Egypt suddenly died at the beginning of July 1277 soon after his return. Baybars had hoped to establish a dynasty: he was seamlessly succeeded by his older son, named al-Sa'id Berke. The new Sultan quickly antagonized the Mamluk emirs through his efforts to limit their powers, and was forced to abdicate in favour of his younger brother, the 7 year old Sulamish. The boy was nothing but a puppet, and his guardian, one of the late Baybars' Mamluks named Qalawun, soon forced the boy out and took power himself in November 1279. Like Berke, Qalawun had been taken from the Qipchap steppe and sold as a Mamluk. He had loyally served Baybars and proven himself an able commander, though something of a schemer. Though Qalawun's line came to dominate the Mamluk Sultanate for essentially the next century, initially Qalawun faced stiff opposition in attempting to assert his authority. This disruption in the Sultanate was a golden opportunity for Abaqa, who decided it was time to press the Mamluk frontier. To this, he decided to put his younger brother Mongke-Temur to the task. Prince Mongke-Temur first raided Syria in November 1280 with King Lewon III of Armenian Cilicia, Bohemond VII of Tripoli and a contingent of Knights Hospitaller. In September 1281, Mongke-Temur returned again, a large force of perhaps 40-50,000 Mongols, Armenians under Lewon III, Georgians, Franks and troops from Seljuq Rum. Abaqa initially followed with another army, but may have been forced to hold due to rumours of an attack by the Golden Horde at Derbent. The Mongol invasion provided a common enemy to unite the Mamluk factions fighting for power, and under Qalawun they advanced, reinforced by Syrian garrisons and bedouins. They reached Homs a few days before the Mongols in late October, giving Qalawun's troops a chance to dig in and rest on the plain north of the city. Their preparations were improved as a Mongol defector informed them of Mongke-Temur's battle plan. Most of the Mongol army was to be placed in the center with the right wing also strong, intending to overpower the Mamluk left and centre where the Sultan's banners would be. Qalawun thus reinforced his left wing, and positioned himself on a hill behind the vanguard to oversee the battle and act as reserve. Marching through the night, the Mongols arrived early on the 29th of October, 1281. It was a massive front, over 24 kilometres in length due to the size of both armies. The wings of both forces, so far apart, had little knowledge of what was occurring on the other side. While tired from the night march, the Mongols were eager: the battle was initiated when the Mongol right under Alinaq charged forth. The Mamluk left and part of their centre crumpled and routed under the onslaught. Alinaq continued his pursuit, and here Mongke-Temur's inexperience and the scale of the battlefield began to tell. Proper communication with the command seemingly absent, Alinaq pursued the fleeing Mamluks off the battlefield, as far as the Lake of Homs where they dismounted to rest, evidently anticipating the rest of the army would soon arrive. A similar charge by the Mongol left wing lacked the numbers of the Mongol right, so the Mamluk right and centre were able to hold and counterattack. Qalawun's actual role in this counterattack isn't clear: some sources have him personally lead the attack, while in others he kept his position hidden, not even raising his banners so as to avoid Mongol arrows. The Mamluks pushed back the Mongol right and the bedouin came around to hit the Mongol flank. The Mongol right fell back to the centre, which under Mongke-Temur was being held in reserve. In the resulting confusion, perhaps thrown by his horse, Mongke-Temur was injured and unable to command. Most of the Mongols then dismounted to make a final stand around the prince, and ultimately routed under the Mamluk assault. The Mamluks chased the fleeing Mongols right to the border with the Ilkhanate, many drowning in the Euphrates or dying in the desert: so deadly was this rout that Mamluk authors said more Mongols were killed in flight than in the actual battle. Qalawun and a small guard remained on the battlefield: they were forced to hide their banners and stay silent when the Mongol right wing finally returned to the battlefield, too late to turn the tide. It seems it was able to take an orderly retreat back into the Ilkhanate. Abaqa was furious at this loss, and intended to return the next year, but died in April 1282. As we have covered in our previous episodes, Abaqa's successors were not blessed with his same longevity or stability, and until 1295 the Ilkhanate saw a succession of short lived monarchs and infighting, internal revolts and renewed attacks by the Golden Horde. Though the succeeding Ilkhans continued to demand Mamluk submission, send threatening letters and continue to attempt an alliance with European powers, nothing materialized beyond border raids and skirmishes in both directions. For the time being, the immediate Mongol threat to the Mamluks had ended, and Sultan Qalawun turned to the remaining Frankish strongholds, all possible beachheads for European armies coming to assist the Ilkhans. Armenian Cilicia was pillaged, remaining inland Crusader strongholds were taken, and in April 1289 the Mongols' vassal Tripoli fell. After the death of Abaqa's son Arghun Il-Khan in March 1291, the Mamluks used the resulting distraction in the Ilkhanate to take the final major Frankish city in the Holy Land, Acre, leaving them with but miniscule holdings which fell in the following years. So ended 200 years of Crusader Kingdoms. Following Qalawun's death in 1290, he was succeeded by his son al-Ashraf Khalil. A fearsome military commander, it was he who led the push to seize Acre and the final Crusader holdings of note. Yet he did not long to enjoy the throne, and was assassinated in the last days of 1293 due to his efforts to curb the power of the existing Mamluk emirs. With his assassination, the Mamluks entered a period of political instability over the Sultanate. Initially his younger brother al-Nasir Muhammad was placed on the throne, still a child and without any real power. After a year as Sultan he was forced out by his guardian and regent, a Mamluk named, of all things, Kitbuqa. Apparently of Mongol origin, he had been taken captive by the Mamluks at the first battle of Homs in 1260, and made in turn a Mamluk, that is, a slave soldier. Kitbuqa's reign as Sultan was not particularly notable, mostly marked by intense political infighting and machinations. There was, however, a large body of Oirats who deserted the Ilkhanate to join the Mamluks Sultanate. Kitbuqa's generous treatment of this body of nomadic troops, with whom it appeared he shared kinship, angered a number of the other Mamluk emirs and undermined his power. He was soon forced to flee as one of al-Ashraf Khalil's assassins, the Emir Lajin, seized power. When Lajin was murdered in 1299, al-Ashraf Khalil's young brother al-Nasir Muhammad was recalled to take the throne. Only 14 years old, al-Nasir Muhammad had no real power and was still a puppet for the emirs competing for power. In comparison, 1295 saw the beginning of the reign of the powerful Ghazan Khan, son of Arghun. Ghazan, as we have covered, was not the first Muslim Ilkhan but by his reign a majority of the Mongols within the Ilkhanate had converted, and made the Ilkhanate an Islamic state. Ghazan consolidated his position early on, executing a number of potential challengers to the throne and restabilizing the Ilkhanid economy, though you can listen to our episode dedicated to Ghazan for more on the internal matters of his reign. While Ghazan was a Muslim, this did not change Ilkhanid policy to the Mamluk. He continued to send letters to western Europe urging them to land an army behind enemy lines. In late 1298, while Mamluk armies ravaged the Ilkhan's vassal Cilician Armenia, the na'ib of Damascus, Sayf al-Din Qibjaq and a few other top Mamluks deserted to the Ilkhanate during a particularly violent stretch within the Sultanate. Fearing for their lives, they inform Ghazan of Sultan Lajin and his vice-Sultan Manketamur's purges and unstable positions. Then in summer 1299 a Mamluk raid into the Ilkhanate sacked Mardin, violating Muslim women and descretating a mosque during Ramadan. Ghazan was thus able to easily obtain a fatwa against the Mamluks for this, presenting himself not as an invader, but a holy warrior coming to avenge atrocities against Islam to encourage dissent among Mamluk ranks. Indeed, the ruler of Hama, a top Mamluk ally, believed the accusations. By December 1299, Ghazan and his army of Mongols, Georgians and Armenians under their King Het'um II, had crossed the Euphrates. By then, Sultan Lajin had been replaced by a al-Nasir Muhammad who was nearly toppled by the Oirat refugees to the Sultanate. Ghazan bypassed Aleppo and Hama, and hunted for the Mamluk army. While encamped on the edge of the Syrian desert, Ghazan learned the Mamluks were gathering at Homs, where they had defeated Mongke-Temur 18 years prior. Rather than fall into their trap, Ghazan chose to outflank them, crossing the Syrian desert and coming out onto a stream some 16 kilometres north of Homs on the 22nd of December. To the Mamluks, it appeared that Ghazan was retreating, and advanced out of their favourable position to pursue. In a reverse of the 2nd Battle of Homs, now the Mamluks were forced to cross the desert, exhausting themselves to reach Ghazan early the next morning, while his own troops rested, quenched their thirst and formed up. Crucially, the Ilkhanid army was under the firm control of Ghazan and his commander Qutlugh-Shah, while the young al-Nasir Muhammad could not control his senior emirs. On the morning of December 23rd, 1299, the Mamluks found Ghazan's army was drawn up. Ghazan commanded the centre, while his general Qutlugh-Shah commanded the right. Qutlugh-Shah's beating of war drums made the Mamluks believe Ghazan to be located there, and to him they charged, forcing the Mongol right back. Ghazan led the counterattack against them, and Qutlugh-Shah rallied what forces he could and rejoined the Il-Khan. From 11 a.m until nightfall, the battle raged, but finally the Mamluks broke and fled. Ghazan pursued them past Homs before encamping, not wishing to be drawn into a false retreat in the dark. Homs surrendered without a fight and Ghazan took the Sultan's treasure, distributing it among his nokod, keeping for himself a sword, the title deeds to the Mamluk Sultanate and the muster roll of its army. Next Ghazan marched onto Damascus, which also surrendered without a fight, though its citadel held out. It seems almost the entire Mamluk garrison of Syria had retreated, perhaps recalled to defend the capital. Mongol raiding parties were making it as far as Gaza, with one source reporting they even entered Jerusalem, and the Sultanate seemed poised to fall. But on February 5th, 1300, Ghazan withdrew from Damascus, returning to the Ilkhanate. Qutlugh-Shah had been left to take the Citadel of Damascus, but he soon followed the Il-Khan. By the end of May, the Mamluks had retaken Syria. Exactly why Ghazan withdrew is unclear: possibly reports of a Neguderi invasion in the east of his realm demanded his attention, or he feared there would not be sufficient pasturage for his large army to make the trip to Egypt: the Mamluks were known to burn grassland and destroy supply depots on the routes they suspected the Mongols to take. Likely he was unaware of how dire the situation really was for the Mamluks, and suspected further armed resistance along the route would make the already treacherous crossing over the Sinai even harder on his army. Whatever the reason, Ghazan had lost the greatest chance to destroy the Mamluks. Ghazan did cross the Euphrates at the end of December 1300, reaching as far as Aleppo, but heavy rains rendered military operations untenable. In 1303 Ghazan ordered Qutlugh-Shah back into Syria, but he was defeated at Marj al-Suffar near Damascus in April. Ghazan's death the next year, only 34 years old, prevented his next assault. His brother and successor, Oljeitu, ordered the final Ilkhanid attack on the Sultanate, an embarrassing effort in winter 1312 which saw the army retreat not from the Royal Mamluks, but the stiff resistance of ordinary townsfolk. Oljeitu's son, Abu Sa'id, ultimately organized peace with the Mamluks in the early 1320s, ending the sixty years of warfare between the Mongols and the Mamluks. The Ilkhanate did not long outlive this treaty. Abu Sa'id death in 1335 without an heir saw the Ilkhanate torn apart by regional commanders -the Jalayirids, Chobanids, Muzaffarids and Injuids, among others- who appointed their own puppet Khans or abandoned the pretense entirely. For the Mamluks, they were unable to take advantage of the Ilkhanate's disintegration as when al-Nasir Muhammad died in 1341, they entered their own period of anarchy: 8 of al-Nasir's children and 4 of his grandsons would in turn become Sultan between 1341 and 1382, a period which culminated in the rise of the Circassian Burji Mamluk Dynasty. Whereas the Sultans from Qutuz, Baybars through Qalawun and his descendants were men of Qipchaq-Cuman or even Mongol origin, over the late thirteenth and first half of the fourteenth century a growing number of the Mamluks were sourced no longer from the Qipchaq steppe, but Circassia, a region along the Black Sea's northeastern coastline. With the end of the Qalawunid Dynasty, Mamluks of Circassian origin took power and established their own dynasty. The Bahri and Burji distinction refers to the parts of Cairo each Mamluk garrison had been based. It was this Mamluk dynasty who would face the wrath of Temur-i-lang at the beginning of the fifteenth century. These post-Ilkhanid events will be the topic for a forthcoming episode, so be sure to subscribe to the Kings and Generals podcast to follow for that. If you enjoyed this and would like to help us continue bringing you great content, please consider supporting us on patreon at www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals. This episode was researched and written by our series historian, Jack Wilson. I'm your host David, and we'll catch you on the next one.
Alma Heckman joins us to talk about twentieth-century Moroccan Jews, and especially Moroccan Jewish communism and its broader politics, which is the focus of her recent book The Sultan's Communists: Moroccan Jews and the Politics of Belonging. Listen in as we dive into the history of Moroccan Jewish politics, the development of Zionism, communism, colonialism, and nationalism in Morocco and North Africa at large, and why it's important to think through the choices and agency that Jews in Morocco and beyond have had in determining their fate and politics throughout the twentieth century. Alma Rachel Heckman is an Assistant Professor of History and the Neufeld-Levin Chair of Holocaust Studies at the University of California–Santa Cruz. She is the author of The Sultan's Communists: Moroccan Jews and the Politics of Belonging, which was published by Stanford University Press in 2021.
01. Gaullin, Tom Budin - Black Beatles (Record Mix) 02. Lost Found - Searching (Record Mix) 03. Alok, Ilkay Sencan, Tove Lo - Don't Say Goodbye (Record Mix) 04. Kye, Sones - Flowers (Record Mix) 05. R3Hab, Jolin Tsai - Stars Align (Record Mix) 06. Rasster, Kye Sones - Nirvana (Record Mix) 07. Krystal Roxx - I Feel Ya (Record Mix) 08. Oliver Heldens, Kstewart - Last All Night (Koala) (Record Mix) 09. Vanotek, Denitia, Arroy, Sergey Raf - Someone (Record Mix) 10. Low Steppa - Ricochet (Record Mix) 11. Giorgio Gee - Mad Donna (Record Mix) 12. Triticum - Bubble gum (Record Mix) 13. Sonny Fodera, Just Kiddin, Lilly Ahlberg - Closer (Record Mix) 14. Dj Antoine, Tom Novy - Superstar (Record Mix) 15. Calvin Harris, Sam Smith - Promises (Record Mix) 16. Hugel - Back To Life (Record Mix) 17. Timmy Trumpet, Smash Mouth - Camelot (Record Mix) 18. Alle Farben, Fools Garden - Lemon Tree (Record Mix) 19. Feder, Ofenbach, Dawty Music - Call Me Papi (Record Mix) 20. Weiss, Harry Romero - Where Do We Go (Record Mix) 21. Bodyworx - Pop That Booty (Record Mix) 22. Frey - Tom's Diner (Record Mix) 23. Galantis, David Guetta Little Mix - Heartbreak Anthem (Record Mix) 24. Fred Again.., The Blessed Madonna - Marea (Weve Lost Dancing) (Record Mix) 25. Eqric, Narvent, Timmy Commerford - Let Me Love You (Record Mix) 26. Papa Zeus - Can't Stop (Oh No) (Record Mix) 27. Jonas Blue, Leon - Hear Me Say (Record Mix) 28. Pascal Letoublon - Feelings Undercover (Record Mix) 29. Anthony Keyrouz - Love Yourself (Record Mix) 30. Kshmr, Mike Waters - My Best Life (Record Mix) 31. Ant Larock - Crazy (Record Mix) 32. Galantis - Steel (Record Mix) 33. Beatmount, Oneil - Heads Will Roll (Record Mix) 34. Dvbbs, Gattuso, Alida - Leave The World Behind (Record Mix) 35. Atb, Ben Samama - Like That (Record Mix) 36. Trevor Daniel, Doublefast - Falling (Record Mix) 37. Cannons, Tiesto - Fire for You (Record Mix) 38. Shane Codd, Charlotte Haining - Always On My Mind (Record Mix) 39. Foushee, Katana Angels - Deep End (Record Mix) 40. Jonasu - Zombie (Record Mix) 41. Sammy Porter, Mila Falls - Underneath My Skin (Record Mix) 42. Yves V, Fr!Es - High Like This (Record Mix) 43. Basstrologe, Voost - Somebody To Love (Record Mix) 44. Paul Woolford, Amber Mark - Heat (Record Mix) 45. Lost Frequencies, Janieck Devy - Reality (Record Mix) 46. R3Hab - Ones You Miss (Record Mix) 47. Bklava - Only for Tonight (Record Mix) 48. Robin Schulz, Erika Sirola - Speechless (Record Mix) 49. Dj S.K.T, Rae - Take Me Away (Record Mix) 50. Oliver Heldens, Syd Silvair - Never Look Back (Record Mix) 51. Keanu Silva, Don Diablo - King of My Castle (Record Mix) 52. Disco Fries, Molly Moore - Dumb Things (Record Mix) 53. Gaullin - Moonlight (Record Mix) 54. Rudimental, Ed Sheeran, Sultan & Shepard - Lay It All On Me (Record Mix) 55. Klaas - The Way (Record Mix) 56. Saison - Airs Graces (Record Mix) 57. Tokio Hotel, Vize - Behind Blue Eyes (Record Mix) 58. Wh0, Zhana - Free (Record Mix) 59. Joel Corry, Raye, David Guetta - Bed (Record Mix) 60. Basto! - Again & Again (Record Mix) 61. Riton, Nightcrawlers, Mufasa, Hypeman - Friday (Record Mix) 62. Armin Van Buuren, Dubvision, You - I Should Be Loving You (Record Mix) 63. C-Bool - Never Go Away (Record Mix) 64. Dastic - Think About U (Record Mix) 65. Punctual - I Don't Wanna Know (Record Mix) 66. Coldplay, Avicii - A Sky Full of Stars (Record Mix) 67. Anton Powers, Joe Stone - Do Me Right (Record Mix) 68. Alok, Daniel Blume - Rapture (Record Mix) 69. Meduza, Dermot Kennedy - Paradise (Record Mix) 70. Artlec - We'll Stay Together (Record Mix) 71. Leony, Noon - Faded Love (Record Mix) 72. Clean Bandit, Jess Glynne - Rather Be (Record Mix) 73. Besomage, Bran - Careless Whisper (Record Mix) 74. Kc Lights, Leo Stannard - Cold Light (Record Mix) 75. Al-Faris, Superfinger, Genius Jane - Shout (Record Mix) 76. Shouse - Love Tonight (Record Mix) 77. Jonas Blue, Jack & Jack, Tv Noise - Rise (Record Mix) 78. Zedd, Jon Bellion - Beautiful Now (Record Mix) 79. Harddope, Halvorsen - Heathens (Record Mix) 80. Voost, Koolkid - Taste Of Your Love (Record Mix) 81. Calvin Harris - My Way (Record Mix) 82. Alan Walker, Georgia Ku - Don't You Hold Me Down (Record Mix) 83. Drama, Tensnake - Don't Hold Back (Record Mix) 84. Tom Zanetti - Didn't Know (Record Mix) 85. Deorro, Chris Brown - Five More Hours (Record Mix) 86. Hosh, 1979, Jalja, Slider & Magnit - Midnight (The Hanging Tree) (Record Mix) 87. Moti, Lunax, Marmy - Bam Bam Bam (Record Mix) 88. Edx - Roadkill (Record Mix) 89. Galwaro, Lizot, Gabry Ponte - Like a Prayer (Record Mix) 90. Dubdogz, Cat Dealers - Good Good (Record Mix) 91. Just Kiddin - Won't Let You Down (Record Mix) 92. Rompasso - Take (Record Mix) 93. Modern Clvb, Katana Angels, Dayana - On The Floor (Record Mix) 94. Maisie Peters, Joel Corry - Psycho (Record Mix) 95. Ya Rick - Gravity (Record Mix) 96. Lucas & Steve, Tungevaag - Paper Planes (Record Mix) 97. Matt Jadon - Hold Me Close (Record Mix) 98. Aritmiya, Lazy Cat - Bam Bam Bam (Record Mix) 99. Gaullin, Julian Perretta - Seven Nation Army (Record Mix) 100. Noize Generation, Stefy De Cicco - Faded (Record Mix) 101. Fisher - Just Feels Tight (Record Mix) 102. R3Hab, Kelvin Jones - Downtown (Record Mix) 103. Raye, Rudimental - Regardless (Record Mix) 104. Austins Groove - Hold You Now (Record Mix) 105. Oliver Heldens, Riton, Vula - Turn Me On (Record Mix) 106. Phao, Kaiz - 2 Phut Hon (Record Mix) 107. Tcts - Day & Night (Record Mix) 108. Jake Tarry, Tongue N Cheek - Nobody (Can Love Me) (Record Mix) 109. Rain Radio, Dj Craig Gorman - Talk About (Record Mix) 110. Mathieu Koss, Boris Way - Campfire (Record Mix) 111. Alok, Hugel, Amber Van Day - I Don't Wanna Talk (Record Mix) 112. Motivee, Julia Turano - Waiting for tonight (Record Mix) 113. Anne-Marie, Ksi, Digital Farm Animals - Don't Play (Record Mix) 114. Vize, Laniia - Stars (Record Mix) 115. Travis Scott, Hvme - Goosebumps (Record Mix) 116. Cedric Gervais, Superorganism - Everybody Wants to Be Famous (Record Mix) 117. Swanky Tunes, Dj Dimixer - Human (Record Mix) 118. Loud Luxury - Cold Feet (Record Mix) 119. Bob Sinclar, Avicii - New New New (Record Mix) 120. Fred Again.., The Blessed Madonna - Marea (Weve Lost Dancing) (Record Mix) 121. Vanotek, Denitia, Arroy, Sergey Raf - Someone (Record Mix) 122. Martin Solveig, Ina Wroldsen - Places (Record Mix) 123. Philip George - Wish You Were Mine (Record Mix) 124. Stadiumx, Sebastian Wibe, Moti, Mingue - We Are Life (Record Mix) 125. Nyro - What Is Love (Record Mix) 126. Mk, Carla Monroe - 2AM (Record Mix) 127. Kungs - Never Going Home (Record Mix) 128. Arash, Helena, D. Anuchin, Vladkov - Angels Lullaby (Record Mix) 129. Bolier, Joe Stone, Voost - Keep This Fire Burning (Record Mix) 130. Diplo, Sidepiece - On My Mind (Record Mix) 131. Polo & Pan - Ani Kuni (Record Mix) 132. Luca Debonaire, The Giver - Enough (Record Mix) 133. Hook N Sling, Galantis, Karen Harding - The Best (Record Mix) 134. Sammy Porter, Mila Falls - Underneath My Skin (Record Mix) 135. Lucas & Steve, Blackstreet - No Diggity (Record Mix) 136. Calvin Harris, Example - We'll Be Coming Back (Record Mix) 137. Ed Sheeran - Bad Habits (Record Mix) 138. Sebb Junior - Another Way (Record Mix) 139. Tones & I, Dj Noiz - Dance Monkey (Record Mix) 140. Bodybangers, Stephen Oaks, Just Mike - Quit Playing Games (With My Heart) (Record Mix) 141. Fredrik Ferrier, Crazy Cousinz - You (Record Mix) 142. The Stickmen - Don't Even Know Your Name (Record Mix) 143. David Guetta, Mistajam, John Newman - If You Really Love Me (How Will I Know) (Record Mix)
TRS 3784 -- // Sultan + Shepard // ------------------------------------------------ All uploads on this channel are for promotional purposes only! The music has been converted before uploading to prevent ripping and to protect the artist(s) and label(s). If you don't want your content here (that goes for audio or images) please contact me immediately via email: firstname.lastname@example.org and I WILL REMOVE THE EPISODE OR ARTWORK IMMEDIATELY! ------------------------------------------------ ► Are You a Dj? Send Your Video or Dj Set: http://www.trip-records.com/Sets/index.html ► Subscribe to Trip Records Sets: http://www.youtube.com/c/TripRecordsSets ------------------------------------------------ Send Your Demo, Trip Records is looking for you ! (Send us a private Soundcloud link) ► email@example.com ----------------------------------------------- Link Podcast ► https://podcasts.apple.com/it/podcast/trip-records-sets/id1176106514 Unique Podcast Without Service Interruptions
Ali Sultan is from Yemen. He has learned alot about America since he moved here. Including how to speak English. Check him out on Stephen Colbert! www.youtube.com/watch?v=y45yvjDKwKg www.moonpjuggandhobbs.com See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
Photo: Scheherazade and the Sultan by the Iranian painter Sani ol molk (1849–1856) . . . The world's powers are now scrambling to exert influence amid the return of the country's Islamist rulers. And in the process two nations from the Arab and Muslim world have been emerging as key mediators and facilitators - Qatar and Turkey. CBS Eye on the World with John Batchelor CBS Audio Network @Batchelorshow Scheherazade Doha soothes the savage Taliban. Anatol Lieven @QuincyInst https://econ.st/3jYEawU
On this edition of Parallax Views, Russ Bake, Editor-in-Chief and founder of the non-profit news organization WhoWhatWhy and author of Family of Secrets: The Bush Dynasty, America's Invisible Government, and the Hidden History of the Last Fifty Years, returned to Parallax Views to discuss his latest article "FBI Makes Midnight Release of Shocking New Information on Saudi-9/11 Complicity". We discuss the lingering questions about the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and its potential connection to the terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001. The issue has received renewed attention thanks to the 9/11 victims' families lawsuit and President Joe Biden's Executive Order calling for the declassification review of 9/11 records. Thanks to that E.O., documents pertaining to the FBI's Operation Encore, a probe into the potential Saudi connection to 9/11, were quietly released late on the night of September 12th, 2021. Russ and I delve into the figure of Prince Bandar bin Sultan and other figures as well as discussing the seeming cover-up of this element of the 9/11 story for so many years. We also chat briefly about the concept of the deep state, the controversy around Spike Lee's 9/11 documentary series on HBO featuring voices from the "9/11 Truth" movement, and much, much more.
Today we're talking about The Gift / Atiye: Season 1, Episode 4. We will go over the plot, spill the tea, and say WTF. We will also name the episode's Sultan of Success and talk about who is next on Fatma's Hitlist. For our history section we're talking about Nemrut. Atiye Sezon 1, Bolum 4 hakkında sohbet ediyoruz. --- This episode is sponsored by · Anchor: The easiest way to make a podcast. https://anchor.fm/app Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/turkish-teav-time/support
Sometimes it's just fun to sit down and have a fun conversation with other people in the industry, and that's exactly what we did in this episode of the Backyard Ecology podcast. In this episode, I talk with Fran Chismar and Tom Knezick. Fran is the Sultan of Sales for Pinelands Nursery and the co-host of the Native Plants, Healthy Planet Podcast. Tom is the General Manager at Pinelands Nursery, the owner of Pinelands Direct Native Plants, and the other co-host of the Native Plants, Healthy Planet Podcast. This was a very fun, relaxed, free-form conversation that covered a wide variety of topics related to native plants, the native plant industry, and gardening with native plants among other things. We all enjoyed hearing the perspectives and stories of someone from a different part of the country because Tom and Fran are in New Jersey, while I'm located in Kentucky. Many parts of our conversation came back to the shared belief that we need to make space for everyone in the native plant community. We don't all need to have the same knowledge levels or goals. One person may be completely new to the world of native plants, while someone else may have decades of experience. Another person may be interested in growing native plants for pollinators, while someone else may be planting fields of native plants to improve quail habitat. There are a million different entry points and levels of involvement, and that's ok. We're all working towards the same overall goals, and we can accomplish so much more together, than any of us can on our own. We also discussed some of the challenges associated with obtaining native plants as a consumer and growing native plants for a nursery. Later, our conversation turned towards common questions that we get asked, such as “What is a native plant?” and the flipside of that question, “What is an invasive plant?” While on the surface, both those answers may seem simple, the more we dig into them, the more complicated the answers become. We agreed that we don't have the answers, and nobody really does, but that it's important to be having these conversations and asking these questions. Our conversation continued to twist and turn as we talked about how important it is to give kids the opportunity to connect with nature and shared our own childhood memories of spending time outside. We covered a lot of ground and a lot of different topics in this conversation, and I encourage everyone to check out the Native Plants, Healthy Planet podcast to hear more from Tom and Fran. Links: Native Plant / Healthy Planet Podcast Website Facebook page Pinelands Nursery Website Facebook page Pinelands Direct Website Facebook page Backyard Ecology's website My email: firstname.lastname@example.org Episode image: Bumble bee on purple coneflower Photo credit: Brian Martin, CC-0
It stands on a promontory jutting into the Bosphorus, a pleasure palace of sultans and their harem. Its tiled walls, fountains and pools are sumptuous legacies of the Ottoman Empire. 1453 marks the final fall of the Roman Empire and the ascendency of the Ottomans, led by Mehmet the Conqueror, the 21 year old who took the city with an audacious military strategy. Rosa Hayes of the History of the Ottoman Empire joins us to talk about Mehmet and Constantine IX, the final Byzantine Emperor. And listener Roberto Cancel returns to discuss visiting the palace and Mehmet's Grand Bazaar. Plus baklava! Sources: Duducu, Jem. The Sultans: the Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Rulers and Their World Herrin, Judith. Byzantium: the Surprising Life of a Medieval Empire Hughes, Bettany. Istanbul: a Tale of Three Cities Maxwell, Virginia. Lonely Planet Istanbul Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium: the Decline and Fall Wheatcroft, Andrew. The Ottomans Photograph © A.Savin, WikiCommons
I'm excited to take you to one of my favorite countries today, the Sultanate of Oman. Located on the edge of the Arabian Peninsula, this hidden gem boasts rugged mountain ranges bursting with roses, terraced orchards of pomegranates, vast sand dune deserts, and date palm fringed oases dotted with crystal clear limestone pools of water. One of the best ways to experience Oman is by camping and spending time with a local guide. So our guest today is Taimur Al-said, the owner of Hud Hud Travels. Taimur specializes in luxury camp set ups so that whether you're a couple or a big family or a huge group of friends - you can have this experience in comfort. We discuss everything from the Sultan, to trying Omani food streetside, to the gorgeous natural beauty of the countryside. Learn more at www.luxtravelinsider.com Connect with me on Social: Instagram LinkedIn
Soner Çağaptay, director of the Turkish Research Program at The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, on “A Sultan in Autumn: Erdogan Faces Turkey's Uncontrollable Forces” (IB Tauris/Bloomsbury). The book describes the myriad challenges facing the Turkish president at home and abroad. Support Turkey Book Talk by becoming a member. Members get a 30% discount on all Turkey/Ottoman History books published by IB Tauris/Bloomsbury, transcripts of every interview, transcripts of the whole archive, and over 200 reviews covering Turkish and international fiction, history and politics.
Estela Rodriguez-Jebril is a sex coach and licensed therapist. In this episode, we discussed how various religious traditions and cultures approach sex, the issues men and women have with regards to intimacy and why polygamy is a solution that should be normalized and utilized in our society. You can check out her YouTube channel at: https://www.youtube.com/user/Estela39/featured Her show, "Let's Talk about Sex" on British Muslim TV can be found at:https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLPW6DPCy_o_nDBliKEiTcc7sRSMu2FJsL If you are enjoying the channel, please consider becoming a Patron at https://www.patreon.com/sultansandsneakers Links for Sultans and Sneakers: YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC8nN9RSnLs08M87yEZppwaA IG: https://www.instagram.com/sultansandsneakers/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/SultansNSnkrs Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/sultansandsneakers
Claire Khaw believes Western governments should adopt their legal system from the Qu'ran...and she's not even a Muslim. We discuss how she came to this belief and its proposed implementation on Episode 54. If you are enjoying the channel, please consider becoming a Patron at https://www.patreon.com/sultansandsneakers Video Podcasts are available at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC8nN9RSnLs08M87yEZppwaA You can find Claire's writings at: https://thevoiceofreason-ann.blogspot.com/ and https://radicalisedrabbi.blogspot.com/ Social Media Links for Sultans and Sneakers: IG: https://www.instagram.com/sultansandsneakers/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/SultansNSnkrs Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/sultansandsneakers
On this edition of Parallax Views, it's the 20th anniversary of the September 11th, 2001 terrorist attacks that took down the World Trade Center buildings and damaged the Pentagon (another plane was headed for the White House but ended up crashing in Shanksville, PA). Questions remain, even after the 9/11 Joint Inquiry and the 9/11 Commission, about the role of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the events of that fateful day. A lawsuit by the 9/11 victims' families is underway. Joining us to untangle the question of the Saudi connection to 9/11 is Dan Christensen of the Florida Bulldog (formerly the Broward Bulldog). Dan Christensen is an journalist who has been covering the story of 9/11 for some years now alongside Anthony Summers and Robbyn Swan, authors of The Eleventh Day: The Full Story of 9/11. As a Florida resident Dan covered the Sarasota, Florida connection to the 9/11 story. Specifically, he detailed the figure of Abdulaziz al-Hijji and his reported relationship to 911 hijackers Mohammad Atta and Marwan al-Sheh. Additionally, Dan has also covered the renegade FBI investigation known as Operation Encore. He has received redacted documents related to Operation Encore that relate to 9/11 and Saudi Arabia. In this conversation we cover all of that as well as the ways in which the FBI has seemingly stonewalled investigations into the Saudi connection to 9/11, the Southern California connection to 9/11 vis-a-vis the suspected Saudi agents Omar al-Baymoui, Musaed al-Jarrah, and Fahad al-Thumairy, Saudi Arabian diplomat Prince Bandar bin Sultan (nicknamed "Bandar Bush") and his subpoena by the 9/11 victims' families, Osama bin Laden, Biden's Executive Order calling for the review of 9/11 records to be declassified, the FBI, Sen. Bob Graham, the infamous "28 pages", Guantanamo Bay detainee Abu Zubaydah and Prince Bandar, the role of Congress in pushing the issues related to Saudi Arabia and 9/11, why the 9/11 victims' family lawsuit matters for society at large, state secrets, the secret pre-9/11 report on al Qaeda sleeper cells in America, the ongoing efforts to unveil the seeming connection between Saudi Arabia and the 9/11 terrorist attacks, and much, much more.
In this episode we chase Francis Drake and the Golden Hind from the equator, just off the west coast of South America, all the way around the world and back to England. Along the way Drake claims the northwest coast of North America for England, naming it "Novo Albion," cuts a trade deal with Babu, the Sultan of the Moluccas, and makes it back to England in the most remarkable feat of sailing in the sixteenth century. Drake becomes one of England's richest men, is knighted by Elizabeth and becomes one of her closest advisors, and finds himself in the middle of a changed geopolitical landscape. Tensions with Spain have risen considerably, and Drake is in the middle of it. #VastEarlyAmerica Website: The History of the Americans https://subscribebyemail.com/thehistoryoftheamericans.com/?feed=podcast References for this episode Samuel Bawlf, The Secret Voyage of Sir Francis Drake: 1577-1580 John Sugden, Sir Francis Drake
Today we're talking about The Gift / Atiye: Season 1, Episode 3. We will go over the plot, spill the tea, and say WTF. We will also name the episode's Sultan of Success and talk about who is next on Fatma's Hitlist. For our history section we're talking about Shams Tabrizi. Atiye Sezon 1, Bolum 3 hakkında sohbet ediyoruz. --- This episode is sponsored by · Anchor: The easiest way to make a podcast. https://anchor.fm/app Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/turkish-teav-time/support
Tracklist: 01. So far away [0:00:00] 02. Sultans of Swing [0:04:46] 03. Why worry [0:16:10]04. Intro Money for nothing [0:21:17] 05. Money for nothing [0:22:57] 06. Private investigations [0:28:05] 07. Walk of life [0:35:25] 08. Carousel Waltz — intro Tunnel of Love [0:39:33] 09. Tunnel of Love [0:43:04] 10. Solid Rock [0:55:54] feat Nils Lofgren 11. Brothers in arms [1:00:25] 12. The man´s too strong [1:08:18] 13. Introduction Hank B. Marvin [1:12:47] 14. Going Home / Local Hero [1:14:02] feat Hank B. Marvin The Band: Mark Knopfler : lead guitar, lead vocals ; Jack Sonni : guitar ; John Illsley : bass ; Alan Clark : keyboards ; Guy Fletcher : keyboards ; Terry Williams : drums ; Chris White : saxophone. *** Team UNPLUGGED.
How did a small-time Central Asian warlord defeat the vast army of the Delhi Sultanate? Join us as we explore the turbulent, syncretic culture of North India in the 15th century, witness the growing ambitions of the Timurid prince Babur, and his finest hour at the First Battle of Panipat in 1526. YUDDHA is made possible thanks to the support of the Takshashila Institution and the Independent and Public Spirited Media Foundation.Notes and sources will be available at https://www.anirudhkanisetti.com - sign up for updates!You can follow Anirudh on Twitter @AKanisetti and Instagram @aniryuddha, @connectedhistories, or @cholabhaturaempire.You can follow Aditya on Twitter @adityascripts or Instagram @adityaramanathan.
TRS [EXTRASET] -- // Sultan + Shepard // ------------------------------------------------ All uploads on this channel are for promotional purposes only! The music has been converted before uploading to prevent ripping and to protect the artist(s) and label(s). If you don't want your content here (that goes for audio or images) please contact me immediately via email: email@example.com and I WILL REMOVE THE EPISODE OR ARTWORK IMMEDIATELY! ------------------------------------------------ ► Are You a Dj? Send Your Video or Dj Set: http://www.trip-records.com/Sets/index.html ► Subscribe to Trip Records Sets: http://www.youtube.com/c/TripRecordsSets ------------------------------------------------ Send Your Demo, Trip Records is looking for you ! (Send us a private Soundcloud link) ► firstname.lastname@example.org ----------------------------------------------- Link Podcast ► https://podcasts.apple.com/it/podcast/trip-records-sets/id1176106514 Unique Podcast Without Service Interruptions
Host Dr. Nick van Terheyden, aka Dr. Nick, talks to Jay Sultan the VP of Strategy for the Healthcare business LexisNexis Risk Solutions. Their discussion covers the Interoperability final rules from CMS and ONC and the significance of APIs. To stream our Station live 24/7 visit www.HealthcareNOWRadio.com or ask your Smart Device to “….Play HealthcareNOW Radio”. Find all of our network podcasts on your favorite podcast platforms and be sure to subscribe and like us. Learn more at www.healthcarenowradio.com/listen
Music from the likes of Stephan Bodzin, Cherry, CamelPhat, Haddadi Von Engst, Rustboy, yours truly, and many others. All playlists are posted to globalentryradio.com and you can find out more about my music at galestianmusic.com. Enjoy! 00. Global Entry with Galestian 01. Galestian - Berlin (Extended Mix) [Toolroom/Zerothree] 02. Stephan Bodzin - Boavista (Innellea Remix) [Afterlife Records] 03. Vlad Yaki - Windrose [Sincopat] 04. Cherry (UA) - Rebel (Extended Mix) [Siona Records] 05. Yousef, CamelPhat - April [Knee Deep in Sound] 06. Haddadi Von Engst (ft. Phonic Youth) - Til The End [You Plus One] 07. Leo Guardo (ft. Tabia) - Mbokodo [Villahangar] 08. Matan Caspi, Teklix - East To West [Outta Limits] 09. Sergio Del Lago - Gadigal (High On Mars Remix) [Polyptych] 10. Portishead vs. Sultan & Tone Depth - Roads (KURA & Vedenzo Bootleg) [Promo] 11. Monarke, SEVN (CA) - Brahma (Rustboy Remix) [Inner Symphony] 12. Galestian - Worlds Apart [BeatFreak Limited] This show is syndicated & distributed exclusively by Syndicast. If you are a radio station interested in airing the show or would like to distribute your podcast / radio show please register here: https://syndicast.co.uk/distribution/registration
Kamila started taekwondo when she was 9 years old and was the only girl on the team; years later, she's still the only woman, this time on Kazakhstan's Parataekwondo Paralympic team. In this episode, we speak with Kamila and her coach, Sultan, with the help of her friend and colleague, Meyept, Manager, National Paralympic Committee of Kazakhstan who translated our conversation live from Russian. In this conversation we discuss what it's meant for Kamila to be the only woman throughout her journey as well as how she's navigated her disability.
Tahira Amir Sultan Khan is an Author, inspirational KeyNote Speaker, Futurist and Visionary.A trained Mathematician and veteran Technologist, she is a Renaissance woman with the ability to interleave the more than 9 disciplines masterfully as she did with her bestselling book ‘Through The Golden Door : The Doorway to Our Advancement'.She has discovered herself to be the Miracle Messenger. It is her mission to deliver divine messages through the written and the spoken word, and to also raise up the truth-seeking and potential Miracle Messengers across the globe. She does this through the establishment of the GOLDEN DOOR – Truth & Integrity of the Written Word, which was featured on the New York Chronicle, Asia One and Market Insider as the World's First. Tahira was the first female President of the Mobile Alliance Singapore, an initiative of the International Enterprise Singapore (2014) to make Singapore the mobile innovation hub for Asia. She was awarded the ASEAN Lady of Excellence in 2017, received the she was nominated for the Tallberg Snf-Eliasson Leadership Prize by prominent Singapore Government and Academics (2021). Author website : TahiraAmirKhan.comGlobal Movement website : GoldenDoorAwards.comSource: https://businessinnovatorsradio.com/tahira-amir-sultan-khan-author-brilliance-business
It was this Khudhābandah who embraced Islam [...] when he died, there succeeded to the kingdom his son Abū Sa'īd Bahādur Khān. He was an excellent and a generous king. He became king while of tender age, and when I saw him in Baghdād he was still a youth, the most beautiful of God's creatures in features, and without any growth on his cheeks. His vizier at that time was the amīr Ghiyāth al-Dīn Muḥammad, son of Khwāja Rashīd; his father was one of the migrant Jews, and had been appointed vizier by the sultan Muḥammad Khudhābandah, the father of Abū Sa'īd. I saw both [the sultan and his vizier] one day on the Tigris in a launch [...]; in front of him was Dimashq Khwāja, son of the amīr [Choban], who held the mastery over Abū Sa'īd, and to the right and left of him were [...] musicians and dancers. I was witness to one of his acts of generosity on the same day; he was accosted by a company of blind men, who complained to him of their miserable state, and he ordered each one of them to be given a garment, a slave to elad him, and a regular allowance for his maintenance. So the great Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta describes Abu Sa'id in the early 1330s, the final ruler of the Ilkhanate to preside over the united ulus, and to hold any authority. Succeeding his father Oljeitu as a 12 year old boy in July 1317, Abu Sa'id spent his first years on the Ilkhanid throne in the shadow of the great emir, the Noyan Choban. Today, we take you through the life and reign of Abu Sa'id, the last of the Khan in the line of Hulegu, grandson of Chinggis and conqueror of Baghdad. I'm your host David, and this is Kings and Generals: Ages of Conquest. Abu Sa'id's early life was spent under the control of Choban. Unlike his contemporary, El-Temur, the Yuan Dynasty chancellor who left the boy-khan Toghon Temur a mistreated and ignored puppet who feared for his life; Choban protected the young Abu Sa'id and ensured he had a proper Islamic education, teaching him to read, write and speak Persian and Arabic, while also versing him in the history and genealogies of the house of Chinggis Khan and the noyans. In the opinion of the great historian of the Ilkhanate, Charles Melville, Choban viewed himself as a servant of the state, a man who combined pride in service to the Chinggisids while observing sharia law. He was, granted, an exceptionally powerful servant. But his Khan, Oljeitu, had put Abu Sa'id in the care of Choban, and Choban was going to provide for the young lad. Needless to say, almost all decrees of the early reign of Abu Sa'id, if not all of them, first had to pass the approval of Choban, if they did not come from his mind originally. A military man, Choban was not always aware of, or cared for, court protocols both in the Ilkhanate or those it engaged in diplomacy with. Yet he was still a pragmatist, who recognized the strengths and weaknesses of the khanate he now oversaw. Initially, Abu Sa'id Il-Khan and Choban had kept Rashid al-Din and Taj al-Din ‘Ali-Shah in place as Ilkhanid viziers. Rashid al-Din had of course served since the last years of Ghazan's reign, and ‘Ali-Shah had been appointed to the position in 1312 by Oljeitu. Neither man much liked the other, and ‘Ali-Shah saw the new khan as an opportunity to oust Rashid. Only two months after Abu Sa'id's enthronement, ‘Ali-Shah's whispers succeeded in getting the young Khan to dismiss Rashid al-Din from service. Rashid's retirement did not last long, as Choban swiftly recalled him, telling Rashid that his service to the state was as necessary as salt to food. Choban seemed to genuinely recognize Rashid al-Din's talents and wanted to keep him on, but had not counted on Taj al-Din ‘Ali Shah conspiring with Rashid al-Din's enemies, who loathed him for his wealth, success and still doubted the authenticity of his conversion to Islam. Rashid al-Din, of course, had been born and raised in a Jewish family. While he had converted to Islam over four decades prior, his Jewish heritage was reason enough for some to despise him. Rashid's rivals, aided with money and whispers, raised new charges: that Rashid al-Din's son Ibrahim had poisoned Oljeitu Il-Khan on Rashid's orders. As Rashid al-Din had been Oljeitu's physician during his final illness, it was a damning charge. Choban, never one skilled in the subtleties and conspiring of government, either believed the rumours or was paid off by ‘Ali-Shah. He informed Abu Sa'id of the accusation, and various bribed commanders affirmed the veracity. It was a tough trial, and Rashid al-Din fought vigorously. But Abu Sa'id wanted revenge for his father. In July 1318, Rashid al-Din watched helplessly as his son Ibrahim was decapitated before him. As the executioner's blade came for him, he yelled his final defiance: “say to ‘Ali Shah, “You have had me killed for no crime. It will not be long before fate will requite you of me, and the only difference between us will be that my grave will be older than yours.” Rashid al-Din was then cut in half at the waist and his head paraded around Tabriz while people chanted “this is the head of the Jew who abused the name of God; may God's curse be upon him!” His quarter built outside the city, the Rab-e Rashidi was looted and burned. So ended the long career of Rashid al-Din Hamadani, vizier and historian, the author of our much relied on Compendium of Chronicles. Taj al-Din ‘Ali-Shah only outlived Rashid by six years, though he would be the only Ilkhanid vizier for sure known to have died a natural death. Following Rashid's death, a more pressing crisis struck the Ilkhanate. The pax Mongolica achieved in 1305 finally unraveled violently in 1318 and 1319. A Chagatai prince in Ilkhanid service revolted and requested aid from his kinsmen in Central Asia, threatening an invasion from the east, while in the north an army under the new Khan of the Golden Horde, Ozbeg, raced over the Caucasus. It was narrowly fought. Husain Noyan was sent to crush the Chagatai uprising, while the young Abu Sa'id, always one to heedlessly dismiss risks, marched to face mighty Ozbeg. Defeated in the first battle, only the timely reinforcement by Choban Noyan saved Abu Sa'id and forced Ozbeg to retreat at the Kur River. The Chagatai and Jochid threat did not dissipate though. Both khanates invaded again over the 1320s, though repeatedly it was Choban's family who proved decisive in repelling them. Ozbeg's second invasion was defeated by Choban around 1325, and in 1326 an attack by the future Chagatai Khan Tarmashirin was overcome by Choban's oldest son, Hasan. While these external foes were faced, internal rebellion also rocked the khanate. Commanders who fled before Ozbeg were severely punished by Choban, and in response they plotted to overthrow Abu Sa'id and replace him for his uncle, Irenjin. The plot was discovered, and Abu Sa'id once more led the army. This time victory was gained: despite even Irinjin's wife, a Chinggisid warrior princess named Konchek, fighting for him on the battlefield, they could not overcome the Il-Khan. Konchek was so notable for her courage, at least, that according to the Persian writer Mustawfi in his Zafarnama, the Mongols recognized Konchek's bravery on the battlefield by posthumously giving her a man's name, Ahmad. She was not the only one recognized for courage in the revolt. The young khan himself showed great bravery in battle, riding into the thick of danger. For this he earned the sobriquet Baatar, “hero, brave, valiant.” Hence, you will often see his name as Abu Sa'd Bahadur Khan, by which he liked to style himself for the rest of his life. Despite their victories Choban was very aware of how stressed Ilkhanid resources were. In addition to natural disasters destabilizing things, the vast fronts they needed to protect against Ozbeg, the Chagatais, the Neguderis and internal rebellions left no extra troops for the frontier with the Mamluks. Having taken part in Ghazan and Oljeitu's campaigns into Syria, Choban was under no illusion of the difficulty in operating there and dealing with the Mamluks in open battle. Not only that, in 1321 Choban's own son Temurtash, the governor of Anatolia since 1316, had revolted and declared himself an independent monarch. Not just a steppe khan, mind you, but as the Islamic messiah who heralded the end of days, the mahdi. He had been in touch with the Mamluks for some time, upon his revolt Temurtash requested they provide him with an army to defend his frontiers. The Mamluk Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad, for his part, did not provide one. It was a great embarrassment for Choban, who dragged his son kicking and screaming back to the Ilkhanate in 1324. Even when not physically fighting, the Mamluks' potential to support rebellion, especially among the constantly seditious Anatolian governors, meant they were an intrinsic threat to order within the khanate. To protect the khanate, Choban needed an end to the fighting with the Mamluks, and he knew it could not be won through an invasion. Once Choban successfully convinced Abu Sa'id to the wisdom of the preposition, in 1321 a secret embassy reached Cairo to speak to Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad: it brought word of peace, an end to the 60 years of war the Mamluks and Ilkhans had fought. The 1321 embassy is the first recorded attempt, though feelers may have been secretly sent in either direction in the previous years. Al-Nasir Muhammad was immediately struck by the idea. Never had he been an effective military leader, and he still recalled with dread his defeat at Ghazan's hands two decades prior. It helped that the Ilkhanid message bore no demands of submission or tribute; only fine gifts, and words of friendship between two equal states. Though there were conditions, such as asking al-Nasir to stop sending assassins after Mamluk defectors in the Ilkhanate like Qara-Sunqor and to end raiding each other's borders, there was not even a hint of the ideology of Chinggisid world domination which had previously permeated all diplomacy between the two. Indeed, this has led some historians like Reuven Amitai to suggest Abu Sa'id abandoned the idea of Chinggisid global hegemony, though he maintained respect for his lineage and ancestry. We may suspect it was simply a recognition of the reality of the situation on the part of Abu Sa'id and Choban. Thus by 1322, the Mamluk Sultanate and Ilkhanate were at peace. Embassies went back and forth at regular intervals for the rest of Abu Sa'id's life. Generally, they went well; the Mamluk ambassador to Abu Sa'id's court was a man named Aytamish, of Mongolian heritage who knew the language and genealogies, as well as being a man of fine Islamic piety. He was absolutely adored by Abu Sa'id. The Il-Khan soon made a surprising suggestion: a marriage alliance linking their houses and solidifying the new order. Now, this was not itself uncommon. It was a regular Mongol ploy to tighten control over vassals with marriages, though a marriage alliance with a non-submitted state was a slightly different matter. Al-Nasir Muhammad himself had already married a princess from the Golden Horde, Tulunbey, in 1320 though it ended in divorce and was a rather embassasing matter all around, as the always paranoid al-Nasir had accused her of not actually being a Chinggisid. What al-Nasir wanted was to marry a Chinggisid princess of absolutely certain lineage in order to elevate his own dynasty. The Ilkhanid response did not fill him with much hope. They wanted a Mamluk princess to marry Abu Sa'id or one of Choban's sons, with the hint being that they preferred the latter. The implication, as far as al-Nasir believed, was clear. The Il-Khan and Choban, despite the peace, did not think al-Nasir as a Qipchaq Mamluk was worthy to marry a Chinggisid. Al-Nasir's reaction was, rather typical of himself, somewhat petulant. He made the bride price too high: demanding the city of Diyar Bakir, and for his own name to be read out in sermons in the Ilkhanate before Abu Sa'id's. He always managed to insist that none of his daughters were of marriageable age. This is despite these talks going on over the entire 1320s, when al-Nasir married off a number of his daughters throughout the decade. No marriage would ever materialize between al-Nasir and the Ilkhanid dynasty. Though fighting came to an end, there was another space in which Abu Sa'id could challenge al-Nasir Muhammad: the religious one. Both Choban and Abu Sa'id were staunch Sunni Muslims, and wanted to press their claims as the heads of a good Muslim empire. One of the best ways to do this was charitable works and patronizing pilgrimages to the two holy cities of Islam, Mecca and Medina. The problem was the Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad considered himself the Guardian of the two Holy Cities, and as an always suspicious man, any effort the Il-Khan undertook in that region looked like an attempt to undermine him. His most direct challenge to al-Nasir came in 1319. That year he had sent a fine new set of kiswa, or black curtains, to be placed on the Kaaba, the square structure at the centre of Mecca which serves as the holiest place in Islam. Placing new curtains on the Kaaba was one of the symbols of sovereignty as the chief Muslim monarch, and was perhaps Abu Sa'id's most overt effort to challenge al-Nasir. For his part, al-Nasir ensured the pilgrim caravan he sponsored entered before Abu Sa'id's, and prevented the curtains the Il-Khan sent from ever being used. Though Abu Sa'id did not try to so directly challenge al-Nasir's hegemony there again, the Il-Khan and Choban continued to throw out suggestions and sponsor projects in the region. At one point Abu Sa'id proposed going on hajj, or pilgrimage, to Mecca himself. Choban meanwhile spent considerable sums to restore a much needed well outside Mecca for pilgrims, and also had a large public bath, school and tomb for himself built in Medina beside the mosque of the Prophet. Whenever news of their efforts came to al-Nasir, he would promptly panic and explode in anger. Personally going on hajj three times, he threw piles of money at the Holy Cities in an effort to remind everyone that he was the greater Muslim and their protector. After their peace in 1322, Abu Sa'id largely accepted al-Nasir's superiority in religion and stewardship over Mecca and Medina, though on occasion surprised the Mamluk Sultan. In 1330 Abu Sa'id sent an elephant, with no immediate explanation, on the pilgrimage. It succeeded in doing little but confusing the locals and costing an inordinate amount of money to feed before dying near Medina. The most effective show of the power of the Chinggisid monarch, it was not. Another embarrassing matter soon surfaced. In a rather poor judgement of character, or perhaps on Choban's urging, Abu Sa'id pardoned and reinstated Choban's son Temurtash, who only in 1321 had declared himself an independent sovereign. The arrogance Temurtash had once he was secure back in Anatolia annoyed Abu Sa'id, as did the haughtiness of another of Choban's sons, Dimashq Khwaja. As viceroy over Azerbaijan, Iraq and Iraq-i ‘ajam, Dimashq wielded extraordinary power, as if he were vizier. Worse still, according to Ibn Battuta, Dimashq had taken it upon himself to sleep with as many wives of the late Oljeitu Il-Khan as possible. One of these women, Dunya Khatun, urged Abu Sa'id to act before she too fell victim to him. Choban had provided his sons and followers valuable positions across the Ilkhanate, and the children walked around as if they were as mighty as Chinggisids. Their father continued to ignore complaints raised against them, as long as they did not declare open defiance of the Khan as Temurtash had done. As Abu Sa'id grew to manhood, he grew more and more impatient of the influence of the Chobani, which he increasingly felt was at his expense. His anger at Dimashq and the other sons of Choban were fanned by his vizer, Rukn al-Din Sa'in. A former protege of Choban, now he plotted against him, and convinced Abu Sa'id that he now ruled as khan in name only. The sentiment is echoed by Ibn Battuta, who wrote that “when the Sultan Abu Sa'id succeeded, being a young boy [...] the chief of the amirs, [Choban], gained control over him and deprived him of all powers of administration, so that nothing of sovereignty remained in his hands but the name. It is related that on the occasion of one of the festivals Abu Sa'id needed ready money to meet some expenses, but having no means of procuring it he sent for one of the merchants, who gave him what money he wished.” Entering adulthood and fed on stories of his mighty ancestors, Abu Sa'id chafed under the constraints placed on him by Choban. The tipping point came when Abu Sa'id set eyes on one of Choban's daughters, the beautiful Baghdad Khatun. A proud woman who held her eye and apparently liked to carry around a sword, Abu Sa'id was instantly in love. This itself was not a problem; Choban himself had married two of Abu Sa'id's sisters, the latest, Sati Beg, as recently as 1319. No, the problem was that Baghdad Khatun was already married to one of the most prominent noyans in the kingdom, Shaykh Hasan-i Buzurg of the Jalayir. Late in the summer of 1325, Abu Sa'id alerted Choban of his interests in his daughter. Choban was aghast; as a good Muslim, he would not allow his daughter to be led into adultery, even for the Il-Khan, and forbid the divorce. Attempting to discourage Abu Sa'id's efforts, Choban quickly tried to move Baghdad Khatun and her husband out of the Khan's sight. His plan was flummoxed when news came in 1326 of an attack by the Chagatai prince, the future Khan Tarmashirin, on the Ilkhanate's eastern territory. Choban and his eldest son Hasan rode out and successfully defeated Tarmashirin, but in their absence Abu Sa'id decided it was time to rid himself of the house of Choban once and for all. Late in 1326, Abu Sa'id made his move. Choban's son Dimashq Khwaja was captured and imprisoned in the citadel at Sultaniyya, where he was killed while trying to escape in summer 1327. Choban was furious, and turned back to avenge his son's death. Abu Sa'id raised his own army and prepared to meet his former guardian. As their armies neared each other, Choban's followers began to desert to the Il-Khan, and Choban was forced to flee. Mirroring the fall of Ghazan's viceroy Nawruz some thirty years prior, Choban made his way to Herat, where in the winter of 1327 he was strangled to death. When Choban's son in Anatolia, Temurtash, learned of his father's death he once again declared his independence, and fled to the Mamluk Sultanate seeking military support. In 1328 he was killed when Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad suspected Temurtash of having designs on the Mamluk throne. Some of Choban's other sons under the leadership of the eldest, Hasan, fled to the Golden Horde, where in time Ozbeg Khan had them killed. By the time the dust settled, Abu Sa'id had forced the divorce of Shaykh Hasan Jalayir and Baghdad Khatun, and married her himself. Abu Sa'id granted her the mercy of allowing Choban to be buried in his splendid tomb in Medina, though Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad had the final laugh over Choban. He denied Choban's burial inside his tomb, forcing him to be buried in a cemetery outside the city, and sent Temurtash's severed head to the Ilkhanid court. By 1328 Abu Sa'id was finally the man in full control of the Ilkhanate. He once again brought up the marriage between his family and al-Nasir Muhammad. Despite his initial receptiveness, once again al-Nasir stalled and no progress was made. In practice, little government changed under Abu Sa'id's sole rule. Restrictions against Christian were reimposed: the jizya had been permanently reinstituted, and in 1334 the order went out that Christians were supposed to bear tattoos to mark them out, in addition to signs sewn into their clothing to make them easy to distinguish. How far these were implemented remains unclear, as Abu Sa'id did not seem to interfere with the archbishopric at Sultaniyya founded in his reign. Abu Sa'id remained infatuated with Baghdad Khatun, whose influence over the Il-Khan grew. In this manner she was able to protect the remainder of her siblings and family, aided by the fact that Abu Sa'id showed a willingness to forgive. Baghdad Khatun's former husband, Shaykh Hasan Jalayir, was accused of attempting to assassinate Abu Sa'id and imprisoned, before being pardoned and given a new position in Anatolia in 1333. Even the memory of Rashid al-Din, once accused of poisoning Abu Sa'id's father Oljeitu, was rehabilitated, as Abu Sa'id made Rashid's son Ghiyath al-Din his new vizier. Able to devote himself to artistic pursuits, Abu Sa'id in his spare time composed poetry in Arabic and Persian to al-Nasir Muhammad in Cairo, comparing and discussing Abu Sa'id's ability. So the early 1330s passed by relatively quietly in the Ilkhanate. Indeed, the reign of Abu Sa'id would be remembered as a Golden Age, the “Good ol' days,” for writers of the succeeding generation. Ibn Battuta passed through the Ilkhanate for the first time in these years, and was amazed at the power and glory of the Il-Khan. Abu Sa'id's only problem facing him was his lack of a male heir. The efforts of Ghazan had greatly pruned the house of Hulegu, and Abu Sa'id had no son or brother to succeed him, though not for lack of trying on his part. When Baghdad Khatun failed to produce an heir for him, it seems Abu Sa'id's interest began to wane. In accounts such as Ibn Battuta's, Abu Sa'id doted upon Baghdad Khatun until he saw Dilshad Khatun. She was Baghdad Khatun's niece, the daughter of her late brother Dimashq who Abu Sa'id had so hated. He apparently found her even more beautiful than he had his current wife. Once the Il-Khan married the girl, he seemingly forgot about Baghdad Khatun. Ignored, her influence dwindling, Baghdad Khatun's fury smoldered over the following months. In the summer of 1335, word came to Abu Sa'id that Ozbeg Khan of the Golden Horde was planning another invasion on the Caucasus. Abu Sa'id called up his armies and advanced to defend his borders, but on the 30th of November, 1335, Abu Sa'id died en route in Azerbaijan, only thirty years old. According to Ibn Battuta, Abu Sa'id had been poisoned by the scorned Baghdad Khatun. With no child except for a pregnant Dilshad Khatun left behind, the Ilkhanate awas about to rip itself apart. Our next episodes deal with the disintegration of the Ilkhanate so be sure to subscribe to the Kings and Generals podcast to follow. If you enjoyed this and would like to help us continue producing great content, please consider supporting us on patreon at www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals, or sharing this with your friends. This episode was researched and written by our series historian, Jack Wilson. I'm your host David, and we'll catch you on the next one.
On 27 August 1896, the British Empire went to war with the Zanzibar Sultanate for approximately 38 minutes! It is the shortest war in history. It came about after the death of the pro-British Sultan Hamad bin Thuwaini and his replacement by Sultan Khalid bin Barghash who favoured German interests in the region. With the commencement of hostilities, British warships bombarded the Sultan's palace cause extensive damage and over 500 casualties. Despite its brevity, the conflict is important as it marked the beginning of a major shift in the power dynamic between the industrialized West and the soon to be colonized world. To set the Anglo-Zanzibar war in its proper context Dan is joined by Dr Erik Gilbert from Arkansas State University. Erik explains what happened in those fateful minutes at the end of the nineteenth century, the importance of technology in the conflict and how it signalled the start of the Scramble for Africa. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
Zheng He's Treasure Fleet finally arrives on the African coast, and the Yongle Emperor celebrates the apex of his reign with the grand opening of Beijing and the Forbidden City. But dark clouds continue to build, but in the emperor's aged, troubled mind, and literally on the horizon... a storm is coming...Time Period Covered:1416-1424 CEMajor Historical Figures:The Yongle Emperor (Zhu Di) [r. 1402-1424]The Noble Consort Zhaoxian, née Wang [d. ca. 1420]Grand Admiral Zheng He [1371-1435]Mirza Sharukh, Sultan of the Timurid Dynasty [r. 1405-1447]Major Works Cited:Chan, Hok-lam. “The Yung-lo reign” in The Cambridge History of China, vol. 7: The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644, Pt. I.Dreyer, Edward L. Zheng He: China and the Oceans in the Early Ming Dynasty, 1405-1433.Levathes, Louise. When China Ruled the Seas: The Treasure Fleet of the Dragon Throne, 1405-1433. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.