Capital district of AtlÃ¡ntico Department in Colombia
So we're gonna get into something a bit different this week. Not really truecrime, not unsolved, but definitely crazy. This is another one we got from a listener that we had no clue ever happened. While the official death toll of this incident is usually put at around 45, some estimates say it could be up to 2000. Those bodies are said to either have been dumped in the sea or buried in mass graves. So what was the incident about you ask? Well, long story very short… Bananas. We're gonna dive into what is simply known as the Banana massacre, a crazy tale of a government squashing a banana strike with excessive force and what came after. Buckle up guys, here we go! Before we start, I want to acknowledge the great sources of info for this episode. 90% of the information on this week's episode came from two amazing sources that had tons of info that we couldn't find anywhere else. First a paper by Jorge Enrique Elias Caro and Antonino Vidal Ortega on the website scielo.org was our source for the actual massacre info while an article called Rotten Fruit by Peter Chapman on the Financial Times website was our source for the company history. So, let's start by talking about a fruit company. United Fruit company to be exact. United Fruit began life in the 1870s when Minor Cooper Keith, a wealthy young New Yorker, started growing bananas as a business sideline, alongside a railway line he was building in Costa Rica. Both ventures took off, and by 1890 he was married to the daughter of a former president of Costa Rica and owned vast banana plantations on land given to him by the state. The bananas were shipped to New Orleans and Boston, where demand soon began to outstrip supply.Keith teamed up with Andrew Preston, a Boston importer, and in 1899 they formed United Fruit. Bananas sold well for their tropical cachet: they were exotic, a luxury only affordable to the rich. But the rapidly rising output of United Fruit's plantations brought down prices. The company created a mass market in the industrial cities of the US north-east and Midwest. The once bourgeois banana became positively proletarian. By the 1920s, United Fruit's empire had spread across Central America. It also included Jamaica, Cuba and the Dominican Republic. In South America the company owned chunks of Colombia and Ecuador. It came to dominate the European as well as the US banana markets with the help of its Great White Fleet of 100 refrigerated ships, the largest private navy in the world. There are more than 300 varieties of banana, but United Fruit grew only one: the Gros Michel or ”Big Mike”. This variety suited most tastes; it was not too big or too small, too yellow or too sweet - if anything, it was a little bland. This was the forerunner of the transnational products we have today. But mass production took its toll. In 1903, disease hit United Fruit's plantations in Panama. An array of pathogens kept up the attack, and the banana was discovered to have a genetic weakness. Its seeds are ill equipped for reproduction, so growers take cuttings from one plant to create another. The banana is a clone, with each inbred generation less resilient. Although the banana was diseased, United Fruit marketed it as a product that exemplified good health. Banana diseases did not affect humans, and the fruit was said to be the cure for many ills: obesity, blood pressure, constipation - even depression. In 1929, United Fruit set up its own ”education department”, which supplied US schools with teaching kits extolling the benefits of the banana and the good works of the company. Meanwhile, United Fruit's ”home economics” department showered housewives with banana recipes. One of United Fruit's most successful advertising campaigns began in 1944, designed to boost the banana's profile after its scarcity during the war. It featured Senorita Chiquita Banana, a cartoon banana who danced and sang in an exuberant Latin style. Senorita Chiquita bore a close resemblance to Carmen Miranda, the Brazilian entertainer who, in her ”tutti-frutti” hat, wowed Hollywood at the time. Sales soon regained prewar levels. By the 1960s, the banana had become an inseparable accompaniment to the morning cereal of most American children. And today, in countries such as the US and Britain, it has ousted the apple as the most popular fruit. In the UK, figures indicate that more than 95 per cent of households buy bananas each week, and that more money is spent on them than on any other supermarket item, apart from petrol and lottery tickets. Soooo sounds like a pretty typical big business rise to power by providing a wholesome treat to the people right? Wrong… There was more going on than almost everybody knew. Over the years, United Fruit fought hard for low taxes and light regulation. By the beginning of the 20th century, troublesome anti-trust laws had been passed in the US to crack down on business behaviour such as price-fixing and other monopolistic practices. Taxes on large corporations were increased to fund welfare benefits in the US and fully fledged welfare states in Europe. But, with a centre of operations far from the lawmakers of Washington DC, United Fruit largely avoided all this. The company also gained a reputation as being ruthless when crossed, and acted to remove governments that did not comply with its wishes. United Fruit had first shown its tough nature in the invasion of Honduras in 1911, which was planned by Sam ”The Banana Man” Zemurray, a business partner of United Fruit who later headed the company. Efforts by Zemurray and United Fruit to set up production in Honduras had been blocked by the Honduran government, which was fearful of the power it might wield. United Fruit was not so easily deterred. Zemurray financed an invasion, led by such enterprising types as ”General” (self-appointed) Lee Christmas and freelance trouble-shooter Guy ”Machine Gun” Molony. Thanks to United Fruit, many more exercises in ”regime change” were carried out in the name of the banana. In 1941, the company hired a new consultant, Sigmund Freud's nephew, Edward Bernays, who had adapted the early disciplines of psychoanalysis to the marketplace. Bernays is known as the ”father of public relations” following his seminal 1928 book, Propaganda, in which he argued that it was the duty of the ”intelligent minority” of society to manipulate the unthinking ”group mind”. This, Bernays asserted, was for the sake of freedom and democracy. United Fruit had become concerned about its image. In Central America, it was commonly known as el pulpo (the octopus) - its tentacles everywhere. In the US, United Fruit's territories were seen as troubled and forbidding. Under Bernays' guidance, the company began issuing a steady flow of information to the media about its work, rebranding the region as ”Middle America”. America”. In 1954, Bernays exercised his manipulative powers to get rid of the Guatemalan government. Democratically elected, it had taken some of United Fruit's large areas of unused land to give to peasant farmers. Bernays' response was to call newspaper contacts who might be amenable to the company view. Journalists were sent on ”fact finding” missions to Central America and, in particular, Guatemala, where they chased false stories of gunfire and bombs. In dispatches home, Guatemala became a place gripped by ”communist terror”. The company looked, too, to friends in high places, both in the corridors of power and in the offices where the big decisions were made. During the Guatemalan crisis, John Foster Dulles, one of the world's most esteemed statesmen, was secretary of state. His brother, Allen Dulles, was head of the CIA. Both were former legal advisers to United Fruit. Together, the Dulles brothers orchestrated the coup that overthrew Guatemala's government in 1954. Despite its ugly reputation, United Fruit often made philanthropic gestures. Eli Black, chief executive of the United Fruit Company, played a part in coining the term ”corporate social responsibility” when, in reference to earthquake relief sent to Nicaragua in 1972, he extolled the company's deeds as ”our social responsibility”. And in the 1930s, Sam Zemurray donated part of his fortune to a children's clinic in New Orleans. He later gave $1m to the city's Tulane University to finance ”Middle American'' research; he also funded a Harvard professorship for women. Philanthropy, however, did not prevent United Fruit's abuses, and, in the 1950s, the US government decided it had to act. The company's activities had caused such anti-US feeling in Latin America that leftwing revolutionaries such as Fidel Castro and Che Guevara had prospered. And so Washington began to take away some of United Fruit's land. Ironically, Castro had benefited from the presence of United Fruit in Cuba. His father, a sugar planter, leased land from the company, and had made enough money to afford a good upbringing for his children. Guevara had fought both United Fruit and the CIA during the Guatemalan coup; he maintained thereafter that Latin America had no choice but ”armed struggle”. At New Year 1959, Castro and Guevara seized power in Cuba and kicked out the US-supported regime of Fulgencio Batista. Like an ailing dictator, United Fruit lashed out - and nearly took the world with it. In 1961, it lent part of its Great White Fleet to the CIA and Cuban exiles in the US who were plotting to overthrow Castro. When the Bay of Pigs invasion failed, Castro, fearing another attack, ushered in armaments from the Soviet Union, prompting the missile crisis of 1962. United Fruit battled on through the 1960s, its product ever more the victim of disease. Big Mike flagged, died and gave way to the dessert banana most of the developed world eats today, the Cavendish. It was said to be ”disease resistant”. Now that's dying, too. Eli Black took over the company in 1970, imagining he could turn it back into the colossus it once was. The early 1970s, however, were a terrible period for the image of multinational corporations. Chief among them, oil companies made huge profits from the crisis after the 1973 Middle East war, to the inflationary ruin of rich and poor countries alike. United Fruit became an embarrassment. It was weak where others, such as the oil moguls, remained strong. When its stock market value crashed and regulators moved in, it looked like natural selection. Early on Monday February 3 1975, a man threw himself out of his office window, 44 floors above Park Avenue, New York. He had used his briefcase to smash the window, and then thrown it out before he leapt, scattering papers for blocks around. Glass fell on to the rush-hour traffic, but amazingly no one else was hurt. The body landed away from the road, near a postal service office. Postmen helped emergency workers clear up the mess so the day's business could carry on. This jumper was quickly identified as Eli Black, chief executive of the United Fruit Company. It emerged that Black, a devout family man, had bribed the Honduran president, Oswaldo Lopez Arellano, with $1.25m to encourage him to pull out of a banana cartel which opposed United Fruit. The story was about to come out in the US press. United Fruit's Central American plantations were also struggling with hurricane damage and a new banana disease. Facing disgrace and failure, Black took his own life. His death was shocking, not least because he had the reputation of a highly moral man. Wall Street was outraged, the company's shares crashed and regulators seized its books to prevent ”its further violation of the law”. The company subsequently disappeared from public view and was seemingly erased from the collective mind. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, in 1989, in a born-again spirit of globalisation, the world's main banana companies picked up the free-market banner once carried by United Fruit. The companies - Chiquita, Del Monte and Dole from the US, and Noboa from Ecuador - did not have anything like the force of United Fruit individually, but they were still a formidable presence. Together they were known to their critics, if not to themselves, as the ”Wild Bunch”. In the 1990s, the US took its case to the World Trade Organisation, the new high court of globalisation. The companies protested that west European countries unfairly protected the producers of so-called ”Fairtrade” bananas in former European colonies through a complex system of quotas and licences. The Wild Bunch characterised this as revamped colonialism and outmoded welfare state-ism and, instead, promoted their own ”Free Trade” bananas. In the new millennium, after what had become a general trade war, the Europeans backed down and agreed to concessions. They did so with some rancour, protesting that Washington had again allowed itself to be manipulated by narrow interests. Some spoke of a return of the ”old and dark forces”. They were thinking of United Fruit. Ok so that's kind of a basic history of United Fruit company to get us going in the right direction to talk about one of the most brutal things they carried out on their workers. You've seen the connection they had and the power they had.. Pretty nuts for a fucking banana company. On the evening of October 5, 1928, the delegates for Colombia's banana workers in Magdalena gathered to discuss their grievances. Among their concerns were their long hours and low pay; one worker, Aristides López Rojano, remembered: “We worked from six in the morning until eleven and then from one in the afternoon until six.... The contractor paid the salary and reserved up to thirty percent for himself.” Erasmo Coronel (the one wearing the bowtie in the group portrait) spoke in favor of a strike, and the others agreed. At around five in the morning on October 6, 1928, the workers issued the United Fruit Company a list of nine demands. Stop their practice of hiring through sub-contractors Mandatory collective insurance Compensation for work accidents Hygienic dormitories and 6 day work weeks Increase in daily pay for workers who earned less than 100 pesos per month Weekly wage Abolition of office stores Abolition of payment through coupons rather than money Improvement of hospital services The strike turned into the largest labor movement ever witnessed in the country until then. Radical members of the Liberal Party, as well as members of the Socialist and Communist Parties, participated. The workers wanted to be recognized as employees, and demanded the implementation of the Colombian legal framework of the 1920s. After U.S. officials in Colombia and United Fruit representatives portrayed the workers' strike as "communist" with a "subversive tendency" in telegrams to Frank B. Kellogg, the United States Secretary of State, the United States government threatened to invade with the U.S. Marine Corps if the Colombian government did not act to protect United Fruit's interests. The Colombian government was also compelled to work for the interests of the company, considering they could cut off trade of Colombian bananas with significant markets such as the United States and Europe. As there was no agreement the Government militarized the zone. The newspaper "La Prensa" published the following: "MORE TROOPS FOR THE BANANERA REGION. We have been informed that the leaving of the Commissioner sent by the Industry Ministry due to the existing conflict between the workers and the company has turned the situation critical. For this reason, the War Ministry ordered the concentration of more troops in Ciénaga. Therefore, yesterday night, a numerous contingent was dispatched from here on a special ship" By the end of November the Magdalena Agriculture Society tried to find a solution to the situation. They named a Commission and along with the Chief of the Work Office and the workers' delegates would have a meeting with the UFC since the conflict was affecting everyone's interests. The multinational rejected meeting the Commission stating that the workers were out of the law. The representatives of the workers left for Ciénaga with the aim of convincing their fellow workers to abandon the region. They also demanded the arbitration as a last legal resort. Social Party (PSR) founded in 1927 in Bogotá. The strike was also supported by the national and departmental union leaders ascribed to the Magdalena Workers Federation, the Magdalena Worker Union and the General Union of Workers of the Union Society (popularly known as the Yellow Union which integrated railway, port and construction workers of Santa Marta). The first week of December everything was at a standstill, without a solution. The company hired a steamboat and brought 200 military men and took over the town hall without the mayor's authorization. To this respect the Ciénaga newspaper "Diario del Córdoba" noted: "We do not know who ordered changing the town house into a campsite of troops, but we are certain that the municipality spokesman was not consulted for this illegal occupation. He would have certainly opposed it since there was no alteration of public order according to the norms in force. We see that the procedures here are "manu militari", without any consideration under the obvious alarm of these peoples, panic in society and business." Military roadblocks were displayed. Trains were searched and the army prevented strikers from using them33. Tension increased and temporary workers started to return to their hometowns. Military pressure blocked the communication systems and the mail, telephones, telegraph and even the press stopped working. The strikers seized the train from Ciénaga to the plantations and they prevented its exit during the day. On December 3rd, the press was conscious of the extreme situation: The situation of the Banana Strike is worse than ever. Especially because of the uneasiness caused by the Governor's Office for having called the Army. Any kind of meeting was banned, as it was assumed that they questioned the state legitimacy and stability and the government decisions. This measure outraged workers, because some detentions took place in Ciénaga and they were justified by the police since some documents of an apparently communist campaign were confiscated. From this moment on, American Diplomats started to worry for the security of the American employees up to the point that the Government of the United States sent a ship to Santa Marta for the protection of their citizens as was stated by the US ambassador in Bogotá. He made clear that it was not a war cruise. Anyhow, it was possible to confirm that in the ports of Ciénaga and Santa Marta war ships docked with the aim of reinforcing troops. To break the strike, on December 2nd, a military contingent of 300 men arrived in Ciénaga from the interior of the country. The major of the zone considered that these soldiers would be better at facing the situation than those native of the region. At the same time that same day some municipalities protested against the disposition of the governor's office. The workers exodus continued, the general situation of commerce aggravated, many commercial houses closed and some of them stopped paying their debts alleging the scarce security conditions and low sales. Similarly occurred with the stores of the UFC which closed due to lack of business activity. There was a total lack of supplies of basic products in the banana zone. With the excuse that in Ciénaga the strikers were committing all kinds of outrages, the army seized the train to mobilize troops to the different towns, preventing normal circulation; this information proved false and the train returned to Cienaga during the first hours of the next day. The community remained isolated and without the possibility to use the train as a transportation means. The train was used by the militaries for the surveillance of plantations. A State of Siege declaration was expected and this increased tension among strikers who organized collective bodies in different locations to prevent the work of producers. Detentions continued. The train detention by the military and the impossibility to take bananas out due to the positions of the strikers and small landowners, the harvested fruit began to rot. The Workers Union used the newspaper Vanguardia Obrera and other pasquinades to inform about their position and to keep public opinion updated. On December 5th, alleging that the strikers had managed to get weapons, the government decreed the State of Siege. This was not made public to the workers and for this reason they became more exacerbated. A pressure mechanism used to obtain the support of merchants was the fact of creating solidarity to boycott the public market stores and other commercial firms if the transaction was not authorized by the Workers Union. This way, merchants could not sell if they did not have the "permission". To accomplish this policy the union had 5.000 workers acting as vigilantes. This situation led the UFC to ask the government if the State was in condition to protect its interests. The State response was dubious. In its effort to reach an equilibrium between the pressure of the company and that of the workers, it submitted a communication where it stated that it would analyse the situation and would take the corresponding steps. The workers' unrest for not feeling the State support led them to radicalization of their protest and since that moment, seizures of banana farms took place in different municipalities. There were confrontations between land owners, the military and the workers. It is worth mentioning the events in Sevilla, where workers detained a group of soldiers. As the tension increased with this last event the Ministry Council declared general alteration of public order on December 5th, and gave special faculties to Minister Arrazola to act as a mediator between the parties and positioned General Cortés Vargas as Civil and Military Chief. This intervention was justified by the economic losses of the socio-economic and political system of the nation because it had been estimated that up to that moment the losses exceeded one million dollars and given the fact that the fierce position of the workers had stopped communications and transportations and even there had been seizures in several localities and there was fear concerning the situation of Santa Marta. The government sent information to the United Press as follows: "The government has decreed the State of Siege in the Province of Santa Marta where the workers of the United Fruit Company maintain a strike lasting several days. General Carlos Cortés Vargas has been appointed Civil and Military Chief". On the other hand, the national press and especially that of the capital announced: " there has never been a longer and more numerous strike in the country than this of the workers of Magdalena. Thirty-two thousand workers have been in total inactivity for more than thirty days in the banana region, there are no signs that this situation will have a favourable solution" Events reached their peak in Ciénaga. The workers had concentrated for a pacific demonstration in the evening of the 5th of December. The Governor Nuñez Roca decreed the dispersion of the demonstration. The workers did not receive this well; they declared that authorities had taken this decision with the support of the UFC and the militaries without the presence of workers' representatives. This made clear to them that authorities were defending the interests of the Company and the local "bananacracy"and not theirs as Colombian workers. The concentration ended in a protest. The militaries obeyed the orders of the Governor and it was authorized to follow orders and demand the workers to dissolve the demonstration as it was not authorized. The text was read in the square and at the same time the troop took positions. There were approximately 1.500 strikers in the square. The army gave the strikers 15 minutes to disperse and the workers' answer was a the massive agitation of the Colombian flags and shouts related to the workers movement. The army responded with drumbeats and the menace to repel the strikers. Three bugle warnings were given, but nevertheless the strikers remained in their positions. A deep silence reigned in the square and the menace of the army became an unfortunate reality when the shout "Shoot" was uttered. Rifles and machine guns were discharged against the defenceless and unarmed demonstrators. In minutes the ground of the square was tinted with blood. Once the attack of the army against their own fellow citizens ended, the sight was dantesque. The cadavers, the wounded and their relatives were troubling scenes. These events took place at the dawn of December 6th: a brutal aggression against a workers' demonstration. The news invaded the media and the first chronicles appeared with living information about the tragic balance of the events. The first report on the newspaper "La Prensa" from Barranquilla informed of 8 people killed and 20 wounded. After a week, the same newspaper mentioned 100 dead and 238 wounded. Meanwhile official sources and diplomatic communications signalled the number of people killed as being 1.000. This number, and along with other kind of testimonies collected, agree that the number of killings was over a thousand and that the militaries loaded the trains with the corpses and buried them in mass graves in inaccessible areas and up to the present times they have not been localized. This repression caused a massive exodus of the terrified population. They abandoned the zone and migrated to different parts of the country for fear of military persecution and arrestment. Many of them left their scarce possessions behind. National and international media widely covered this event. Both the UFC and the government tried to manipulate the information to protect their image. The press echoed and broadcasted the sometimes biased news, informing about "combats" between the army troops and the "revolutionaries" and that as a result of these combats, 8 "bandits" were killed and 20 were wounded. The War Ministry insisted that "in Magdalena there was no strike, but a revolution". Other newspapers such as "La Prensa" from Barranquilla, issued their edition of December 8th in red characters as a reference to this event that brought mourning to the entire country and as a symbolic commemorative act. Referring to a communication sent to the United Press, the War Ministry informed officially that in the attack of the strikers against the troops there had been 8 dead and 20 wounded and that in order to control the revolutionary outbreaks against state order, the immediate mobilization of more troops had been ordered. They would arrive from cities of the interior of the country. It also emphasised the position of the government that the workers' situation in Magdalena was delicate and that vigorous decisions had to be taken in order to solve this issue. It also informed that beside Ciénaga, other localities had to be intervened. The Times from New York informed in a biased and extended way that the turmoil in the Colombian Banana Region was provoked by Mexican incendiaries, who had led the process of the Mexican Revolution, two decades earlier. It also gave details about the aspects of the banana strike that were consequences of the expiration of the Barco Concession . At the same time the UFC issued a press communication to the New York agencies and the worldwide correspondents declaring: "the difficult situation experienced during the past days in the Colombian banana region, where the company has valuable interests, has quite improved in the last 24 hours and the dispatches sent from the scene, give rise to expectations for a prompt solution of the conflict surged between the workers and the company which ended in an extended strike of revolutionary nature". While the American press provided biased information, trying to defend the multinational interests and that of their government, the national press analysed the situation with greater objectivity. The daily newspaper "El Tiempo" from Bogotá commented in an extended note that most of the claims of the strikers were righteous improvement of working conditions. Nevertheless, due to its conservative position, the editorial stated that they did not agree with the strike since they considered that the workers had a bad leadership and they made the leaders responsible for what had happened. They reminded the authorities that force is not the supreme reason as the only system to solve a conflict since violence is not a valid option to impose certain vindications. In response to these events and as a protest for the massacre, several offices of the United Fruit and the railway were set on fire and destroyed. The hard situation caused by the army repression and the lack of jobs led to the assault of the company's stores where people seized food. "It is not about fixing anyhow a difficult situation, it is about avoiding more critical events in the immediate future. Therefore we need a wise, prudent, political Colombian, who does not forget the circumstances regarding the conflict. Someone who does not forget how the United Fruit Company manipulates the political and civil life of Magdalena and who does not think it indispensable to send troops for hunting workers as animals. Someone who will not be hard and inflexible with them and subordinated and honey mouthed with the company agents" After the massacre, the workers who managed to escape emigrated to other areas of the region and new versions of the events started to become public. It was the version of the defeated. This version informed the public opinion about the concentration in the Ciénaga square and not in farms as had been informed by authorities to justify the fact of not being able to notify the exact number of deaths. On December 10th after a convulsed weekend, the headings announced "the revolutionaries' flee in stampede to the Sierra Nevada," "government troops completely defeated the strikers "; the War Minister informs that there were more deaths during the last combats". In general, the press informed about a revolutionary movement which confronted the military forces and that the army was responding with rigor, but that there had not been any excess on their part. The banana zone was returning to normal, as well as the train service between Ciénaga and Santa Marta and the steam boat service between Ciénaga and Barranquilla. They also informed that since public order had been reestablished, businesses had already opened and that the exodus of the population had ended. General Cortés Vargas issued a decree through which the revolutionaries of Magdalena were declared a gang of outlaws. The decree consisted of three articles and in one section, as a justification, it was stated that the rebel strikers committed all kinds of outrages: arson in public and private property, pillage, interruption of telegraphic and telephonic communications, destruction of railways, assault of citizens who did not agree with their communist and anarchist doctrine. This was the justification for decreeing martial law to give security to citizens and to re-establish public order. On the other hand the workers' leaders and accessories should be prosecuted to face their responsibilities. And to finish, the public force was authorized to use their guns. At the same time troops were sent to avoid the surviving strikers' flee to the Sierra Nevada and the Departament of Atlántico. To accomplish this all the towns neighbouring the banana zone were alerted. Numerous detentions occurred and the prisoners were sent to Ciénaga to be judged by a Martial Court. Wow…. Fucking bananas caused all this shit… Well obviously not than JUST bananas but holy shit man. So the crazy thing is United Fruit company continued to operate did so long after this incident until eventually after the the suicide of Eli Black things unraveled and the company went away. Or did it? Well it did not. In fact the company is now still a huge banana company called… Chiquita! But at least all that bullshit is on the past… Oh wait wait… No it's not! While Chiquita is not actively massacring people, in 2007, it admitted to paying $1.7 million to the United Self-Defense Forces of Columbia (A.U.C.), a far-right paramilitary group responsible for thousands of killings and some of the worst massacres in Colombia. The A.U.C. was designated by the United States as a terrorist group at the time and Chiquita was forced to pay $25 million for violating counterterrorism laws. In particular, the A.U.C. targeted labor leaders, liquidated problem employees, and removed people from lands needed for cultivation. “They are so bad that in 2001, even the Bush administration was forced to designate them as a terrorist organization,” said Terry Collingsworth, a Labor and Human Rights Attorney. He proceeds to say that multinational corporations had automatically aligned with the A.U.C. “They've made it safe for business here. That's what they do.” Collingsworth states, from his and his associates' reporting, that Chiquita likely paid much more than $1.7 million to the A.U.C. Over much of the 20th century, banana companies like United Fruit effectively took over governments in countries like Guatemala and Honduras, leading to the countries' model being known as “banana republics”. A banana republic would describe politically unstable countries economically dependent on bananas as a sole export and product, and it has been diversified to include other limited-resource products. The CIA would strong-arm these governments to protect the business interests of banana companies at the expense of workers and people who lived in those countries, often propping up repressive regimes. With a historic priority of keeping the costs of bananas low, banana companies were willing to do whatever it took to keep prices low, from stifling labor movements, keeping wages low, and strong-arming governments. The United Fruit Company did it then, and Chiquita Brands does it now. In 1999, President Clinton apologized to Guatemala, saying that “support for military forces and intelligence units which engaged in violence and widespread repression was wrong, and the United States must not repeat that mistake.” Movies: Horror movies about killer food https://screenrant.com/funniest-horror-b-movies-murderous-food/
Carlos Antonio Vélez en 'Palabras Mayores' del 17 de noviembre habló sobre la Selección Colombia y el empate que sufrió ante Paraguay en Barranquilla. Todavía sigue clasificado al Mundial pero el panorama no es el mejor sino cambian muchas cosas.
Oración desde Barranquilla, Colombia. Evangelio: Lucas 19, 11-28: «Yo les digo: "Al que tiene se le dará, pero al que no tiene se le quitará hasta lo que tiene"». En el evangelio de hoy, Jesús da a entender que más que preocuparse de la mayor o menor cercanía del reino, lo que importa es administrar bien lo que se ha recibido. Se trata de emplear inteligentemente y sin demora los bienes que se poseen, que son un don de Dios, y, a ejemplo de San Isabel de Hungría, de hacerlos fructificar. El que así obra es digno de elogio y el Señor se mostrará generoso con él; mientras que al negligente se le retirará en lo sucesivo la confianza que se había depositado en él. Bendición del P. William Carreño, agustino de la Provincia de Colombia. Redacción: Prof. Fernán Ramírez Meléndez
Oración desde Barranquilla, Colombia. Evangelio: Marcos 12, 38-44: «Jesús entonces llamó a sus discípulos y les dijo: "Yo les aseguro que esta viuda pobre ha dado más que todos los otros. Pues todos han echado de lo que les sobraba, mientras ella ha dado desde su pobreza; no tenía más, y dio todo lo que tenía para vivir"». En el evangelio de hoy, Jesús elogia a la viuda que ofrece no de lo que le sobra, sino de lo que necesita para vivir: con su donación se abandona a la providencia de Dios. El Señor observa, con los ojos que saben ver el corazón, y descubre allí que la ofrenda de esta pobre mujer no busca aparentar, sino confiar absolutamente en Dios, de quien cree haberlo recibido todo. Bendición del P. Julio Astete, de la parroquia de Ntra. Sra. de la Asunción, Azángaro, Perú. Redacción: Fernán Ramírez Meléndez
Temas en la mira del RadaR: Tenemos datos de la participación de Colombia en la Cumbre Mundial del Clima en Glasgow, Reino Unido que arrancó el 31 de octubre. Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo reiteró apoyo a las acciones de cambio climático desarrolladas por Colombia. Quienes quieran asistir a eventos masivos y a algunos establecimientos en Barranquilla, deberán presentar esquema completo de vacunación. Les tenemos datos de las nuevas pautas de la Alcaldía de Barranquilla en materia de bioseguridad y aforo. Aunque la recuperación de ventas en el sector turístico es notoria, deben trabajar en la formalización, recuperación de rutas aéreas y aumentar el número de viajeros del exterior. Sobre estos temas habla presidente ejecutiva de ANATO Gobierno nacional publica pliego de condiciones para licitación de la APP del río Magdalena. Patrocinadores: Gecelca, Air-e, Gases del Caribe, Promigas Registro en el Reto de Innovación Abierta ENNOVA de la empresa Air-e: https://app.itripple.co/app/world/challenges/227
Carlos Antonio Vélez, en Palabras Mayores del 2 de noviembre de 2021,habló de la convocatoria de la Selección Colombia para los partidos de Eliminatorias de noviembre frente a Brasil como visitante y Paraguay en Barranquilla
Carlos Antonio Vélez, en Palabras Mayores del 1 de noviembre de 2021, cuestionó la actitud de James Rodríguez con Al Rayyan y puso en duda su convocatoria de la Selección Colombia para los partidos de Eliminatorias de noviembre frente a Brasil como visitante y Paraguay en Barranquilla
Los distritos en Colombia son entidades territoriales que se encuentran sujetas a un régimen especial respecto al establecido para la generalidad de municipios. Barrancabermeja, Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Medellín, Mompox, Riohacha, Santa Marta, Turbo, Tumaco, Cali y Bogotá, son los 12 territorios que tienen esa categoría y por lo menos cuatro ciudades más se encuentran en proceso de alcanzarla. Para saber la funcionalidad, pros y contras de esta forma de ordenamiento del territorio contamos con la participación de Helton David Gutiérrez González, doctor en derecho público; Octavio Fajardo Martínez, economista y docente universitario en economía urbana y planeación estratégica urbana; Orlando Higuera, director de Ciencia Política y Relaciones Internacionales de la Universidad Tecnológica de Bolívar; Óscar Arquez, Miembro de Número de la Academia de Historia de Santa Cruz de Mompox; Liza López, profesora de la Universidad Javeriana de Cali y Alfredo Restrepo de la Universidad de Medellín. Créditos: Dirección: Profesor Diego Peña Producción sonora: Edgar Guasca, Producción periodística: Claudia Sánchez y Milton Medina; Locución: Diana Hernández y Claudia Sánchez
El día de hoy tenemos una invitada super especial, desde Barranquilla, Colombia Angie "Gretta con ganas" nos platica un poquito de su proceso y su historia, hablamos de ¿qué hay detrás de la creatividad, la inspiración? y de la importancia de ser nosotros mismos para así poder descubrir nuestra verdadera pasión. Instagram invitada: @grettaconganas
Temas en la mira del RadaR: Barranquilla necesita solucionar tres aspectos para que no disminuya su competitividad: energía, río Magdalena y talento humano calificado para cargos ejecutivos. Estos temas fueron abordados durante el Foro Caribe BIZ 2021, organizado por la Cámara de Comercio de Barranquilla. Buen balance del primer Día sin IVA de 2021 entregaron Ministerio de Comercio, Industria y Turismo, Fenalco y la Cámara Colombiana de Comercio Electrónico. El informe preliminar indica que las ventas aumentaron en más de 40%. La Dirección de Impuestos y Aduanas Nacionales, DIAN, reportó fortalecimiento del sistema de facturación electrónica, durante la jornada del primer Día sin IVA. Más de 89 millones de toneladas de carga, entre enero y septiembre de este año, se movilizaron en Colombia. Tenemos datos entregados por el Ministerio de Transporte. Patrocinadores: Gecelca, Air-e, Gases del Caribe, Promigas
Oración desde Barranquilla, Colombia. Evangelio: Lucas 13, 22-30: «Vendrán de oriente y occidente, del norte y del sur, y se sentarán a la mesa en el reino de Dios. Mirad: hay últimos que serán primeros, y primeros que serán últimos». El evangelio de hoy nos revela una vez más cómo Jesús invierte los valores vigentes en la sociedad, anclados en la mentalidad soberbia, y anuncia un reino en el que su puerta de entrada es angosta y exige a quien quiera entrar por ella, una actitud de humildad y de obediencia, lejos de iniquidades y egoísmos. Quien se cierra en lo suyo, en lo seguro, se pierde a sí mismo y renuncia a aceptar la gracia que viene de fuera. Esta cerrazón es una condena. Pidamos al Padre por medio de su Hijo Jesucristo, que nos envíe el Espíritu Santo en ayuda de nuestra debilidad, pues nosotros no sabemos pedir como conviene. Bendición del P. Arquimedes González, desde la parroquia La Transfiguración del Señor de la Arquidiócesis de Barranquilla, Colombia. Redacción: Prof. Fernán Ramírez Meléndez
Como diría el gran Joe Arroyo…“En Barranquilla me quedo”…Y nos vamos de Carnaval a esta espectacular ciudad. Considerada la puerta de Oro y por donde entraría las revoluciones tecnológicas de Colombia: la aviación y la radio. En este episodio nos instalamos en la vía 40, disfrutaremos del Carnaval de Curramba. Entre monocucos y marimondas, recorreremos las raíces de la Cumbia, del son de Lucho Bermúdez y Pacho Galán. Y como no al final, asistiremos al entierro de nada más y nada menos de Joselito Carnaval. Notas del episodio: Barranquilla : la puerta de Oro de Colombia La historia de Scadta, la aviación llega por el Caribe Barranquilla: una ciudad de Migrantes Y con ustedes…su majestad: La Cumbia La Cueva de Barranquilla y Gabriel García Márquez Historia de la Guacherna Y la calle se llenó de Marimondas El Chaplin del Carnaval de Barranquilla ¡Síguenos en nuestras Redes Sociales! Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/DianaUribe.fm/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/dianauribefm/?hl=es-la Twitter: https://twitter.com/dianauribefm?lang=es Pagina web: https://www.dianauribe.fm
Barros Schelotto debutaría como local contra Chile y luego visitaría a Colombia en el estadio Metropolitano de Barranquilla. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
Carlos Antonio Vélez en su audiocolumna de 'Palabras Mayores' de hoy 15 de octubre habló del empate que consiguió la Selección Colombia ante Ecuador en Barranquilla por la fecha 12 de Eliminatoria.
En la Jugada conversamos sobre el partido en el que la Selección Colombia enfrentará a Ecuador en Barranquilla, cómo deberá jugar el combinado nacional, las cuentas para avanzar en la Eliminatoria y mucho más.
Carlos Antonio Vélez en su audiocolumna de 'Palabras Mayores' habló sobre el presente de la Selección Colombia y la previa al juego de esta tarde ante Ecuador por las Eliminatorias sudamericanas. Asimismo, se refirió a las estadísticas de los enfrentamientos ante el equipo ecuatoriano, donde en el Metropolitano de Barranquilla el combinado nacional nunca ha perdido frente al país vecino.
Para el exministro de Deporte de Ecuador, la mayor dificultar que ha tenido su país para lograr la victoria ante Colombia es la parte futbolística y no el clima de Barranquilla. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
Curador elegido por meritocracia ha enfrentado trabas para poder ejercer su cargo. Superintendente de Notariado y Registro tuvo que valerse de las autoridades para recuperar expedientes que le negaba el excurador. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
Carlos Antonio Vélez en su audiocolumna de 'Palabras Mayores' habló sobre el partido ante Ecuador y lo que deberá hacer Colombia en busca de los tres puntos. Asimismo, destacó que históricamente la 'Tricolor' siempre derrota a los ecuatorianos en el Metropolitano de Barranquilla, por esta razón, además de porque es un rival directo, es obligación ganarle.
Carlos Antonio Vélez en su audiocolumna de 'Palabras Mayores' habló sobre el partido ante Ecuador y lo que deberá hacer Colombia en busca de los tres puntos. Asimismo, destacó que históricamente la 'Tricolor' siempre derrota a los ecuatorianos en el Metropolitano de Barranquilla, por esta razón, además de porque es un rival directo, es obligación ganarle.
Hoy en Sa-Son y Sabor te queremos llevar a un recorrido musical por lo que somos, por como sentimos y como vivimos la música. Te invitamos a sentir la creatividad que nos permite viajar por el territorio musical en estas deliciosas Recetracks creadas por los que saben y que puedes disfrutar aquí en Sa-Son y Sabor el Restaurante Musical de Barranquilla.
Episodio #31 temporada 2. Resumen de lo que han sido las dos fechas de esta semana en las eliminatorias Sudamericanas y nuestras predicciones sobre lo que será la tercera fecha. Podrá Colombia ganarle a Ecuador? Quienes serán los titulares del partido del jueves?Tambien hablamos de los Playoffs de la MLB y de la gran victoria de Pagacar en Lombardia
La Selección Colombia volverá a tener acción el jueves 14 de octubre desde las 4:00 de la tarde ante Ecuador en el estadio Metropolitano de Barranquilla. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
El alcalde Jaime Pumarejo explicó las medidas que implementará la capital del Atlántico, como obligatoriedad de al menos una dosis de la vacuna contra el COVID. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
Sa-Son y Sabor El Restaurante Musical de Barranquilla. Somos un Restaurante popular con proyección internacional que te lleva por los caminos del disfrute musical y Gastronómico con deliciosas Recetracks que nos muestran donde podemos encontrar la sabrosura. En este capitulo, Adriana Martínez desde Canadá fue la encargada de poner el sabor al paladar y como siempre, una recomendación musical. Grandes maestros e intérpretes musicales llevándonos al goce con un Menú lleno de Fósforo y Gozadera. ¡Puro Pescao!
Jesurún también habló en Blog Deportivo sobre el carné de vacunación COVID-19 que deberán presentar los hinchas que ingresen a los partidos de la 'Tricolor' en Barranquilla. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
Adiós a un grande: Edgardo ‘Patón' Bauza se retira de la dirección técnica Hernán Peláez y Martín De Francisco contaron la historia de este argentino por su paso en el fútbol, que como jugador dejó huella en el Junior de Barranquilla y como técnico logró la Copa Libertadores con Liga de Quito y San Lorenzo. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
En éste capítulo de Visitantes conversamos con Nicol Linero del movimiento amplio social de mujeres, activista y feminista, y Katleen Torres, abogada y también miembro del movimiento amplio social de mujeres, quienes nos hablan sobre el Día de Acción Global por el acceso al Aborto Legal y Seguro, a propósito de su conmemoración este 28 de septiembre del 2021 en la ciudad de Barranquilla y todo el territorio nacional.
Sa-on y Sabor El Restaurante Musical de Barranquilla es un restaurante popular con proyección internacional donde sabor y guepaje son los ingredientes principales y la consigna es la sabrosura. En Sa-Son y Sabor encuentras los ingredientes precisos para tu paladar musical y el complemento perfecto para tu vacile personal. En éste capítulo, Olivia Gómez gestora cultural, cantadora y quien con su arte llega a las comunidades a formar a los niños en el folclore y conocimiento de la tradición a través de la narración oral, nos compartió como se prepara un delicioso pastel en hoja de bijao. Y desde Francia el sabor nos llega a través de Aurelie Tardy, una francesa de corazón barranquillero. Pon tu sabor aquí! Conduce el Chefvré Alfredo Gonzales. Escucha Sa-Son y Sabor todos los jueves a las 2:00 Pm por Vokaribe Radio 89.6Fm
El Junior de Barranquilla aclaró que esta sustancia (amoniaco) no había sido suministrada ni recomendada por el cuerpo médico del club, por lo que se les abrió un proceso disciplinario a los futbolistas. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
Carlos Antonio Vélez en su audiocolumna de ‘Palabras Mayores’ del 23 de septiembre habló sobre la Selección Colombia y lo que serán los detalles de la próxima triple fecha de Eliminatorias sudamericanas ante Uruguay, Brasil y Ecuador. Asimismo, se refirió a los futbolistas que estaría mirando Reinaldo Rueda para una posible convocatoria al seleccionado nacional. Por último, contó detalles de por qué Infantino, presidente de la FIFA, estará presente en el juego ante Ecuador en Barranquilla.
Carlos Antonio Vélez en su audiocolumna de ‘Palabras Mayores' del 23 de septiembre habló sobre la Selección Colombia y lo que serán los detalles de la próxima triple fecha de Eliminatorias sudamericanas ante Uruguay, Brasil y Ecuador. Asimismo, se refirió a los futbolistas que estaría mirando Reinaldo Rueda para una posible convocatoria al seleccionado nacional. Por último, contó detalles de por qué Infantino, presidente de la FIFA, estará presente en el juego ante Ecuador en Barranquilla.
¿Colombia tiene equipo para ir al Mundial de Catar 2022? Hernán Peláez y Martín De Francisco analizaron la victoria de la Tricolor ante Chile en el estadio Metropolitano de Barranquilla por Eliminatorias rumbo al mundial de fútbol Catar 2022. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
Carlos Antonio Vélez en su audiocolumna de ‘Palabras Mayores’ del 10 de septiembre habló de las luces y sombras del triunfo de la Selección Colombia por 3-1 ante Chile en Barranquilla por la Eliminatoria rumbo al Mundial de Qatar que se diputará el próximo año.
Carlos Antonio Vélez en su audiocolumna de ‘Palabras Mayores’ del 9 de septiembre habló sobre el partido que tendrá la Selección Colombia ante Chile en Barranquilla por otra fecha más de la Eliminatoria Sudamericana rumbo a Qatar 2022.
Crucial partido de Colombia ante Chile en Eliminatorias Hernán Peláez y Martín De Francisco analizaron el partido de la Tricolor ante Paraguay y resaltaron la importancia de ganar ante los chilenos en Barranquilla. También más noticias y acontecimientos alrededor del mundo del fútbol. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
QUIMBAYA COLOMBIAN COFFEE Owner Alex Lozano Windsor, WI Episode 91 "Hips Don't Lie" https://quimbayacoffee.com/ Traveling the entire country looking for the best that the coffee world has to offer, as you know is our mission. Well this week we traveled our shortest distance ever, and found one of the best roasters in the country. Alex Lozano was three long miles away at Quimbaya Colombian Coffee. How does a prosecuting attorney from Columbia end up in Wisconsin? That's just the tip of the iceberg uncovered during this weeks episode. Alex, who grew up in the tropical district of Barranquilla, in the northern part of Columbia, next logical move... cheesehead land of course. Must have been the weather. What do Colombia and Wisconsin have in common? More than you think. An eyeopener for those who think of the Midwest as only flyover land! Learn the meaning behind Quimbaya, and why Alex wants people to know about this pre-Columbian society, and the importance of buying directly from the roasting source. Heresy!! no intermediary? Another great reason to buy Quimbaya coffee! Who else in the coffee business may end up personally delivering coffee to your front door! If you look out the window you may be lucky enough to see his little barista, entrepreneur sidekick! Could you leave a successful career as a prosecutor in Colombia and travel to the United States to pursue a dream of owning your own business? What was the "wake up moment" and what provoked it? We are all vulnerable in life but sometimes it takes a near death experience to bring that into focus. "The best part of waking up" as the commercial jingle goes, always focused on the aroma of freshly made coffee. Learn the way his grandma made coffee and the imprint it made on his future in the coffee world. Just how can he (and we) help the farmers in Colombia? Find out the answer when he asked that question to the farmers directly. What did Alex soon realize when he began searching for the same coffee experience as the one he grew up with, and how did that lead him into the coffee business? Research, research, research, and the support of a good woman. A short meaningful conversation at a restaurant, the correct guess to a dialect question, and a business card led to a very special event. Alex's version is a bit longer, and it may include Shakira. Remember those hips don't lie!! We cover a wide spectrum on this week's show, from the law, drug cartels, and the violence perpetrated against coffee farmers. If all that is not enough content for you... meet your new favorite music style this week...Cumbia! Listen on Spotify Alex's Quimbaya playlist and get ready to dance, dance, dance and feel like you're at the Carnaval de Barranquilla! https://bit.ly/Quimbaya BONUS for listeners? Persevere with the power of music and love, great advice in theses times. La Tierra Del Olvido feat. Carlos Vives | Playing For Change https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=6exx0sB_iOA Remember if you have a question, or topic you want us to follow up on from this week, or a roaster or store you think we should know about, leave it in the comment section for a future episode of CCCRS, we are happy to get that done. https://crosscountrycoffeeroadshow.com/contact/ Follow us on social media, remember to like and subscribe, and listen to this weeks Spotify playlist....remember "hips don't lie"
Photo: The largest concentration of foreign immigrants in Colombia is in Barranquilla, which was the main entrance port into Colombia, it also received the name "Puerta de Oro de Colombia" (Colombia's golden gate) . CBS Eyes on the World with John Batchelor CBS Audio Network @Batchelorshow #NewWorldReport: Colombia and Mexico offer to shelter Afghan refugees Senadora Maria Fernanda Cabal. @MariaFdaCabal (on leave) Joseph Humire @JMHumire @SecureFreeSoc https://www.securefreesociety.org https://www.laprensalatina.com/colombia-prepared-to-temporarily-accept-an-unspecified-number-of-afghans/
El poderoso Imperio Azteca, con sede en México Tenochtitlán, se había hecho de demasiados enemigos. Enemigos que encontraron en los invasores españoles un modo de liberación que terminarían pagando muy caro. RadioTeatro | Viajes En El Tiempo Noticias Del Mundo: El espectáculo del Templo Mayor en el Zócalo - A quinientos años de la caída del Imperio Mexica - Europa Caliente - Noticias de Viernes 13 - La mejor Sopa Azteca de México. Historias Desintegradas: La envidia, pecado capital - Las mujeres de los tangos - Feminismo y patriarcado - Amor en venta - Trampas y engaños de la delincuencia - Yo hago mi café - No soy tu empleada - Bailando en Barranquilla y Más... https://www.canaltrans.com/ecdqemsd_podcast_2021/5065_la_caida_de_la_gran_tenochtitlan.html En Caso De Que El Mundo Se Desintegre - ECDQEMSD Daily Podcast - La Caida De La Gran Tenochtitlán RadioTeatro