Colter Nuanez is joined by Idaho head coach Jason Eck, who leads the No. 4 seeded Vandals into the second round of the FCS Playoffs this weekend against Southern Illinois. The Salukis shut out Nichols 35-0 in the first round last week.
The highest evolution Blockchain can achieve is becoming a part of the internet and ceasing to be the place where you go to trade. Lola Oyelayo-Pearson of Mysten Labs is actively shaping the future of commerce online by reimagining her path in the most significant way. She shares their unique model called kiosk and how it aims to change data and content ownership, making NFTs more accessible and seamless between Web2 and Web3 platforms. Lola also shares the genesis of Mysten Labs and how she utilized her vast experiences at Shopify to bring e-commerce to the next level! Support us through our Sponsors:
From the dazzling heart of Dubai, Edge of NFT had a chance to attend the Future Blockchain Summit to cover the forefront of a digital revolution. Josh Kriger met with industry leaders who are figuring out how to build tomorrow's Web3 highway and catalyze the success of their partners using the latest cutting-edge technology. On the list are Will Riches of Sui Foundation, Prakash and Vasseh of Enjinstarter, and Gracy Chen of Bitget. If you don't know about Sui, then you will want to get the latest scoop on this Layer 1 which generated a record-shattering 65 million transactions in a single day. We learned the latest trends in AI and blockchain from one of the top launchpads in the Web3 space. Lastly, stay tuned to a fresh perspective on the crypto macro-climate of one of the key voices in our industry and learn what it was like for her to be a judge on one of the first-ever crypto reality shows. More from Edge of NFT:
PALERMO (ITALPRESS) - È stato presentato a Palermo, nella sede dell'assessorato regionale delle Infrastrutture e della mobilità, il Dibattito Pubblico per le ipotesi progettuali sulla realizzazione delle opere del macrolotto 1 dell'itinerario Gela-Agrigento-Castelvetrano, dallo svincolo A29 di Castelvetrano a Sciacca Ovest. Erano presenti, oltre all'assessore Alessandro Aricò ed ai rappresentanti di Comuni e Province interessati, anche il direttore della Struttura territoriale Sicilia di Anas, Raffaele Celia, il Rup Luigi Mupo di Anas, la referente per il Sud dei procedimenti autorizzativi Fernanda Faillace della Direzione Tecnica Anas, responsabile Area 6 Sicilia Palermo progettazione della direzione tecnica di Anas.È la stessa Anas Spa che, come ente proponente, sta organizzando gli incontri per illustrare quello che attualmente è lo studio di fattibilità dell'opera per la futura progettazione del completamento dell'anello autostradale della regione, da Castelvetrano a Gela; il tratto riguardante lo Svincolo della A29 nel territorio di Castelvetrano fino allo svincolo di Sciacca Ovest rappresenta solo il primo dei 9 macrolotti riportati nella progettazione di fattibilità. "Come ogni progetto di questa natura è ovvio che è necessario studiare più soluzioni, più corridoi, ognuno dei quali avrebbe un impatto diverso sul territorio. La procedura del Dibattito pubblico è voluta dal legislatore proprio per iniziare subito il processo di progettazione, il confronto con i portatori di interesse, ma anche con i cittadini. Questo percorso vedrà diversi momenti dove ognuno potrà avanzare proposte e osservazioni. Se questa fase riuscirà a far incontrare le aspettative del territorio con le proposte progettuali, le successive fasi per la realizzazione dell'opera saranno più spedite", ha spiegato Raffaele Celia. Sui tempi di realizzazione, ha sottolineato la referente per il Sud dei procedimenti autorizzativi Fernanda Faillace: "I tempi dipenderanno dagli esiti del dibattito pubblico. L'esperienza ci ha insegnato che è un'occasione molto importante. L'invito al territorio a partecipare attivamente consente di migliorare il progetto, e questo chiaramente accelererà il suo iter procedurale amministrativo. Un iter complesso e per il quale servirà successivamente reperire i finanziamenti; il Ministero delle Infrastrutture sta mettendo in atto un processo che parte dall'approvazione del Docfa, di ciò che presenteremo nei prossimi giorni nel corso di questo dibattito, all'esito del quale il Ministero valuterà cosa e in che termini finanziare. Da parte di Anas c'è tutto l'interesse per velocizzare il più possibile tale processo, ed è importante che anche il territorio faccia la sua parte". xm3/vbo/gtr
No Decor e Arte de hoje, Janina Ester fala sobre um apartamento em Genebra, na Suiça, comprado por um empresário brasileiro. Para deixar o imóvel com sua cara, o proprietário escolheu o arquiteto Davi Bastos. Para saber mais sobre o resultado, confira o programa!See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
Nello Spazio Bianco di Alvise Salerno, sabato 4 novembre è stata ospite la giornalista Charlotte Matteini, che si occupa di mondo del lavoro italiano e dei suoi problemi, sia sui giornali cartacei che sui suoi profili social. «In Italia abbiamo un'incidenza di lavoro nero e irregolare da far spavento e i dati ufficiali lo confermano. Sui social ho provato a dare risalto alle offerte di lavoro irregolare o in nero che trovo tranquillamente sul web: l'incidenza è talmente alta che non c'è bisogno di fare delle inchieste». Per contrastare il lavoro irregolare il governo italiano dispone dell'ispettorato del lavoro. «È un organo sottofinanziato. Non ci sono i fondi per andare sul territorio a fare ispezioni. Inoltre, abbiamo un vuoto legislativo per cui l'offerta di lavoro in sè non è illegale né denunciabile. Lo diventa solo quando un lavoratore accetta l'offerta irregolare e lui va a denunciare».
Já está a funcionar o Centro de Atendimento Consular para a Suiça e o Liechtenstein. Assegura um contacto mais fácil e mais rápido entre a Administração Pública e a comunidade portuguesa espalhada pelo mundo.
The trend is your friend. The trio are back again as Tommy Honan joins Pav Hundal and Ted Coaldrake for a spooky, Halloween episode of the Crypto Catchup. On today's episode, we introduce a brand new game: Coin vs Coin, the ultimate showdown where we predict which will perform better over the next 12 months. We also discover what is happening in the market simply by looking if Ted is the most interesting person at the party. We cover: 0:46: Are the institutions getting their money ready? 04:21: Is Google Trend hinting towards a bull or a bull market? 7:20: Top Movers & Shakers 9:25: Are we still in a bear market? 10:57: Why Chainlink is “Off The Chain” (Thanks Pav) 13:34: Who the trio think will be the Decrypts partner of 2023 16:25: Updates on former Billionaire SBF's trial 19:18: A new game of Coin vs Coin 19:37: Bitcoin vs Ethereum 20:42: Chainlink vs Solana 22:05: Sui vs Aptos 23.15: Shiba Inu vs Doge Coin 23:58: Sandbox vs Alluvium We are back at the Australian Crypto Convention again this year so make sure you come and say hi - get your tickets here And watch the Youtube Version of the podcast here Ready to start? Get $10 of FREE Bitcoin on Swyftx when you Sign up and Verify - https://trade.swyftx.com.au/register/?promoRef=tappingintocrypto10btc To get the latest updates hit subscribe and follow us over on the gram @tappingintocrypto If you can't wait to learn more check out these blogs from our friends over at Swyftx The Tapping into Crypto podcast is for entertainment purposes only and the opinions on this podcast belong to individuals and are not affiliated with any companies mentioned. Any advice is general in nature and does not take into account your personal situation, if you're looking to get advice, please seek out a licensed financial advisor.
Life is hard, mental health is harder, and finding the right help at the right time can feel damn near impossible. Join LJ and Di and a VERY special guest as they do their best to tackle a difficult topic with as much respect and rationale as possible. Mental health is still so stigmatized in America and it often feels like we're failing ourselves, our families, and our friends. How can you help someone who is struggling with thoughts, or even attempts, of ending their life? Additionally, how do we move on if it does happen to someone we love?Join LJ and Di as they break down season one episode one of A Million Little Things. This episode is a love letter from LJ to her best friend: I'll never see a cow and not think of you, and you bequeathed me the most amazing human to get through this with. To the moon, my dear.Sui*ide and Crisis Lifeline: Dial 988
Sembra non esserci spazio da nessuna parte per il pensiero che fu ne nostro Paese di Primo Mazzolari, sacerdote che dovette sfuggire dai nazisti e dalla Chiesa di Pio XII prima di essere accolto da Papa Roncalli. Non siamo più nemmeno il Paese di Aldo Capitini, intellettuale e filosofo liberale, laico, perugino, organizzatore della prima marcia della Pace tra Perugia e Assisi che portò per primo in Italia la figura di Gandhi. Siamo stati la terra di Danilo Dolci, processato per sovversivismo e difeso da Piero Calamandrei con un'arringa che andrebbe riletta oggi, mentre l'accusa di sovversivismo vergognosamente sopravvive nelle penne di qualche opinionista, di qualche politico e di qualche editorialista. Siamo stati il Paese di Lucio Lombardo Radice, matematico, regista, militante del Pci, partigiano, che portò il partito a marciare per la pace. Ieri il segretario della Difesa USA ha detto che "Hamas non è il popolo palestinese" e che "non pensa che il popolo dovrebbe pagarne il prezzo”. Sui nostri giornali (quelli che sputano sondaggi in cui appoggiare la Palestina significa appoggiare i terroristi) finirebbe per essere considerato un “amico di Hamas”, aggiunto alle liste di proscrizione. Il popolo palestinese non è Hamas come (per fortuna) gli israeliani non sono Netanyahu e il popolo russo non è Putin (a differenza del passato di alcuni leader di partito) e gli ucraini non sono Zelensky. Chi confonde un popolo con il suo governo dandolo in pasto ai suoi errori e alle sue atrocità è un sobillatore. Gino Strada diceva di essere “contro la guerra perché la guerra non si può umanizzare, si può solo abolire” perché “ignorare la sofferenza di un uomo è sempre un atto di violenza, e tra i più vigliacchi”. Conviene ripeterlo, anche se non sta bene a molti. #LaSveglia per La Notizia
Adeniyi is a product leader with experience spanning from financial services to crypto. Adeniyi has led engineering and product teams across Big Tech companies including Oracle, VMware and Facebook. Prior to founding Mysten Labs, Adeniyi led many of Meta's R&D initiatives in blockchain and cryptocurrency, including the Diem (aka. Libra) Network and the Move programming language.In this conversation, we discuss:- Facebook's blockchain/cryptocurrency Diem (aka. Libra) Network- Move programming language- Working at Facebook- Blockchain-based authentication- Web3 identity via zk tech- Crypto as a solution for the unbanked in the world- The importance of gaming and the digital economy- The role blockchain can play for corporate brands- Supporting the Sui community with Ecosystem and Community Development fundsMysten LabsWebsite: mystenlabs.comX: @Mysten_LabsDiscord: discord.gg/mystenSui NetworkWebsite: sui.ioX: @SuiNetworkDiscord: discord.gg/suiAdeniyi AbiodunX: @EmanAbio LinkedIn: Adeniyi Abiodun --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- This episode is brought to you by PrimeXBT. PrimeXBT offers a robust trading system for both beginners and professional traders that demand highly reliable market data and performance. Traders of all experience levels can easily design and customize layouts and widgets to best fit their trading style. PrimeXBT is always offering innovative products and professional trading conditions to all customers. PrimeXBT is running an exclusive promotion for listeners of the podcast. After making your first deposit, 50% of that first deposit will be credited to your account as a bonus that can be used as additional collateral to open positions. Code: CRYPTONEWS50 This promotion is available for a month after activation. Click the link below: PrimeXBT x CRYPTONEWS50
This episode, we look at the rise of the Sui Dynasty and the famous interactions between Yamato and the Sui Dynasty, recorded in the histories of each state. For more, check out the podcast webpage: https://sengokudaimyo.com/podcast/episode-96 Rough Transcript Welcome to Sengoku Daimyo's Chronicles of Japan. My name is Joshua and this is Episode 96: From the Land Where the Sun Rises. Once again, we are still talking about the reign of Kashikiya Hime, from the late 6th to early 7th century. This time, though, we are going to take a quick diversion from Yamato and first look at what was going on over on the continent, in the area of the Yellow and Yangzi River Basins—the area of the so-called “middle country”. This is, after all, where a lot of the philosophy and other things that the archipelago was importing came from, so what was going on over there? Back in Episode 73, ee talked about the various northern and southern dynasties in the Yellow and Yangzi River Basins. To sum up, during that period, the eastern area of modern China was split between a variety of dynasties, many of them short-lived, and many of them—especially in the north—were dynasties from outside of the main Han ethnic group. Up through the early 580's, the dynasty in charge of the Yellow River region was the Northern Zhou, one of the many dynasties in the north descended from the nomadic Xianbei ethnic groups. Though their aristocracy was a mix of multiple ethnicities that had intermarried over the years, the Northern Zhou celebrated their Xianbei roots, often to the detriment of ethnic Han groups. They had inherited the territory of the Western Wei, including much of the central Yangzi region down to Sichuan. They then defeated the Northern Qi in 577 and claimed dominion over all of the Yellow River region in the north of modern China. Their only rival was the Chen dynasty, along the eastern reaches of the Yangzi river, but the Chen themselves were relatively weak, and it was only the power struggles within the Northern Zhou court that kept them from wiping out the Chen completely. In 581, the Northern Zhou suffered a coup d'etat. Yang Jian was a Northern Zhou general, and his family, the Yang clan, had Han origins but had intermarried with the Xianbei as well, creating a truly mixed lineage. Jian also held some sway at court, and was known as the Duke of Sui—his daughter was the Empress Dowager, and her stepson was the young Emperor Jing. In 581 Yang Jian usurped power from his step-grandson, the child emperor Jing, and placed himself on the throne, taking the name Emperor Wen of Sui, using his previous title as the name of the new dynasty. He killed off fifty-nine princes of the previous Northern Zhou, and began to consolidate his power. By 587, he had strengthened his position, and by 588 invasion of the Chen territories began under Prince Yang Guang. By 589, the Chen were defeated and any attempts at rebellion were put down, giving the Sui dynasty full control of northern and southern regions—from the Yellow and Yangzi Rivers down to the Sichuan basin. Although, as I noted, the Yang family had intermarried with the Xianbei families of the Northern Zhou, they still retained some connection with their Han roots, and Emperor Wen won over the Han Confucian scholars with reforms to the rank system and at least a nod towards getting rid of nepotism and corruption that had taken hold in the Northern Zhou and previous dynasties. He reinstituted Han dynasty titles and restored the nine rank system. He also reinstituted a system of impartial judges to seek out talent and moved towards the idea of an examination system—something that would really take hold in later centuries. Furthermore, while he set himself up in the northern capital of Daxingcheng, aka Chang'an, he helped rebuild the southern capital, naming it Dayang. He also supported Buddhism and Daoism. He became a patron of southern Buddhist monasteries, and recognized major temples as state-sponsored institutions—a far cry from the suppression attempts in the north in 574 and 578. Emperor Wen also worked on repairing canals along the Yellow River. These canals, which allowed easy transport of goods, regularly silted up without maintenance, and the dikes on either side could break, flooding the land on either side. They had been neglected during many of the short-lived reigns up to this point, with perhaps a few exceptions when things got really bad. However, Emperor Wen began work to fix these old canals and thus improve the flow of goods and services. Given all of this - his patronage of Buddhism and Daoism, as well as his attempt to resurrect the Han dynasty and the Confucian principles that underlay its government, as well as the public works that he instituted, Yang Jian, aka Emperor Wen of Sui, is remembered as the Cultured Emperor—despite that fact the had started out as a blood-soaked general who had secured his usurpation with a not inconsiderable amount of murder. Sima Guang, writing from the Song dynasty, centuries later, praised Emperor Wen for all he did to grow the Sui, uniting north and south, supporting the people, and helping the country to prosper as it rarely has before. And yet, Sima Guang also says that in his personal life he was mean and stingy and paranoid—afraid that everyone was out to get him. Given the life he'd lived, that would make some sense. Still, he seems to have been good for his people, in the long run. But this wasn't to last. In 604, Emperor Wen fell ill and died. Or at least that is the official story. Another says that he had grown angry over some event and was about to disinherit the crown prince, Yang Guang, who sent someone to kill his father. That is a very abbreviated version of the story, and, as I said, it is not without controversy. However he died, his son, Yang Guang, succeeded him to the throne and became known as Emperor Yang. Emperor Yang continued to expand the empire, and under his dynasty the Sui would attain their greatest extent yet. He rebuilt parts of the Great Wall, and expanded the borders south, into modern Vietnam, as well as up to the borders with Goguryeo. He also continued the work his father had begun on canals, eventually undertaking the creation of the Grand Canal, which would connect the Yellow and Yangzi Rivers. No longer would the two be separate, forced to send goods out to sea or over treacherous land routes to get from one river basin to another. Now they could sail ships straight from one river to the other—an impressive feat that you can still see today in parts of modern China. The project would forever change the landscape of China, both literally and figuratively. It connected the north and south, leading to greater political, economic, and cultural unity between the two regions. It would connect the culture and economic resources of the south with the military institutions of the north. Unfortunately, for all that this expansion may have been good for commerce, it came at a price. The wars in Champa, in Southern Vietnam, saw thousands of Sui soldiers die from malaria. And then, in the north, though they continuously pushed against Goguryeo, they were never quite able to overthrow them. Finally, there was the Grand Canal. Although it would truly be a wonder of the world, and become a part of the lifeblood of dynasties for centuries to come, it was built at a huge price both monetarily and in human lives. We can assume a large number of people died as conscript labor working on the canals or on refurbishing the Great Wall, but also we are told that the monetary price largely bankrupted the empire, and for which later historians castigated the Sui dynasty But that was still to happen. For our purposes, we should rewind a bit, to the very beginning of the 7th century. As we touched on last episode, Yamato was just adopting their own twelve rank system and a seventeen article constitution shortly after Emperor Wen passed away and Yang Guang took the throne. Now these 17 articles were almost all based on Confucian or Buddhist philosophy; clearly the Court was looking to the continent more and more for inspiration on how to govern, especially as it further expanded and solidified its grasp across the archipelago. Up to this point, much of that innovation had come through the Korean peninsula, by way of Silla, Goguryeo, and, most prominently, their ally Baekje. But no doubt they knew that much of what was influencing those kingdoms had, itself, come from even farther away. And so, this reign, the Chronicles record that Yamato once again sent envoys beyond their peninsular neighbors all the way to the Middle Country itself. This is significant as they were making direct contact with the mighty empire, the source of so many of the philosophical and scientific innovations that Yamato was trying to adopt. This wasn't the first time this had happened, of course—we know of the cases of state of Na contacting the Han court, and then Himiko of the Wa during the Wei period, as well as several missions immediately after Himiko's death. We also know of the five kings of Wa who reached out to the Liu Song court, though the Chronicles themselves are often silent on actual embassies, making it hard to tell exactly which reigns that occurred in, though it is generally agreed that one of those “Five Kings” was none other than Wakatakiru himself, Yuuryaku Tennou. There may have been other missions. There seems to be some discussion amongst the Liang dynasty records that may indicate greater contact with Japan, but again, we don't necessarily see that in the records themselves. Furthermore, with the fractured nature of the various dynasties since the Han period, and the various conflicts on the peninsula and in the archipelago, it would be understandable if there hadn't been much direct diplomatic contact since about the time of Wakatakiru. And so it is a pretty big thing that we not only have an envoy around the year 608, but that there appears to be agreement for it in the Sui history—though there is one glaring mistake: in the Nihon Shoki they clearly say that they sent envoys to the “Great Tang”, and not the Sui. However, this is fairly easily explained. By the 8th century, as the records were being compiled, the Tang dynasty was, indeed, in control of the Chinese court. In fact, the Tang dynasty was so admired by the Japanese of the day that even now the term “Karafu”, or “Chinese style”, uses the character for the Tang dynasty, rather than the Han. On the one hand it seems as though the scholars of the 8th century would surely have known of the Sui dynasty coming before the Tang, but it is also understandable that anyone would have just thought of the successive courts as a single continuity. Either way, I'll talk about the Sui dynasty, and it is in the Sui dynasty records that we find the corresponding description of this embassy. It starts on the 3rd day of the 7th month of 607. The Chronicles tell us that Wono no Omi no Imoko was sent to the Sui court, taking along Kuratsukuri no Fukuri as an interpreter. You may recall that the Kuratsukuri, or saddle-makers, claimed a descent from Shiba Tattou, himself from the continent. It would make sense to take someone on this diplomatic exhibition who could actually speak the language or, failing that, read and write it - a peculiar function of the Chinese language, since the various dialects, though often mutually unintelligible, still use the same characters. Imoko, by the way, may have also had important connections, but in this case it was to the Soga. We are told in the Nihon Shoki that Imoko was known in the Sui Court as “So Imko”, and the “So” character is the same as the first character in the name “Soga”. It is possible that Imoko was, indeed, a Soga family member, and the name Wono no Omi may have come later. Or it is possible that he was forgotten for some reason. On the Sui side, we are told that in the year 607 there was an envoy sent with tribute from King Tarashihoko, which may have been another name for Kashikiya Hime, or perhaps it was simply an error caused by the problems with attempting to record foreign names in Sinitic characters. The arrival of the embassy must have been something else, especially as they came upon the capital city. Wen's capital city, that of Daxingcheng, was a new city, built just southeast of the ancient city of Chang'an, which was in a sad state of decay, despite hosting so many rulers over the centuries, including the Northern Zhou themselves. Wen had laid out a new plan of a permanent, rectangular city, with the royal palace taking up the northern central district. Buddhist and Daoist temples were scattered throughout the city. The city itself was five to six miles a side, and so it would take time to truly build it out. However, first the walls were set up, and then the palace area, so that Wen effectively moved into an empty city when he arrived in 583. Many people were forcibly resettled, and members of the new royal family were encouraged to set up their own palaces, but it would take time to truly fill up—by the end of the Sui dynasty, and the beginning of the Tang, the city was still being built, and it wouldn't see its ultimate heyday as a vibrant urban capital until the Tang dynasty. And so when the Yamato delegation arrived in 608, they would have seen the impressive walls and the immense palace, but in all likelihood, much of the city was still being built, and there was likely construction on every block. Nonetheless, the sheer size would have to have made an impression on them—nothing like this existed in the archipelago in the slightest. On the other hand, the Sui had their own curiosities about Yamato. The history of the Sui, written only twenty to thirty years afterwards, starts out its account with a description of the Land of Wa. Some of it is taken directly from the Wei histories, recounting what was previously known about these islands across the eastern sea—we talked about that back in episodes 11 to 13. The Sui history summarizes these previous historical accounts, including mention of envoys that came over during the Qi and Liang dynasties—between 479 and 556—though little more is said. Then the Sui history mentions an envoy that is said to have arrived in the early part of the Sui—the Kaihuang era, between 581-600. We are told that this was for a “King” whose family name was Ame and his personal name was Tarashihiko, with the title of Ohokimi—at least, assuming we are transliterating correctly, as the characters used have slightly different pronunciations. That could easily be attributed to just mistranslations. Even the family and personal name are familiar, but not exactly attributed in the Chronicles—though we have seen the elements elsewhere in the royal family, and it may be that they were also titles, of a sort. Also, they mention a King, but that could also just be due to the fact that the Ohokimi was not a gendered title, and as such the Sui simply assumed a male ruler. There is no evidence of this in the Chronicles for this, however it is said that at that time they looked into the ways of the Wa and they were told that “The King of Wa deems heaven to be his elder brother and the sun, his younger. Before break of dawn he attends the Court, and, sitting cross-legged, listens to appeals. Just as soon as the sun rises, he ceases these duties, saying that he hands them over to his brother.” This is likely a misunderstanding, once again, but it rings with some truth. Even if we discard some of the legends about Amaterasu as later additions, there is plenty of linguistic and cultural evidence that the sun held a special place in Wa culture. There is also the article in the new constitution about starting early to work that might just be referenced here. We aren't sure when, exactly, the Sui collected this information—though given that it was written within living memory of many of the events, a lot of the information is considered to at least be plausible, if perhaps a bit misunderstood at times. The Sui history specifically mentions the twelve court ranks—in fact, it is possible that the Chronicles, compiled in the 8th century, were actually referencingthis earlier history about the ranks, though we know that ranks continued in one way or another. It also makes the comment that there were no regulated number of officials in each rank—that would certainly be the case later, and makes sense when the ranks also dictated how much of a salary that one could expect from the court. Then, outside of the court they mention the “kuni”—the kuni no miyatsuko—and then claimed that each kuni no miyatsuko oversaw about 10 inaki, officials in charge of the royal granaries, who each oversaw 80 families. It is doubtful that these numbers were that precise, but it gives an interesting concept of scale. The Sui history also tells us about other things that the Chronicles tend to leave out. We are told that the men wore both outer and inner garments, with small (likely meaning narrow) sleeves. Their footgear was like sandals, painted with lacquer, which sounds not unlike geta, which we do have evidence for going back into the Yayoi, at least, though this was only for the upper crust—most people just went barefoot, wearing a wide piece of cloth tied on without sewing. We do get a hint at the headgear that was instituted along with the court rank system, by the way, but only a glimpse. We are told that it was made of brocade and colored silk and decorated with gold and silver inlaid flowers, which does correspond to some of what we know from the Chronicles. As for the women of Yamato, we are told that they arrange their hair on the back of the head, and they wear outer garments and scarves with patterns. They have decorative combs of bamboo as well. They also wore tattoos, as did the men. Much of this, including the tattoos, accords with what we have evidence of in the Haniwa from the 6th century and later. For sleeping arrangements we are told that they weave grass into mattresses—possibly the origin of the later tatami that would originally just be woven mats but eventually turned into a type of permanent flooring. For covers we are told they used skins lined with colored leather—a curious blanket, and one wonders if this was for everyone or just the upper crust. We are given some discussion of their weapons and armor, including their use of lacquered leather and the fact that they made arrowheads out of bone. We also know they used metal, but bone was likely the more prevalent material, as losing a metal arrowhead was much more costly than losing a bone one. Interestingly we are told that, though there is a standing army, wars are infrequent—which may have been accurate in relation to what the Sui themselves had gone through and seen, since it seems like they were almost constantly fighting somewhere along their borders. But Yamato was far from peaceful, and it is telling that the court was accompanied by music and displays of military might. As for the justice system, we talked about this a little bit in previous episodes, based on various punishments we've seen in the archipelago, though the Sui history gives us a slightly more direct description. It claims that there were some high crimes punished by death. Others were punished with fines, often meant to make restitution to the aggrieved. If you couldn't pay you would be enslaved to pay for it instead. They also mention banishment and flogging. All of this is in line with some of what we've seen in the Chronicles, though it also seems like some of this may have also depended on other factors, including the accused's social status. After all, not everyone had rice land that they could just turn over to wipe out their misdeeds. Then there were the various judicial ordeals. We've mentioned this idea , with the idea that somehow the righteous would be protected from injury. These included things like pulling pebbles out of boiling water, or reaching into a pot to grab a snake and hoping he doesn't bite you. There are also various tortures designed to get one to confess. In discussing literacy, the Sui histories mention that the Wa have no written characters—and at this point, the writing would have been some form of Sinic characters, assuming one could read and write at all. Instead, the Sui anthropologists said that the Wa used notched sticks and knotted ropes as a means of conveying messages. How exactly that work, I'm not sure, but there are certainly cultures that we know used things like knotted rope for various math and conveying numbers, etc. In regards to religion, the Sui noticed that Buddhism had taken hold, but it had not gotten rid of other practices. Thus we know they practiced forms of divination and had faith in both male and female shamans. In their free time, people would enjoy themselves. On New Year's day, they would have archery tournaments, play games, and drink—the Sui said that it was very much like how they themselves celebrated. Coromorant fishing and abalone diving—well, diving for fish—are both noted already. Again, these are activities that continue into the modern day. At dinner we are told that the people do not eat off of dishes or plates, but instead use oak leaves. We've seen mention of this kind of practice, and that may have just been a particular ritual or ceremony that made its way back. Finally, there are the rituals for the dead. We are told people wear white—white is often considered the color of death in Japan, even today. They would have singing and dancing near the corpse, and a nobleman might lay in state—in a mogari shelter or temporary interment—for three years. Certainly, we've sometimes seen it take a while, especially if the kofun isn't ready to receive the body, yet. Commoners apparently would place the body in a boat which was pulled along from the shore or placed in a small palanquin—though what happens after that is somewhat of a mystery. The Sui envoys writing about this also apparently experienced an active period of Mt. Aso—or another mountain so-named—as they said it was belching forth fire from the rocks. As we've mentioned, the archipelago is particularly active, volcanically speaking, so I'm not surprised that an envoy might have had a chance to get to know a little more about that first hand. Having described the country thus, the Sui Chronicles go on to describe the embassy that came over in the year 607. According to the history as translated by Tsunoda Ryusaku and L. Carrington Goodrich, the envoy from Yamato explained the situation as such: “The King has heard that to the west of the ocean a Boddhisattva of the Sovereign reveres and promotes Buddhism. Accompanying the embassy are several tens of monks who have come to study Buddhism.” This is great as we see some of the things that the Japanese scholars left out—that there were Buddhists on this mission. For many, getting to the monasteries and temples of the Middle Kingdom was almost as good as making the trip all the way to India. Over all, the embassy appears to have been largely successful in their mission. The ambassador, Imoko, came back with an envoy from the Sui, Pei Shiqing, along with twelve other individuals. It is thought that this may have been the same embassy that then reported back to the court all of the various details that the later Sui history captured. According to the Sui dynasty history, the embassy first headed to Baekje, reaching the island of Chiku, and then, after seeing Tara in the south, they passed Tsushima and sailed out in to the deep ocean, eventually landing on the island of Iki. From there they made it to Tsukushi, and on to Suwo. They then passed through some ten countries until they came to the shore. Now, Naniwa no Kishi no Wonari had been sent to bring them to court and they had a new official residence erected for them in Naniwa—modern Ohosaka. When they arrived, on the 15th day of the 6th month of the year 608, Yamato sent out thirty heavily decorated boats to meet them—and no doubt to make an impression as well. They met them at Yeguchi, the mouth of the river and they were ensconced in the newly built official residence. Official entertainers were appointed for the ambassadors—Nakatomi no Miyatoko no Muraji no Torimaro, Ohohoshi no Kawachi no Atahe no Nukade, and Fume no Fumibito no Oohei. Meanwhile, Imoko continued on to the court proper to report on his mission. Unfortunately, for all of the goodness that came from the whole thing, the trip had not been completely flawless. The Sui court had entrusted Imoko with a letter to pass on to the Yamato court, but the return trip through Baekje proved… problematic, to say the least. We are told that men of Baekje stopped the party, searched them, and confiscated the letter. It is unclear whether these were Baekje officials or just some bandits, but the important thing was that Imoko had lost the message, which was a grave offense. The ministers suggested that, despite all of his success, Imoko should be banished for losing the letter. After all, it was the duty of an envoy to protect the messages between the courts at all costs. In the end, it was agreed that, yes, Imoko should be punished, but that it would be a bad look in front of their guests. After all, he had just represented them to the Sui Court, and so Kashikiya Hime pardoned Imoko of any wrongdoing. A couple months later, on the 3rd day of the 8th month, the preparations had been made and the envoys formally approached the palace. There were met on the Tsubaki no Ichi road by 75 well-dressed horses—the Sui history says two hundred—and there Nukada no Muraji no Hirafu welcomed them all with a speech. After finally reaching the location of the palace, it was nine more days before the Sui envoys were formally summoned to present themselves and state their reason for coming. Abe no Tori no Omi and Mononobe no Yosami no no Muraji no Idaku acted as “introducers” for the guests, announcing who they were to the court. Then Pei Shiqing had the various diplomatic gifts arranged in the courtyard, and then presented his credentials to the court. Then, bowing twice, he gave his own account of why he had been sent—he announced greetings from the Sui emperor, recognized the work of Imoko, and then provided an excuse that the emperor himself could not make it due to his poor health. That last bit I suspect was a polite fiction, or perhaps an erroneous addition by the Chroniclers. After all, it isn't like the Sui emperors were in the habit of just gallivanting off to an unknown foreign land—especially one across the sea. After delivering some polite niceties, Shiqing also provided a detailed list of all of the diplomatic gifts that they had brought. The dance that happened next is telling. In order to convey Pei Shiqing's letter to the sovereign, it wasn't like they could just hand it. There were levels of protocol and procedure that had to be observed, and so Abe no Omi took the letter up and handed it to Ohotomo no Kurafu no Muraji, who in turn placed it on a table in front of the Great gate where Kashikiya Hime could then get it. This setup is similar to the later court, where only certain individuals of rank were actually allowed up into the buildings of the palace, whereas others were restricted to the ground. After that formal introduction, there was a month or more of parties for the envoys, until finally they had to return to the Sui court. When they departed, they were sent with eight students and Imoko, who was bringing another letter back to the Sui Court. The students were all scheduled to study various disciplines and bring the knowledge back to the Yamato court. But that wasn't quite so special, or at least we aren't given much more on the specifics of what the students brought back.. What really stands out in the Sui histories is the contents of the formal letter that Imoko was carrying, as it had a phrase that will be familiar to many students of this period of history, and which really connects across the Japanese and Sui histories, despite other inconsistencies. It read: “The Son of Heaven in the land where the sun rises addresses a letter to the Son of Heaven in the land where the sun sets. We hope you are in good health.” Or at least, that is how the Sui histories record it. In the Nihon Shoki they say something similar, “The Emperor of the East respectfully addresses the Emperor of the West.” Here, rather than using “Child of Heaven”, the author made use of the term “Tennou” when referring to the Yamato sovereign, and then different characters were used for the Sui emperor. At the same time, that is one of the reasons that I give more credence to the Sui history. Of course, however you slice and dice this thing, there are some major airs being taken by the Yamato sovereign. Thus it is no wonder that, when the Sui emperor heard this, he was displeased, to say the least, and he told his minister that the letter was discourteous and should never again be brought to his attention. So that's a whole mood. The reason for this offense may be obvious, as the letter paints the sovereign of Japan as equal to the emperor of the Sui dynasty. That was indeed a bold claim. As we mentioned towards the top of the episode, the Sui were just about at their zenith. They had defeated their enemies, taken control of both the northern and southern regions, expanded to their south and north, and they were using their vast reserves on massive public works. They were a large, established and still growing empire. Comparatively Yamato had, what, 100,000 households? No writing system. They were eating off of oak leaves. And yet they were taking on airs and claiming that they were equal to the Sui. That had to garner more than a few eyerolls, and I really wonder at the temerity of the officer who presented it up the chain, especially as they would have seen what the Sui was really like—a reality that most of envoys to the Sui court would have seen firsthand. There is also the fact that they claim to be the land where the sun rises while the Sui are the land where the sun sets, which may have just been referencing east and west in a poetic fashion, but on another level it is almost as if they were talking about the rise of Yamato and the fall, or setting, of the Sui. I would note that we still don't see the term “Land of the Rising Sun”, or “Nihon”, used for the name of the country yet—one of the reasons I continue to refer to Yamato and not just “Japan”. However, all of this is in keeping with the traditions of the Wa people as we know them—the sun was given a special place in their worldview, as demonstrated linguistically, and not just through the legends curated in the 8th century. By the way, this exchange is mentioned in both the Sui History and the Nihon Shoki, but they place it in slightly different contexts. According to the Sui History, this was one of the first things that envoys said, whereas the version in the Nihon Shoki it was actually sent with the second mission. In either case, however, the content is relatively the same. Certainly, as Japan continued to take on more and more trappings of the continental courts, they would eventually even take on the term Tennou—also read in Japanese as Sumera no Mikoto—to refer to the sovereign. This is basically saying that the sovereign is, indeed, a Heavenly Son, and which they would come to translate as “emperor”, in English. There would be other terminology and trappings that would reinforce this concept, which placed the sovereign of Japan in a position that at least locally seemed to be much more prestigious. Imoko came back from this last diplomatic mission and was well beloved—some later sources even suggest that he may have been promoted for his diplomatic efforts. Oddly, however, we don't really hear more, if anything, about Imoko, and he fades back into the past. And so that covers much of the story of what Yamato was borrowing from the Sui and others during this period. Next episode—well, I'm honestly not sure what we'll be covering next, as there is just so much going on during Kashikiya-hime's reign. But stick around. Until next time, then, thank you for listening and for all of your support. If you like what we are doing, tell your friends and feel free to rate us wherever you listen to podcasts. If you feel the need to do more, and want to help us keep this going, we have information about how you can donate on Patreon or through our KoFi site, ko-fi.com/sengokudaimyo, or find the links over at our main website, SengokuDaimyo.com/Podcast, where we will have some more discussion on topics from this episode. Also, feel free to Tweet at us at @SengokuPodcast, or reach out to our Sengoku Daimyo Facebook page. You can also email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. And that's all for now. Thank you again, and I'll see you next episode on Sengoku Daimyo's Chronicles of Japan.
Evan Cheng is the Co-Founder and CEO at Mysten Labs building Sui, an innovative, decentralized Layer 1 blockchain that redefines asset ownership. Evan previously spent time at Apple and Meta. Why you should listen Sui aims to make Sui the most accessible smart contract platform, empowering developers to create great user experiences in web3. To usher in the next billion users, Sui empowers developers with various tools to take advantage of the power of the Sui blockchain. The Sui Development Kit (SDK) will enable developers to build without boundaries. Sui is a smart contract platform maintained by a permissionless set of validators that play a role similar to validators or miners in other blockchain systems. Sui offers scalability and unprecedented low-latency for simple use cases. Sui makes most transactions processable in parallel. This better utilizes processing resources and offers the option to increase throughput by adding more resources. Sui forgoes consensus to instead use simpler and lower-latency primitives for simple use cases, such as payment transactions and asset transfers. This is unprecedented in the blockchain world and enables a number of new latency-sensitive distributed applications ranging from gaming to retail payment at physical points of sale. Supporting links Bitget Bitget Academy Bitget Research Bitget Wallet Sui Andy on Twitter Brave New Coin on Twitter Brave New Coin If you enjoyed the show please subscribe to the Crypto Conversation and give us a 5-star rating and a positive review in whatever podcast app you are using.
La Striscia di Gaza ha una superficie di 365 chilometri quadrati e una popolazione di 2.1 milioni di persone, di cui 1.7 milioni sono rifugiati palestinesi. Su questo lembo di terra gli israeliani, colpiti dagli attacchi dei fondamentalisti di Hamas, hanno sganciato in sei giorni sulla almeno 6.000 bombe, per un peso di 4.000 tonnellate. Dicono di aver colpito 3600 obiettivi militari, ma il bilancio pesa tutto sulla popolazione civile palestinese: 1.537 i palestinesi morti nell'offensiva israeliana sulla Striscia di Gaza, di cui 500 bambini e 276 donne. I feriti sarebbero 6.612, tra cui 1.644 bambini. E gli altri, quelli vivi, si muovono tra i ruderi delle città, lungo viali e piazze rasi al suolo da ordigni di ogni tipo, nella mancanza di acqua e la totale assenza di elettricità. Ogni volta che i rumori dei bombardamenti si placano per qualche minuto, la gente esce con le taniche gialle, venti litri ciascuna, con un rubinetto attaccato al fondo, alla ricerca di un'autocisterna che passa una volta al giorno. A una famiglia media venti litri di acqua bastano per un solo giorno. Non si può conservare niente in frigorifero perché non c'è elettricità e la popolazione si arrangia come può. Non lavano la biancheria sporca da cinque giorni e stanno cercando di ridurre al minimo l'uso dell'acqua di rubinetto fino al limite della sopravvivenza. Sui lati delle strade si accatastano enormi cumuli di spazzatura, pieni di vetri rotti che la gente ha buttato dopo aver pulito le case danneggiate dagli attacchi aerei. Quanto può durare? Ore? Giorni? Di sicuro c'è che cibo e acqua, assicura l'agenzia dell'Onu, finiranno molto presto. Le forniture minime sono ancora garantite dai generatori, ma appena finirà il carburante si bloccherà tutto. E' una lotta contro il tempo nella Striscia di Gaza. I gruppi umanitari chiedono la creazione di corridoi per la consegna degli aiuti, ma tutto resta bloccato dall'assenza della politica, di una idea di pace duratura, dall'inerzia delle istituzioni internazionali e degli Stati. "Il Corsivo" a cura di Daniele Biacchessi non è un editoriale, ma un approfondimento sui fatti di maggiore interesse che i quotidiani spesso non raccontano. Un servizio in punta di penna che analizza con un occhio esperto quell'angolo nascosto delle notizie di politica, economia e cronaca. Per i notiziari sempre aggiornati ascoltaci sul sito: https://www.giornaleradio.fm oppure scarica la nostra App gratuita: iOS - App Store - https://apple.co/2uW01yA Android - Google Play - http://bit.ly/2vCjiW3 Resta connesso e segui i canali social di Giornale Radio: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/giornaleradio.fm/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/giornale_radio_fm/?hl=it Twitter: https://twitter.com/giornaleradiofm
In this episode, Erica and Susan welcome Julia Rosenthal to the mic. Julia is a physical therapist in NYC. She brings a complex case of a postpartum patient of hers who has symptoms of urinary incontinence as well as other bowel and bladder issues that were made worse after giving birth. The patient is a personal trainer and used to high-load exercise, so the need to get back to this is strong. She also has complaints of abdominal bloating along with occasional musculoskeletal pain with CKC lower extremity work. This discussion is rich in treatment interventions for Julia's patient- from nutritional strategies to hormonal interventions to specific exercises the patient can do while feeling like she is loading her system in the necessary ways. Erica and Susan also discuss the importance of the thorax and its relationship to the pelvis and how best to balance these 2 regions of the body. A glance at this episode: [2:13] Pelvic floor and orthopedic physical therapy for a postpartum woman with GI issues and fecal smearing [9:50] Postpartum bladder issues and musculoskeletal complaints [17:33] Thyroid issues and autoimmune disorders [21:36] Assessment and intervention for a patient with chronic constipation and pelvic floor dysfunction [27:36] Patient's pelvic floor mobility and lifestyle changes [33:06] Abdominal issues and breathing patterns [38:01] Managing IBS symptoms through breathing exercises and mindful eating [44:02] Using Nerva app for mental health [47:31] Exercises for a pregnant woman with thoracic issues [53:27] Addressing a personal trainer's physical and mental health issues [1:00:01] Patient care and therapy approaches. Related links: Tough To Treat Website Erica's Course: Decoding the Complex Patient Susan's Pelvic Health Education Subscription Access the Transcript Julia Rosenthal Website Julia Rosenthal IG
Timecodes: 0:00 Start 3:23 Video Voicemails 11:46 Jackie's breakup 28:53 Nikki Glaser Interview 31:06 Nikki struggling with Anorexia growing up 35:39 Feits' spring break villain origin story 39:12 C*ke vs Adderall 47:27 Nikki's Anorexia continued 52:09 SUI thoughts 01:06:05 Self Diagnosis have gotten out of control 01:11:15 Saying "daddy" in bed 01:27:22 V*brators and male s*x toys 01:49:27 FBoy Island 01:58:31 Taylor Swift and Travis Kelce ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Stacker2 Energy: Buy Stacker2Chew Energy Gummies and B12 Energy Shots at Dollar General, where you can find all your favorite Stacker 2 products, or go to https://Stacker2.com. BetterHelp: KFC Radio is sponsored by BetterHelp. Visit https://BetterHelp.com/KFC today to get 10% off your first month. HelloFresh: Go to https://HelloFresh.com/50kfc and use code 50kfc for 50% off plus free shipping! Bowlero: Head on over to Bowlero.com and find a place near you. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++You can find every episode of this show on Apple Podcasts, Spotify or YouTube. Prime Members can listen ad-free on Amazon Music. For more, visit barstool.link/kfcr
A bit about this podcast, this podcast is produced by Sui, Jasmin, and Milena and is about us creating a brand new planet for us to live in the future or now. This podcast is What would be your dream planet?
For more see: https://www.sengokudaimyo.com/podcast/episode-95 Rough Transcript Welcome to Sengoku Daimyo's Chronicles of Japan. My name is Joshua and this is Episode 96: From the Land Where the Sun Rises. We are still talking about the reign of Kashikiya Hime, aka Suiko Tenno, from the late 6th to the early 7th century. We've been covering discussions of the continental influences on the archipelago, especially as they adopted more and more continental practices—both religion and government. This episode we are going to continue the discussion regarding Yamato's interactions, specifically a notably famous trip to the continent and Yamato's apparent assumption of equality between their ruler, the Ohokimi, and the Emperor of the Sui dynasty—the Son of Heaven. We'll also touch on the changes Japan was adopting in their own government as a result of greater adoption of continental philosophy. These are largely seen as a Sinification—a trend towards a more “Chinese” style system—but I want to emphasize that a lot of this was filtered through the lens of the states on the Korean peninsula: Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla. This is one of the reasons I hesitate to just call it “Chinese”, as Yamato was really blending aspects of several cultural influences, as well as adding their own spice to the sauce. Hence, last episode we talked about Yamato's contact with the continent—specifically the Korean Peninsula—and the various diplomatic gifts, often put in terms of “tribute”, that came over. Besides a small menagerie of exotic animals and Buddhist statues, there were learned monks and various books conveying continental teachings. At the same time that Yamato was starting to experiment with a new, foreign religion—Buddhism—they began to experiment with other foreign concepts as well. They had members of the court studying specific disciplines, and presumably passing those on to others. I want to go more in depth into just what Yamato did and how they trans (Touch on the Rank System and the 17 Article Constitution once again) Now these 17 articles were almost all based on Confucian or Buddhist philosophy; clearly the Court was looking to the continent more and more for inspiration on how to govern, especially as it further expanded and solidified its grasp across the archipelago. Up to this point, much of that innovation had come through the Korean peninsula, by way of Silla, Goguryeo, and, most prominently, their ally Baekje. But no doubt they recognized that much of what was influencing those kingdoms had, itself, come from even farther away. And so, this reign, the Chronicles record that Yamato once again sent envoys beyond their peninsular neighbors all the way to the Middle Country itself. This is significant as they were making direct contact with the mighty empire, the source of so many of the philosophical and scientific innovations that Yamato was trying to adopt. This wasn't the first time this had happened, of course—we know of the cases of state of Na contacting the Han court, and then Himiko of the Wa during the Wei period, as well as several missions immediately after Himiko's death. We also know of the five kings of Wa who reached out to the Liu Song court, though the Chronicles themselves are often silent on actual embassies, making it hard to tell exactly which reigns that occurred in, though it is generally agreed that one of those “Five Kings” was none other than Wakatakiru himself, Yuuryaku Tennou. There may have been other missions. There seems to be some discussion amongst the Liang dynasty records that may indicate greater contact with Japan, but again, we don't necessarily see that in the records themselves. Furthermore, with the fractured nature of the various dynasties since the Han period, and the various conflicts on the peninsula and in the archipelago, it would be understandable if there hadn't been much direct diplomatic contact since about the time of Wakatakiru. And so it is a pretty big thing that we not only have an envoy around the year 608, but that there appears to be agreement for it in the Sui history—though there is one glaring mistake: in the Nihon Shoki they clearly say that they sent envoys to the “Great Tang”, and not the Sui. However, this is fairly easily explained. By the 8th century, as the records were being compiled, the Tang dynasty was, indeed, in control of the Chinese court. In fact, the Tang dynasty was so admired by the Japanese of the day that even now the term “Karafu”, or “Chinese style”, uses the character for the Tang dynasty, rather than the Han. On the one hand it seems as though the scholars of the 8th century would surely have known of the Sui dynasty coming before the Tang, but it is also understandable that anyone would have just thought of the successive courts as a single continuity. Either way, I'll talk about the Sui dynasty, and it is in the Sui dynasty records that we find the corresponding description of this embassy. It starts on the 3rd day of the 7th month of 607. The Chronicles tell us that Wono no Omi no Imoko was sent to the Sui court, taking along Kuratsukuri no Fukuri as an interpreter. As you may recall, the Kuratsukuri, or saddle-makers, claimed a descent from Shiba Tattou, himself from the continent. It would make sense to take someone who could actually speak the language or, failing that, read and write it. This was a peculiar function of the Chinese language, since the various dialects, though often mutually unintelligible, still use the same characters. Imoko, by the way, may have also had connections, but in this case it was to the Soga. We are told in the Nihon Shoki that Imoko was known in the Sui Court as “So Imko”, and the “So” character is the same as the first character in the name “Soga”. It is possible that Imoko was, indeed, a Soga family member, and the name Wono no Omi may have come later. Or it is possible that he was forgotten for some reason. In the Sui history, we are told that in the year 607 there was an envoy sent with tribute from King Tarashihoko, which may have been another name for Kashikiya Hime, or perhaps it was simply an error caused by the problems with attempting to record foreign names in Sinitic characters. According to the history as translated by Tsunoda Ryusaku and L. Carrington Goodrich, the envoy from Yamato explained the situation as such: “The King has heard that to the west of the ocean a Boddhisattva of the Sovereign reveres and promotes Buddhism. Accompanying the embassy are several tens of monks who have come to study Buddhism.” This is great as we see some of the things that the Japanese scholars left out—that there were Buddhists on this mission. For many, getting to the monasteries and temples of the Middle Kingdom was almost as good as making the trip all the way to India. Over all, the embassy appears to have been largely successful in their mission. The ambassador, Imoko, came back with an envoy from the Sui, Pei Shiqing, along with twelve other individuals. According to the Sui dynasty history, they first headed to Baekje, reaching the island of Chiku, and then, after seeing Tara in the south, they passed Tsushima and sailed out in to the deep ocean, eventually landing on the island of Iki. From there they made it to Tsukushi, and on to Suwo. They then passed through some ten countries until they came to the shore. Now, Naniwa no Kishi no Wonari had been sent to bring them to court and they had a new official residence erected for them in Naniwa—modern Ohosaka. When they arrived, on the 15th day of the 6th month of the year 608, Yamato sent out thirty heavily decorated boats to meet them—and no doubt to make an impression as well. They met them at Yeguchi, the mouth of the river and they were ensconced in the newly built official residence. Official entertainers were appointed for the ambassadors—Nakatomi no Miyatoko no Muraji no Torimaro, Ohohoshi no Kawachi no Atahe no Nukade, and Fume no Fumibito no Oohei. Meanwhile, Imoko continued on to the court proper to report on his mission. Unfortunately, for all of the goodness that came from the whole thing, the trip had not been completely flawless. The Sui court had entrusted Imoko with a letter to pass on to the Yamato court, but the return trip through Baekje proved… problematic, to say the least. We are told that men of Baekje stopped the party, searched them, and confiscated the letter. It is unclear whether these were Baekje officials or just some bandits, but the important thing was that Imoko had lost the message, which was a grave offense. The ministers suggested that, despite all of his success, Imoko should be banished for losing the letter. After all, it was the duty of an envoy to protect the messages between the courts at all costs. In the end, it was agreed that, yes, Imoko should be punished, but that it would be a bad look in front of their guests. After all, he had just represented them to the Sui Court, and so Kashikiya Hime pardoned Imoko of any wrongdoing. A couple months later, on the 3rd day of the 8th month, the preparations had been made and the envoys formally approached the palace. There were met on the Tsubaki no Ichi road by 75 well-dress horses—the Sui history says two hundred—and there Nukada no Muraji no Hirafu welcomed them all with a speech. After finally reaching the location of the palace, it was nine more days before they were formally summoned to present themselves and state their reason for coming. Abe no Tori no Omi and Mononobe no Yosami no no Muraji no Idaku acted as “introducers” for the guests, announcing who they were to the court. Then Pei Shiqing had the various diplomatic gifts arranged in the courtyard, and then presented his credentials to the court. Then, bowing twice, he gave his own account of why he had been sent—he announced greetings from the Sui emperor, recognized the work of Imoko, and then provided an excuse that the emperor himself could not make it due to his poor health. That last bit I suspect was a polite fiction, or perhaps an erroneous addition by the Chroniclers. After all, it isn't like the Sui emperors were in the habit of just flouncing off to an unknown foreign land—especially one across the sea. After delivering some polite niceties, Shiqing also provided a detailed list of all of the diplomatic gifts that they had brought. The dance that happened next is telling. In order to convey Pei Shiqing's letter to the sovereign, it wasn't like they could just hand it. There were levels of protocol and procedure that had to be observed, and so Abe no Omi took the letter up and handed it to Ohotomo no Kurafu no Muraji, who in turn placed it on a table in front of the Great gate where Kashikiya Hime could then get it. This setup is similar to the later court, where only certain individuals of rank were actually allowed up into the buildings of the palace, whereas others were restricted to the ground. After that formal introduction, there was a month or more of parties for the envoys, until finally they had to return to the Sui court. When they departed, they were sent with eight students and Imoko, who was bringing another letter to the Sui Court. The students were all scheduled to study various disciplines and bring the knowledge back to the Yamato court. But that wasn't quite so special, or at least we aren't given much more on the specifics of what the students brought back.. What really stands out in the Sui histories is the contents of the formal letter that Imoko was carrying, as it had a phrase that will be familiar to many students of this period of history, and which really connects across the Japanese and Sui histories, despite other inconsistencies. It read: “The Son of Heaven in the land where the sun rises addresses a letter to the Son of Heaven in the land where the sun sets. We hope you are in good health.” Or at least, that is how the Sui histories record it. In the Nihon Shoki they say something similar, “The Emperor of the East respectfully addresses the Emperor of the West.” Here, rather than using “Child of Heaven”, the author made use of the term “Tennou” when referring to the Yamato sovereign, and then different characters were used for the Sui emperor. At the same time, that is one of the reasons that I give more credence to the Sui history.. Of course, however you slice and dice this thing, there are some major airs being taken by the sovereign. Thus it is no wonder that, when the Sui emperor heard this, he was displeased, to say the least, and he told his minister that the letter was discourteous and should never again be brought to his attention. So that's a whole mood. The reason for this may be obvious, as the letter paints the sovereign of Japan as equal to the emperor of the Sui dynasty. That was indeed a bold claim. There is also the fact that they claim to be the land where the sun rises while the Sui are the land where the sun sets, which may have just been referencing east and west in a poetic fashion, but on another level it is almost as if they were talking about the rise of Yamato and the fall, or setting, of the Sui. I would note that we still don't see the term “Land of the Rising Sun”, or “Nihon”, used for the name of the country yet—one of the reasons I continue to refer to Yamato and not just “Japan”. However, all of this is in keeping with the traditions of the Wa people as we know them—the sun was given a special place in their worldview, as demonstrated linguistically, and not just through the legends curated in the 8th century. The Nihon Shoki mentions this letter, but not for this first Certainly, as Japan continued to take on more and more trappings of the continental courts, they would eventually even take on the term Tennou—also read in Japanese as Sumera no Mikoto—to refer to the sovereign. This is basically saying that the sovereign is, indeed, a Heavenly Son, and which they would come to translate as “emperor”, in English. There would be other terminology and trappings that would reinforce this concept, which placed the sovereign of Japan in a position that at least locally seemed to be much more prestigious. Imoko came back from this last diplomatic mission and was well beloved—some later sources even suggest that he may have been promoted for his diplomatic efforts. Oddly, however, we don't really hear more, if anything, about Imoko, and he fades back into the past. And so that covers much of the story of what Yamato was borrowing form the Sui and others during this period. Next episode—well, I'm honestly not sure what we'll be covering next, as there is just so much. But stick around. Until next time, then, thank you for listening and for all of your support. If you like what we are doing, tell your friends and feel free to rate us wherever you listen to podcasts. If you feel the need to do more, and want to help us keep this going, we have information about how you can donate on Patreon or through our KoFi site, ko-fi.com/sengokudaimyo, or find the links over at our main website, SengokuDaimyo.com/Podcast, where we will have some more discussion on topics from this episode. Also, feel free to Tweet at us at @SengokuPodcast, or reach out to our Sengoku Daimyo Facebook page. You can also email us at email@example.com. And that's all for now. Thank you again, and I'll see you next episode on Sengoku Daimyo's Chronicles of Japan.
This episode we will look at the influences on Japan from the continent, starting with what was going on between the archipelago and the peninsula with tribute--in the form of birds and even books--as well as conflict. We'll start to look at what sorts of knowledge was being passed over to Japan in the form of various books, and hopefully set the stage for changes that we will eventually see in the form of the Yamato government, itself. For more, check out our blog post at https://sengokudaimyo.com/podcast/episode-94 Rough Transcript Welcome to Sengoku Daimyo's Chronicles of Japan. My name is Joshua, and this is Episode 94: Magpies, Buddhism, and the Baekje Summer Reading Program This is one of a multi-part series discussing the late 6th and early 7th centuries during the reign of Kashikiya Hime, aka Suiko Tennou. Last episode, Episode 93, I did a very quick overview of just what is going on and some of the players involved. This episode I want to start deep diving into some of the topics, and we're going to start with looking at the relationship between Yamato and the Continent, primarily, but not exclusively, through their relationships, the gifts and tribute that was going back and forth, and immigration—primarily from Baekje and Silla—and the importation of new ideas, not just Buddhism. This in turn would would eventually lead to a formal change in the way that the Yamato state governed itself and how it came to see itself even as an equal to that of the Sui court, which had unified the various kingdoms of the Yangtze and Yellow River Basins in the area of modern China. To begin, we'll go back a bit, because this dynamic isn't simply about Kashikiya Hime, Soga no Umako, or any one, single figure—though that is often how it is portrayed. To start with, let's cover some background and what we know about the archipelago and the continent. As we went over many, many episodes back, the early Yayoi period, prior to the Kofun period, saw a growth in material cultural items that were from or quite similar to those on the Korean peninsula. There had been some similarities previously, during the Jomon period, but over the course of what now looks to be 1200 to 1300 years, the is evidence of people going regularly back and forth across the straits. It is quite likely that there were Wa cultural entities on both sides in the early centuries BCE, and there are numerous groups mentioned on the Korean peninsula, presumably from different ethno-linguistic backgrounds, though typically only three areas get much focus: The Samhan, or three Han, of Mahan, Byeonhan, and Jinhan. Later this would shift to three Kingdoms: Baekje, Silla, and Goguryeo, and they would get almost all of the press. Still, we know that there were groups like the Gaya, or Kara, confederacy, and likely other small, eventually isolated groups that did not have their stories written down anywhere, other than mentions in the Chronicles of Japan or of one of the other three major Kingdoms of the peninsula. These groups continued to trade with the continent, and as the archipelago entered the period of mounded tombs, they were doing so as part of a larger mounded tomb cultural area that included both the archipelago and the Korean peninsula: First the funkyubo, which is to say burial mounds, with multiple burials, and then the kofun, the singular tomb mounds for an individual and possibly their direct relatives. This tradition reached its apex with the distinct zenpo-koen, or round-keyhole style, kofun, an innovation that was rooted in continental practice but at the same time distinctly a part of the archipelago. Many artifacts came over throughout this period, and a fair number of them came with a new innovation: writing. There is debate over the earliest forms of “writing” to be found in the islands, with evidence of characters on pottery being questioned as to its authenticity. However, it is hard to question the writing that appeared on the early bronze mirrors and other such artifacts that showed up. Early writing on the archipelago is more decorative or even performative—crude attempts to copy existing characters that often demonstrate a lack of understanding, at least by the artisans that were making various elite goods. Though, based on the fact that even obvious forgeries with nonsense characters made their way into tombs as grave goods, we can probably assume that most of the elites were not too concerned with writing, either, other than for its decorative, and possibly even talismanic qualities. In the fourth and fifth centuries, this began to change. We have specialists and teachers coming over to the archipelago, often there as tutors for the royal Baekje princes who were apparently staying in Yamato as part of a diplomatic mission. No doubt some Yamato elites began to learn to read and write, but even at this point it seems to have been more of a novelty, and for several centuries reading and writing would seem to have remained largely the purview of educated immigrant communities who came to Yamato and set up shop. Though, along with things like the horse, writing may have nonetheless assisted Yamato in extending its authority, as speech could now, with a good scribe, be committed to paper or some other medium and then conveyed great distances without worry about something begin forgotten. So, at this point, writing appears to mostly be utilitarian in purpose. It fills a need. That said, we have discussion of the Classics, and as reading and writing grew, exposure to writings on philosophy, religion, and other topics expanded. After all, reading meant that you were no longer reliant on simply whom you could bring over from the continent. Instead, you could import their thoughts—or even the thoughts of humans long dead—and read them for yourself. In the early 6th century, we see Baekje sending over libraries worth of books. These are largely focused on Buddhist scriptures, but they also include other works of philosophy as well. It is unclear to me how much the evangelical nature of Buddhism contributed to this spread. Buddhism exhorts believers to share the Buddha's teachings with all sentient beings. Even during the Buddha's lifetime, his disciples would go out and teach and then gather back with their teacher during the rainy season. Buddhist teachings, coming over in books—the sutras—came alongside of other writings. There were writings about philosophy, about medicine, and about science, including things that we might today consider magical or supernatural. Those who knew how to read and write had access to new knowledge, to new ideas, and to new ways of thinking. We can see how all of this mixed in the ways that things are described in the Chronicles. For example, we see that many of the rulers up to this point have been described in continental terms as wise and sage kings. Now, as Buddhism starts to gain a foothold, we see Buddhist terminology entering in to the mix. In some ways it is a mishmash of all of the different texts that were coming over, and it seems that things were coming more and more to a head. In addition, there were things going on over on the continent as well, and this would come to also affect the archipelago. For one thing, this was a period of unification and consolidation of the various state polities. Baekje and Silla had been consolidating the smaller city-states under their administration for some time, and in 589 the Sui dynasty finally achieved what so many had tried since the time of the Jin—they consolidated control over both the Yangtze and Yellow River basins. They set up their capital, and in so doing they had control of the largest empire up to that point in the history of East Asia. The Sui dynasty covered not only these river basins, but they also had significant control over the Western Regions, out along the famous Silk Road. The Sui could really make some claim to being Zhongguo, the Middle Kingdom, with so many of the trade routes passing through their territory. They also controlled the lands that were the source of so much of the literary tradition—whether that was the homelands of sages like Confucius, or else the gateway to India and the home of Buddhism. It is perfectly understandable that those states in the Sui's orbit would enter a period of even further Sinification. For the archipelago this was likely through a lens tinted by their intermediaries on the Korean peninsula, but even they were clearly looking to the Sui and adopting some of the tools of statecraft that had developed over in the lands of the Middle Kingdom. During the early years of the Sui, Yamato had been involved in their own struggles, and at the end of the previous reign Yamato had an army in Tsukushi poised to head over and chastise Silla for all that they had done to Nimna, but then Hasebe was assassinated, and it is unclear what actually happened to that expedition. Yamato started gathering an army in 591, and Kishi no Kana and Kishi no Itahiko were sent to Silla and Nimna, respectively, as envoys, and then we are told that in 595 the generals and their men arrived from Tsukushi. Does that mean that they went over to the peninsula, fought, and then came back from Tsukushi? It is all a little murky, and not entirely clear to me. Rather, we are told that in 597 the King of Baekje sent Prince Acha to Yamato with so-called “tribute”—the diplomatic gifts that we've discussed before, re-affirming Baekje and Yamato's alliance. Later that same year, Iwagane no Kishi was sent to Silla, so presumably Yamato and Silla relations had improved. Iwagane no Kishi returned back some five months later, in 598, and he offered a gift from the Silla court of two magpies to Kashikiya Hime. We are told that they were kept in the wood of Naniwa, where they built a nest in a tree and had their young. Aston notes here that magpies are plentiful on the continent but not in Japan. Indeed, their natural range is noted across eastern China and up through the Amur river region, as well as a subspecies up in Kamchatka, and yet it seems like they didn't exactly stray far from the coast. In modern Japan, the magpie, is considered to be an invasive species, and the current populations likely were brought over through trade in the late 16th century, suggesting that this initial couple of birds and their offspring did not exactly work out. Even today magpies are mostly established in Kyushu, with occasional sightings further north—though they have been seen as far north as Hokkaido. Perhaps Naniwa just was not quite as hospitable for them. There is also the possibility that the term “magpie” was referencing some other, similar bird. That is always possible and hard to say for certain. That said, it is part of a trend, as four months later, in the autumn of 598, a Silla envoy brought another bird: this time a peacock. Not to be outdone, apparently, a year later, in the autumn of 599, Baekje sent a veritable menagerie: a camel, two sheep, and a white pheasant. Presumably these were sent alive, though whether or not there was anyone in Japan who knew how to take care of them it is unclear. I can only imagine what it must have been like to have such animals on board the ship during the treacherous crossing of the Korea strait—for all we know there were other exotic gifts that were likewise sent, but these are the only ones that made it. And if this sounds far-fetched, we have plenty of evidence of the exotic animal trade. Animals such as ostriches, and possibly even a giraffe or two, were somehow moved all the way from Africa along the silk road to the court in Chang'an. There were also “tribute” gifts sent from parts of the archipelago, though I suspect this was quite different from the diplomatic gifts shared between states. For example, there was a white deer sent to Kashikiya Hime from the land of Koshi in the winter of 598. It was no camel or magpie, but white or albino animals—assuming that wasn't their normal color—were considered auspicious symbols. Also, in 595 there was a huge log that washed ashore in Awaji. A local family hauled it up and went to use it as firewood when they noticed that it gave off a particularly sweet smell. Immediately they put out the fire, as they suddenly realized what they had: it was a log of aloeswood. Aloeswood is well known as one of the most highly prized aromatic woods, and it famously does not grow in Japan. In fact, it is a tropical wood, growing in Southeast Asia. For a log to have washed ashore is almost unbelievable—perhaps it was part of a trade shipment that sank. It isn't impossible that a log somehow fell, naturally, into the ocean and followed the currents all the way up to Japan, which would have been quite the journey. And so, with such a rare gift, the people offered it up to Kashikiya Hime. This was probably the best course of action. They could use it for themselves, but that likely wouldn't have done much other than help perfume the air for a time. Or they could have tried to sell it—but given the rarity, I'm sure there would have been questions. In both cases, I suspect that they would have been at risk of some elite getting wind and deciding that they should just take it for themselves. By offering it to the court, publicly, they received the credit for it, at least—and it probably put them in favor with the court at least for a little while. Logs like this would be treated with immense respect. Small pieces would be taken, often ground down and used sparingly. A piece much like this called “Ranjatai” came over as a gift from the Tang dynasty in the 8th century, and was later preserved at Todaiji in the 8th century, and is still there as part of the Shosoin collection. The story of this particular one is interesting in that knowledge of aloeswood and the tradition of scent appreciation likely came over from the continent, probably from the Sui and Tang dynasties, as part of the overall cultural package that the archipelago was in the midst of absorbing. Despite the apparently good relations indicated by gifts like magpies or peacocks, it is clear there were still some contentions with Silla, especially given that nobody had forgotten their takeover of Nimna, and it didn't help that in 600, we are told that Silla and Nimna went to war with each other--again. It isn't clear just how involved Yamato was in this, if at all—by all accounts, Nimna has already been under Silla control. Was this a local rebellion? An attempt by Yamato and Baekje to split it off? Or something else? Or is it just a fabrication to justify the next bit, where we are told that Kashikiya Hime sent an army of 10,000 soldiers under the command of Sakahibe no Omi as Taishogun and Hozumi no Omi as his assistant, the Fukushogun? They crossed the waters over to Silla and laid siege to five of Silla's fortresses, forcing Silla to raise the white flag. The Nihon Shoki claims that Silla then ceded six fortified places: Tatara, Sonara, Pulchikwi, Witha, South Kara, and Ara. Since Silla submitted, the Yamato troops stopped their assault and Kashikiya Hime sent Naniwa no Kishi no Miwa to Silla and Naniwa no Kishi no Itahiko to Nimna to help broker some sort of peace. Interestingly, this seems quite similar to the account of 591, when they sent “Kishi no Itahiko”, with no mention of Naniwa. Presumably it is the same individual, and I have to wonder if it isn't the same event, just relocated and duplicated for some reason. A peace was brokered, and the Yamato troops departed, but it seems that Silla was dealing in something other than good faith: no sooner had the Yamato troops gotten back in their boats than Silla once again invaded Nimna, again. I'd like to stress that there is no evidence of this at all that I could find in the Samguk Sagi, and it is possible that some of this is in the wrong section, possibly to simply prop up this period, in general. However, it is equally as likely that the Samguk Sagi simply did not record a loss to Yamato—especially one that they quickly overturned, setting things back to the status quo. As such, the best we can say is that Silla and Yamato around this time were less than buddy buddy. With Silla going back on their word, Yamato reached out to Goguryeo and Baekje in 601. Ohotomo no Muraji no Kurafu went to Goguryeo, while Sakamoto no Omi no Nukade traveled to Baekje. Silla was not just waiting around, however, and we are told that Silla sent a spy to Yamato, but they were arrested and found out in Tsushima. They arrested him and sent him as tribute to the Yamato court. We are told that the spy's name was “Kamata”, and he was banished to Kamitsukenu—aka the land of Kenu nearer to the capital, later known as Kouzuke. And there are a few things about this story that I think we should pull on. First off, that name: Kamata. That feels very much like a Wa name, more than one from the peninsula. We aren't told their ethnicity, only whom they were working for, so it may have been someone from Wa, or possibly that is just the name by which they were known to the archipelago. There likely were Wa who were living on the peninsula, just like there were people from Baekje, Silla, and Koguryeo living in the archipelago, so that's not out of the question. Furthermore, it would make sense, if you wanted to send someone to spy on Yamato, to use someone who looked and sounded the part. The punishment is also interesting. They didn't put him to death. And neither did they imprison him. In fact, I'm not sure that there would have been anywhere to imprison him, as there wasn't really a concept of a “prison” where you just lock people up. There may have been some form of incarceration to hold people until they could be found guilty and punished, but incarceration as a punishment just doesn't really come up. Instead, if you wanted to remove someone, banishment seems to have been the case—sending them off somewhere far away, presumably under the care of some local official who would make sure that they didn't run off. Islands, like Sado Island, were extremely useful for such purposes, but there are plenty of examples where other locations were used as well. They probably could have levied a fine, as well, but that seems almost pointless, as he would have been free to continue to spy on Yamato. Instead they sent him about as far away from Silla and Silla support as they could send him. This also speaks to the range of Yamato's authority. It would seem that Tsushima was at least nominally reporting to Yamato, though given that he was sent as “tribute” to the court, that may indicate that they still had some level of autonomy. And then there must have been someone in Kamitsukenu in order to banish someone all the way out there, as well. Of course, given all of this, it is hardly surprising that Yamato was back to discussing the possibility of making war with Silla again. And so, in the second month of 602, Prince Kume was appointed for the invasion of Silla, and he was granted the various “Be” of the service of the kami—possibly meaning groups like the Imbe and the Nakatomi, along with the Kuni no Miyatsuko, the Tomo no Miyatsuko, and an army of 25,000 men. And they were ready to go quickly—only two months later they were in Tsukushi, in the district of Shima, gathering ships to ferry the army over to the peninsula. Unfortunately, two months later, things fell apart. On the one hand, Ohotomo no Muraji no Kurafu and Sakamoto no Omi no Nukade returned back from Baekje, where they likely had been working with Yamato's allies. Kurafu had been on a mission to Goguryeo and Nukade had been sent to Baekje the previous year. However, at the same time, Prince Kume fell ill, and he was unable to carry out the invasion. In fact, the invasion was stalled at least through the next year, when, in about the 2nd month of 603, almost a year after Prince Kume had been sent out, a mounted courier brought news to Kashikiya Hime that he had succumbed to his illness. She immediately consulted with her uncle, Soga no Umako, and the Crown Prince, Umayado, and asked them for their counsel. Ultimately, she had Kume's body taken to Saba in Suwo, out at the western end of the Seto Inland Sea side of western Honshu, modern Yamaguchi Prefecture, where the prince was temporarily interred, with Hashi no Muraji no Wite, possibly a local official, overseeing the ceremony. Later, Wite's descendants in the region were called the Saba no Muraji. Kume was finally buried atop Mt. Hanifu in Kawachi. A quick note here about time. It is sometimes difficult to figure out just what happened when. This is all noted for the fourth day of the second month of 603. Clearly it didn't all happen in one day, so what actually happened on that day? Remember, Kume fell ill in the 6th month of 602, and we are now in the 2nd month of the following year. So did he fall ill and then was wasting away for 8 months before he passed away? Or is this the date when the court learned of his death? Or is it the date when his body was finally buried? There is a lot going on, and they don't exactly provide a day-to-day. My general take is that this is when the news arrived at the court, which is when there would have been a court record, while the rest was likely commentary added for context, even if it happened much later. In addition, this whole thing holds some questions for me, not the least the name of this prince: Kume. Presumably, Kume was a full brother to none other than the Crown Prince, Prince Umayado. He was also a son of Princess Anahobe and the sovereign, Tachibana no Toyohi, and we have seen then name “Kume” before as a name, or at least a sobriquet, for someone in the royal family. However, it also means “army”, which seems surprisingly on the nose, given that all we are given about him is that he was supposed to lead an army. It makes me wonder if this wasn't one of those half-remembered stories that the Chroniclers included without all of the information. Then again, maybe Kume really was his name, and this is all just a coincidence. I also would note that it was not typical to have a royal prince leading an expedition like this. Typically, the taishogun would be someone from an influential family, but not a member of the royal family, themselves. That this army was being led by a royal prince also seems to speak to how this was seen as significant. Perhaps that is why, when Kume passed away, they chose as his replacement his older brother: Tahema. [Look up more on Tahema and if I can find out about him] Tahema was selected to take over for his younger brother on the first day of the 4th month of 603, and 3 months later, on the 3rd day of the 7th month, he was leaving out of Naniwa. He didn't get very far, however. Tahema embarked on this adventure along with his own wife, Princess Toneri. We've seen this in past episodes, where women were in the camp alongside their husbands, directly supporting the campaigns. Unfortunately, in this case, Princess Toneri died shortly into their journey, at Akashi. This is recorded as only three days after they had departed, which likely means it happened quickly. They buried her at Higasa Hill, but Tahema, likely grieving his loss, returned, and never carried out the invasion. Five years later, things may have improved with Silla, as there were a number of immigrants—we are only told that they were “many persons”—came to settle in Japan. What isn't noted is whether or not this was of their own volition. What forces drove them across from the peninsula? Did they realize that there were opportunities to come and provide the Yamato elites with their continental knowledge and skills? Were they prisoners of war? If so, where was the war? Or were they fleeing conflict on the peninsula? Perhaps political refugees? It isn't exactly clear. While things were rocky with Silla, relations seem to have been much better with the Baekje and Goguryeo. While exotic animals may have been the gift of choice in the early part of the period, by 602, Baekje and Goguryeo were both sending gifts of a different sort. These were more focused on spiritual and intellectual pursuits. And so, in 602, a Baekje priest named Kwalleuk—or Kanroku, in the Japanese pronunciation—arrived bringing books on a number of different subjects, which three or four members of the court were assigned to study. We don't know exactly what the contents of each book was, but based on what we generally know about later theories, we can probably make some educated guesses that much of this was probably based on concepts of yin and yang energies. Yin and yang, were considered primal energies, and at some point I will need to do a full episode just on this, but during the Han dynasty, many different cosmological theories came together and were often explained in terms of yin and yang. So elemental theory is explained as each element has some different portion of yin and yang, and similarly different directions, different times of day, and different times of the year were all explained as different proportions of yin and yang energies, which then contributed to whether certain actions would be easier or more difficult—or even outright dangerous. The book on calendar-making, or ”koyomi”, was assigned to Ohochin, whose name suggests that he may have been from a family from the continent, and he was the ancestor of the Yako no Fumibito. Calendar-making was considered one of the more important roles in continental sciences, although it never quite took off to the same degree in Yamato. Still, it described the movement of the stars and how to line up the lunar days with various celestial phenomena. It also was important for understanding auspicious and inauspicious days, directions, and more—arts like divination, geomancy, and straight up magic would often provide instructions that required an understanding of the proper flow of yin and yang energies, as represented by the elements, and expressed on the calendar in terms of the elemental branch and stem system, with each day being related to a given element in an either greater or lesser capacity, usually related as the elder or younger brother. Events might be scheduled to take place, for instance, on the first rat day of the first month, and so the calendar maker would be the one to help determine when that would be. Also, since the solar and lunar calendars were not in synch, there would occasionally be a need for a “leap month”, often known as an extra-calendrical month, which would typically just repeat the previous month. This would happen, literally, “once in a blue moon”, an English expression referring to a solar month with two full moons. In fact, we just had one of those last month, in August of 2023. This isn't to say that the archipelago didn't have a system of keeping track of seasons, etc. Clearly they were successfully planting and harvesting rice, so they had knowledge of roughly what time it was in the year, though there are some thoughts that a “year” was originally based on a single growing period, leading to two or three “years” each solar year. Either way, farmers and others no doubt knew at least local conditions and what to look for regarding when to plant, and when to perform local ceremonies, but this was clearly a quote-unquote, “scientific” approach, based on complex and authoritative sounding descriptions of yin and yang energies. Closely related to the calendar-making studies, another book that the Baekje priest Kwalleuk brought over was one on Astronomy, or “Tenmon”, a study of the heavens, which was studied by Ohotomo no Suguri no Kousou. For perhaps obvious reasons, astronomy and calendar-making were closely aligned, since the change in the stars over the course of the year would often have impacts on the calendar. However, this was also likely very closely aligned with something akin to astrology, as well, following the celestial paths of various entities, many of those being things like planets. If you aren't aware, planets, though they often appear in the sky as “stars”, have apparently erratic movements across the heavens. The stars generally remain fixed, and from our perspective appear to “move” together throughout the year. Planets, however, take funky loop-de-loop paths through our sky, as they, like the earth, are also orbiting the sun. Furthermore, different planets orbit at different speeds. All of this leads to some apparently strange movements, especially if you envision the sky as a round dome over a flat earth. There are also other phenomenon, from regular meteor showers to comets, and even eclipses, all of which were thought to have their own reasons. Some of these were considered natural—neither auspicious nor inauspicious—while others were thought to impact the flow of yin yang energy on the earth, thus potentially affecting our day-to-day lives. Kousou was apparently trying to get the special bonus for the summer reading program, because he also studied another book that came over from Baekje on a subject that Aston translates as “Invisibility”, or “tonkou”. This is a little less obvious an explanation. I don't think that they were literally studying, ninja-style, how to not to be seen. In discussions of kami we've talked in the past about visible kami and, thus, conversely, invisible kami. It appears to be based on a type of divination to help better understand auspicious and inauspicious signs, and is based on a blend of various theories, again connected to a large yin-yang theory. Finally, there was another volume that was studied by Yamashiro no Omi no Hinamitsu that Aston translates as straight up “magic”, or “houjutsu”. Of course, in the worldview at the time, Magic was just another science that we didn't understand. By understanding the flow of yin and yang, one can affect various things, from helping cure disease and heal the sick to causing calamity, even to the point of possibly learning the secrets of immortality. Much of this would fall into the terms “onmyoudou”, the way of Yin and Yang, and there had been some work on that introduced earlier. That it was being introduced by a Buddhist priest demonstrates what I was saying earlier about just how interconnected it all was. Other Buddhist gifts were much more straightforward. In 605, for instance, the king of Goguryeo sent 300 Ryou of what they call “yellow metal”, possibly an admixture of gold and copper, for a Buddhist image. Five years later they sent two priests. One of them, Tamchi, is said to have known the Five Classics, that is the Confucian classics, as well as how to prepare different colored paints, paper, and ink. All of this is interesting, but it is the usual suspects. Yamato had been siphoning off culture and philosophy from the states and kingdoms of the Korean peninsula for some time, and in that time, they began to adopt various continental practices. In later centuries, much of this would be attributed to the work of Shotoku Taishi, aka Prince Umayado, especially the transmission of Buddhist thought, although for the most part we haven't actually seen a lot of that in the Chronicles themselves, which we'll get to. However, later stories paint him as one of the main forces pushing for reform in the court, especially when they would eventually push for a new, 17 article constitution, based on principles pulled from a variety of sources—both Buddhist and Han philosophical foundations. Along with that constitution, the court also instituted a 12 rank system for court ministers. This ranking system would remain in place, eventually replacing entirely the kabane system that ranked individuals based on their family in favor of ranking one for their individual achievements. Furthermore, it wasn't just a status symbol. Rank would come into play in all aspects of courtly life, from the parts of the palace you were allowed to be in, the kinds of jobs you could do, and even the amount that you were paid for your service, making the families of the land part of and dependent on the bureaucracy. And with such a system in place, there was only one natural thing for it: The Yamato court would reach out beyond the Korean peninsula and go directly to the source. They would send envoys to the court of the Sui Emperor himself and establish relations with the Middle Kingdom directly, leading to one of the most famous diplomatic incidents in all of the early Japanese history. And that is where I'm going to have to leave it for now, because once we get into that rabbit hole we are going to have a whole other episode. And so now we are fully grounded in our foundation. We can see Yamato importing people and also ideas from the continent, through the peninsula, and those ideas are taking root. They are causing changes, at least at the Yamato court, but those changes would eventually make there way throughout society, and forever change Japan and even how they see themselves. The lens of what is commonly seen as Buddhist and Confucian thought would be a powerful tool that would shape the ideas to come. Until next time, then, thank you for listening and for all of your support. If you like what we are doing, tell your friends and feel free to rate us wherever you listen to podcasts. If you feel the need to do more, and want to help us keep this going, we have information about how you can donate on Patreon or through our KoFi site, ko-fi.com/sengokudaimyo, or find the links over at our main website, SengokuDaimyo.com/Podcast, where we will have some more discussion on topics from this episode. Also, feel free to Tweet at us at @SengokuPodcast, or reach out to our Sengoku Daimyo Facebook page. You can also email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. And that's all for now. Thank you again, and I'll see you next episode on Sengoku Daimyo's Chronicles of Japan.
Francesco Battistini racconta le conseguenze del sisma di magnitudo 6.8 della scala Richter (con epicentro lungo la catena dell'Atlante, 70 km a sud della città) che venerdì scorso ha colpito la parte centrale del Paese: più che la celebre località turistica, ad avere subito i danni maggiori sono i piccoli paesi di montagna. E intanto la catastrofe si intreccia con la geopolitica: il via libera ai soccorsi internazionali è stato accordato solo a un numero limitato di Paesi.Per altri approfondimenti:Perché il Marocco accetta aiuti da pochi Paesi?Sui monti di Marrakech dimenticati dai soccorsi: “Qui non c'è più nulla”Carlo Doglioni (Ingv): “Tra Italia e Marocco molte analogie, ma nessuna relazione con i terremoti recenti nel nostro Paese”
This episode we start our dive into the reign of Kashikiya Hime, aka Suiko Tenno. This is going to be a brief overview of her reign so that we can dive more deeply into the individual subjects that come up. For more, check out our podcast blogpost at https://sengokudaimyo.com/podcast/episode-93 Rough Transcript: Welcome to Sengoku Daimyo's Chronicles of Japan. My name is Joshua and this is episode 93: Time to Shake Things Up. Before we get started, a couple of shout-outs. First to Anticia, for donating on Ko-Fi.com. Thanks for your kind words and supporting our operations, including our website and this podcast. And then to Lowbrow78 and to Parp for supporting us on Patreon. If you want to join them, we have information on our website as well as at the end of every episode. Here we are, at the cusp of the 7th century. With the death of Hasebe no Ohokimi, aka Sushun Tennou, we are about to jump into one of the most significant reigns to date: that of Kashikiya Hime, aka Suiko Tennou. I put this right up there with the reign of Waketakiru, aka Yuryaku Tennou, and like that period, we'll need several episodes to get through everything going on here. In fact, I've been thinking about just how to do this, and I think before we get into it we need to cover the broad strokes and talk about a few things, and then I want to delve into some specifics over the coming episodes. This means we'll cover a lot this episode at a high level. To start with, we'll talk about the power players of this period, and just who was really running the show—we have three people to pick from based on various interpretations of this era. And that will have us talking about Shotoku Taishi, and of course Shotoku Taishi's impact vis-à-vis Buddhism, as well as the growth of Buddhism in general. There is also the general Sinification of the court, which means that we also get to talk about clothing styles and the appearance of a new “17 Article Constitution” as well as the new 12 rank system for court officers. And then there is everything happening on the mainland. In 589 the Sui dynasty came to power, followed in 618 by the Tang. And of course we still have Baekje and Silla going at it, and Yamato just cannot leave well enough alone when it comes to Nimna. All of that will get covered in even more detail, later. But don't worry, it isn't all going to be generalities and vague preparations. We also have a little tidbit for you at the end about earthquakes and the deities that cause them, because *that* is something we can easily cover here. And one more thing: This is the last reign that we have any documentation for in the Kojiki and the Sendai Kuji Hongi, even though the Kojiki is largely just genealogical information. That means we are getting close to the end of the “Chronicles”. We still have a lot of material to get through, though, including assassinations, coups, military expeditions, and even a full blown civil war. All that to come later, after we get through this period. So let's set the stage, shall we? This reign is coming at a very tumultuous time. We've been through several sovereigns or would-be sovereigns in a very short span, starting with Tachibana no Toyohi and then Hasebe, aka Yomei Tennou and Sushun Tennou, not to mention the failed attempt to take the throne early by Hasetsukabe Anahobe and Mononobe no Moriya. Even Hasebe was killed by his own Oho-omi, Soga no Umako—or at least at Umako's order, if not directly by his own hand. It's become clear you didn't want to be crossing Umako, and he was the most powerful minister at court at this point. There wasn't a cabal of Oho-omi and Oho-muraji, there was simply Umako at the top. However, his rule was not absolute. He still needed the buy-in of the other ministers, the heads of their own families, as well as the nominal approval of the sovereign and the royal family. I'm honestly surprised nobody tried to put a dagger in his back, but then again anyone who might try had so far ended up with their successors caught up in probate, and it didn't matter how powerful a position they supposedly occupied. Still, Umako couldn't take the throne himself. Not even he could get away with that looking like anything more than a power grab. He had already positioned Soga-descended members of the royal family so that they were in the line of succession, something that really looks like it went against tradition—though how old that tradition was is more than a little sus, as we've mentioned before. And so, with the death of Hasebe, someone was needed on the throne, but who was available? The political violence had even extended to some of the heirs, like Prince Hikobito, and it is unclear how many princes were even left at this point. The Chronicles tell us that the ministers therefore turned to Kashikiya Hime, and begged her to take the throne. As a reminder, Kashikiya Hime was the form queen—wife to Nunakura Futodamashiki, aka Bidatsu Tennou. Beyond that, she was a granddaughter of Soga no Iname, making Soga no Umako her maternal uncle. Her father was Ame Kunioshi Hiraki Hiro Niha, aka Kimmei Tennou. During the period following Ame Kunioshi's death, she had attempted to put her finger on the scales of the power struggles that occurred, and she seemed to be a person that people listened to and took seriously in her role, though male heirs were at least initially considered before her. And so, when she was first asked to take the throne after Hasebe, she refused, but eventually the court ministers able to convince her. Upon coming to power she almost immediately made Prince Umayado the Heir Apparent, or Taishi—the Crown Prince. Then we are told that, along with Prince Umayado, aka Shotoku Taishi, she and Soga no Umako, the Oho-omi, ruled the government. And I hope I don't need to point out how exceedingly strange this wording is. Technically it isn't unprecedented—in previous reigns we've certainly seen the Crown Prince taking an active role in the government, and the Oho-omi and the Oho-muraji, together, were frequently in positions to advise, counsel, and downright run the government, often skipping over the sovereign altogether. So nothing here is so far outside the scope, but it is still odd that it was so blatantly stated, and there is good reason to believe that we don't have the whole story. Theories on Kashikiya Hime and her reign vary widely. Michael Como claims that she was likely a consensus candidate—she was put forward because she was not overly objectionable to any of the other parties involved. I suspect she had links to both sides of the dispute, so this make some sense, but I also wonder if it doesn't remove her own agency. Speaking of which, there is the possibility that she had very little agency in any of this. There is the possibility that she was no more than a puppet—a relatively docile sovereign that Soga no Umako, or even Prince Umayado, could control, allowing them to work in the background. Indeed, one of the things we'll see during this period is the increasing ritualization of the role of the sovereign, to the point that the Oho-omi was a powerful intermediary, receiving missives to the throne and relaying them onward, with ample opportunity to affect just how they were heard. Often the Chroniclers found ways to deny the true agency of women on the throne, noting them less as sovereigns, and more as regents—often merely keeping the seat warm until an appropriate male heir presented himself and came of age. That may have been the case at times, but I have a hard time seeing that in Kashikiya Hime. Maybe when she first married Nunakura that may have been her outlook, but since then she'd seen some things. She knew how the game worked, and we've seen her actively mentioned supporting one candidate or another, and not always agreeing with Soga no Umako's decisions. It is possible that this was added later to support her independence in the Chronicles, but I think that the easier answer is that Kashikiya Hime was her own person, and as ruler she was the authority that held sway. Still, there are so many questions, and a lot of those revolve around her choice of successor, Prince Umayado, the Prince of the Horse Stable Door, aka Shotoku Taishi. Shotoku Taishi is one of those legendary figures, somewhere between Yamato Takeru and Abe no Seimei. So many stories have grown up around this sage prince that it is truly hard to pry fact from fiction, and many wonder if he ever existed at all. Others suggest that he's an amalgamation of several different historical and legendary figures. Even by the time the Chronicles were being written his legends had reached cult like status, with numerous Buddhist temples claiming some connection to this founding sage of Japanese Buddhism, however tenuous. It doesn't stop there, however. Shotoku Taishi is said to have written one of the earliest national histories, and there are claims that this early history is none other than the Kūjiki, the text that we have in the Sendai Kūji Hongi. Some have speculated that this why that work and the Kojiki both stop here, with the reign of Kashikiya Hime. Of course, in the case of the Kojiki, the real narrative stopped some time ago, with the later reigns containing little more than genealogical lists. The Sendai Kūji Hongi is a little more interesting. It Is clear that the authors of the Nihon Shoki and the Sendai Kūji Hongi were working from some of the same texts, with possibly one referencing the other, but at the same time there are small differences that suggest different authors with different purposes. The Nihon Shoki certainly has more details on the official histories, while the Sendai Kūji Hongi contains sections on the genealogical information of the Mononobe and Owari families as well as information on various provincial governors. Personally, I find it highly questionable that the Sendai Kūji Hongi might be written by Shotoku Taishi, but I concede that it, along with the Nihon Shoki, might have both borrowed from an earlier work. Nonetheless, it does stop, and only the Nihon Shoki covers the next couple centuries, though in even greater detail. We start to see more granular details about many items, though there are still questions. Given all of the swirl around Shotoku Taishi, however, I've had to think about just what tack to take with him, and for now we'll take a look at what the official narrative has to say, and then perhaps add a bit more context. I'll frequently be referring to him here as Prince Umayado, and we'll focus on him primarily as a prince and a political figure. Given that, there is the question of whether or not Prince Umayado was actually running things. I'm not aware of any tradition that claims he was more than the Crown Prince, and as such a powerful advisor to the throne. Umako seems more likely as a power behind the throne, but there are certainly clues that Umayado was up there—and of course, in later years, Shotoku Taishi's own shine meant that people were more likely than not to attribute just about anything good from this period to him and his auspices, even if it was just because he suggested it. But that brings us to the question: Just what happened during this reign that was worth anyone taking credit for? What happened that we are spending our time talking about it? To start with, the reign was just long. Kashikiya Hime was taking the throne around 593 and she would reign up until her death in 628. That was over thirty years, which is a good run for any sovereign, for reasons we've covered before, such as the fact that they are usually coming to the throne when they are older, etc. Remember, she was probably born in the 530s, possibly 538, and so she took the throne in her late 50s or early 60s and held it until she was about 90 years old. During this period, there was a lot of change going on outside the archipelago as well as inside. In 589, the Sui dynasty had come to power, uniting the Yellow River and Yangtze River basins. Their reign officially ended about 618, though that wasn't necessarily a given at the time, and they were certainly a powerhouse as they united the northern and southern dynasties. The Sui status fell in 618 only because it was replaced by a new dynasty: The Tang dynasty. This was a dynasty founded by Li Yuan, a cousin of the Sui emperors, with a multi-ethnic background including Han and non-Han parentage, who came from a traditionally Xianbei—or by that time Tuoba—region. Tang dynasty culture would come to influence all of the cultures on the peninsula and the archipelago, truly becoming the “Middle Country” that various states looked to as a cultural touchstone. Tang culture spread throughout East Asia. The states on the Korean Peninsula had been absorbing the culture of the riverine courts for some time—honestly ever since the time of the Han commanderies. As Buddhism percolated through the elite societies of Baekje, Silla, and now Yamato, it was more than just religious transmission. Sutras had been translated into Sinic characters, and Buddhist learning often went hand-in-hand with texts on a variety of other issues, as there was no formal line drawn between science, philosophy, and religion. And so, as Yamato embraced Buddhism, there were other avenues of studies that also came over the straits, often attributed to the descendants of the Han dynasty, but largely filtered through a Baekje or even Silla lens. We see this manifest in myriad ways, from the various physical objects left behind in tombs, etc., as well as the clothing, of which we have several indications that the islands were adopting continental practice. However, we also have passages about the adoption of certain knowledge or technology, as well: everything from philosophy and calendar making to geomancy and even magic and the art of invisibility. And then we see another important development this reign: The first constitution in Japan. Known as the 17-Article Constitution, it is attributed to none other than Shotoku Taishi himself, making him, in a way, the father of the country. Granted, the constitution was light on actual details, and more like a collection of moral maxims. This included things like anti-corruption tenets, suggesting that maybe you shouldn't do things in government just because someone paid or flattered you. Still, these were not necessarily formative statements. After all, the Yamato state had customs and traditions, and so these were seen as more guiding principles than the kind of generative formulae that you might find in something like the US Constitution, where they were attempting to deliberately define the legal framework for a brand new nation. Nonetheless, it is seen as the start of a new era for Yamato. This law may have been loosely worded, but it was, eventually, written down. It also was quickly followed by a new ranking system. The kabane system of ranking didn't go away—not even the traditional individual honorifics, like Sukune, although that would have a bit of gap in the record. The Kabane system remained in use to rank the various families, but then a twelve cap system was instituted to rank individual courtiers. This was a first. While certain courtiers certainly had privileges—for example, the heads of certain families—the ranking system, which came to be used, in one form or another, throughout east Asia, was a distinctly continental tradition. On the face of it, this was about setting up a meritocracy. Those who were most deserving would stand at the top, overseeing those below them. Of course in Yamato, “most deserving” usually meant those who came from the right families, so we'll see how that evolves over time. We also see some changes in the way that Yamato was coming to view itself as the center versus the periphery. Lands that were once sovereign units unto themselves, had gone from simply acknowledging the nominal hegemony of Yamato to finding their subservient position being written into the law. We see an idea that individual governors—the lords of those regions now part of the larger Yamato state—should not levy their own taxes, but that there should be a single tax on the people. This is a critical concept, and it would be interesting to see just how well it was obeyed; certainly in later periods it was often the prerogative of local governors to adjust the taxes to take into account their, ahem, overhead. Nominally this was to cover the costs of local administration, but in many periods it was assessed by those in charge, locally, to help cover their personal costs, and was often set based on what the local administrators thought that they could get away with, as all of the excess went to line their own pockets. This would make provincial governorships rather lucrative, though being that far from the capital and the seat of power would have its drawbacks. This is a not uncommon model for tax collecting in different societies, where tax collectors paid themselves out of the taxes they collected. At this point in time, however, the central government was clearly trying to get a handle on this practice, and it makes sense as they were trying to assert more direct sovereignty over the land and the people. So it would not do to have the people paying taxes to two lords, since there could be only one ultimate sovereign, and they were seated on the throne in Yamato. This goes along with a continual thread of centralization of state control, another concept that they were likely pulling from the way that continental states were organized. And all of this came along with a healthy dose of Buddhism. This reign we see the completion of Asukadera, one of the key temples to be set up in this time. We also get indications of the start of Shitennouji, in modern Ohosaka, the ancient temple of Houryuji, which even today still boasts the oldest wooden building in the world, and the temple of Koryuji, in the Uzumasa district of modern Kyoto. In addition to this we are told that the elites went on something of a temple-building craze. This temple building craze—and particularly the building of state sponsored temples—would be a new sign of elite status, but it would also pull resources away from previous traditional efforts. Most notably, the labor going to build, staff, and maintain Buddhist temples would pull people away from the building and maintaining of monumental tombs. This doesn't mean that they would go away, but the tombs certainly changed, and we would see them become smaller, less prominent, and, ultimately, they would be just about phased out altogether, except for a few particularly prominent examples. In addition to the growing influence of the Buddhist religion, relations with the mainland were also notable. There are several mentions of different types of “tribute” from Baekje, Silla, Goguryeo, and even various parts of the archipelago. Of course, once more we kick off the regular attempts to “free” Nimna from Silla rule. However, it should be noted that there isn't a lot of corroborating evidence for any of Yamato's peninsular activities. Perhaps this is due to the fact that they were successful, and that hardly appealed to those compiling works like the Samguk Sagi, who were, after all, writing to help prop up the Silla kingdom and their royal family just as the Japanese Chroniclers were doing for theirs. There is also the possibility that this was something that didn't happen. Or at least not as it is described. It is quite possible that the impact of any attempts to chastise Silla were overblown, or even anachronistic. Long story short, we don't see any lasting gains by Yamato this period, with many of the attempted military excursions being halted or called off for a number of reasons. We also see Yamato racing farther afield. Although they call them the Great Tang, based on the timing it seems that Yamato made direct contact with the Sui dynasty some time after the latter had one again unified the area of eastern China. This contact was significant in a time when the Court, in general, was turning to more Sinified continental practices. It is also significant that Yamato approached these contacts with a certain pride, assuming an equal status in their communications. This is borne out in the Chinese histories as well. All in all, there is a lot going on here, so we are going to deep dive into many of these topics. That said, there is one thing that I'll cover in this episode as I'm not sure it really fits well into anything else, but it is a fun diversion. It happened in the summer of 599, about six years into Kashikiya Hime's reign. Specifically it was the 27th day of the 4th lunar month when the peace of the realm was disturbed by a tremendous earthquake that we are told “destroyed all the houses”. Now Japan is no stranger to earthquakes. They sit on the Pacific Rim's “Ring of Fire”, and volcanic and geologic activity is largely responsible for the islands' shape and mountainous terrain. Not only that, but many of the volcanos across the island are still active, even today. One stat I read suggested that 10% of the world's active volcanoes are in Japan. We talked about two eruptions that we know about from the early 6th century back in Episode XXX, but still, those are rare enough. There has been roughly only one significant eruption every hundred years or so, that we know of. Meanwhile, Japan experiences about 1500 earthquakes each year. Most of them are probably not even noticed by anyone not looking at a seismograph, of course. Over the past decade there has been more than one earthquake each year at magnitude 7 or higher, but these are often in particular places. Quick digression here—but if you hear about an earthquake in Japan, the numbers that they use to calculate the size are often different from what you might find in the US or other countries. In the US we usually talk about the Richter scale, developed in 1935 by Charles Richter. It measures the magnitude in a logarithmic scale, meaning that a category 7.0 earthquake is actually 10 times as powerful as a category 6.0. Likewise a category 8.0 is ten times that of a 7.0, and one hundred times more powerful than a 6.0. However, this only really provides the local magnitude, and it doesn't tell you other things, such as the type of force—a sharp crack versus rolling waves, for example—or even the duration. In Japan, there are a few different ways that the Japanese Meterological Agency classifies earthquakes, and one of those is the Seismic Intensity scale, also known as the Shindo scale. The Shindo scale is more concerned with the effects of the earthquake than simply the magnitude, and while there are 10 different classifications, it only goes up to 7, as levels 5 and 6 are broken up into “Weak” and “Strong” intensities. This can lead to some misunderstanding when looking at a report regarding Japanese earthquakes, as 7 is the highest they go, but they aren't measuring things the same way. However you measure it, there have been significant earthquakes, with a magnitude of 7.0 or higher, or with loss of life and property, over once a year, on average. The damage and effects are often somewhat localized, but with modern media it is easy to learn about these earthquakes, which can certainly make it seem like they are happening all the time. On the other hand, back in ancient times, news would take time to travel. Still, it is remarkable to me that we really haven't seen anything in the Chronicles on major earthquakes up to this point, similar to how it is strange that we haven't really heard about any major volcanos. There was an earthquake back in the reign of Woasatsuma no Wakugo, aka Ingyou Tennou, and we mentioned it in Episode 56. It damaged the temporary burial of the previous sovereign, which is why it was considered of note, but otherwise it was largely just a passing mention to a natural phenomenon. It is possible that we didn't hear about them because the Nara Basin just didn't experience anything that sizeable, or if there was, it just didn't make it into the records. Meanwhile, the smaller quakes may have been no less common than heavy rains, and equally predictible. Compare that to later in the Nihon Shoki, where the 7th century would see at least 19 of 22 mentions of the word “earthquake”. While it is possible that was just a particularly active century, I tend to suspect that it meant that from this point on we probably are getting better records, and thus we will get details that might not have otherwise survived if we were just relying on the historical highlights. In this case, it sounds as if the earthquake was particularly destructive, perhaps a level 6 or higher on the Shindo intensity scale. And, of course, it impacted the Yamato elites. We aren't told of any deaths, but it was still a traumatic event and the court took immediate action. No, they didn't issue emergency relief funds, and they didn't provide labor to rebuild all the houses—or at least not that is mentioned. No, the Court had something more important it needed to do: and so orders were given to sacrifice to the “god of earthquakes.” This does make some sense. After all, a large part of the sovereign's portfolio was in regards to the spiritual realm. Sure, there was the administration of the state, but just about anyone could provide funding or even people to help with physical tasks. The role of the sovereign, however, was often as the intermediary between Heaven and Earth; between the kami and human beings. And so it was completely within Kashikiya Hime's responsibilities to try and placate the spirits that had caused this disaster and to prevent future earthquakes. Now the name of the god of earthquakes is not exactly given. It is sometimes read as “Nawi” or “Nai” no kami, but even then it is just referencing the shaking land, or “Na”. There are traditions that connect this kami to one that we've heard about before, Takemikazuchi. Takemikazuchi's name lets us know that he is a thunder deity, and it is not difficult to make a connection between the rolling thunder in the sky and the rolling waves of an earthquake. Takemikazuchi's previous appearance in the Nihon Shoki was back in the Age of the Gods, when Takemikazuchi and Futsunushi came down to help pacify the land, and particularly the land of Izumo. Today, Takemikazuchi is worshipped at Kashima Jingu, in the old land of Hitachi, and he is, in fact connected with earthquakes. There is an old belief that earthquakes were actually caused by giant catfish, or Namazu—and once again there is that “Na” component possibly making an appearance. These old stories said that when the Namazu thrashed about, underground, the land would shake. When this happened, Takemikazuchi found the kaname ishi, a stone at the top of the catfish's head that poked out above ground. He struck this stone so hard that there is a divot in the rock even up to this day. That stone sits on the grounds of Kashima shrine. It may not look like much, but according to the shrine they tried to dig it out and found that it wasn't just a rock, but it was part of a much larger stone that continued deep into the earth. Today this stone is a focus for worship to help prevent earthquakes. Now the kaname ishi is not only found in Kashima—there is another one a short distance away at the famous Katori shrine as well, where they worship the spirit of Futsunushi. There are also Kaname Ishi found in Ohomura Shrine, in Iga, as well as another Kashima shrine in modern Miyagi prefecture. These are all central to eastern Honshu, possibly indicating a common thread amongst all of them. I would note that I don't know when the tradition of the kaname ishi stone, or that story about Takemikazuchi, first came about, or if that is even the original telling of the story. We do have an entry in the Shoku Nihongi, the successor history to the Nihon Shoki, where there were shrines to the—or an—“earthquake god” in all seven of the home provinces. I suspect that local deities were often consulted, and different local traditions may have held some shrines, kami, and rituals as more effective than others. Regardless, I hope it has been an interesting diversion. I know it was something I enjoyed, having recently visited Kashima and Katori shrines and seen their Kaname Ishi in person—I'll have photos up on the website. Do you know of other earthquake related rituals or shrines? Please hit me up online, either on Twitter—or whatever the platform is calling itself today---Facebook, or via email, at email@example.com. I'd love to hear if you know of more shrines that specialize in subduing earthquakes. Next time we'll want to start some of our deep dives. By then I hope to have done a bit more research on some of the various topics so that we can really tie this all together. Until then, thank you for listening and for all of your support. If you like what we are doing, tell your friends and feel free to rate us wherever you listen to podcasts. If you feel the need to do more, and want to help us keep this going, we have information about how you can donate on Patreon or through our KoFi site, ko-fi.com/sengokudaimyo, or find the links over at our main website, SengokuDaimyo.com/Podcast, where we will have some more discussion on topics from this episode. Also, feel free to Tweet at us at @SengokuPodcast, or reach out to our Sengoku Daimyo Facebook page. You can also email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. And that's all for now. Thank you again, and I'll see you next episode on Sengoku Daimyo's Chronicles of Japan.
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Can you become a crypto millionaire with SUI? In this video I will be doing some moon math for you to find out how tough that goal would be to achieve in the next bull run! These moon math videos are highly speculative and in no way a guarantee, so as always do your own research and assess your own personal risk before investing in anything!
On today's episode of Life Without Leaks, we talk with Dr. Michael Chancellor, a board certified urologist, professor, scientist and researcher about cutting-edge treatments for Stress Urinary Incontinence. He's one of the principal developers of a new treatment for SUI that uses a patient's own stem cells to repair their anatomy. It's currently in Phase 3 trials with the FDA - the Cellebrate Study - and you may even be eligible to participate. To learn more about the Cellebrate trial and to see if you might qualify, click here. For more information about the National Association for Continence, click here, and be sure to follow us on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and Pinterest.Music:Rainbows Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 Licensehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
An academic society has urged the producers of a popular movie to apologize for factual errors in the film to avoid misleading viewers and hurting the feelings of people from where the historical events took place.洛阳市隋唐史学会称因“与史实不符”，要求《长安三万里》制片方道歉，以避免误导观众，伤害历史事件发生地百姓的感情。The Luoyang Society of Sui and Tang Studies, based in Luoyang, Henan province, said in a statement via social media that the animated movie Chang An, which depicts historical and political events and famous poets during the Tang Dynasty, has several key areas that "severely vary from historical events".动画电影《长安三万里》以盛唐为背景，讲述唐代的历史和政治事件以及著名诗人之间的友谊和往事。河南省洛阳市隋唐史学会在社交媒体上发表声明称，该电影几个关键情节与真实历史不符。According to the society, the first meeting of Li Bai and Du Fu, two renowned poets in China's history, took place in the year 744 in Luoyang, not in Chang'an, or present-day Xi'an, Shaanxi province, which the movie says. Du also grew up in Luoyang, not in Chang'an as the movie claims.根据该学会的说法，著名诗人李白和杜甫的第一次相逢是在公元744年的洛阳，并非影片中描写的长安或今天的陕西省西安市。杜甫早年生活在洛阳，并非影片中描写的长安The movie has a scene called "Three Greats within a Day", which depicts the meeting of a painter, a swordsman and a calligrapher who each give their own exceptional performance. However, the society said that the incident actually took place at a temple in Luoyang, not in Chang'an.电影中“一日三绝”场景，描绘了画家、剑客和书法家的风云际会。然而，该学会表示，这起事件实际上发生在洛阳的一座寺庙中，而非影片中描写的扬州，The movie, which premiered on July 8, had earned 1.7 billion yuan ($235 million) at the box office as of Thursday, according to movie statistics website Maoyan. The film has been especially popular with teenagers, and many of them like to recite verses from the poetry-filled movie.根据电影统计网站猫眼的数据，《长安三万里》于7月8日首映，截至8月17日，票房收入已达17亿元(2.35亿美元）。该电影深受青少年的喜爱，引发了“背诗热”。Although it's unreasonable to change the movie, the producers can still acknowledge their mistakes publicly and apologize to viewers to ease online vitriol, the society said.隋唐史学会表示，虽不能苛求制片方修改影片，但制片方至少应发表声明，承认影片错误或失误，向观众致歉，以平息各地网友骂战。According to the society, due to these "factual errors", netizens from Luoyang and Xi'an have engaged in an online war of words, which the producers have turned a blind eye to. The society said it has hired a legal firm to send a lawyer's letter to the director and the production company, urging them to correct the mistakes and apologize.根据该学会的说法，近期因该影片情节与历史不符，网络上掀起了骂战，特别是洛阳与西安网友之间的骂战愈演愈烈，但该片制片方却对此不予置评，不予回应，放任不管。洛阳市隋唐史学会已委托律师事务所，向制片方、导演等发出律师函，要求其发表纠错、致歉声明。The society studies the history of the Sui and Tang dynasties . At that time, Chang'an was the capital of the Tang Dynasty, while Luoyang was the "eastern capital". Both metropolises were highly prosperous and believed to be among the largest cities in the world at the time.洛阳市隋唐史学会是一家研究隋唐历史的学会。在当时，长安是唐朝的都城，洛阳是“陪都”，两个大都市都非常繁华，均为当时世界最大的城市。Xie Junwei, director of the movie, acknowledged that Li Bai and Du Fu's first meeting did take place in Luoyang, according to a report by media outlet Shanghai Observer. But he added that the movie only described a part of their lives, and they were not presented in full.据上观新闻报道，电影导演谢君伟承认，李白和杜甫的第一次见面确实是在洛阳。但他补充说，这部电影只描述了他们生活的一部分，并不是全貌。Hu Zhongxing, a retired professor from Fudan University's Department of Chinese Language and Literature, told Shanghai Observer that Li and Du's meeting was a major historical and cultural event, and changing the location of the event is "not proper". He suggested using one or two lines to maintain the overall plot while telling the audience where the meeting actually took place.复旦大学中文系退休教授胡中行在接受上观新闻采访时表示，李杜首次见面在历史和文化层面是一次重大事件，对地点进行改动的确欠妥。他建议，可以借助一两句台词，既不改变剧中设计，又能向观众传递二人首次相会是在洛阳的史实。A screenwriter surnamed Zhang told Shanghai Observer that the Chang'an depicted in the movie should be viewed as a more abstract reference instead of an accurate historical citation.一位张姓编剧对上观新闻表示，这部电影中“长安”更像是一个抽象化的指代，而不是一个准确的历史引用。"For historical scholars, such a detail should not be changed, but for movie creators, they think that it can be moderately altered," she said.她说：“影视作品应有其独立性，对于文史学者来说这个细节不能改变，但在电影创作来看可以适当改变。”Reporter: Liang ShuangIntern：Zang TianyiHistorical英 /hɪˈstɒrɪkl/美 /hɪˈstɔːrɪkl/adj. 历史的Producer英 /prəˈdjuːsə(r)/美 /prəˈduːsər/n.制片人Apologize英 /əˈpɒlədʒaɪz/美 /əˈpɑːlədʒaɪz/vt. & vi. 道歉
Sarà la basilica di Santa Maria in Montesanto a Roma, nota come la Chiesa degli Artisti, il luogo in cui ritroveranno tutte le persone che hanno amato Michela Murgia, scrittrice cinquantunenne, morta per un carcinoma renale al quarto stadio. Sui social media non si contano i messaggi di affetto per lei, una marea di pensieri tra i quali spiccano gli addii dei suoi figli d'anima, parte della famiglia allargata della scrittrice.
Når vi bliver mødre, har mange af os tendens til at skubbe vores egne behov til side, glemme at mærke efter kroppens signaler og måske endda miste kontakten til os selv. Eller vi oplever at være så pressede, at vi kommer til at reagere alt for voldsomt i en situation, der slet ikke er til det. I denne panelsnak fortæller tre kvinder ærligt om at have et presset nervesystem, og hvordan de har tacklet det. Om hvordan små valg og prioriteringer kan gøre en stor forskel og om at sænke forventningerne til sig selv og rollen som mor. Vores panel består af digital forretningsudvikler Mathilde Holck-Hjortdal, mor til Flora, 3, og Barbara på 9 måneder, sexolog Loui Trøstrup, mor til Sui på 10 måneder og yogainstruktør Emilie Løvendorf mor til Hector, 1 år.
Join host, Anshu Bahanda as she talks to fashion vanguards Dr. Amanda Parkes of Pangaia and Mahima Gujral from SUI, about the evolving world of sustainable fashion. Discover innovative materials, even denims and leathers, created from nettle, grapes and banana leaves, and learn about eco-conscious dyes developed from waste by a pioneering Indian startup, founded by an MIT alumnus. Dr. Parkes sheds light on how AI is shaping the future of sustainable design while Mahima shines the spotlight on Kala Cotton, an indigenous Indian cotton that's intrinsically eco-conscious. They also talk about the intricacies of style and sustainability in today's fashion marketplace. This episode offers a compelling blend of tech, tradition, and a forward-thinking approach to fashion. Tune in for a fresh perspective on fashion's sustainable journey.For a transcript of this show, go to https://new.wellnesscurated.life/tailored-to-last-innovations-that-are-shaping-the-future-of-fashion/If you liked our episode, you can subscribe to our podcast on any of the major podcasting platforms like Spotify, Apple Podcasts, and Google Podcasts. Please leave us a review on Apple iTunes and help others discover this podcast. You can visit wellnesscurated.life and follow us on Twitter @WellnessCurated, On Instagram @wellnesscuratedbyanshubahanda,On Facebook @Wellness Curated by Anshu Bahanda,On LinkedIn @Wellness Curated by Anshu Bahanda, And on YouTube @wellnesscuratedbyanshubahanda. for more wellness tips to help you live your best life.
TW/CW: CSA, Sui, Ideation, Alcohol abuse, DVCharles lost both of his parents at a young age. This filled him with grief and rage. Rage at hospitals, rage at God. After being discharged from the Navy for mental health issues, Charles graduated from nursing school. It was there, in the hospitals as a nurse, he found a place where he felt strong over the weak. Where he no longer felt powerless. Nurses are supposed to take care of those placed in their hands. Charles killed those who depended on him. Charles Cullen is New Jersey's most prolific serial killer. Discord, merch, Tarot readings, star charts, patreon, kofi and much more right here: https://linktr.ee/cruelteaContact Lillian: email@example.com (for questions, tarot readings, art commissions and more!)Do you own a small business? Would you like for us to feature your business on our podcast? Please contact Lillian for more information!Follow us on Threads! Follow Lil on TikTok: wolvesandwineWant to help? Amy Wilkins could use some help right now. Donate here: PayPal: @Coble317 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Cash app: $AAWilkie79Check out our sponsor, Tiny C. Crafts!Support the show
TW/CW: Infanticide, SUI attempt, drug useAmelia Dyer found herself in a precarious financial position, as did many Victorian women. As a nurse, she was given the inside scoop on something called baby farming. She took in the infants of unwed mothers to supposedly provide them care as their mothers couldn't. Instead, she killed every baby that came into her care. Amelia Dyer just may be the world's most prolific serial killer in all of history. Discord, merch, Tarot readings, star charts, patreon, kofi and much more right here: https://linktr.ee/cruelteaContact Lillian: email@example.com (for questions, tarot readings, art commissions and more!)Good documentary on Amelia Dyer: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k60BRjl2x20Do you own a small business? Would you like for us to feature your business on our podcast? Please contact Lillian for more information!Follow us on Threads! Follow Lil on TikTok: wolvesandwineWant to help? Amy Wilkins could use some help right now. Donate here: PayPal: @Coble317 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Cash app: $AAWilkie79Support the show
The Sui Dynasty (581-619) doesn't get much respect, largely because it was short-lived. Even so, and perhaps paradoxically, its founder implemented a number of measures that far out-lasted the dynasty itself. This is the story of that man, Yang Jian, Emperor Wendi of Sui.Support the show
A Roma un giustiziere misterioso punisce le auto in sosta selvaggia scrivendo "Free Park" a caratteri cubitali con la bomboletta spray sulla fiancata.Chi lascia la macchina al posto dei disabili, sulle strisce pedonali o sul marciapiede potrebbe essere il prossimo bersaglio. Sui social c'è chi accoglie con ironica indulgenza queste anonime gesta, chi le applaude ma c'è anche chi le condanna senza mezzi termini.Vogliamo interpellare il nostro pubblico sulla tendenza a farsi giustizia da sé che sembra prendere piede tra i cittadini anche grazie all'amplificazione ricevuta dai social.
Evan Cheng, co-founder and CEO of Mysten Labs, the developers behind Sui, believes that the existing blockchain model is broken and that Sui offers the solution. Santiago Velez, co-founder and division lead (R&D) at Block Digital Corporation, welcomes Evan to dig into those claims and explore why a new approach to blockchain models is necessary. Recorded on June 13, 2023. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit podcastchoices.com/adchoices
Evan Cheng, co-founder and CEO of Mysten Labs, the developers behind Sui, believes that the existing blockchain model is broken and that Sui offers the solution. Santiago Velez, co-founder and division lead (R&D) at Block Digital Corporation, welcomes Evan to dig into those claims and explore why a new approach to blockchain models is necessary. Recorded on June 13, 2023. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit podcastchoices.com/adchoices
History of China from pre-imperial China to the decline of the Qing in the late 19th century Email: email@example.com Website: https://whydocountriesexist.libsyn.com/sources-for-the-china-pt-1-episode Feedback and request forum: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSf5m6cVniic8zkY13UZmUAxwLTNuVdBEkYqHmQCvvyAkGcUSg/viewform?usp=sf_link Chris Stewart's history of China: https://thehistoryofchina.wordpress.com/ Intro 0:00 Country profile and some useful overviews 1:43 Pre-imperial China 7:51 Warning states and the Qin dynasty 12:45 The Han Dynasty 17:27 Disunity, the Sui dynasty and the Tang dynasty 21:41 The Song dynasty, and conquest dynasties 26:43 Mongol conquest and the Yuan dynasty 30:23 The Ming dynasty 33:39 The Qing dynasty 36:47 Outro and sources 42:12
What an episode! Evan Cheng, formerly working on Meta's Diem and digital asset infrastructure, is now Co-Founder of Mysten Labs, which has brought to the market Sui, an L1 blockchain. Evan sheds light on key differences in the architecture and design of Sui vs. Ethereum and other blockchains. What is an account vs. an object? Why is that important when discussing smart contracts? Can your ETH-based NFT really be dynamic and evolve in a game? Can NFTs using Sui and its native language, Move, create optimal, adaptable NFTs? Much more on this, feel free to learn more here.
#Adrian, #SuiGeneris, Digital ID, BaptismAs with all forms of ID they do not reflect biological reality and instead are based on presumption. Your behaviour creates reality.Join me and Sui Generis in this less structured discussion as we examine the digital IDC, and cover other subjects such as the ritual of baptism. You will learn how it is impossible for those in positions of so called authority to answer questions about their authority, where it comes from, and why they need the deem to protect themselves.Sui explains how you can start to tinker with the narrative and how you can tease it apart with questions and expose the truth.It might serve you well to have watched Episode 291 before this episode to get a broader foundation of knowledge. If you want to you can find it here:https://fortheloveoftruth.co.uk/2023/06/01/ep-291-sui-generis-are-you-a-biological-reality-or-are-you-identifying-as-literary-artwork/Please share this. To support my work:https://fortheloveoftruth.co.uk/support-me/ Monero address: 41hRm6kgZfF14qw31vWrerS888eCfQd8A7Ktp2FYpvXNRFcfdCNjiZU7mMG5zPP4Dr5D2DPGBPPmrPyDnPvMUNHe2FCA1n3 - Protect yourself from EMF and EMRUnfortunately, we are bathed in a literal soup of electromagnetic frequencies (EMF) and electromagnetic radiation (EMR). The man made frequencies are by and large harmful to our health. Yet EMR and EMF are largely silent and invisible.Read more here: https://fortheloveoftruth.co.uk/2023/04/11/this-is-what-emr-and-emf-is-doing-to-your-blood-right-now-and-what-you-can-do-about-it/Are you nutritionally deficient?If you want to buy Clive's Natural Health Essentials and join The Secret Health Club which gives you access to very rich detailed (and censored) content please use this affiliate link: https://clivedecarle.ositracker.com/239640/11489Organic Sprouting Seeds & Microgreen SeedsThe best ones I have come across are from SkySprouts Organic. If you want to buy and support my work channel at no additional cost please use this affiliate link:https://alternativeprinciplesforhealth.info/natural-health-essentials/To get 10% off your first order use the code: adriangregoryBioresonance therapyWe are immersed in invisible frequencies, many of which are damaging to our bodies.To learn more about bioresonance:https://alternativeprinciplesforhealth.info/ep-255-bio-resonance-therapy/To learn more about the Bio-Medis Trinity device you can visit their website. This is an affiliate link:https://biomedis.global/ref/adrian/Make sure to sign up for my newsletter so you never miss any new content and offers: https://fortheloveoftruth.co.uk/newsletter-signup/My book:I have written a book on health and well-being. Nothing mainstream in here, just things I've observed and worked out that have helped me and others who have used the ideas.You can read more about it here:http://alternativepSupport the show
Simon Shares I have been talking about a cracking (broken?) consumer for a few months now. Two recent surveys show exactly this data. BankservAfrica's five-year review of Take-home Pay and Private Pensions in South Africa for February 2018 – February 2023 "The average nominal salary Take-home Pay Index, increased from R12,573 to R15,438, +22.8%." But CPI was 26.6% and take home pay had kept track until last year. Debt Busters Debt Index | Q1 2023 survey "Nominal incomes were 2% higher than 2016 levels, however when cumulative inflation growth of 40% is factored in for the same seven-year period, consumers' purchasing power diminished by 38% over this period.". Rand trades at worst level ever on Friday, R19.5169/US$. Transaction Capital (JSE code: TCP), last week I sad the worst may be behind them. Well with the ZAR collapsing equalling more inflaiton and rates and petrok increases. Maybe not for SA Taxi or WeBuyCar. Purple Group* (JSE code: PPE) rights issue. Full details on 18 May. It will be R105m from Purple Shareholders and R45m from Sanlam at Easy Equities level. Total R150m Local PGM production down 14% in Q1. Calgro M3 (JSE code: CGR) results saw HEPS just above 150c while the stock trades at ±300x. Value or value trap? Sold my Sun International (JSE code: SUI) as price go backwards and I protecting profits. Excluding dividends ±70% return since November 2021. OpenAI Sam Altman goes before US Congress to propose licenses for AI. Pulling the ladder up behind you to stop others. I have been using ChatGPT via Bing and Google Bard. For investors they mostly useless. Octodec (JSE code: OCT) results. Large discount to NAV and DY ±14%. Investing in mega trends * I hold ungeared positions. Simon Brown
WATCH THE FULL STREET VIDEO HERE: https://youtu.be/2KuOGzBFC8E________________________________________________________________Don't forget that we are fully independent and you can get this episode early & support Indp media directly at https://elijahschaffer.locals.com________________________________________________________________⇩ SUPPORT THE SPONSOR ⇩PIXOTINE: Get these amazing "No-Mess" nicotine toothpicks in amazing flavors right now 20% off when you visit https://pixotine.com/elijah. Try them all or buy some for a friend, they'll thank you later because they're are basically no restrictions on where you can use them! Be 21 or older to check them outBLACK FOREST: It seems that everything in modern society is used to attack masculinity, testosterone, fertility, and anything else that makes men, men. From microplastics to estrogen in the water, it's almost unavoidable. However, with Black Forest Supplement's 95% purity Turkesterone you can gain muscle, strength, and cure your libido with just one pill. This ultra high-purity capsule can be bought with a 20% DISCOUNT when you use THIS LINK: https://www.blackforestsupplements.com/elijah________________________________________________________________⇩ GET MERCH HERE ⇩WEBSITE: https://slightlyoffensive.com________________________________________________________________⇩ DOWNLOAD AUDIO PODCAST & GIVE A 5 STAR RATING! ⇩APPLE: https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/slightly-offens-ve-uncut/id1450057169SPOTIFY: https://open.spotify.com/show/7jbVobnHs7q8pSRCtPmC41?si=qnIgUqbySSGdJEngV-P5Bg(also available Google Podcasts & wherever else podcasts are streamed)______________________________________________________________➤BOOKINGS: BOOKINGS@SLIGHTLYOFFENSIVE.COM➤BUSINESS INQUIRIES: ELIJAH@SLIGHTLYOFFENSIVE.COM_________________________________________________________________⇩ SOCIAL MEDIA ⇩➤ INSTAGRAM https://www.instagram.com/slightlyoffensive.tv➤ TWITTER: https://twitter.com/ElijahSchaffer➤ TELEGRAM https://t.me/SlightlyOffensive_________________________________________________________________The Idea Of A Free Society...For Kids!Head to https://bit.ly/teach-freedom for a unique book series that introduces the important ideas that schools no longer teach.Support the show
Season 3 Bonus Episode Thank you Johnny, Sui, and Pheng for hosting this episode with me!—SPONSOR—Magic Mindmagicmind.co/MYXCode: MYX-- Music Credits --Creator: Ghostrifter SoundCloud: https://soundcloud.com/ghostrifter-of... Get this track with all other lofi tracks!