Part of the body between the chest and pelvis
Mike interviews Physical Therapist Deborah Rizco about SacroIliac Joint Pain & Dysfunction. Deborah is a physical therapist and author of 2 books written for consumers on pelvic girdle pain, which includes sacroiliac pain. These books are based on my life as a physical therapist over 30 years at a large county urban hospital, MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, OH. I have taught this method to physical therapists, assistants, and students at the national, state, and district levels since 2011. Deb's Website: https://www.riczohealtheducation.com/ Deb's Instagram: riczohealtheducation ~~~~~Deb's Books~~~~~ 1. Sacroiliac Pain Book: https://amzn.to/3XasoRr 2. Back & Pelvic Girdle Pain in Pregnancy & Postpartum Book: https://amzn.to/3IW1yI ~~~~Chapters~~~~ 0:00 Song Intro 0:08 Dr. Deb Riczo Introduction 0:54 Deb's Background 2:41 Deb Riczo's Books & Website 4:40 Deb's SI Joint Pain Research Paper 7:35 What Does SI Pain Look Like? 9:51 Causes of SI Pain 12:09 SI Joint Pain Common is Men Vs Women 13:42 How the SI Joint Works 15:30 Ligaments of the Pelvis 16:10 Abdominals & Their Role with the SI Joint 16:38 How the Muscles of the Back & Hip Affect the SI Joint 18:10 The Diaphragm – Top & Bottom Muscles of the Pelvis 18:50 The Nerves of the Pelvis 19:24 The Lymphatic & Circulatory System 19:52 How the Different Systems of the Body Relate to SI Joint Pain 22:02 How SI Pain is Diagnosed 28:51 SI Joint Pain Testing 30:31 A Testing Method SI Pain 32:45 Recommended Treatment for SI Pain 36:42 What Can Someone with SI Dysfunction Do? 45:30 Deb's Social Media Information 45:58 What do to if you have SI Pain? 47:54 Last Remarks --- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/bobandbrad/support
Abdominal Injuries in Sports with Dr. Benedict Ifedi and Shwan Ready live from the memorial Hermann Sports Medicine Update How are we going to see this on the field? PQRST - Provoking - what is making it worse? Qulity - sharp, ripping Radiating - diaphragm Severity - 0-10 Timing - constant, coming and going All ATs need to have a stethoscope and BP cuff in their kit to monitor for vitals PulseOx in your pocket What do we need to carry with us? Stethoscope PulseOx BP Cuff Pneumothorax cover Possibly needle decompression - 18 gauge needle Reflex Diaphragm evaluation Whats going on Where are yo uhurting How is it hurting? Keep it simple with yes or no questions PulseOx for Oxygen Walk them off and continue to monitor if things are trending upward. Trending downward - call EMS and send them Let's try to loosen up everything so there is not compression from equipment. It can also be a lung contusion - where the athlete is spitting up blood. If it clears in a few minutes then still sit them out and have them follow up with an ER visit and imaging Rib Fracture - Evaluation Posterior to anterior allows you to check the spine first. Having a systematic routine is important. Pneumothorax Spontaneous - taller thinner athletic male Traumatic- comes witha hit to the ribs If you are looking at the athlete and they are just struggling then elevate yoru care to the next level. Use your vital sign measuring tools. Comotio Cordis Sudden collapse Non-responsive Activate EMS and provide care Aortic Rupture ABC Pulses were weak Legs felt like they were going numb Spleenic Laceration Mono increases the spleen 30-50% increase in size Flank pain from a blow Monitor vital signs - PulseOx and BP Practice your abdominal palpations on non injuries so you know the difference. Liver Laceration Rare Usually non emergency Painful breathing Outpatient follow up most likely Looking at the PQRST Rigidity in the abdomen is something we need to know what it feels like. Kidney Kidney punch Tenderness in CVA area May have radiating pain that wraps around to the bladder area Blood in the urine Where can we go to learn normal abdominal feel and sounds? Youtube is a great resource
Fala, Fala minha Amiga, meu Amigo BIOENERGÉTICO! Hoje vamos compartilhar a história da Jacira. Mesmo com mais de 60 anos de idade, ela conseguiu perder gordura abdominal e está vivendo a sua melhor versão. Depois de escutar este episódio do Projeto Energia Crônica, visite nosso site http://www.projetoenergiacronica.com para saber mais sobre a Revolucionária Biomodulação Energética Integrada que é capaz de te energizar e transformar sua saúde de uma vez por todas! ❌SEM tomar medicamentos perigosos e contínuos. ❌SEM dietas milagrosas. ❌SEM privar-se das coisas boas da vida. (mesmo que você tenha apenas 15 minutos durante seu dia) Tenha um ótimo dia!!! Até a próxima! Vanessa e Bruno Fundadores do Projeto Energia Crônica
If you're a clinician you can unlock a Free CME credit just by listening to this show and reflecting on what you learned! Just click this link and take 30 seconds to write a reflection on what you learned to unlock your free AMA PRA Category 1 CME credit https://earnc.me/uKvVBi
El nuevo RETO 2023 ya está abriendo sus puertas oficialmente para el público. En esta versión de 14 días del desafío exitoso, vas a aprender a decirle ADIÓS a tus síntomas digestivos, en 14 días con nosotros en un grupo de Whatsapp, trabajando con la alimentación, el autocuidado y el ayuno intermitente. Así que, si estás
Disfruta de nuestra de nuestra entrevista, que respondió estas interrogantes que son las más recurrentes en mi cuenta de Instagram @ATuSalud. Mi invitado fue el Dr. Juan Carlos Méndez. Especialista en Medicina Antienvejecimiento. ¿Cómo mantener tu abdomen libre de Grasa Visceral?
Dragon Bytes Basics - This subseries is aimed at teaching some basic paediatric concepts to healthcare students. Each week medical students from Wales will be joined by a paediatric doctor to discuss common paediatric conditions. These episodes are just introductions and aren't meant to replace standard revision – remember there will be some regional variations in practice and practice will change as new evidence comes to light. However, this is paediatrics made easy to help listeners get their heads around some thing new. In this episode of Dragon Bytes Basics, Georgia Parry (former Cardiff University medical student, now qualified Doctor) speaks to Dr Blanche Lumb (Paediatric Trainee, Wales) about abdominal masses.
Aulas online, prescrição de treinos, livros, artigos científicos, cursos e muito mais em https://www.PauloGentil.com/ Treinos online, Nerdflix, Franquia Person@ll, livros, artigos científicos, grupo do Telegram, cursos e muito mais em: https://www.paulogentil.com/bio/ Instagram – https://www.instagram.com/drpaulogentil/ (@drpaulogentil) Facebook – https://www.fb.com/drpaulogentil Artigo citado: Maillard F, Pereira B, Boisseau N. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Total, Abdominal and … Treinos para definir o abdomen Leia mais »
En este programa hablo sobre: No se puede perder grasa localizada Sino pierdes de donde quieres, baja más Déficit calórico Entreno de fuerza Por qué te estancas y cómo solucionarlo Si quieres que sea tu entrenador: antonioyuste.com/ayudame/
What images or thoughts come to mind when you hear the word yoga? Deep stretching? Maybe uncomfortable poses and overpriced activewear? Scheri Goff joins us on this episode of Adventures with Spirit to talk about how the practice of yoga goes much deeper than the westernized, business model it's widely accepted as today. This episode, we discuss: [3:55] Basic beliefs about yoga [6:00] What yoga is really all about [7:07] Why yoga is so much more than just an exercise class [9:56] The 5 main parts of a yoga practice [18:23] How Scheri got started with practicing yoga [20:19] How Scheri deepened her yoga practice beyond just taking classes [28:23] Using breathing as a tool [30:03] Abdominal breathing walkthrough [39:32] How you can work with Scheri beyond yoga [43:42] Scheri's final piece of advice for listeners Connect with Scheri Goff: Website If you loved this episode, go ahead and send us an email at firstname.lastname@example.org and remember to subscribe to our newsletter to get access to extended episodes and live reading opportunities!
Moderator: James Rathmell, M.D. Participants: Daniel Rubin, M.D.,M.S. and Jessica Spence, M.D., Ph.D. Articles Discussed: Preoperative b-Blocker Therapy and Stroke or Major Adverse Cardiac Events in Major Abdominal Surgery: A Retrospective Cohort Study Beta Blockade before Noncardiac Surgery: The Devil is in the Details Transcript
Now, this episode is a brief episode a follow on if you will or like from the episode the host did about a year or so ago fashion after surgery. Moreover, the host used the website, https://corporette.com/?s=clothes+to+wear+after+abdominal+surgery for information on clothes to wear after a abdominal type of surgery feel free to check it out if you wish. More importantly, if you would like to connect to the host on her most active social media platforms please feel free to look her up on Tiktok, Twitter, or you tube, where she posts more regularly, or by going to her website and scrolling down to the bottom of the page to click on the social media link of your choice, the website can be found here, below: https://overfortieshealth.supapass.ioLastly, if you like the podcast episode please consider subscribing for more information on women's health and giving this podcast a like on good pods application service as well as please consider giving a review on apple podcasts directory, this will be much appreciated so the host can get more findability going forward too. https://podcasts.apple.com/gb/podcast/an-audio-diary-a-personal-health-journey-by-hannah-boyce/id1511505333In conclusion, the host would like to thank all podcast listeners to the podcast new and more seasoned listeners to date, your downloads are very much appreciated and the host is so grateful for each and every listen to the podcast show and the downloads is thoroughly and truly appreciated to date, this touches and has touched the hosts' heart to date. (smiles) https://www.mind.org.uk/information-support/types-of-mental-health-problems/stress/managing-stress-and-building-resilience/#TipsForManagingStressHost's website link https://overfortieshealth.supapass.ioApple podcasts review link https://podcasts.apple.com/gb/podcast/an-audio-diary-a-personal-health-journey-by-hannah-boyce/id1511505333Health and well being checklists and tips for good health going forward (National health service website) https://www.nhs.uk/every-mind-matters/mental-wellbeing-tips/top-tips-to-improve-your-mental-wellbeing
Emergency abdominal wall surgery is a common scenario for all general surgeons. Decision making with regard to operative approach and mesh utilization can be confusing. This podcast will review the common circumstances and highlight advanced decision making. · Dr. Vahagn Nikolian is an Assistant Professor of Surgery at Oregon Health & Science University, focused on abdominal wall reconstruction and hernia repair. · Dr. Sean Orenstein is an Associate Professor of Surgery at Oregon Health & Science University, focused on abdominal wall reconstruction and hernia repair. Please visit https://behindtheknife.org to access other high-yield surgical education podcasts, videos and more. If you liked this episode, check out other Clinical Challenge Episodes here: https://behindtheknife.org/podcast-series/clinical-challenges/
Abdominal pain can be grueling, causing cramps, spasms and intense squeezing sensations. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) can be a common cause of abdominal pain and represents one of the digestive diseases that affect 90 million Americans. Lisa Thorpe shares her experience with IBS and how she's benefited from both traditional and integrative treatments. Dr. Gerard […]
Trade – PlavixClass – Antiplatelet MOA – Blocks platelet aggregation by antagonizing the IIb/IIIa receptors Indications – ACS, chronic coronary and vascular disease, ischemic stroke.Contraindications – Hx of intracranial hemorrhage, GI bleed or trauma.Side effects – Nausea, Abdominal pain, hemorrhage. Dosing : Unstable angina pectoris or non Q wave AMI.Adult – Loading dose 300-600mg POPedi – Not recommended for pedi patients
Today, Holly Leever, Licensed Acupuncturist and Herbalist, and owner of Rosebud Wellness, is coming to the show. We will be talking about how acupuncture and herbs can play a huge role in your postpartum recovery, but also about abdominal massage and how to promote a healthy cycle when you get your periods back. Holly practices women's holistic health as a licensed Acupuncturist, Herbalist as I sais, but also as a Yoni Steam Therapist and Arvigo Abdominal Massage Therapist. Holly became interested in working with women's health after learning how much could be revealed about a woman's overall health by looking at the parameters of the menstrual cycle. She has continued to study a variety of techniques in order to offer women at all stages of life, from menarche to menopause, the care they deserve. She is especially passionate about working with women in the perinatal time (prenatal, birth & postpartum). Holly hosts a weekly podcast called Womb Wisdom about women's holistic health practices & birth stories. She is also a mama to an almost two year old daughter (her greatest teacher yet). In this episode, Holly and I talked about:
Coach Sharp, Girls Soccer Coach at Alamo Heights (Yes, it's soccer!), joins the show to go deep on World Cup, USA Soccer, and what our prospects are going forward after beating up on Iran, ok, winning over Iran.
Dexter Levy, MD, LAc, joins Integrative Practitioner associate editor, Avery St. Onge, to discuss the benefits of the Japanese style abdominal exam, Kampo, which uses traditional Chinese medicine to give practitioners new insights into their patients' health concerns as well as potential therapies. This episode is brought to you in part by the Integrative Healthcare Symposium. Find us at integrativepractitioner.com or e-mail us at IPEditor@divcom.com. Theme music: “Upbeat Party” by Scott Holmes via freemusicarchive.org and “Carefree” by Kevin Mcleod via incompetech.com.
Videos: Ontario College of Physicians and Surgeons state unvaccinated are meantally ill (0:48) Pandemic Amnesty': Do you Forgive and Forget? (8:19) Experts try to calm the angry AI, w Elon Musk Part 2 – (8:00) MEP Clare Daly – Speech from Nov 23 (1:12) How Long Would Society Last During a Total Grid Collapse? (14:56) The ultimate stress buster: L-theanine Columbia University Medical Center, November 16, 2022 Honestly, who would have thought that stress can cause heart damage equivalent to smoking five cigarettes? This is according to a study conducted by Columbia University Medical Center and published in the American Journal of Cardiology. The study reveals how an amino acid known as L-theanine reduces both stress levels and heart rate. As a way to increase stress levels, scientists asked 12 participants to solve a mentally stressful task in four double blind trials. L-theanine was given to participants in one of the four trials before dealing with the stressful task. In the second group, study subjects took L-theanine midway through the work. In the third and fourth variations, subjects were respectively given a placebo and nothing at all before attempting the task. In comparison to the placebo group, there was a reduced amount of immunoglobulin (a stress marker in saliva released by the immune system after exposure to viruses, bacteria, and other foreign entities) and a lower heart rate in participants who took L-theanine. The researchers explained that L-theanine works by suppressing the sympathetic nervous system responsible for the ‘fight or flight' response during emergency situations. This is achieved by blocking a chemical known as glutamate (L-glutamic acid) that carries electric signals transmitted from nerve cells to the rest of the body cells. The conclusion was that L-theanine plays a major role in terms of influencing psychology (mind) and physiology (body) function during stressful situation. Greater flavonoid intake associated with less arterial calcification Edith Cowen University (Australia), November 23 2022. The December 2022 issue of Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology reported a study that uncovered a relationship between greater consumption of plant compounds known as flavonoids and decreased calcification in the abdominal aorta, which supplies blood to the abdominal organs and lower limbs. Greater abdominal aortic calcification has been associated with an increased risk of stroke, heart attack and dementia. The study included 881 participants in the Perth Longitudinal Study of Ageing Women. Dietary questionnaire responses were analyzed to determine total and individual flavonoid intake. Women whose total flavonoid intake was among the top 25% of participants had a 36% lower risk of extensive abdominal aortic calcification than women whose intake was among the lowest 25%. Among women whose intake of individual flavonoids known as flavan-3-ols and flavonols was among the top 25%, respective risks were 39% and 38% lower. Those who consumed 2–6 cups per day of black tea (the main source of total flavonoid intake in this study), had a 16%–42% lower risk of extensive abdominal aortic calcification than women who were not tea drinkers. “In most populations, a small group of foods and beverages—uniquely high in flavonoids—contribute the bulk of total dietary flavonoid intake,” first author Ben Parmenter noted. “The main contributors are usually black or green tea, blueberries, strawberries, oranges, red wine, apples, raisins/grapes and dark chocolate.” “Out of the women who don't drink black tea, higher total non-tea flavonoid intake also appears to protect against extensive calcification of the arteries,” he continued. “This implies flavonoids from sources other than black tea may be protective against abdominal aortic calcification when tea is not consumed.” “Abdominal aortic calcification is a major predictor of vascular disease events, and this study shows intake of flavonoids, that could protect against abdominal aortic calcification, are easily achievable in most people's diets,” he concluded. Researchers discover that vitamin C improves health for children of pregnant smokers Oregon Health & Science University, November 22, 2022 Researchers at Oregon Health & Science University have found that vitamin C supplementation to pregnant women unable to quit smoking significantly improves airway function and respiratory health in their offspring at 5 years of age. While previous studies have shown that vitamin C improves airway function in infants, this is the first study to demonstrate that the improvement in airway function can be maintained through preschool age. The study published this week in JAMA Pediatrics. Despite anti-smoking efforts and a steady decrease of smoking among the adult population over the past decade, the addictive properties of tobacco products can make quitting smoking incredibly challenging for many individuals. Roughly 10% of American women continue to smoke in pregnancy, each year resulting in about 400,000 infants being exposed to smoke in-utero, or in the uterus. In-utero smoke exposure from maternal smoking during pregnancy can be dangerous for a developing baby and is linked to poor health outcomes, including impaired fetal lung development, decreased airway function and an increased risk for wheezing and asthma. Additionally, decreased airway growth early in life causes increased risk for serious lifelong conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which is now the third leading cause of death worldwide. For this study, participating women were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized controlled trial to receive either vitamin C (500 mg/day) or a placebo. Statistical analyses showed that the effect of vitamin C supplementation to pregnant smokers prior to 23 weeks of gestation consistently resulted in significantly better airway function in their offspring at 5 years old. While the findings may improve the health of the many children who face in-utero smoke exposure, these findings may have even broader implications: The results may potentially lead to better understanding of—and treatments for—the health impacts of other smoke exposures, including indoor and outdoor air pollution, vaping and wildfires. Decades of air pollution undermine the immune system, lymph nodes study finds Columbia University Irving Medical Center, November 23, 2022 The diminished power of the immune system in older adults is usually blamed on the aging process. But a new study by Columbia immunologists shows that decades of particulate air pollution also take a toll. The study found that inhaled particles from environmental pollutants accumulate over decades inside immune cells in lymph nodes associated with the lung, eventually weakening the cells' ability to fight respiratory infections. The findings—published Nov. 21 in Nature Medicine—offer a new reason why individuals become more susceptible to respiratory diseases with age. The Columbia researchers weren't initially looking at air pollution's influence on the immune system. More than ten years ago, they began to collect tissues from deceased organ donors to study immune cells in multiple mucosal and lymphoid tissues. Such cells have been largely inaccessible to researchers studying the immune system where sampling is limited to peripheral blood. “When we looked at people's lymph nodes, we were struck by how many of the nodes in the lung appeared black in color, while those in the GI tract and other areas of the body were the typical beige color,” says Donna Farber, Ph.D., the George H. Humphreys II Professor of Surgical Sciences at Columbia University , who led the study. And as the researchers collected more tissue from younger donors, they also noticed an age difference in the appearance of the lung's lymph nodes: Those from children and teenagers were largely beige while those from donors over age 30 looked were tinged with black and got darker with increasing age. “When we imaged the lung's blackened lymph nodes and found they were clogged with particles from airborne pollutants, we started to think about their impact on the lung's ability to fight infection as people age,” Farber says. In the new study, she and her colleagues examined tissues from 84 deceased human organ donors ranging in age from 11 to 93, all nonsmokers. They found that the pollutant particles in the lung's lymph nodes were located inside macrophages, immune cells that engulf and destroy bacteria, viruses, cellular debris, and other potentially dangerous substances. The macrophages containing particulates were significantly impaired: they were much less capable of ingesting other particles and producing cytokines—chemical “help” signals—that activate other parts of the immune system. Macrophages in those same lymph nodes that did not contain particulates were unimpaired. “We do not know yet the full impact pollution has on the immune system in the lung,” Farber adds, “but pollution undoubtedly plays a role in creating more dangerous respiratory infections in elderly individuals and is another reason to continue the work in improving air quality.” Biologist explains how cannabinoids cause tumor cells to commit suicide Compultense University (Spain): November 17, 2018 A molecular biologist from Compultense University in Madrid, Christina Sanchez, has been studying the molecular activity of cannabinoids for over a decade. Through her studies, she and colleagues found that tetrahydrocannabinol , (THC) which is the main psychoactive part of cannabis, kills tumerous cells while allowing healthy cells to be. It was an unexpected discovery when Sanchez and crew were studying brain cancer cells to grasp a better understanding of how they function. They observed that when cells were exposed to THC, the tumeral cells stopped growing then destroyed themselves. This occurred both in lab tests and animal trials. Sanchez first reported her miraculous findings back in 1998. According to Sanchez ,”After the discovery of this compound that is called THC, it was pretty obvious that this compound had to be acting on the cells, on our organism, through a molecular mechanism.” Research finds that the human body is designed to use cannabis compounds. In the eighties, research first showed the human body contains two targets for THC. One is the endocannabinoid system which processes THC through an endogenous framework. Then the various cannabinoid receptors throughout the body that use them. In conjunction, the body benefits from cannabinoids via these two natural systems. Cannabis is the only place in nature where some certain cannabinoids are found. Sanchez continues, “The endocannabinoids, together with the receptors and the enzymes that synthesize, that produce, the endocannabinoids and that degrade the endocannabinoids, are what we call the endocannabinoid system. We now know that the endocannabinoid system regulates a lot of biological functions: appetite, food intake, motor behavior, reproduction, and many, many other functions. And that's why the plant has such a wide therapeutic potential.” Cannabis cannabinoids, when consumed, work with the body's natural endocannabinoid system and bind to the receptors in the same manner as endogenous cannabinoids. The effects cancer-wise as demonstrated in animal models of breast and brain cancers is that the cancerous cells self destruct. A big advantage of cannabinoids is their unique ability to specifically target tumor cells with no effect on normal cells. This gives cannabinoids the advantage over chemotherapy which targets way more then the actual target Spending Time in the Forest or the Field: Investigations on Stress Perception and Psychological Well-Being University of Freiburg (Germany), November 16, 2022 Research suggests that stays in a forest promote relaxation and reduce stress compared to spending time in a city. The aim of this study was to compare stays in a forest with another natural environment, a cultivated field. Healthy, highly sensitive persons aged between 18 and 70 years spent one hour in the forest and in the field at intervals of one week. The primary outcome was measured using the Change in Subjective Self-Perception (CSP-14) questionnaire. Secondary outcomes were measured using the Profile Of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire and by analyzing salivary cortisol. The medicinal use of forests is of increasing interest worldwide. Forest air is refreshing because trees clean the air of pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides, produce oxygen, and release volatile bioactive terpenes into the air . Research from Japan, South Korea], China, Taiwan, Australia, the United States, Italy, Norway, Iceland, Finland, and Austria suggests that spending time in the forest promotes relaxation, lowers stress hormones and blood pressure and strengthens the immune system. Most studies compared stays in the forest to stays in the city. Accordingly, forests potentially contribute to the prevention of stress-related diseases. Controlled studies have shown positive effects in high blood pressure, chronic heart failure, COPD and chronic neck pain. In addition, spending time in the forest seems to improve psychological well-being. Spending time in forests reduced adrenaline and noradrenaline in urine, cortisol in saliva and self-rated stress perception; it also induced relaxation in controlled trials. This indicates that forest stays can reduce stress. The available data also indicate that “forest bathing”, i.e., walking, standing or sitting in a forest with the purpose of relaxation, perceiving the environment and inhaling phytoncides stabilizes the autonomic nervous system by reducing the sympathetic and activating the parasympathetic tones. With regard to the immune system, which is linked to stress response and vegetative nerve system, an increase in the activity of natural killer cells and the expression of anti-cancer proteins such as perforin, granzyme A/B, granulysin could be demonstrated. In view of these findings, forests could make an important contribution to the prevention of stress-related diseases. As shown in previous studies, the stressful environment of a city was most often compared to a forest; it remains unclear whether forests have specific effects or are just acting as natural environments. Therefore, we wanted to compare two natural but polar-opposite environments. In cultivated fields, sensory impressions are different from the forest. In order to maximize profitability, fields are mostly structured into rectangular shapes and usually mainly one type of plant is found, while in a natural forest, different types of plants grow side by side. Accordingly, visual, auditory and olfactory impressions are less diverse in fields than in forestsThe play of light and shadow that characterizes the forest atmosphere is not found in fields. The plants are usually not tall enough to provide shade, whereas the height of the trees in the forest can provide a sense of shelter. Field paths are more often sealed than forest paths, which changes haptic perception when walking on them. Thus, there are significant differences in the types of sensory impressions between forests and fields. Highly sensitive persons (HSP), due to their subtle perception, intensely perceive stimuli that others might not even consciously notice. These stimuli may consist of the behavior or moods of other people, the media, medications, pain, and hunger . They perceive stimuli, positively or negatively, to a higher degree, which may, on the one hand, lead to a prolonged reaction time, and on the other hand to more intense feelings and emotional excitability. Our main outcome results show that, as soon as one hour after entering the forest, participants felt a sense of security, relaxation and inner connectedness. In summer, forest interventions had a better effect on vitality. Our study was the first to use the CSP-14 questionnaire, and the comparisons between field and forest interventions were also novel. Forest interventions significantly lowered perceptions of depression, anxiety, hostility, fatigue, confusion and total mood disturbance, and greatly increased vigor. This study shows that forests are not the only kind of natural environment that can promote psychological well-being. The characteristics and qualities of natural environments might influence people's mood and well-being differently. There might also be differences dependent on the preferences of the respective individuals. We regard it as meaningful to study these different effects of nature on the human soul and body in more detail. In addition, future studies examining the effects of different natural environments on human health should respect seasonal aspects and weather conditions.
What Is Pancreatitis in Dogs? The pancreas is an organ in the abdominal cavity. One of its roles is producing digestive enzymes, which helps break down food products. Pancreatitis in dogs is an inflammatory reaction within the pancreas that can result in abdominal pain, inappetence, and vomiting. The inflammation results from the inappropriate, early activation of an enzyme within the pancreas, which causes the pancreas to digest itself. What Causes Pancreatitis in Dogs? Classically, the typical history of a canine patient that is diagnosed with pancreatitis is one in which the dog ate a high-fat meal or got into the garbage. Unfortunately, this is not the most common cause of pancreatitis. In reality, 90% of the time, the inciting cause of pancreatitis in dogs is idiopathic (cannot be determined). Are Some Dogs Predisposed to Pancreatitis? Some breeds are more prone to the development of pancreatitis, as well as dogs taking certain medications. Miniature Schnauzers are considered to be a predisposed breed due their tendency to have problems with high blood triglyceride levels. Another example is the English Cocker Spaniel. Immune-mediated diseases, which result from abnormal activity of the immune system, are seen at a higher frequency in this breed in general, and the immune system attacking the pancreas is no exception. Medications that are known to cause inflammation of the pancreas include, but are not limited to, some chemotherapy medications and some antibiotics. What Are the Symptoms of Pancreatitis in Dogs? Pancreatitis can present as a sudden-onset (acute) illness or as a more long-term (chronic) illness. A dog that has acute pancreatitis will have more serious clinical signs, such as: Severe lethargy Abdominal pain Persistent vomiting Severe dehydration Collapse and shock (sometimes) A dog with chronic pancreatitis is typically not as sick. The clinical signs may include: Lethargy Decreased appetite to not eating at all Abdominal pain and/or vomiting In general, chronic pancreatitis is not as common in dogs as acute pancreatitis. Dogs with chronic pancreatitis can suddenly develop worsening pancreatitis. This is a situation where chronic pancreatitis presents acutely. How Do Vets Diagnose Pancreatitis in Dogs? Disease of the pancreas can be difficult to identify because, oftentimes, the signs of illness are not specific to the pancreas, and routine blood tests are often not helpful. However, there are pancreatic-specific blood tests that can be performed when the veterinarian has a high suspicion of pancreatitis. Unfortunately, even these special tests are not 100% accurate. Abdominal X-rays are also not very helpful in diagnosing pancreatitis in dogs. However, in a vomiting patient, it is important to take X-rays to rule out a potential foreign-body obstruction of the stomach and/or intestine (something your dog ate, like a squeaker out of a toy). The best method to image the pancreas is via abdominal ultrasound. However, the tissue of the pancreas has to be abnormal enough to visualize using the ultrasound, which is more common in dogs with acute, severe pancreatitis, when compared to those with chronic, mild pancreatitis. Overall, blood testing and abdominal ultrasound are better in helping to diagnose pancreatitis in dogs when it is acute and severe. How to Treat Pancreatitis in Dogs Treatment is primarily supportive care regardless of whether the patient has acute or chronic pancreatitis. Severe Pancreatitis in Dogs Patients with severe, acute pancreatitis often require more extensive medical intervention and treatment. These patients are often in need of several days, if not weeks, of treatment, including: Intensive intravenous (IV) fluid and electrolyte support Pain-control measures Antinausea medication(s) Stomach-protectant medications Nutritional support in the form of a feeding tube Antibiotics (sometimes) Severe pancreatitis patients are often critical and best treated in a specialist practice, such as an intensive 24-hour care facility. The cost for treatment is estimated at approximately $2000-5000 but can vary depending on where you live. Moderate to Mild Pancreatitis in Dogs Patients with moderate or mild pancreatitis may be hospitalized for one to a few days for IV fluid therapy to correct dehydration. In a dog with mild pancreatitis, your veterinarian may determine that subcutaneous (applied under the skin) fluid administration—either at the appointment or at home—will be adequate for rehydration. These patients are usually also treated with: Antinausea medication A stomach protectant(s) Pain-reliever medication A bland, low-fat diet is recommended during recovery (this may be a home-cooked and/or home-prepared diet) In general, mild to moderate pancreatitis patients recover in one to two weeks. Treatment can vary with these patients, so the cost varies. If hospitalized for a few days, the costs can approximate $1500-2500. If treated as an outpatient, the cost is around $500-1000. A permanent diet change may be recommended, especially in predisposed breeds (Schnauzers) or dogs with a previous history of pancreatitis. What Is the Prognosis for Pancreatitis in Dogs? The prognosis for dogs with pancreatitis ultimately depends on the severity of the illness. A dog with severe pancreatitis has a poor to grave overall prognosis, thus a higher risk of death. These patients can die from a severe whole-body inflammatory condition, which results in multiple organ failure. Pancreatic abscess formation and peritonitis (abdominal cavity infection) is another complication of severe pancreatitis that increases the risk of fatality. It is important to note that a dog that has recovered from even a single episode of pancreatitis or repeated episodes of pancreatitis may develop extensive scarring within the pancreatic tissue. This can lead to the development of diabetes mellitus and/or a condition called exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). EPI occurs as a result of the pancreas not being able to produce a sufficient amount of digestive enzymes. Pancreatitis has many potential causes, and dogs can present with illness that ranges from mild to very severe. Also, the signs of illness are not specific to the pancreas, so it can be a challenge to diagnose. Ultimately, the earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the more positive the outcome. Featured Image: iStock.com/Elen11
En este episodio Frank explica por que la avena no absorbe la grasa del abdomen. En Estados Unidos hable al 1-888-348-7352 o visítenos online en https://us.naturalslim.com En Puerto Rico hable 1-787-763-2527 o visítenos en http://www.naturalslimstore.com En Europa hable al +3120-2296-300 o visítenos en https://www.naturalslim.eu En México hable al (55) 5256-1368 o visítenos en https://naturalslimmexico.com/ En República Dominicana hable al 1-809-956-0007 En Panamá hable al +507 396-6000 En Costa Rica hable al (506)2430-2010 En Colombia hable al (57-1) 7020928 Suscríbete a UNIMETAB aquí y permite que Frank te lleve de la mano paso a paso con los cursos digitales de Frank Suárez. Acceda https://www.unimetab.com/ Suscríbete a MetabolismoTV en Messenger para acceso a educación exclusiva por Frank en el tema del metabolismo: https://www.messenger.com/t/Metabolis... Para hacer su prueba de metabolismo gratis haga clic aquí: https://www.naturalslim.com/prueba-tu... Para ordenar el libro en uno de los países listados arriba a través de https://www.naturalslim.com a su distribuidor local quien le ayudará a obtenerlo o accede https://www.metabolismotvbooks.com Para acceso a libros digitales con membresía en todo el mundo acceda https://www.metabolismovip.com Sigue a Frank y MetabolismoTV en Facebook aquí: https://www.facebook.com/MetabolismoTV/ Accede al Blog de Preguntale a Frank en http://www.preguntaleafrank.com La información que se brinda en MetabolismoTV®️ tiene un propósito puramente educacional. No pretendemos diagnosticar, curar o de alguna otra forma sustituir la ayuda profesional de su médico, nutricionista, dietista u otro profesional de la salud cualificado. Usted siempre debe consultar con su médico antes de empezar a hacer cualquier cambio en su dieta muy en especial si está recibiendo tratamiento médico o utiliza medicamentos recetados.
En este programa hablo sobre: Agua Comer sentado y reposo Intolerancia a algún alimento Altos niveles de estrés y ansiedad Tu flora intestinal está dañada No duermes apenas Estás saturado de comer tanto Alcohol y Tabaco Si quieres que sea tu entrenador: antonioyuste.com/ayudame/
In today's episode I share a beautiful podcast interview I did with the lovely Namita Mahanama on her podcast “Thrive with Whole-listic Healing Co”. In this episode we chat about: -My biggest challenges with 3 small children -Strategies for me to fill my cup up and how my perspective of this has changed over the years -What does a women's physio do and what can we help with? -Can pelvic floor exercises negatively impact your birth experience? -Best tips to deal with overwhelm -How I juggle career, motherhood and life and working with my husband -Abdominal separation, pelvic floor and so much more! If you'd like to connect with me further or be supported throughout every week of your pregnancy, come and join me inside my online pregnancy membership program The Pregnancy Posse. You can trial the program for 7 days by visiting thepregnancyposse.com See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
There are many common mistakes with abdominal training—training your abs every day, doing super high rep training, or assuming that your abs get enough stimulation with your upper and lower body exercises. In this episode, I discuss all those myths and how to train your abs for hypertrophy (muscle growth). 0:00: Introduction 1:12: Core Stability Program3:18: Muscle hypertrophy 6:52: Myth: “Everything is core work”12:27: Myth: “You should work the abdominals for 5-10 minutes straight”15:47: Myth “You should work your abdominals every day”17:21: Summary8 free Evlo classesFollow Dr. Shannon on IG14 day Evlo trial
Episode 63 of Are You a Good Bitch or a Bad Bitch? In this episode, our girls are a couple of dolls: one who causes mysterious symptoms but can be reasoned with & another who's chaotic ways earned her a movie franchise.Music by Deanna HenriquezSupport the show
We are one!Thank you all so much for joining us on this incredible journey over the past year!It has been nothing but enjoyable, coming together to talk about various topics centering around gastroenterology and hepatology. On behalf of the team, we would like to thank you all for tuning in, and we hope that you've enjoyed and learnt as much as we have. To commemorate our 1st anniversary, our co-hosts Dillon & Ching Han have come together to talk about the abdominal examination - a vital skill for every physician. Join us as we go through some of the tips and tricks behind acing the abdominal examination.
Jandra Mueller–pelvic health physical therapist at The Pelvic Health and Rehabilitation Center–is back on the podcast to discuss the surprising connections between pelvic floor health and gut health. This time, she weighs in on the three-step protocol I've developed to improve abdominal distension and how posture, breathwork, and emotions all tie into healing the gut and feeling better. Listen in to learn more. https://www.drruscio.com/abdominal-distention-dr-ruscio-new-protocol My book Healthy Gut, Healthy You is available at https://drruscio.com/getgutbook If you're in need of clinical support, please visit https://ruscioinstitute.com Looking for more? Check out https://drruscio.com/resources
Hello Passengers! Thanks for listening! Become a First Class Passenger! Get all of the bonuses, support the show and Save The Music Foundation! www.patreon.com/accidentaldads Units 731 is a hardcore metal band formed in Pittsburgh, PA, in 2005. The band combines death metal, hardcore, and slam to create a heavy and chaotic sound for which Pittsburgh bands are notable. Influences include Dying Fetus, All Out War, Irate, and Built Upon Frustration. Ok, wait… wrong notes. Um… ok, here it is. The Unit 731 we're here to talk about is short for Manshu Detachment 731. It was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that participated in lethal human experimentation and the production of biological weapons during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II. Unit 731 was based in the Pingfang district of Harbin, the largest city in the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. Manchukuo's government was dissolved in 1945 after the surrender of Imperial Japan at the end of World War II. The territories claimed by Manchukuo were first seized in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria in August 1945 and then formally transferred to the Chinese administration in the following year. For those of you wondering, "what in the Jim Henson hell is a puppet state," well, according to Wikipedia, a puppet state "is a state that is legally recognized as independent but, in fact, completely dependent upon an outside power and subject to its orders. Puppet states have nominal sovereignty, but a foreign power effectively exercises control through financial interests and economic or military support. The United States also had some puppet states during the Cold War: Cuba (United States), (before 1959) Guatemala (United States), (until 1991) South Korea A.K.A. United States Army Military Government in Korea (United States), (Until 1948) The Republic of Vietnam A.K.A. South Vietnam (United States), (Until 1975) Japan A.K.A. Allied Occupation of Japan (United States), (Until 1952) Some of the most infamous war crimes committed by the Japanese military forces were caused by this Unit. Internally dehumanized and referred to as "logs," humans were regularly used in Unit 731 testing. Some atrocious experiments included: disease injections, controlled dehydration, hypobaric chamber experiments, biological weapons testing, vivisection, amputation, and weapons testing. Babies, children, and pregnant women were among the victims. Although the victims were from various countries, the majority were Chinese. Additionally, Unit 731 created biological weapons employed in regions of China, including Chinese cities and towns, water supplies, and farms, that were not held by Japanese soldiers. Up to 500,000 people are thought to have been murdered by Unit 731 and its related activities. It was called "The Kwantung Army's Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department." Unit 731 was first established by the Kenpeitai military police of the Empire of Japan. General Shiro Ishii, a combat medic officer in the Kwantung Army, took control and oversaw the unit until the war's conclusion. Ishii and his crew used the facility, constructed in 1935 to replace the Zhongma Fortress, to increase their capabilities. Up to the end of the war in 1945, the Japanese government generously supported the initiative. Facilities for the manufacturing, testing, deployment and storage of biological weapons were controlled by Unit 731 and the other units of the Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department. While researchers from Unit 731 detained by Soviet troops were convicted in the Khabarovsk war crime trials in December 1949, those seized by American forces were secretly granted immunity in exchange for the information obtained during their human experimentation. As if we needed more bullshit to make us question the tactics of the U.S. government, The U.S. quelled the talk of the human experiments and paid the accused of doing it an actual salary. So then, similar to what they did with German researchers during Operation Paperclip, the Americans siphoned and took their knowledge of and expertise with bioweapons for use in their own program for biological warfare. Japan started its biological weapons program in the 1930s, partly because biological weapons were banned by the Geneva Convention of 1925; they reasoned that the ban verified its effectiveness as a weapon. This begs the question, does this type of government appropriation, paying off and hiring those guilty of explicit acts on humans to use their knowledge to create our own versions of what they committed, considered an act "for the greater good?" Does allowing these turds' immunity to extract their heinous experience worth it? Japan's occupation of Manchuria began in 1931 after the Japanese invasion. Japan decided to build Unit 731 in Manchuria because the occupation not only gave the Japanese advantage of separating the research station from their island but also gave them access to as many Chinese individuals as they wanted for use as human experimental subjects. They viewed the Chinese as no-cost research subjects and hoped they could use this advantage to lead the world in biological warfare. Most research subjects were Chinese, but many were of different nationalities. Sound familiar? Maybe a precursor to what a bunch of mind fucked Nazis attempted AND SUCCEEDED IN DOING to so many Jews and Jewish sympathizers? In 1932, Surgeon General Shirō Ishii, chief medical officer of the Imperial Japanese Army and protégé of Army Minister Sadao Araki, was placed in command of the Army Epidemic Prevention Research Laboratory (AEPRL). Ishii organized a secret research group, the "Tōgō Unit," for chemical and biological experimentation in Manchuria. Ishii proposed the creation of a Japanese biological and chemical research unit in 1930, after a two-year study trip abroad, because Western powers were developing their own programs. Colonel Chikahiko Koizumi, who eventually served as Japan's Health Minister from 1941 to 1945, was one of Ishii's most fierce supporters inside the Army. In 1915, during World War I, Koizumi and other Imperial Japanese Army officers were inspired by the Germans' successful use of chlorine gas at the Second Battle of Ypres (EEPRUH), in which the Allies suffered 5,000 fatalities and 15,000 injuries as a result of the chemical attack. As a result, they joined a covert poison gas research committee. As a result, unit Togo was started in the Zhongma Fortress, a prison/experimentation camp in Beiyinhe, a hamlet on the South Manchuria Railway 100 kilometers (62 miles) south of Harbin. To start the tests on those in good health, prisoners were often well-fed on a diet of rice or wheat, meat, fish, and perhaps even wine. The inmates were then starved of food and drink and had their blood drained over many days. Finally, it was noted that their health was declining. Shocker. Some were vivisected as well. For those who don't watch or listen to disturbing documentaries, vivisection is surgery conducted for experimental purposes on a living organism, typically animals with a central nervous system, to view living internal structures. Others had been purposefully exposed to the plague bacterium and other pathogens. Ishii had to close down Zhongma Fortress due to a jailbreak in the fall of 1934 that jeopardized the facility's secret and an explosion in 1935 that was thought to be sabotage. Then he was given permission to relocate to Pingfang, which is 24 km (15 mi) south of Harbin, to set up a new, much larger facility. Emperor Hirohito signed a decree in 1936 approving the unit's growth and its incorporation as the Epidemic Prevention Department into the Kwantung Army. It had bases at Hsinking and was split into the "Ishii Unit" and "Wakamatsu Unit." The units were collectively referred to as the "Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army" from August 1940 onward. Hirohito's younger brother, Prince Mikasa, toured the Unit 731 headquarters in China and wrote in his memoir that he watched films showing how Chinese prisoners were "made to march on the plains of Manchuria for poison gas experiments on humans." The decree also mandated the construction of a chemical warfare development unit, the Kwantung Army Technical Testing Department, and a biological warfare development unit, the Kwantung Army Military Horse Epidemic Prevention Workshop (later known as Manchuria Unit 100). (subsequently referred to as Manchuria Unit 516). Sister chemical and biological warfare organizations known as Epidemic Prevention and Water Supply Units were established in significant Chinese towns during the Japanese invasion of China in 1937. Unit 1855 in Beijing, Unit Ei 1644 in Nanjing, Unit 8604 in Guangzhou, and Unit 9420 in Singapore were among the detachments. Ishii's network, which at its height in 1939 had control over 10,000 people, was made up of all these organizations. In addition, Japanese medical practitioners and academics were drawn to Unit 731 by the opportunity to perform human experiments, which was highly unusual, and the Army's robust financial support. Experiments Human subjects were used in studies for a specific project with the codename Maruta. Test subjects were selected from the local populace and were referred to as "logs," as in the phrase "How many logs fell?" Since the facility's official cover story to local authorities was that it was a timber mill, the personnel first used the word as a joke. The initiative was internally known as "Holzklotz," which is German, meaning log, according to a junior uniformed civilian employee of the Imperial Japanese Army working in Unit 731. Nothing like dehumanizing the poor people you're experimenting on. Another similarity was the cremation of the "sacrificed" participants' corpses. Additionally, Unit 731 researchers published some findings in peer-reviewed publications while posing as non-human primates termed "Manchurian monkeys" or "long-tailed monkeys" to do the research. According to American historian Sheldon H. Harris: "The Togo Unit employed gruesome tactics to secure specimens of select body organs. If Ishii or one of his co-workers wished to do research on the human brain, then they would order the guards to find them a useful sample. A prisoner would be taken from his cell. Guards would hold him while another guard would smash the victim's head open with an ax. His brain would be extracted off to the pathologist, and then to the crematorium for the usual disposal." Nakagawa Yonezo, professor emeritus at Osaka University, studied at Kyoto University during the war. While there, he watched footage of human experiments and executions from Unit 731. He later testified about the "playfulness of the experimenters:" 'Some of the experiments had nothing to do with advancing the capability of germ warfare, or of medicine. There is such a thing as professional curiosity: 'What would happen if we did such and such?' What medical purpose was served by performing and studying beheadings? None at all. That was just playing around. Professional people, too, like to play."" Prisoners were injected with diseases disguised as vaccinations to study their effects. For example, to analyze the results of untreated venereal diseases, male and female prisoners were deliberately infected with syphilis and gonorrhea, then studied. Prisoners were also repeatedly subjected to rape by guards. Vivisection Thousands of people held in prisoner of war camps were subjected to vivisection (You all know what that is now. Organizations against animal experimentation generally use the phrase as a derogatory catch-all term for experiments on living animals, whereas practicing scientists seldom ever do. Live organ harvesting and other forms of human vivisection, as we also know, have been used as torture.), which was frequently done without anesthetic and was typically fatal. Okawa Fukumatsu, a former member of Unit 731, said in a video interview that he had vivisected a pregnant woman. Prisoners were infected with numerous illnesses before having their bodies vivisected. Invasive surgery was conducted on inmates to remove organs and learn how the condition affects the human body. Inmates' limbs were severed so researchers could monitor blood loss. Sometimes the victims' corpses' severed limbs were reattached to their opposite sides. In addition, some convicts had surgical procedures to remove their stomachs and reconnect their esophagus to their intestines. Others had parts of their organs removed, including the brain, the liver, and the lungs. According to Imperial Japanese Army physician Ken Yuasa, at least 1,000 Japanese soldiers participated in vivisection on humans in mainland China, suggesting that the practice was commonly done outside Unit 731. Biological warfare Throughout World War II, Unit 731 and its related units—including Unit 1644 and Unit 100—were engaged in the study, production, and experimental use of epidemic-producing biowarfare weapons in attacks against the Chinese population (both military and civilian). For example, in 1940 and 1941, low-flying aircraft carried plague-carrying fleas over Chinese towns, notably coastal Ningbo and Changde, in the Hunan Province. These fleas were produced in the labs of Unit 731 and Unit 1644. With bubonic plague epidemics, these flea bombs claimed tens of thousands of lives. During an expedition to Nanjing, typhoid and paratyphoid virus were dispersed into water supplies across the city's wells, marshes, and residences and infused into snacks served to inhabitants. Soon after, epidemics spread to the joy of many scientists, who concluded that paratyphoid fever was "the most effective" of the diseases. At least 12 large-scale bioweapon field tests were conducted, and biological weapons were used to target 11 Chinese cities. According to reports, a 1941 raid on Changde resulted in some 10,000 biological injuries and 1,700 deaths among poorly equipped Japanese soldiers, most of which died of cholera. In addition, Japanese researchers conducted experiments on inmates suffering from cholera, smallpox, bubonic plague, and other illnesses. The defoliation bacilli bomb and the flea bomb, which were used to spread the bubonic plague, were developed as a result of this study. Ishii presented the concept of designing some of these bombs using porcelain shells in 1938. These bombs allowed Japanese forces to launch biological strikes, infecting crops, water supplies, and other places with cholera, typhoid, anthrax, and other deadly illnesses via fleas. Researchers would study the victims dying during biological bomb trials while protected by protective suits. Aircraft would deliver contaminated food and clothes into parts of China that were not under Japanese control. Additionally, innocent people received candies and food that had been tainted. On several targets, bombs containing plague fleas, contaminated clothes, and infected goods were dropped upon the unsuspecting citizens. As a result, at least 400,000 Chinese citizens were killed due to cholera, anthrax, and plague. Also tested on Chinese citizens was tularemia, Also known as rabbit fever or deer fly fever, which typically attacks the skin, eyes, lymph nodes, and lungs. Chiang Kai-shek dispatched military and international medical specialists delegation to document the evidence and treat the sick in November 1941 in response to pressure from various stories of the biowarfare assaults. However, the Allied Powers did not respond to a report on the Japanese deployment of plague-infected fleas on Changde until Franklin D. Roosevelt issued a public warning in 1943 denouncing the attacks. The announcement was made publicly available the following year. Obviously, this is ridiculous and inhumane, but it couldn't be used on us here in the U.S. of "Don't Tread On Me" A, right? Well, hold on to your stars and stripes because during the final months of World War II, codenamed "Cherry Blossoms at Night," Unit 731 planned to use kamikaze pilots to infest San Diego, California, with the plague. The plan was scheduled to launch on September 22, 1945, but Japan surrendered five weeks earlier. So yep, if the United States had not dropped Fat Man and Little Boy on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, there could have been a man-made plague set upon the west coast. Weapons testing Human targets were used to test grenades positioned at various distances and positions. Flamethrowers were also tested on people. Victims were also tied to stakes and used as targets to test pathogen-releasing bombs, chemical weapons, shrapnel bombs with varying amounts of fragments, explosive bombs, and bayonets and knives. To determine the best course of treatment for varying degrees of shrapnel wounds sustained on the field by Japanese Soldiers, Chinese prisoners were exposed to direct bomb blasts. They were strapped, unprotected, to wooden planks staked into the ground at increasing distances around a bomb that was then detonated. After that, it was surgery for most and autopsies for the rest. This info was taken from the documentary — Unit 731, Nightmare in Manchuria Other experiments In other diplorable tests, subjects were deprived of food and water to determine the length of time until death. They would then be placed into low-pressure chambers until their eyes popped from the sockets. Next, victims were tested to determine the relationship between temperature, burns, and human survival. Next, they were hung upside down until death; crushed with heavy objects; electrocuted; dehydrated with hot fans, placed into centrifuges, and spun until they died. People were also injected with animal blood, notably horse blood; exposed to lethal doses of X-rays; subjected to various chemical weapons inside gas chambers; injected with seawater; and burned or buried alive. The Unit also looked at the characteristics of several other poisons and chemical agents. Prisoners were subjected to substances like tetrodotoxin (the venom of pufferfish or fugu), heroin, Korean bindweed, bactal, and castor-oil seeds, to mention a few (ricin). In addition, according to former Unit 731 vivisectionist Okawa Fukumatsu, large volumes of blood were removed from some detainees to research the consequences of blood loss. At least half a liter of blood was taken in one instance at intervals of two to three days. The human body only contains 5 liters. As we mentioned, dehydration experiments were performed on the victims. These tests aimed to determine the amount of water in an individual's body and how long one could survive with little to no water intake. Victims were also starved before these tests began. The deteriorating physical states of these victims were documented by staff at periodic intervals. "It was said that a small number of these poor men, women, and children who became marutas were also mummified alive in total dehydration experiments. They sweated themselves to death under the heat of several hot dry fans. At death, the corpses would only weigh ≈1/5 normal bodyweight." — Hal Gold, Japan's Infamous Unit 731, (2019) Unit 731 also performed transfusion experiments with different blood types. For example, unit member Naeo Ikeda wrote: In my experience, when 100 cc A type blood was transfused to an O-type subject, whose pulse was 87 per minute and temperature was 35.4 degrees C, 30 minutes later, their temperature rose to 38.6 degrees with slight trepidation. Sixty minutes later, their pulse was 106 per minute, and the temperature was 39.4 degrees. The temperature was 37.7 degrees two hours later, and the subject recovered three hours later. When 120 cc of AB-type blood was transfused to an O-type subject, an hour after the subject described malaise and psychroesthesia (feeling cold) in both legs. When 100 cc of A.B. type blood was transfused to a B-type subject, there seemed to be no side effects. Taken from— "Man, Medicine, and the State: The Human Body as an Object of Government Sponsored Medical Research in the 20th Century" (2006) pp. 38–39 Unit 731 tested a slew of chemical agents on prisoners and had a building dedicated to gas experiments. Some of the agents tested were mustard gas, lewisite, cyanic acid gas, white phosphorus, adamsite, and phosgene gas. To put things in horrific perspective, the mortality rate from mustard gas was only 2-3%. Still, those who suffered chemical burns and respiratory problems had prolonged hospitalizations and, if they recovered, were thought to be at higher risk of developing cancers during later life. The toxic effects of lewisite are rapid onset and result from acute exposures. The vesicant properties of lewisite result from direct skin contact; it has been estimated that as little as 2 ml to an adult human (equivalent to 37.6 mg/kg) can be fatal within several hours. Airborne release of cyanide gas, in the form of hydrogen cyanide or cyanogen chloride, would be expected to be lethal to 50% of those exposed (LCt50) at levels of 2,500-5,000 mg•min/m^3 and 11,000 mg•min/m^3, respectively. When ingested as sodium or potassium cyanide, the lethal dose is 100-200 mg. According to a medical report prepared during the hostilities by the ministry of health, "[w]hite phosphorus can cause serious injury and death when it comes into contact with the skin, is inhaled or is swallowed." The report states that burns on less than 10 percent of the body can be fatal because of liver, kidneys, and heart damage. Adamsite (D.M.) is a vomiting compound used as a riot-control agent (military designation, D.M.). It is released as an aerosol. Adverse health effects from exposure to adamsite (D.M.) are generally self-limited and do not require specific therapy. Most adverse health effects resolve within 30 minutes. Exposure to large concentrations of adamsite (D.M.), or exposure to adamsite (D.M.) within an enclosed space or under adverse weather conditions, may result in more severe adverse health effects, serious illness, or death. Phosgene is highly toxic by acute (short-term) inhalation exposure. Severe respiratory effects, including pulmonary edema, pulmonary emphysema, and death, have been reported in humans. Severe ocular irritation and dermal burns may result following eye or skin exposure. It is estimated that as many as 85% of the 91,000 gas deaths in WWI were a result of phosgene or the related agent, diphosgene A former army major and technician gave the following testimony anonymously (at the time of the interview, this man was a professor emeritus at a national university): "In 1943, I attended a poison gas test held at the Unit 731 test facilities. A glass-walled chamber about three meters square [97 sq ft] and two meters [6.6 ft] high was used. Inside of it, a Chinese man was blindfolded, with his hands tied around a post behind him. The gas was adamsite (sneezing gas), and as the gas filled the chamber the man went into violent coughing convulsions and began to suffer excruciating pain. More than ten doctors and technicians were present. After I had watched for about ten minutes, I could not stand it any more, and left the area. I understand that other types of gasses were also tested there." Taken from— Hal Gold, Japan's Infamous Unit 731, p. 349 (2019) Super gross. Takeo Wano, a former medical employee of Unit 731, claimed to have observed a Western man being pickled in formaldehyde after being chopped in half vertically. Because so many Russians were residing in the neighborhood at the time, Wano suspected that the man was Russian. Additionally, Unit 100 experimented with poisonous gas. The captives were housed in mobile gas chambers that resembled phone booths. Others donned military uniforms, while others were made to wear various sorts of gas masks, and other people wore nothing at all. It's been said that some of the tests are "psychopathically cruel, with no possible military purpose." One experiment, for instance, measured how long it took for three-day-old newborns to freeze to death. Jesus christ. Additionally, Unit 731 conducted field tests of chemical weapons on detainees. An unknown researcher at the Kamo Unit (Unit 731) wrote a paper that details a significant (mustard gas) experiment on humans from September 7–10, 1940. Twenty participants were split into three groups and put in observation gazebos, trenches, and fighting emplacements. One group received up to 1,800 field cannon rounds of mustard gas for 25 minutes while wearing Chinese underpants, without a cap or a mask. Another set had shoes and a summer military outfit; three wore masks, while the others did not. They also were exposed to as many as 1,800 rounds of mustard gas. A third group was clothed in summer military uniform, three with masks and two without masks, and were exposed to as many as 4,800 rounds. Then their general symptoms and damage to the skin, eye, respiratory organs, and digestive organs were observed at 4 hours, 24 hours, and 2, 3, and 5 days after the shots. Holy shit. Then the psychopaths injected the blister fluid from one subject into another, and analyses of blood and soil were also performed. Finally, five subjects were forced to drink a water solution of mustard and lewisite gas, with or without decontamination. The report describes the conditions of every subject precisely without mentioning what happened to them in the long run. The following is an excerpt of one of these reports: "Number 376, dugout of the first area: September 7, 1940, 6 pm: Tired and exhausted. Looks with hollow eyes. Weeping redness of the skin of the upper part of the body. Eyelids edematous (uh-dim-uh-tose)(Swollen with fluid), swollen. Epiphora. (excessive watering), Hyperemic conjunctivae (ocular redness). September 8, 1940, 6 am: Neck, breast, upper abdomen, and scrotum weeping, reddened, swollen. Covered with millet-seed-size to bean-size blisters. Eyelids and conjunctivae hyperemic and edematous. Had difficulties opening the eyes. September 8, 6 pm: Tired and exhausted. Feels sick. Body temperature 37 degrees Celsius. Mucous and bloody erosions across the shoulder girdle. Abundant mucus nose secretions. Abdominal pain. Mucous and bloody diarrhea. Proteinuria (excess protein in urinal, possibly meaning kidney damage). September 9, 1940, 7 am: Tired and exhausted. Weakness of all four extremities. Low morale. Body temperature 37 degrees Celsius. Skin of the face still weeping. Taken from— "Man, Medicine, and the State: The Human Body as an Object of Government Sponsored Medical Research in the 20th Century" (2006) p. 187 Frostbite testing Hisato Yoshimura, an Army engineer, carried out tests by forcing captives to stand outside, putting various limbs into water at multiple temperatures, and letting the limb freeze. Yoshimura would then use a small stick to whack the victims' frozen limbs while "producing a sound similar to that which a board emits when it is struck." The damaged region was then treated with different methods, such as dousing it in water or exposing it to the heat of a fire once the ice had been chipped away. The sadistic fuck, Yoshimura, was described to the members of the Unit as a "scientific devil" and a "cold-blooded animal" because of the strictness with which he would carry out his evil experiments. In an interview from the 1980s, Unit 731 member Naoji Uezono revealed a super uncool and nightmare-inducing incident when Yoshimura had "Researchers placed two nude males in an area that was 40–50 degrees below zero and documented the entire process until the individuals passed away. [The victims] were in such pain that they were tearing at each other's flesh with their nails ". In a 1950 essay for the Journal Of Japanese Physiology, Yoshimura revealed his lack of regret for torturing 20 kids and a three-day-old baby in tests that subjected them to ice water and ice temperatures below zero. Although this article drew criticism, Yoshimura denied any guilt when contacted by a reporter from the Mainichi Shimbun. Yoshimura developed a "resistance index of frostbite" based on the mean temperature of 5 to 30 minutes after immersion in freezing water, the temperature of the first rise after immersion, and the time until the temperature rises after immersion. In several separate experiments, it was then determined how these parameters depend on the time of day a victim's body part was immersed in freezing water, the surrounding temperature and humidity during immersion, and how the victim had been treated before the immersion. Variables like ("after keeping awake for a night", "after hunger for 24 hours", "after hunger for 48 hours", "immediately after heavy meal", "immediately after hot meal", "immediately after muscular exercise", "immediately after cold bath", "immediately after hot bath"), what type of food the victim had been fed over the five days preceding the immersions concerning dietary nutrient intake ("high protein (of animal nature)", "high protein (of vegetable nature)", "low protein intake", and "standard diet"), and salt intake (45 g NaCl per day, 15 g NaCl per day, no salt). Oh, science.... Then there's syphilis. For those that may not know, syphilis is a chronic bacterial disease contracted chiefly by infection during sexual intercourse but also congenitally by infection of a developing fetus. The first sign of syphilis is a small, brownish dot on the infected person's left hand. How many of you looked? You dirty birds! Actually, the first stage of syphilis involves a painless sore on the genitals, rectum, or mouth. After the initial sore heals, the second stage is characterized by a rash. Then, there are no symptoms until the final stage, which may occur years later. This final stage can result in damage to the brain, nerves, eyes, or heart. Syphilis is treated with penicillin. Sexual partners should also be treated. Unit members orchestrated forced sex acts between infected and noninfected prisoners to transmit syphilis, as the testimony of a prison guard on the subject of devising a method for transmission of syphilis between patients shows: "Infection of venereal disease by injection was abandoned, and the researchers started forcing the prisoners into sexual acts with each other. Four or five unit members, dressed in white laboratory clothing completely covering the body with only eyes and mouth visible, rest covered, handled the tests. A male and female, one infected with syphilis, would be brought together in a cell and forced into sex with each other. It was made clear that anyone resisting would be shot." These unfortunate victims were infected and then vivisected at various stages of infection to view the interior and exterior organs as the disease developed. Despite being forcefully infected, many guards testified that the female victims were the viruses' hosts. Guards used the term "jam-filled buns" to refer to the syphilis-infected female detainees' genitalia. And THAT is so gross on just about every level. Inside the confines of Unit 731, several syphilis-infected children grew up. "One was a Chinese mother carrying a baby, one was a White Russian woman with a daughter of four or five years of age, and the final was a White Russian woman with a kid of around six or seven," recounted a Youth Corps member who was sent to train at Unit 731. Similar tests were performed on these women's offspring, focusing on how prolonged infection times influenced the success of therapies. Just when you thought this shit was bad enough, the rape and forced pregnancies came. For use in experiments, nonpregnant female convicts were made to get pregnant. The declared justification for the torture was the possible danger of infections, notably syphilis, being transmitted vertically (from mother to kid). In addition, their interests included maternal reproductive organ injury and fetal survival. There have been no reports of any Unit 731 survivors, including children, even though "a considerable number of newborns were born in captivity." Female captives' offspring are said to have either been aborted or murdered after birth. While male prisoners were often used in single studies so that the results of the experimentation on them would not be clouded by other variables, women were sometimes used in bacteriological or physiological experiments, sex experiments, and as the victims of sex crimes. The testimony of a unit member that served as a guard graphically demonstrated this violent and disturbing reality: "One of the former researchers I located told me that one day he had a human experiment scheduled, but there was still time to kill. So he and another unit member took the keys to the cells and opened one that housed a Chinese woman. One of the unit members raped her; the other member took the keys and opened another cell. There was a Chinese woman in there who had been used in a frostbite experiment. She had several fingers missing and her bones were black, with gangrene set in. He was about to rape her anyway, then he saw that her sex organ was festering, with pus oozing to the surface. He gave up the idea, left and locked the door, then later went on to his experimental work." What in the actual fuck. Prisoners and victims An "International Symposium on the Crimes of Bacteriological Warfare" was convened in Changde, China, the scene of the plague flea bombardment, as mentioned earlier, in 2002. There, it was calculated that around 580,000 people had been killed by the Imperial Japanese Army's germ warfare and other human experimentation. According to American historian Sheldon H. Harris, more than 200,000 people perished. In addition, 1,700 Japanese soldiers in Zhejiang during the Zhejiang-Jiangxi war were killed by their own biological weapons while attempting to release the biological agent, showing major distribution problems in addition to the Chinese deaths. Additionally, according to Harris, animals infected with the plague were released close to the war's conclusion, leading to plague outbreaks that, between 1946 and 1948, killed at least 30,000 people in the Harbin region. Those chosen as test subjects included common criminals, captured bandits, anti-Japanese partisans, political prisoners, homeless people, and people with mental disabilities, including infants, men, elderly people, and pregnant women, in addition to those detained by the Kenpeitai military police for alleged "suspicious activities." About 300 researchers worked at Unit 731, including medical professionals and bacteriologists. However, many people have become numb to carrying out harsh tests due to their experience with animal experimentation. Without considering victims from other medical research facilities like Unit 100, at least 3,000 men, women, and children: 117—of which at least 600 each year were given by the Kenpeitai—were subjected to Unit 731 experimentation at the Pingfang camp alone. Although the literature generally accepts the number of 3,000 internal casualties, former Unit member Okawa Fukumatsu challenged it in a video interview. He claimed that the Unit had at least 10,000 internal experiments victims and that he had personally vivisected thousands of them. S. Wells said that Chinese people made up most of the casualties, with smaller proportions of Russian, Mongolian, and Korean people. A few European, American, Indian, Australian, and New Zealander prisoners of war may have also been among them. According to a Yokusan Sonendan paramilitary political youth branch member who worked for Unit 731, Americans, British, and French were present, in addition to Chinese, Russians, and Koreans. According to Sheldon H. Harris' research, the victims were primarily political dissidents, communist sympathizers, common criminals, low-income residents, and those with mental disabilities. According to estimates by author Seiichi Morimura, about 70% of the Pingfang camp's fatalities (both military and civilian) were Chinese, while roughly 30% were Russian. Nobody who went inside Unit 731 survived. Let me repeat that: "Nobody that went inside Unit 731 survived". At night, prisoners were usually brought into Unit 731 in black cars with no windows but only a ventilation hole. One of the drivers would exit the vehicle at the main gates and head to the guardroom to report to the guard. The "Special Team" in the inner jail, which was led by Shiro Ishii's brother, would then get a call from that guard. The convicts would then be taken to the inner prisons via an underground tunnel excavated beneath the center building's exterior. Building 8 was one of the jails housing men and women while building 7 held just women. Once inside the inner jail, technicians would take blood and feces samples from the inmates, assess their kidney function, and gather other physical information. Prisoners found healthy and suitable for research were given a three-digit number instead of their names, which they kept until they passed away. Every time a prisoner passed away following the tests they had undergone, a clerk from the 1st Division crossed their names off of an index card and took their shackles to be worn by newly arrived captives. At least one "friendly" social interaction between inmates and Unit 731 employees has been documented. Two female convicts were engaged by technician Naokata Ishibashi. One prisoner was a Chinese woman, age 21, while the other was a Soviet woman, age 19. Ishibashi discovered that she was from Ukraine after asking where she was from. The two inmates urged Ishibashi to acquire a mirror since they claimed to have not seen their own faces since being taken prisoner. Through a gap in the cell door, Ishibashi managed to covertly get a mirror to them. As long as they were healthy enough, prisoners were regularly employed for experimentation. Once a prisoner had been admitted to the Unit, they had a two-month life expectancy on average. Many female convicts gave birth there, and some inmates remained alive in the unit for nearly a year. The jail cells each featured a squat toilet and wood floors. The prison's exterior walls and the cells' outer walls were separated by space, allowing the guards to pass behind the cells. There was a little window in each cell door. When shown the inner jail, Chief of the Personnel Division of the Kwantung Army Headquarters, Tamura Tadashi, stated that he glanced inside the cells and observed live individuals in chains, some of whom moved around, while others lay on the bare floor and were in a very ill and helpless condition. Yoshio Shinozuka, a former Unit 731 Youth Corps member, testified that it was difficult to look through these prison doors because of their tiny windows. Cast iron doors and a high level of security made up the inner jail. No one was allowed admission without specific authorization, a picture I.D. pass, and the entry/exit timings were recorded. These two inner-prison structures were the "special team's" workspaces. This group wore white overalls, army caps, rubber boots, and carried guns. A former member of the Special Team (who insisted on anonymity) recalled in 1995 his first vivisection conducted at the Unit: "He didn't struggle when they led him into the room and tied him down. But when I picked up the scalpel, that's when he began screaming. I cut him open from the chest to the stomach, and he screamed terribly, and his face was all twisted in agony. He made this unimaginable sound, he was screaming so horribly. But then finally he stopped. This was all in a day's work for the surgeons, but it really left an impression on me because it was my first time." — Anonymous, The New York Times (March 17 1995) According to some reports, it was standard procedure at the Unit for doctors to place a piece of cloth (or a portion of medical gauze) inside a prisoner's lips before starting vivisection to muffle any screams. Even though the jail was pretty secure, there was at least one effort to break out... That failed. According to Corporal Kikuchi Norimitsu's testimony, a fellow unit member informed him that a prisoner had been taken "jumped out of the cell and ran down the corridor, grabbed the keys, and opened the iron doors and some of the cells" after "having shown violence and had struck the experimenter with a door handle." Only the bravest of the inmates were able to jump free, though. These brave ones were killed ". Seiichi Morimura goes into further depth about this attempt at escapology in his book The Devil's Feast. Two male Russian prisoners were being held in handcuffs in a cell. One of them was lying flat on the ground and acting like he was sick. One of the staff members noticed and decided to go inside the cell. The Russian on the ground, suddenly sprang up and overpowered the guard. The two Russians yelled, unlocked their shackles, grabbed the keys, and opened a few more cells. Other Russian and Chinese prisoners were freaking out, up and down the halls while shouting and screaming. Finally, one Russian yelled at the members of Unit 731, pleading with them to shoot him rather than use him as a test subject. This Russian was gunned down and murdered. One employee who saw the attempted escape remembered what happened: "In comparison to the "marutas," who had both freedom and weapons, we were all spiritually lost. We knew in our hearts at the moment that justice was not on our side ". Even if the prisoners had been able to leave the quadrangle, a vigorously defended facility staffed with guards, they would have had to traverse a dry moat lined with electric wire and a three-meter-high brick wall to get to the complex's outside. Even members of Unit 731 weren't free from being subjects of experiments. Yoshio Tamura, an assistant in the Special Team, recalled that Yoshio Sudō, an employee of the first Division at Unit 731, became infected with bubonic plague due to the production of plague bacteria. The Special Team was then ordered to vivisect Sudō. About this Tamura said: "Sudō had, a few days previously, been interested in talking about women, but now he was thin as a rake, with many purple spots over his body. A large area of scratches on his chest were bleeding. He painfully cried and breathed with difficulty. I sanitised his whole body with disinfectant. Whenever he moved, a rope around his neck tightened. After Sudō's body was carefully checked [by the surgeon], I handed a scalpel to [the surgeon] who, reversely gripping the scalpel, touched Sudō's stomach skin and sliced downward. Sudō shouted "brute!" and died with this last word." Taken from— Criminal History of Unit 731 of the Japanese Military, pp. 118–119 (1991) Additionally, Unit 731 Youth Corps member Yoshio Shinozuka testified that his friend, junior assistant Mitsuo Hirakawa, was vivisected due to being accidentally infected with the plague. Surrender and immunity Operations and experiments continued until the end of the war. Ishii had wanted to use biological weapons in the Pacific War since May 1944, but he was repeatedly told to fuck off. With the coming of the Red Army in August 1945, the unit had to abandon its work in a hurry. Ministries in Tokyo ordered the destruction of all incriminating materials, including those in Pingfang. Potential witnesses, such as the 300 remaining prisoners, were either gassed or fed poison while the 600 Chinese and Manchurian laborers were all frigging shot. Ishii ordered every group member to disappear and "take the secret to the grave." Potassium cyanide vials were issued for use in case the remaining personnel was captured. Skeleton crews of Ishii's Japanese troops blew up the compound in the war's final days to destroy any evidence of their activities. Still, many were sturdy enough to remain somewhat intact. Among the individuals in Japan after its 1945 surrender was Lieutenant Colonel Murray Sanders, whose name doesn't really sound Japanese and who arrived in Yokohama via the American ship Sturgess in September 1945. Sanders was a highly regarded microbiologist and a member of America's military center for biological weapons. Sanders' duty was to investigate Japanese biological warfare activity, and B.O.Y. was there a shit ton! At the time of his arrival in Japan, he had no knowledge of what Unit 731 was. Until he finally threatened the Japanese with bringing the Soviets into the picture, little information about their biological warfare was being shared with the Americans. The Japanese wanted to avoid prosecution under the Soviet legal system, so the morning after he made his threat, Sanders received a manuscript describing Japan's involvement in biological warfare. Sanders took this information to General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers responsible for rebuilding Japan during the Allied occupation. As a result, MacArthur struck a deal with Japanese informants: he secretly granted immunity to the physicians of Unit 731, including their leader, in exchange for providing America, but not the other wartime allies, with their research on biological warfare and data from human experimentation. Yessiree, bob! You heard that correctly! American occupation authorities monitored the activities of former unit members, including going through and messing with their mail. The Americans believed the research data was valuable and didn't want other nations, especially those guys with the sickle, you know... the Soviet Union, to get their red hands on the data for biological weapons. The Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal heard only one reference to Japanese experiments with "poisonous serums" on Chinese civilians. This took place in August 1946 and was instigated by David Sutton, assistant to the Chinese prosecutor. The Japanese defense counsel argued that the claim was vague and uncorroborated, and it was dismissed by the tribunal president, Sir William Webb, for lack of evidence! The subject was not pursued further by Sutton, who was probably unaware of Unit 731's activities and allegedly a fucking idiot. His reference to it at the trial is believed to have been "accidental." While German physicians were brought to trial and had their crimes publicized, the U.S. concealed information about Japanese biological warfare experiments and secured immunity for the monsters. I mean perpetrators. Critics argue that racism led to the double standard in the American postwar responses to the experiments conducted on different nationalities. For example, whereas the perpetrators of Unit 731 were exempt from prosecution, the U.S. held a tribunal in Yokohama in 1948 that indicted nine Japanese physician professors and medical students for conducting vivisection upon captured American pilots; two professors were sentenced to death and others to 15–20 years' imprisonment. So, it's one thing to do it to THOUSANDS OF CHINESE AND RUSSIANS, but HOW DARE you do that to one of us! The fuck? Although publicly silent on the issue at the Tokyo Trials, the Soviet Union pursued the case and prosecuted 12 top military leaders and scientists from Unit 731 and its affiliated biological-war prisons Unit 1644 in Nanjing and Unit 100 in Changchun in the Khabarovsk war crimes trials. Among those accused of war crimes, including germ warfare, was General Otozō Yamada, commander-in-chief of the million-man Kwantung Army occupying Manchuria. The trial of the Japanese monsters was held in Khabarovsk in December 1949; a lengthy partial transcript of trial proceedings was published in different languages the following year by the Moscow foreign languages press, including an English-language edition. The lead prosecuting attorney at the Khabarovsk trial was Lev Smirnov, one of the top Soviet prosecutors at the Nuremberg Trials. The Japanese doctors and army commanders who had perpetrated the Unit 731 experiments received sentences from the Khabarovsk court ranging from 2 to 25 years in a Siberian labor camp. The United States refused to acknowledge the trials, branding them communist propaganda. The sentences doled out to the Japanese perpetrators were unusually lenient by Soviet standards. All but two of the defendants returned to Japan by the 1950s (with one prisoner dying in prison and the other committing suicide inside his cell). In addition to the accusations of propaganda, the U.S. also asserted that the trials were to only serve as a distraction from the Soviet treatment of several hundred thousand Japanese prisoners of war; meanwhile, the USSR asserted that the U.S. had given the Japanese diplomatic leniency in exchange for information regarding their human experimentation. The accusations of both the U.S. and the USSR were true. It is believed that the Japanese had also given information to the Soviets regarding their biological experimentation for judicial leniency. This was evidenced by the Soviet Union building a biological weapons facility in Sverdlovsk using documentation captured from Unit 731 in Manchuria. Official silence during the American occupation of Japan As we, unfortunately, mentioned earlier, during the United States occupation of Japan, the members of Unit 731 and the members of other experimental units were set free. However, on May 6, 1947, Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces, wrote to Washington to inform it that "additional data, possibly some statements from Ishii, can probably be obtained by informing Japanese involved that information will be retained in intelligence channels and will not be employed as 'war crimes' evidence." One graduate of Unit 1644, Masami Kitaoka, continued to perform experiments on unwilling Japanese subjects from 1947 to 1956. While working for Japan's National Institute of Health Sciences, he completed his experiments. He infected prisoners with rickettsia and infected mentally-ill patients with typhus. As the unit's chief, Shiro Ishii was granted immunity from prosecution for war crimes by the American occupation authorities because he had provided human experimentation research materials to them. However, from 1948 to 1958, less than five percent of the documents were transferred onto microfilm and stored in the U.S. National Archives before they were shipped back to Japan. Post-occupation Japanese media coverage and debate Japanese discussions of Unit 731's activity began in the 1950s after the American occupation of Japan ended. In 1952, human experiments carried out in Nagoya City Pediatric Hospital, which resulted in one death, were publicly tied to former members of Unit 731. Later in that decade, journalists suspected that the murders attributed by the government to Sadamichi Hirasawa were actually carried out by members of Unit 731. In 1958, Japanese author Shūsaku Endō published The Sea and Poison about human experimentation in Fukuoka, which is thought to have been based on an actual incident. The author Seiichi Morimura published The Devil's Gluttony in 1981, followed by The Devil's Gluttony: A Sequel in 1983. These books purported to reveal the "true" operations of Unit 731 but falsely attributed unrelated photos to the Unit, which raised questions about their accuracy. Also, in 1981, the first direct testimony of human vivisection in China was given by Ken Yuasa. Since then, much more in-depth testimony has been given in Japan. For example, the 2001 documentary Japanese Devils primarily consists of interviews with fourteen Unit 731 staff members taken prisoner by China and later released. Significance in postwar research on bio-warfare and medicine Japanese Biological Warfare operations were by far the largest during WWII, and "possibly with more people and resources than the B.W. producing nations of France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, and the Soviet Union combined, between the world wars. Although the dissemination methods of delivering plague-infected fleas by aircraft were crude, the method, among others, allowed the Japanese to "conduct the most extensive employment of biological weapons during WWII." However, the amount of effort devoted to B.W. was not matched by its results. Ultimately, inadequate scientific and engineering foundations limited the effectiveness of the Japanese program. Harris speculates that U.S. scientists generally wanted to acquire it due to the concept of forbidden fruit, believing that lawful and ethical prohibitions could affect the outcomes of their research. Unit 731 presents a particular problem since, unlike Nazi human experimentation, which the United States publicly condemned, the activities of Unit 731 are known to the general public only from the testimonies of willing former unit members. Japanese history textbooks usually reference Unit 731 but do not detail allegations following there strict principles. However, Saburō Ienaga's New History of Japan included a detailed description based on officers' testimony. The Ministry for Education attempted to remove this passage from his textbook before it was taught in public schools because the testimony was insufficient. The Supreme Court of Japan ruled in 1997 that the testimony was sufficient and that requiring it to be removed was an illegal violation of freedom of speech. In 1997, international lawyer Kōnen Tsuchiya filed a class action suit against the Japanese government, demanding reparations for the actions of Unit 731, using evidence filed by Professor Makoto Ueda of Rikkyo University. All levels of the Japanese court system found the suit baseless. No findings of fact were made about the existence of human experimentation, but the court's ruling was that reparations are determined by international treaties, not national courts. In August 2002, the Tokyo district court ruled that Japan had engaged in biological warfare for the first time. Presiding judge Koji Iwata ruled that Unit 731, on the orders of the Imperial Japanese Army headquarters, used bacteriological weapons on Chinese civilians between 1940 and 1942, spreading diseases, including plague and typhoid, in the cities of Quzhou, Ningbo, and Changde. However, he rejected victims' compensation claims because they had already been settled by international peace treaties. In October 2003, a Japan's House of Representatives member filed an inquiry. Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi responded that the Japanese government did not then possess any records related to Unit 731 but recognized the gravity of the matter and would publicize any records located in the future. As a result, in April 2018, the National Archives of Japan released the names of 3,607 members of Unit 731 in response to a request by Professor Katsuo Nishiyama of the Shiga University of Medical Science. After World War II, the Office of Special Investigations created a watchlist of suspected Axis collaborators and persecutors who were banned from entering the United States. While they have added over 60,000 names to the watchlist, they have only been able to identify under 100 Japanese participants. In a 1998 correspondence letter between the D.O.J. and Rabbi Abraham Cooper, Eli Rosenbaum, director of O.S.I., stated that this was due to two factors: While most documents captured by the U.S. in Europe were microfilmed before being returned to their respective governments, the Department of Defense decided to not microfilm its vast collection of records before returning them to the Japanese government. The Japanese government has also failed to grant the O.S.I. meaningful access to these and related records after the war. In contrast, European countries, on the other hand, have been largely cooperative, the cumulative effect of which is that information on identifying these individuals is, in effect, impossible to recover. Top Movies about war crimes https://www.imdb.com/search/title/?title_type=feature&genres=war&genres=Crime All info comes from the inter webs. Blame them. Damn, this was a gross episode. Are you actually reading this? That's awesome! How's it going? Life good?
“Le ayudamos a tu cerebro a que deje de dar ese mensaje y vamos a seguir con la vida, lo mejor que se puede y con la mayor alegría y tranquilidad posible”. Dr. Jaime Belkind-Gerson El dolor abdominal crónico es una causa frecuente de consulta en pediatría. Por definición, se caracteriza como un dolor localizado en abdomen, de intensidad suficiente como para interrumpir la actividad del niño, con tres o más episodios en los últimos 3 meses, en niños mayores de 4 años. Sin embargo, su origen, causas y manejo es mucho más complejo, y cuando afecta a los niños de forma crónica, frecuentemente requiere de un abordaje especializado. Es por ello que hemos invitado al Dr. Jaime Belkind-Gerson para hablar sobre este importante tema. El Dr. Jaime Belkind-Gerson es Profesor asociado de pediatría, Director del Programa de Neurogastroenterología y Director del Laboratorio de investigación Nervioso Entérico del Instituto de Salud Digestivo de Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad de Colorado, Children's Hospital Colorado. Además, es artista que explora la conexión entre el arte y la ciencia, enfocado en el cuerpo humano y sus cambios dinámicos. Instagram: @jaimebelkindgerson ¿Tienes algún comentario sobre este episodio o sugerencias de temas para un futuro podcast? Escríbenos a email@example.com.
Most of us are familiar with the unpleasant feeling of being bloated. It can happen after eating specific foods or when you experience slower bowel movements. Sometimes, it can be a symptom of an underlying health condition. To take a closer look at issues related to gas and bloating, we've invited a special guest this week: superstar gastroenterologist and Zoe's US Medical Director Will Bulsiewicz. In today's short episode of ZOE Science & Nutrition, Jonathan and Will ask: what are the main causes of gas bloating and how do we stop it? Follow ZOE on Instagram:https://www.instagram.com/zoe/ ( https://www.instagram.com/zoe/) If you want to uncover the right foods for your body, head to joinzoe.com/podcast and get 10% off your personalised nutrition program. Studies referenced in the episode: Burden of Gastrointestinal Symptoms in the United States: Results of a Nationally Representative Survey of Over 71,000 Americans + Am J Gastroenterol + https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453579/ (here) Abdominal bloating is the most bothersome symptom in irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C): a large population-based Internet survey in Japan + Biopsychosoc Med. + https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4893246/ (here ) Sensation of bloating and visible abdominal distension in patients with irritable bowel syndrome + Am J Gastroenterol + https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11774947/ (here) This podcast was produced byhttps://fascinateproductions.co.uk/ ( Fascinate Productions).
Do you often experience bloating and abdominal distension? Here's why and what to do about it. Dr. Berg's Keto and IF Lab: https://www.facebook.com/groups/drbergslab/ How to Bulletproof your Immune System FREE Course: https://bit.ly/39Ry3s2 FREE MINI-COURSE ➜ ➜ Take Dr. Berg's Free Keto Mini-Course! ADD YOUR SUCCESS STORY HERE: https://bit.ly/3z9TviS Find Your Body Type: https://www.drberg.com/body-type-quiz Talk to a Product Advisor to find the best product for you! Call 1-540-299-1557 with your questions about Dr. Berg's products. Product Advisors are available Monday through Friday 8 am - 6 pm and Saturday 9 am - 5 pm EST. At this time, we no longer offer Keto Consulting and our Product Advisors will only be advising on which product is best for you and advise on how to take them. Dr. Eric Berg DC Bio: Dr. Berg, 51 years of age is a chiropractor who specializes in weight loss through nutritional & natural methods. His private practice is located in Alexandria, Virginia. His clients include senior officials in the U.S. government & the Justice Department, ambassadors, medical doctors, high-level executives of prominent corporations, scientists, engineers, professors, and other clients from all walks of life. He is the author of The 7 Principles of Fat Burning. Dr. Berg's Website: http://bit.ly/37AV0fk Dr. Berg's Recipe Ideas: http://bit.ly/37FF6QR Dr. Berg's Reviews: http://bit.ly/3hkIvbb Dr. Berg's Shop: http://bit.ly/3mJcLxg Dr. Berg's Bio: http://bit.ly/3as2cfE Dr. Berg's Health Coach Training: http://bit.ly/3as2p2q Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/drericberg Messenger: https://www.messenger.com/t/drericberg Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/drericberg/ YouTube: http://bit.ly/37DXt8C Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/drericberg/
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Marc Seitz, DVM, DACVR, DABVP (Canine and Feline Practice), Assistant Clinical Professor of Diagnostic Imaging at Mississippi State University on a recent abstract entitled "Assessment of the validity of a standing abdominal point-of-care ultrasound exam for the evaluation of peritoneal effusion in dogs." If you have an ultrasound in your veterinary clinic, tune in to learn all things FAST (Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma) or POCUS ultrasound-related! Looking for the presence of ascites, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion in your veterinary patients can be easily done with this readily available tool!
Do you struggle with bloating and distension? In this episode, Dr. Jerby discusses this problem that afflicts so many people. Learn the distinction between bloating and distension and what are some of the most common causes. Treatment needs to be individualized to your unique set of factors that might be playing a role in your chronic bloating issues. If you need help, please reach out to us by giving us a call or sending us a message. You can find out more about Dr. Jerby's unique approach to gut problems by visiting our website at drjerby.com. Hope to hear from you soon!
ucho se habla de cómo perder peso y quemar grasa. Creo que es el tema del momento. Sin embargo con tanta dieta en el mercado, con tantos mitos cada vez las personas se confunden más sobre qué comer o no comer. Como le digo a mis “duras”, el cómo te alimentes es parte de los objetivos individuales de cada persona, sin embargo existen unos alimentos que lo coman quien lo coma…. No te ayudará a ese objetivo. Si tu objetivo por ejemplo es que tu cuerpo no esté acumulando grasa… estos alimentos, no deberías consumirlos a menudo . ¿Cuáles son? De esto te hablo en el nuevo episodio de Ponte dura Podcast.