Podcasts about prussian

Country in central Europe in existence from 1525 to 1947

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Latest podcast episodes about prussian

What The Denmark | Danish Culture for Expats, Internationals and Danes
Little land: how Denmark's history defines the nation today

What The Denmark | Danish Culture for Expats, Internationals and Danes

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 29, 2022 36:08


It seems that one of the defining characteristics of being Danish is to feel you are a member of a small nation. During the Viking and Middle Age periods, Denmark was a relative superpower, with territory spanning modern day Norway, south Sweden and northern Germany. A series of failed military campaigns during the 1800s however meant that much of this land was lost, and my the 1860s, only a fraction was left. Faced with a crisis, the remaining Danish population had to define what it now meant to be Danish. They could no longer rely on the narrative that Danes were great warriors (after such humiliating losses on the battlefield) and so instead had to define what it meant to be Danish. The result? A constitution and general psyche premised on tolerance, equality and co-operation. To explore this story, and what this means for modern day Denmark, we speak with critical historian Asser Amdisen (who was behind this viral video of explaining the whole of Danish History in (almost) 1 minute). He also brings in a critical view of Danish society today: saying how Danes think they are better than the stories they tell themselves. Sam and Josefine discuss these points, and also bring in anecdotes of their own, such as the story of the Danish Protest Pig (pictured) that acted as a symbol of Danish resistance for the population when living under Prussian rule. If you're interested in learning about Denmark's past, and how this influences the present day, then we hope this episode helps! ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ This episode is sponsored by Talent to Denmark's "State of Denmark" campaign. Denmark is actively looking to attract international talent to move to the country. If you're interested to learn more about jobs in (one of) the happiest countries in the world, head to www.state-of-denmark.com/wtd ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ You can also learn more about What The Denmark on our website, Facebook and Instagram @whatthedenmark

Radical Retro Rewind?!
Thundercats Review: 1:35 & 1:36 "Sword in a Hole" & "The Evil Harp of Charr-Nin" (1985)

Radical Retro Rewind?!

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 25, 2022 66:24


Hoooo Today's double Thundercats episodes have Ryan and David wishing on harps and jumping through black holes! Frist in "Sword in a Hole" "An S.O.S. from the edge of a Black Hole in deep space sends Lion-O, Snarf and Cheetara out in the Feliner. Captain Shiner, a Prussian space mercenary working for Mumm-Ra, captures Lion-O and Snarf." Then in "The Evil Harp of Charr-Nin" "The ThunderKittens discover a Magical Harp, strum it and release Charr-Nin, a genie who has been imprisoned inside." Original Airdates: November 8, 1985 & November 11, 1985 Thank you to the "ThunderCats Wiki" for the plot synopsis Please Like

Conversations
The hero of the Zebra

Conversations

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 22, 2022 52:28


Hannah Kent with the true story of the Prussians who fled Europe for a new life in South Australia (R)

Sip and Shine Podcast
40: Dethroned King Wanted Nazis to Win, 3 Monarch Cousins at War & Tragedy of First Trans Reality TV Star

Sip and Shine Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 21, 2022 29:09


English DJ, television, and radio personality Jimmy Savile's death caused a stir- sexual accusations came out from hundreds of victims as well as exposing his influence on the Royal Family.  After ruling for less than one year, Edward VIII abdicates the throne- but still colludes with the Germans, hoping they win World War 2.  During World War 1, three cousins were rulers of major powers- the annoying Prussian cousin was the one no one wanted to sit with at Christmas Elizabeth Holmes of the Theranos debacle was sentenced- did she have her babies to try to save herself from prison time?  New documentary based on Miriam Rivera, reality TV's first trans star- star of a 2004 dating show, having men compete for a chance to romance her. Sadly, she died at the age of 38. If you enjoyed this episode, check out  Lady Pamela Hicks and The Last Viceroy of India — Misdeeds & Intrigue (misdeedsandintrigue.com). Follow Misdeeds & Intrigue Podcast on Social Media Twitter: www.twitter.com/misintriguepod Facebook: www.facebook.com/misintriguepod Instagram: www.instagram.com/misintriguepod   Follow for Curated Collections of Articles Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/MisIntriguepod Flipboard: https://flipboard.com/@misintriguepod Watch Related Videos & Clips TikTok: @misintriguepod https://vm.tiktok.com/ZMeD9hE5u/ YouTube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCkBIxvkybymGErnYs-7XL0g IMDB Playlist: http://www.imdb.com/list/ls088470884/ This episode in general may contain certain copyrighted works that were not specifically authorized to be used by the copyrighted holder(s), but which we believe in good faith are protected by general law and the fair use doctrine for one or more of the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship or research. Unscholarly References BBC Cousins At War Harlots International Business Channel National Treasuries Documentary Netflix

Wake Up Podcast
The Origins of the Austrian School of Economics With Rahim Taghizadegan

Wake Up Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 20, 2022 84:36


The Origins of the Austrian School of Economics "There are two types of enlightenment. Grass roots, like the Austrian or Scottish kind, or Top down like the Jacobin or Fabian kind." Rahim Taghizadegan is most well known as an Author, Bitcoiner & Educator/University Lecturer and the “Last Austrian Economist in the direct Austrian Tradition”. He wrote a piece for the latest Bitcoin Times, Austrian Edition. You can read and boost that here: https://bitcointimes.com.au/from-bitcoin-to-the-austrian-school/ This man is an absolute WEALTH of knowledge and I we had an incredible discussion about the origins of Austrian Economics, money, banking and merchant networks - all which are precedents to Bitcoin. If you're a history buff and love to learn about the origin of things, THIS is an episode you will absolutely love. We cover: A history of Austrian Economics: Menger & his lineage. Menger as a bright “node” in emergent Austrian thinking A little about the Crown prince Who was the Nobel Laureate (Hayek?) Menger's students “Two lesser-known nodes in the network of the Austrian School would go on to have a much more profound impact on the world than the academic heirs of that tradition.” Felix Somary who became one of the founders of Swiss private banking. Richard Schüller, one of the best-connected diplomats of his time, who played an equally underestimated role in the return to peace after the World Wars and the independence of small post-war Austria. The difference between the Prussians of that era and their focus on Politics, VS the Austrian focus on culture and enterprise. “In the Austrian empire, a limited group of merchants had been granted total economic freedom and tax exemptions to make up for the relative backwardness of the empire. Successful entrepreneurs gathered in Vienna, and their quickly rising wealth brought leisure without political clout, influencing, among others, people like Menger and Hayek.“ “In a way, they resembled the Scottish Tobacco merchants whose leisure and similar distance from the state had fostered the Scottish Enlightenment. And there had indeed been old intellectual connections through Scottish and Irish monks and the scholastic tradition.” How did Switzerland emerge in the first place? Switzerland and Alpine Regions as microcosms and remnants of the glory of Europe. Emergent VS Top Down enlightenment. Who were the Fabians & the Jacobins? What is their view & model of the world? Why has that remained so appealing? Does Bitcoin change that? This was an incredible conversation and one that I hope you will learn alot from. Rahim made a book recommendation: “The Raven of Zurich” Go pick that up. You can follow Rahim's work on twitter: @scholarium_at And of course, go check out the Essay & support The Bitcoin Times here: bitcointimes.com.au/essays ____________________________________ Thanks again for listening. Reminder that you can pick up a copy of The UnCommunist Manifesto on Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B0B837FN63 You can pick up a copy of The Bitcoin Times from: BitcoinTimes Subscribe & Leave a Review !! That helps too.

History Teachers Talking
Talking about the Fall of Napoleon

History Teachers Talking

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 19, 2022 40:38


On April 12, 1814, Napoleon was forced to abdicate his throne after allied Austrian, Prussian and Russian forces vanquished his army and occupied Paris. This is the story of his downfall and final days.

The Age of Napoleon Podcast
Episode 96: Our Favorite Enemy

The Age of Napoleon Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 1, 2022 62:58


After their defeats at Jena and Auerstedt, the vaunted Prussian army collapsed in the face of Napoleon's onslaught. As the French pushed into the heart of Central Europe, their presence began to awaken complicated nationalist feelings on both sides. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit podcastchoices.com/adchoices

A History of Europe, Key Battles
71.1 Franco-Prussian War 1870-71 - Background

A History of Europe, Key Battles

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 28, 2022 23:12


Following Prussia's victory at Königgrätz in 1866, the North German Confederation became an instrument for Prussian dominance. All northern German states not directly annexed by Prussia were put in the new Confederation in which Berlin assumed control of their foreign and military affairs, and most of their internal ones as well. A solid block of Prussian territory stretched now between France and Belgium in the west to Russian Lithuania in the east.Tensions rise between Paris and Berlin, and Napoleon III of France blunders into a war against Germany for which he is not preparedwww.patreon.com/historyeuropewww.historyeurope.netMusic composed by Brahms Symphony nr 3, parts of the 2nd and 3rd movementsPicture - German troops at Torcy, in September 1870 Hosted on Acast. See acast.com/privacy for more information.

Everybody Loves Communism
MAGA Communism: The Cursed Tendency (PREVIEW)

Everybody Loves Communism

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 18, 2022 5:26


***Sign up as a supporter at fans.fm/everybodylovescommunism or Patreon.com/everybodylovescommunism to unlock the full version of this episode, tons of other bonus content and our Discord community!*** Jamie and Aaron read an article about the most cursed tendency yet, "MAGA Communism." What is it? What does it want? Is it in the room with us right now? Includes a primer on Prussian military theorist Carl Von Clausewitz and his influence on Lenin, because the guy who wrote the article decided to throw that in and we needed to see if he knew what he was talking about (spoiler alert: no). "Lenin and Clausewitz: The Militarization of Marxism, 1914-1921" by Jacob W. Kipp: https://www.clausewitzstudies.org/bibl/Kipp-MilitarizationOfMarxism.pdf Follow us on Twitter: @ELCpod Follow us on IG: everybodylovescommunism Like what you heard? Be sure to give us a 5 Star Rating on Apple Podcasts :)

Quotomania
Quotomania 320: Alexander von Humboldt

Quotomania

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 17, 2022 1:37


Subscribe to Quotomania on Simplecast or search for Quotomania on your favorite podcast app!Alexander, Freiherr von Humboldt, (born Sept. 14, 1769, Berlin, Prussia—died May 6, 1859, Berlin), was a German naturalist and explorer. In 1792 he joined the mining department of the Prussian government, where he invented a safety lamp and established a technical school for miners. From 1799 he explored Central and South America, traveling in the Amazon jungles and the Andean highlands. During these journeys he discovered the connection between the Amazon and Orinoco river systems and surmised that altitude sickness was caused by lack of oxygen. He studied the oceanic current off the western coast of South America; it became known as the Humboldt Current (now the Peru Current). He returned to Europe in 1804. His research helped lay the foundation for comparative climatology, drew a connection between a region's geography and its flora and fauna, and added to an understanding of the development of the Earth's crust. In Paris he used his financial resources to help Louis Agassiz and others launch careers. In 1829 he traveled to Russia and Siberia and made geographic, geologic, and meteorologic observations of Central Asia. During the 1830s he investigated magnetic storms. The last 25 years of his life were spent writing Kosmos, an account of the structure of the universe as then known.From https://www.britannica.com/summary/Alexander-von-Humboldt. For more information about Alexander von Humboldt:“Who Was Alexander von Humboldt?”: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/who-was-alexander-von-humboldt-180974473/“Humboldt in the New World”: https://www.neh.gov/humanities/2012/novemberdecember/feature/humboldt-in-the-new-world“The Very Great Alexander von Humboldt”: https://www.nybooks.com/articles/2015/10/22/very-great-alexander-von-humboldt/

History Ago Go
Blood and Iron: The Rise and Fall of the German Empire 1871–1918 (Katya Hoyer)

History Ago Go

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 8, 2022 55:00


Before 1871, Germany was not yet a nation but simply an idea. Otto von Bismarck had a formidable task at hand. How would he bring thirty-nine individual states under the yoke of a single Kaiser, convincing proud Prussians, Bavarians and Rhinelanders to become Germans? Once united, could the young European nation wield enough power to rival the empires of Britain and France – all without destroying itself in the process?In a unique study of five decades that changed the course of modern history, Katja Hoyer tells the story of the German Empire from its violent beginnings to its calamitous defeat in the First World War. This often-startling narrative is a dramatic tale of national self-discovery, social upheaval and realpolitik that ended, as it started, in blood and iron.HOST:  Rob MellonFEATURED BREW:  Copper Legend Octoberfest, Jack's Abby Craft Lagers, Framingham, MassachusettsBOOK:  Blood and Iron: The Rise and Fall of the German Empire 1871–1918https://www.amazon.com/Blood-Iron-German-Empire-1871-1918/dp/0750998598/ref=sr_1_1?crid=2W28Z4OL447V6&keywords=blood+and+iron+katja+hoyer&qid=1665249853&qu=eyJxc2MiOiIxLjk3IiwicXNhIjoiMS43NyIsInFzcCI6IjEuODAifQ%3D%3D&sprefix=blood+and+iron%2Caps%2C597&sr=8-1MUSIC:  BoneS Forkhttps://bonesfork.com/

Lyndeurozone Euro Simplified
#204 Unit 3 - Prussian Absolutism

Lyndeurozone Euro Simplified

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 4, 2022 21:07


In this episode we look at the unique form of absolutism that develops in Prussia under Frederick William I and Frederick II, also known as Frederick the Great... And yes... that's Prussia with a P. Do you want to get that 5?  Enter code “GO4FIVE” at checkout for 25% OFF the Lyndeurozone Online Resources! Online access expires June 15th, 2023.   Lyndeurozone.com  Patreon If you use this podcast regularly would you please consider supporting us on Patreon for as little as a dollar a month?  The Euro Simplified Podcast has no advertising revenue and is produced by a public school teacher.  We love and appreciate our supporters on Patreon as our supporters help us meet the costs associated with the production of this free resource for students. Episodes will be released on the following schedule: Unit 1 and Unit 2 - August/September Unit 3: October Unit 4: November Unit 5: November and December Unit 6: January Unit 7: Late January & February Unit 8 : March Unit 9: April If you have any questions you can contact Robert Lynde at Lyndeurozone.com. Instagram: @Lyndeurozone

Engines of Our Ingenuity
Engines of Our Ingenuity 2342: Maya Blue

Engines of Our Ingenuity

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 2, 2022 3:50


Episode: 2342 A horrific chapter of history gives us Maya blue.  Today, we have the blues.

A History of Europe, Key Battles
70.2 Battle of Königgrätz 1866

A History of Europe, Key Battles

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 30, 2022 33:09


The Austro-Prussian War of 1866 was brief, yet its consequences were profound. It was the culminating event in a rivalry that began with the rise of the house of Brandenburg-Prussia, most notably Frederick the Great's unprovoked attack upon the Habsburg province of Silesia in 1740. From that time Austria and Prussia were involved in a long struggle for supremacy in Germany.In 1866 Prussian armies invades Saxony and then the Austrian Empire with the main battle occurring on 3rd July 1866 at Königgrätz with immense armies on both sides.www.patreon.com/historyeuropewww.historyeurope.netMusic composed by Johannes Brahms: Symphony No. 1 in C Minor, movements 3 and 4. Also Waltz nr. 15 in A flat major. Courtesy of musopen.org Hosted on Acast. See acast.com/privacy for more information.

19 Nocturne Boulevard
19 Nocturne Boulevard reissue of the week: TROPHY CASE

19 Nocturne Boulevard

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 22, 2022 41:34


Inspired by the classic 1920s Shudder Pulps, a mad scientist has captured a set of victims and forces them to play his hideous game!  Warning:  Mature themes and brutal violence- Seriously Three men, chained in a dungeon!  Beautiful women in peril!  An evil genius doctor!  Villanous minions! Written and produced by Julie Hoverson Cast List Garth Jenkins - Chris Stockett Klaus Heinz - Lothar Tuppan Luigi Marconi - David Collins-Rivera Dr. Chnossos - Chris Stockett Grace - Risa Torres Nathalia - Tanja Milojevic Amelie - Julie Hoverson Susanne - Sara Falconer Helga and Oda - Julie Hoverson Mongrel Henchmen - Danar Hoverson & Reynaud LeBoeuf With thanks to The Vault of Evil - where I encountered the dreaded Shudder Pulps!!! Music by Conspiracy (via Jamendo) Editing and Sound:   Julie Hoverson Cover Design:  Brett Coulstock "What kind of a place is it? Why it's a dank dungeon room, sometime in the 1920s, can't you tell?"   **************************************************************************** TROPHY CASE Cast: Garth Jenkins, American athlete 25 Klaus Heinz, Prussian pilot 27 Luigi Marconi, Italian strong man 30 Dr. Chnossos - wheelchair nutjob 60 Amelie, French girl 20 Nathalia, Russian girl 20 Grace, British girl 20 Susanne, American girl 20 Helga, German girl 20 Oda, Swedish girl 20 MONGREL HENCHMEN [any age] OLIVIA     Did you have any trouble finding it?  What do you mean, what kind of a place is it?  Why, it's a dank dungeon room, in the early 1920s, can't you tell?  ROOM WITH BOX, TEASER MUSIC SOUND    DOOR SLAMS GARTH    See if there's something to bar the door with! AMELIE    I can't see - it's too dim in 'ere! SOUND    [outside]  YELLS!  THUMPING ON DOOR GARTH    [grunts, holding door shut] ODA    They are right behind us! NATHALIA    We should kill them.  Then they will never catch us. GARTH    We gotta try and stay ahead of them. GRACE    There's a box over here! GARTH    Can you move it in front of the door? GRACE    Help me, someone! ODA    [plaintive] Is it heavy? GRACE    It's big.  Need to get it away from the wall. ODA    [uncertain] I'll help. SOUND    GRIND OF WOOD ON STONE GRACE and ODA    [grunt, pushing] SOUND    SWOOSH OF BLADE ODA    [SCREAM, gurgle] GRACE    [Scream of fear] SOUND    BODY DROPS ODA    [whimpers, expires] GRACE    [covering mouth, trying to stop screaming] NATHALIA    [excited, but not afraid]  She is dead! GRACE    [hiccuppy gasp, gets control]  That blade just came out of the wall when we pushed the box! AMELIE    [to Grace] You come with me.  We will 'old the door and let monsieur look.  [up to him]  Je ne sais - eh - we do not even know your name! GARTH    Garth.  Garth Jenkins.  AMELIE    I am Amelie.  [hinting] And this is--? GRACE    [almost composed again, but still sniffling] Grace.  I can't believe it.  [starting to lose it again] How could something like that... happen..? AMELIE    'ere.  Lean on the door with me. GARTH    Well...  Stay back, ladies. NATHALIA    I can see perfectly well from here. GARTH    Ok.  She's dead, all right.  That blade must have been on a tripwire of some kind. NATHALIA    It cut her nearly in half. AMELIE    What is this tripwire you speak of? GARTH    A trap.  He said there would be traps.  I guess you need to know why we're here... MUSIC FLASHBACK DUNGEON SOUND     CHAIN, SCUFFLE, ECHO, DRIP LUIGI    [muttered, in pain] Mamma mia! GARTH    Wowsers.  My aching head. KLAUS    [snort of indignation] SOUND    CHAINS RATTLE LUIGI    Hey now!  This is an outrage!  Who are you to do this-a to me! GARTH    Do what?  I can't see a thing.  What's someone doing? KLAUS    [calm, superior] Someone has locked us all in chains. CHNOSSOS [over intercom] Yes. [evil chuckle] You are all my prisoners. GARTH    Wowsers! LUIGI    It is an outrage! CHNOSSOS Yes, yes. I am outrageous.  GARTH    [to doc] You should let us go.  The American government won't like this one bit.  No sir. LUIGI    [to doc] You watch yourself, funny guy!  You come-a let us out now, and maybe we don't-a kill you dreadful! KLAUS    Shut up!  [they do] I wish to hear what this man has to say. CHNOSSOS Very good. I said I am your captor, and this is true.  GARTH    Hey! LUIGI    Outrage! CHNOSSOS I have brought you here to play my game. [evil chuckle] I thought that would silence you.  I am Doctor Chnossos.  Perhaps you have heard of me?  [waits, no reply, then grumpy]  Probably for the best.  I am a secretive genius.  [upbeat again] You see, I have it in mind to find the perfect male human specimen in the entire world, and have narrowed it down to you three. GARTH    Specimen?  I ain't no specimen! LUIGI    Mamma mia!  Look no further!  I am the strongest man alive!  No one can stand before me! KLAUS    [musing] Fascinating. CHNOSSOS Through exhaustive research, I have narrowed it down to you. Garth Jenkins, All-American football star, Olympic runner, and gold medal swimmer. GARTH    I can hold my breath for three minutes! CHNOSSOS Luigi Marconi, European strongman and champion wrestler. LUIGI    I snap you like a twig! CHNOSSOS And Klaus Heinz, fencing master, ace pilot, and big game hunter. GARTH    Really? LUIGI    Pilot, like the Red Baron? KLAUS    I see no point in denying it. CHNOSSOS The game is simple. See who makes it out of my little labyrinth alive. GARTH    Wowsers! KLAUS    Hmph. LUIGI    Santa Maria! CHNOSSOS There is only one exit. Somewhere out there in my maze.  And only one of you may leave.  [ominous] Ever. GARTH    You want us to... kill each other? LUIGI    I'm not-a that kind of feller. KLAUS    It could not be so simple. CHNOSSOS You are right. It is not that simple.  I do not care who dies, only who escapes.  Kill or do not kill - that is no concern of mine. GARTH    Good. CHNOSSOS BUT... whichever ones are left inside will surely die, for I will seal the door the minute an escape is made. KLAUS    Of course. LUIGI    Dios mio! CHNOSSOS And, of course, my beloved maze - it is full of traps! MUSIC Box room AMELIE    They 'ave stopped.  At the door. NATHALIA    Should we open the door and look? GARTH    I don't think so.  It could be a trap. GRACE    [cold] If what you say is true, this entire place is a trap.  I for one would rather die than fall into their hands, if they're anything like the fellows I saw [falters] before... before-- AMELIE    oh!  Moi aussi! GARTH    Nobody's dying! NATHALIA    [snort] GARTH    Nobody else! SUSANNE    [distant] [horrible screams!!!  THEY GO ON A LONG TIME] AMELIE    Mon dieu! NATHALIA    We need weapons. GRACE    I wish she would stop! GARTH    Well, I've checked everything I can think of on this box.  Looks like I can open it, though after what happened, I wish I had a good old pool cue or something to let me stay back. AMELIE    We will stay by the door.  GRACE     Out of your way. SOUND    SLOW CREAK OPEN BOX GARTH    I just wish I knew what that crazy doctor wants with-- [breaks off in surprise]  What the hay? NATHALIA    What is it? GARTH    The box is full of ... [a little worried] weapons. MUSIC FLASHBACK DUNGEON GARTH    Why in blazes are you doing this? CHNOSSOS As I said, I must see who is the most perfect male. Since you each have your own strengths-- LUIGI    Strength!  That is what I have. CHNOSSOS --there is no direct comparison except through competition. To begin with, those chains-- SOUND    CLANK, CLATTER AS CHAINS FALL AWAY CHNOSSOS --must come off. There is no contest in watching strong men starve to death.  Speak amongst yourselves.  I must go and prepare the next challenge. [evil laugh] SOUND    NOISE TO INDICATE SPEAKING SYSTEM IS OFF GARTH    You!  Fellows! KLAUS    Ja? LUIGI    Donchoo come-a no closer! GARTH    See here, we should work together.  If there's danger here, cooperation will be the best thing for it. KLAUS    [considering] But this voice - he said that only one can win. LUIGI    And that one - its'a gonna be me, by all the saints! GARTH    That's all fine and dandy, but right now we're just three fellers in a dark room.  Let's at least stick together til we find a way out.  Or some light. SOUND    DOOR GRATES OPEN KLAUS    I think you get both of your wishes. SOUND    KLAUS WALKS GARTH    Hey, not so fast!  It could be a trap! KLAUS    I think it is too early in the game for that.  No.  This is merely an opening move.  I will make the first counter move. SOUND    LUIGI GETS UP LUIGI    I'm-a gonna wait and see what happens to that bosch before I step up.  No sense a-both of us getting killed alla the same time, eh? GARTH    It looks safe ...so far. MUSIC BOX ROOM NATHALIA    Weapons?  Guns? GARTH    No, no guns.  Hold on.  SOUND    STUFF BEING MOVED, JUST A LITTLE GARTH    Huh. [almost a chuckle] A good old pool cue.  Stay back! AMELIE    Why?  Should we not 'elp? GARTH    I saw something move.  I'm gonna see what I can... SOUND    SOMETHING FLOPS ON THE FLOOR NATHALIA    A whip!  I'll take that. GARTH    You know how to use it? NATHALIA    I had a very unusual ... boyfriend. AMELIE    'Ow unusual? NATHALIA    [laugh]  Oh!  Your face!  He worked with the circus.  Trained animals. GRACE    I don't suppose there might be a riding crop in there?  I'm a dab hand with close cuts. GARTH    Stay back! SOUND    THUMP ON THE DOOR AMELIE    'Elp me 'old the door! GRACE    [grunt, she throws herself against the door]  Find us something we can use - quickly! SOUND    THUMP ON THE DOOR MUSIC dungeon CHNOSSOS Come in gentlemen. [evil chuckle] I can see that physical perfection is no guarantee of courage. LUIGI    I ain't-a no coward - donchoo say that! KLAUS    [from off] I think you had best come in here. GARTH    Come on. LUIGI    I'll a-go first. SOUND    WALKING GARTH    Holy moley! LUIGI    Santa Maria! KLAUS    Most charming, are they not?  Sleeping peacefully in their night shifts. GARTH    Look, here, you!  It's all very well to challenge us fellows, but this-- CHNOSSOS The six ladies you see before you are the most beautiful women in the world. LUIGI    You ain't a-kidding! CHNOSSOS You might recall a recent article about the loss, at sea, of the boat carrying the finalists in the world beauty pageant? GARTH    Jumping jehosephat! KLAUS    [aha] Of course! LUIGI    That explains-a everything! CHNOSSOS It was all a ruse - the boat DID sink, but not until I had "relieved" it of its lovely cargo. GARTH    And the rest of the passengers and crew? CHNOSSOS Unnecessary. They went down with the ship.  Couldn't have anyone left behind to inform the authorities of my presence, could I? KLAUS    What is the matter with the girls?  Why do they not awaken? CHNOSSOS Oh, it's been much easier to keep them drugged until now. They should be coming to any minute.  Before they do, I should tell you the rest of the rules of the game. LUIGI    Game?  This ain't-a no game! GARTH    Shh.  Let him talk. CHNOSSOS No one escapes without a woman. I need two perfect specimens - a male and a female. KLAUS    You sound like you plan to start a master race. CHNOSSOS I leave that to others. Each of you must choose one of the women for your companion.  LUIGI    What do we -uh- do with the girl? CHNOSSOS [juicy] Anything you like. But you must keep her alive until you find the exit. KLAUS    Do you have to keep the same woman?  CHNOSSOS Any woman will do. That's all the same to me. MUSIC BOX ROOM SOUND    THUMP ON DOOR! GRACE    They're going to get through any second SOUND    WHIP CRACK NATHALIA    [vicious, excited] Let them.  GARTH    Here's a knife, and - oh!  SOUND    THUMP OF KNIFE INTO BOX GARTH    Got it! SOUND     THUMP ON DOOR GRACE    [gasp, strain] Got WHAT? GARTH    Something spidery.  Probably poisonous - that's why I'm taking this kinda slow! SOUND    SPIKE COMES CRUNCHING THROUGH DOOR AMELIA    [gaspy scream]  Be more quick! NATHALIA    Let it open. GARTH    All right.  On three, both of you, move over there, quick!  I don't want to lose nobody else. SOUND    THUMP, CRASH! MUSIC dungeon GARTH    What about the others?  CHNOSSOS What? GARTH    The other girls.  There's six of them and only three of us.  What happens to the others? CHNOSSOS [nasty wicked] Don't worry. They won't be alone for long.  [evil chuckle] You think I run this place single-handed?  I have a horde of ..."men" just waiting to [insinuating] make the ladies' acquaintance. GARTH    You fiend! KLAUS    Very clever. LUIGI    You put this into our hands?  You make-a this all our fault! CHNOSSOS [taunting] Your fault? Why, no!  Think of it this way - you each get to save one of these ladies from their fate! GARTH    A fate worse than death! CHNOSSOS Just because those left behind are.... mmm... doomed. GARTH    Well, we won't leave any, will we?  [beat]  Will we? KLAUS    It will make it very difficult to succeed, herding a flock of women through a maze. LUIGI    I like-a the ladies, but they can be a little hard to manage. SOUND    GIRLS BEGIN TO WAKEN GARTH    You heels.  [up, to doc]  Hey!  What if we don't leave any of 'em behind?  What about that? CHNOSSOS You can make that choice if you want. And of course, should any of them die in the traps in this maze-- GARTH    Die? CHNOSSOS --and I assure you gentlemen, the traps are very very deadly! You might do well to take more than one, rather like a spare tire - since no one will make it out without a distaff partner. KLAUS    Nein.  GARTH    No, Six. KLAUS    [exasperated sigh, then "duh"] No.  I will burden myself with only one.  Easier to watch over.  AMELIE    [waking, very French]  Oh la la!  Ou et la? LUIGI     But how do you propose to choose who gets a-which a-one? GARTH    We should make up our minds now - before they all wake up and start a ruckus. NATHALIE    [russian-sounding mutter] KLAUS    I have already decided.  I will have this blonde one. SUSANNE    [waking up]  Oh!! GARTH    Why's that? KLAUS    Simple.  She is the smallest.  Easiest to carry, should something happen.  You, girl. SUSANNE    [gasp, American]  What?  Where am I? GARTH    Hey, you should leave her to me.  She's from the good old U-S of A! KLAUS    Too late.  Come with me, girl. SUSANNE    I don't want to-- KLAUS    [threatening] Do not argue with me.  This is a matter of life and death! CHNOSSOS Too right you are. For in five minutes, that green door on the far wall will open and a few of my choice minions will be let loose in this room.  And you know what will happen then... [evil chuckle] GARTH    Holy cats!  We better get a move on. LUIGI    But where a-do-a we go?  There's the dreadful green door, and the way-a we came in, and then--? SOUND    GRATING OF STONE KLAUS    How convenient.  Three doorways open.  Come girl.  I will keep you alive. SOUND    GRABS UP SUZANNE KLAUS    And we will make our exit, stage left. SUSANNE    But I don't understand! KLAUS    I will tell you all you need to know.  [commanding] Come! SOUND    THEY LEAVE AMELIE    And 'oo will tell us all we need to know? LUIGI    French?  Eh!  I have always favored French girls.  I'll take-a you. AMELIE    [defiant] Take-a me where?  I do not think so! LUIGI    [getting mad] Don't argue a-with-a me!  You won't-a getta better chance-a than this! GARTH    You better go, lady.  Bad things are gonna happen here. AMELIE    Huh!  And no bad tings will 'appen with thees fellow?  Hah! LUIGI    Atsa your bad-a luck, then.  You-- HELGA    Ja? LUIGI    Do notta speak.  Just come. SOUND    HUSTLES HER OFF AMELIE    Hmph.  Adieu. MUSIC BOX ROOM SOUND    MAN CHOKING GARTH    Leave off! NATHALIA    [with exertion] He would be doing worse to me, were our positions reversed! GARTH    We already killed three of them!  We should keep him alive, make him tell us how to get out of here! NATHALIA    Very well. [lets up, then hissed] You!  You will take us through the maze, or He will leave you to me again, and strangling you is NOT the most painful thing I can do with this whip. SOUND    CREAK OF LEATHER MONGREL    [gasping] GRACE    Are we certain the others are dead? GARTH    Best as I can be.  AMELIA    I want 'is spear.  Anything to keep terrible things at arm's length. GRACE    I guess that leaves me the knife, unless you want to dig further into that box. SOUND    CREAK OF WOOD GRACE    The box!  It's tipping forward! GARTH    Dang it!  [to the captive] YOU!  Where do we go from here? MONGREL    [gibbers in his language] GARTH    Don't tell me he don't speak no English! AMELIA    If he does not speak, then he is no use!  NATHALIA    Da!  Then he is mine! MONGREL    No!  No! GRACE    There's an opening under the box - and the darkness!  It's moving! AMELIA    Spiders! NATHALIA    Bah!  A whip is useless against such as those - we must leave here! MUSIC DUNGEON GARTH    Gosh.  I can't leave any of you girls here alone.  That wouldn't be right. AMELIE    We can look after ourselves. NATHALIA    Speak for your own self!  I want him to look after me. ODA    Someone tell us, please, what it is that is going on? GRACE    Yes.  Can't you fill us in? GARTH    Not here, not now.  We gotta get moving - bad things are coming. GRACE    Bad things?  Could you be a bit more vague? AMELIE    [troubled] That voice over the intercom - it said that.  I think he is sincere. GARTH    We'll get a move on, and I can tell you as we go. ODA    You are taking her with you? GARTH    Darnitall, I'm taking all o' y'all. MUSIC HALLWAY, KLAUS SUSANNE    [distant, still screaming and gasping, and sobbing] KLAUS    Verdammt.  She must be behind the wall here, somewhere.  [noise as he kicks the wall] GRACE    [distant scream] KLAUS    My apologies, miss America.  But there remain other fish in the ocean. SOUND    HE WALKS AWAY FROM SUSANNE'S SCREAM MUSIC FLAShBACK TO BOAT SOUND    CALM OCEAN, DISTANT MUSIC SUSANNE    Gee, this is swell! AMELIE    You are recovered from your mal-de-mer? SUSANNE    One hundred percent!  Gosh, even seasick sounds so much nicer in French, don't it? AMELIE    [laughs] ODA    Oh, here is where you are!  It is almost time for the curfew.  AMELIE    I don't think it is so dangereuse, to steal a few more minutes of this lovely ocean air! SOUND    FEET APPROACH GRACE    Ah, I'm not the only one with a mind to an evening constitutional?  Makes one sleep quite soundly. SUSANNE    Is that another boat out there? AMELIE    [shrug] Eh.  There are innumerable boats in the ocean. SOUND    BELL SUSANNE    Yeah.  I swear it's coming right at us. ODA    [a bit worried] Oh, come along, we must obey the rules! SOUND    THEY WALK INSIDE, DOOR OPENS GRACE    You'll forget all about strange boats once you get around some warm milk, and tuck up for the night. MUSIC HALLWAY, LUIGI HELGA    I cannot move another step! LUIGI    [threatening] Ahhh!  You know what-a will happen to you if-a you don't! HELGA    [stifled sob] LUIGI    Open that door. HELGA    My hand is still bleeding from the last door! LUIGI    So.  You still have one-a good hand.  [growl] Open it. HELGA    [sobbing breath] LUIGI    [warning noise] HELGA    [takes deep trepidacious breath, pushes door open] SOUND    DISTANT EXPLOSION HELGA    [gasp!] MUSIC FLASHBACK TO BOAT AMBIANCE     BOAT SOUND    EXPLOSION NOTE    GIRLS HAVE BEEN DRUGGED, ARE GROGGY SUSANNE    What?  What's going on? SOUND    STUMBLING TO DOOR SOUND    HUGE CREAK, THINGS SLIDE SUSANNE    What the - oh!!  [stumbles, gasps for breath] ODA    Why is the world sliding to the window? SUSANNE    I'll try to [gasping breath] try to get to the door-- SOUND    STAGGERING FEET ODA    Don't leave me!  I cannot swim! SUSANNE    I'll just-- SOUND    DOOR FLIES OPEN MONGREL    [evil laughter] SUSANNE    [screams] ODA    What is it?  Oh! [screams] MONGREL    [evil laughter] MUSIC OUTSIDE BOX ROOM SOUND    WHIP CRACK MONGREL    [scream of agony] NATHALIA    [ecstatic gasp, laugh!, sound of effort as she brings her arm back for another slice] SOUND    CREAK OF LEATHER, CATCH HAND MONGREL    [whimpering] GARTH    [ugh as he stops her] Here, now, that's enough of that! NATHALIA    Hmph.  That one will be of no help! AMELIE    We cannot merely stand 'ere in the corridor!  Something will come! GRACE    She's right.  We should keep moving along. NATHALIA    This one goes first.  If he will not help us find the way, his only use is to find the traps before we do. SOUND    CLUNK, BEHIND A DOOR GARTH    Shh!  There's something in that room up ahead! SOUND    GRAPPLE MONGREL    [whimper] NATHALIA    Open the door, you beast! MONGREL    [negatory noise] NATHALIA    [intense whisper]  You think I've hurt you already?  You have felt nothing yet! GRACE    Here, now - that's quite enough! NATHALIA    Back off, limey!  I have no wish to die! GARTH    Ladies! AMELIE    The only one 'oo wins, if we fight, is the monster 'oo put us 'ere! NATHALIA    If this thing is not going to open the door, it certainly will not be me! GARTH    [determined sigh] I'll open the door.  You three, stand back.  Keep an eye on him. NATHALIA    [muttered] Teach your grandmother to suck eggs. SOUND    DOORKNOB SLOWLY TURNS MUSIC HALLWAY, LUIGI SOUND    ZIPPER HELGA    [sobbing] LUIGI    Get up.  HELGA    No.  I will not. LUIGI    You should be grateful I would even touch you - you sniveling thing. HELGA    I have lost everything.  My hand.  My... dignity.  And now this ... insult. LUIGI    [nasty whisper] Think of it as a compliment.  One last chance to feel like a woman. HELGA    [hissed, angry]  I might feel like a woman, if you felt anything like a man! LUIGI    You bitch!  SOUND    SLAP HELGA    [gasp] LUIGI    I am your only chance to survive.  Once we get out of here, you can go to hell! HELGA    [fiery] You can go to hell right here! SOUND    SHE RUNS OFF, LAUGHING HYSTERICALLY LUIGI    What? SOUND    TAKES A COUPLE OF STEPS, RUSTLE AS HIS PANTS FALL, HE TRIPS LUIGI    [falling, ahhh!  Oof!]  HELGA    [distant - laughter is cut off by a shrill scream, in turn cut off in mid-scream] SOUND    HEAVY THUMP OF A BLADE, DISTANT LUIGI    Biiiiitch! MUSIC HALLWAY, GARTH SOUND    DOOR OPENS GARTH    It's dark. AMELIE    Do not go in.  I'll light something off one of these flames. GRACE    What will burn well? GARTH    I'll open the door the rest of the way, see what I can see-- urk! SOUND    SCUFFLE! AMELIE    Garth? GRACE    Oh god! NATHALIA    Bring it out into the light! SOUND    STRUGGLE STOPS KLAUS    [from within] Step back, ladies.  We are coming out. GARTH    [half strangled] Why I oughtta....! KLAUS    Shh!  This knife says you are now the quiet one.  [up] I suggest you ladies all move over there.  Unless you want your hero to have a very close shave. GRACE    Nathalia!  Come here! NATHALIA    [angry noise] SOUND    CREAK OF LEATHER, HER ANGRY FOOTSTEPS KLAUS    Danke shoen.  Let us be Civilized about this. GRACE    Go on then. GARTH    Civilized?  Urk! GRACE    [low and intense] Do not anger the man with the knife! KLAUS    The ever practical britisher.  Hah!  I find myself without a companion. GRACE    Susanne? AMELIE    [gasp] NATHALIE    Fiend! KLAUS    [cold, tinged with anger] She was snatched from behind me by one of the minions.  I turned and saw her pulled through a door, which I could not open.   GRACE    So, being practical, what are you doing here? NATHALIA    Is it not obvious?  He needs a new woman. KLAUS    Ja.  [wry] Have I a volunteer?  Or must I resort to threats? AMELIE    You are not going to kill 'im?  KLAUS    Not if one of you comes with me.  We will walk down the hall, and he will accompany us as far as the intersection there.  AMELIE    Why should we trust you? KLAUS    You have my word as a Prussian. GRACE    And the others? KLAUS    [matter of fact] Wait here.  He will come back for you.  He is such an honorable schoolboy.  Is it a deal, my fine fellow? GARTH    [gasping a bit] Only if the ladies agree. GRACE    One of us will have to-- NATHALIA    I will go. AMELIE    What, you want to go with 'im? NATHALIA    Perhaps I am this tired of boy scouts.  Should I take my pet along with me? SOUND    KICKS MONGREL    [Urk] SOUND    FLOPPY FALL GRACE    Goodness, I think he's... dead! MUSIC HALLWAY, LUIGI SOUND    TRICKLING, DRIPPING NOISES LUIGI    Dios mio!  Such a mess.  Stupid woman! SOUND    DOOR OPENS, DISTANT LUIGI    Too bad-a this blade is too big to take with me.  I am-a left with the same club of wood.  No more blades up above?  [considering noise, scanning the ceiling]   No. nothing else a-looks tricky. SOUND    CAREFUL STEPPING OVER, FOOTSTEP IN STICKY PUDDLE LUIGI    [ech!  Disgusted noise] SOUND    DISTANT FOOTSTEPS, BOOTS SOUND    LUIGI WALKS QUIETLY OFF, STICKY FOOT MUSIC HALLWAY, LADIES AMELIE    What if 'ee does not return? GRACE    He can't get out without one of us.  He must come back. AMELIE    [odd tone] But... 'ee can only leave with one of us. GRACE    We'll sort that all out when we get that far. AMELIE    [musing] Oui.  We will. MUSIC HALLWAY, KLAUS SOUND    SHUFFLING FOOTSTEPS KLAUS    There.  Now, you must admit I have done you no more harm than I had to.  GARTH    [angry sigh] Yes. KLAUS    And you swear you will count 20 before you move? GARTH    Yes. NATHALIA    [cold] I do not see why you should not kill him, eliminate the competition now. GARTH    Nathalia! NATHALIA    Garth, dear boy - you are adorable.  But this is life and death, tovarisch. KLAUS    [furious hiss] I have given my word, woman!  NATHALIA    [fierce, But backing down] Very well! GARTH    You should get a move on.  For all we know that eyetalian fellow is already on his way out the exit. MUSIC HALLWAY LUIGI MONGRELS WATCHING, ON THE LEFT, GENERAL CONVERSATION MONGREL    [babbling] MONGREL2    [babbling, slightly higher voice] LUIGI    [on right, whisper]  Bastardos! SOUND    ROCK SKIPS ACROSS FLOOR MONGRELS    [gasp to a stop] SOUND    WEAPONS COMING TO READY MONGRELS     [shushing each other] LUIGI    [whispered] Now for the bait. SOUND    JUICY DRAG NOISE, FLOP LUIGI     [whispered] Look at that a-shapely leg, boys.  How can you resist? MONGRELS    [murmur - excited - wolf whistle] LUIGI    [high pitched gasp, mimicking a girl] SOUND    STICKY FLOPPY NOISE, PULLS SEVERED LEG BACK MONGRELS    [nasty chuckle] LUIGI    Just a few... more... steps... MUSIC HALLWAY, GARTH SOUND    WALKING, TAPPING AHEAD WITH A STICK GRACE    How will we know the exit when we find it? GARTH    I guess, from what he said, I assumed it would be obvious. AMELIE    Do not pester 'im.  'ee is doing the best 'ee can!  [to Garth, warm] I trust you, completemente! GARTH    [a little uncertain] Well.  They went thataway, so I figure we should try this direction.  GRACE    Perhaps he knew something? GARTH    I don't think so. AMELIE    Whichever way you wish to go is fine.  I am right behind you, [sexy] always. GARTH    Come on, then.  SOUND    THEY TAP AND WALK OFF MUSIC HALLWAY, KLAUS SOUND    SCUFFLE, SWOOSH, THUMP, CREAK OF LEATHER KLAUS    [heavy breathing] That was too close! NATHALIA    My God!  That would have cut me in half! KLAUS    You look much better in one piece. NATHALIA    If we do not escape-- [leaves it hanging] KLAUS    This doctor says we will be sealed in here.  Do not worry.  I will kill you quickly.  And then find a way to end myself as well. NATHALIA    Before you do that, we must find a place where we can ...enjoy one last minute together. KLAUS    If it was only a minute, I would call it an insult to both of us. NATHALIA    [ecstatic deep breath] KLAUS    [Deep breath] [clipped, cold] But for now - Let us try still to win, before we plan to celebrate defeat.  MUSIC HALLWAY, LUIGI SOUND    FIGHT! LUIGI    [grunt] SOUND    CRUNCH MONGREL    [squeal, ends in gurgle, dies] LUIGI    Hah! That's-a for you. SOUND    BODY DROP SOUND    SMACKS HANDS CLEAN SUSANNE    [muffled gasp, behind wall] LUIGI    Eh?  SOUND    SCUFFLE SUSANNE    [sob] LUIGI    Where are a-you? SUSANNE    Who - who is it? LUIGI    [low chuckle, then muttered, satisfied]  It's-a someone who needs him a woman. MUSIC HALLWAY, KLAUS SOUND     WALKING APPROACHES, STOPS NATHALIA    Borje-moi!  Another dead end! KLAUS    [furious!]  Gott in Himmel!  [deep hissed breath, calming himself]  Pah!  At least going this direction, we know where the traps are. MUSIC HALLWAY, LUIGI SOUND    DOOR GRINDS OPEN SUSANNA    [hoarse shriek]  No more!  Please! LUIGI    Come out of there.  We need to move along! SUSANNA    [whimper] You're not one of ...them? LUIGI    I am one of-a me.  And I need one of-a you.  Come now, girl, or I will leave you to their mercies. SUSANNA    Noo!!! LUIGI    Come out! SUSANNA    But I-- [whimpers, sniffles]  They took my clothes! LUIGI    You can-a walk naked, can't you? SUSANNA    [cries] LUIGI     Fine.  I take-a you something from these-a dead fellows, eh? SUSANNA    Just anything.  Please. MUSIC HALLWAY, GARTH SOUND    TAPPING, OFF TO THE LEFT GRACE    I know what you're about! AMELIE    Whatever do you mean? GRACE    This helpless act, and agreeing with everything poor Garth says.  He won't be fooled. AMELIE    I am fooling no one.  I truly agree with 'im.  Is it so bad that I wish to survive? GRACE    I shan't play this game. AMELIE    She 'oo does not play cannot 'ope to win! GARTH    [coming in]  Seems clear up ahead.  Come on. MUSIC HALLWAY, KLAUS SOUND    WALKING KLAUS    Shh! SOUND    THEY STOP SOUND    DISTANT DOOR OPENS KLAUS    [whispered] stay close! SOUND    QUIET STEPS KLAUS    [whisper] This way. MUSIC HALLWAY, GARTH SOUND    WALKING GARTH    [whispered] Big open room ahead.  Stay right here, and keep an eye out behind, got it? AMELIE    [fervent] Absolutment! GRACE    [clipped, a bit sour] Yes. SOUND    HIS FOOTSTEPS, THEN A GRATING NOISE GARTH    A gate!  Quick!  Come on! AMELIE    It's coming down too fast! GRACE    Slide! SOUND    GRATING STOPS GARTH    [grunts - effort - holding up the gate]  Come... On!  Quick!  Get under! GRACE     Go!  SOUND    DISTANT MUTTER OF MONGRELS AMELIE    They are coming! GRACE    Move your shapely posterior! GARTH    [lots of effort] Quickly! AMELIE    [breathing heavily] Oh!  Oh!  I am clear! GRACE    My turn, I think. GARTH    HURRRRRRY! GRACE    Oh!  Something's grabbed my foot! AMELIE    [quiet] oh no.  GRACE    Help me!  Amelie!  Ahh!  GARTH    [straining] I can't hold it much longer! AMELIE    [dithering] Oh... [decides]  Oui.  Give me your 'ands! SOUND    HANDS SLAP TOGETHER BOTH WOMEN STRAIN GRACE    I'm loose!  Quick, Pull!! AMELIE    Uuuh! SOUND    RIPPING OF FABRIC GARTH    It's slipping! SOUND    CLANG!  PORTCULLIS DROPS GRACE    Good god - If my feet were a size larger, I'd be lost.  Amelie.  Thank you. AMELIE    [upset] pas du tout.  It was nothing. CHNOSSOS True - I fear your heroics were for nothing, mademoiselle. AMELIE    [gasp] GARTH    What are you talking about? CHNOSSOS You are too late. SOUND    GRATING ACROSS THE ROOM, SCUFFLE AS KLAUS AND NATHALIA ENTER GARTH    Too late?  Too late for what? CHNOSSOS The Italian. He has found the exit.  And even though his female was.... damaged goods... I never specified they had to make it out in pristine condition. KLAUS    And now what is to happen? CHNOSSOS I have what I wanted. You are ...expendable. SOUND    SPEAKING TUBE BEING CLOSED KLAUS    That door - Is that the exit?  Do you know? GARTH    I guess I thought it was. SOUND    DOORS OPENING, ALL AROUND SOUND    FEET ENTER MONGRELS    [many] [laughing evilly] KLAUS    There must be dozens of them! GARTH    Quick!  Circle up!  Face outward.  NATHALIA    No mercy! SOUND    WHIP! GRACE    Amelie, Come on! MUSIC THE WINNER SOUND    MELLOW MUSIC PLAYS, CHAMPAGNE POURS LUIGI    So.  What-a is it that I win? SOUND    MACHINE WHIRS, ENTERING CHNOSSOS [not on speakers] You are the perfect male specimen. LUIGI    I coulda told you that from-a the beginning. CHNOSSOS You are lucky I was only looking for physical specimens. Morally, I fear you are ... flawed. LUIGI    [shrug] You never asked for morals.  You don't-a seem like the type. CHNOSSOS No. I have never been overburdened with morals.  Scientists can't afford such luxuries. LUIGI    [scoffing] Scientist?  A dried up old-a walnut of a fellow like-a you? CHNOSSOS You should be more polite to your host. LUIGI    I think-a we are past that.  So?  What do I win? CHNOSSOS Have some more champagne and I will tell you everything. MUSIC STILL IN THE MAZE BACK TO OUTER ROOM SOUND    FIGHT HAS ENDED.  HEAVY BREATHING ALL ROUND MONGREL    [groan] KLAUS    [grunt as he stabs the man]  GARTH    That looks like the last one moving.  Everyone okay? GRACE    I think Amelie is hurt.  Her thigh. AMELIE    It's just a scratch. GRACE    Why don't you see if you can get the door open?  I'll see to this. NATHALIA    I will watch for any other ... enemies. KLAUS    So, [wry, but with humor] my fellow loser, do we go and take our prizes? GARTH    That sounds jake to me!  Let's get that door open! MUSIC INSIDE DOC'S LAIR SOUND    DOOR CRASHES OPEN CHNOSSOS [on speakertube] So, you have managed to escape! KLAUS    Ja.  CHNOSSOS You are too late! GARTH    All we want to do is get the heck out of here, doc!  You try and stop us, and we'll give you what for! NATHALIA    We are not going to find and kill this beast? SOUND    LIMPING UP BEHIND AMELIE    [whimpers, gasps] GRACE    We simply do not have that luxury.  It is more important to get ourselves clear.  [to Amelie] Come along. KLAUS    [to doc] I doubt that there is one of us who would want any prize that came from the likes of you! GARTH    [to doc] Just you stay out of our way!  You hear? CHNOSSOS Go on. Leave.  I have no need for any of you. MUSIC BOAT SOUND    OCEAN SOUND    CREAK OF BOAT SOUND    FEET APPROACH GARTH    All clear.  And there's even some food in the galley. KLAUS    Get the ladies on board. GARTH    Are you thinking what I'm thinking? KLAUS    That leaving this ... villain... to roam at large is somehow dishonorable? GARTH    I just wanted to whup his fanny, but that sounds real reasonable. NATHALIA    [breathless, worried] You're not going back in there? KLAUS    Ja.  And I am coming back out.  [quiet, intense] You are fierce.  That will give me the inspiration to return. NATHALIA    [gasp] GARTH    Hey. GRACE    Yes? GARTH    Is she... is she doing okay? GRACE    [resigned] She'll survive.  Thanks to you.  Now go on.  Make the world safe for all of us. GARTH    Right.  Come on, Klaus. MUSIC AMBIANCE DOC'S LAIR SOUND    DOOR BROKEN IN SOUND    JUICY PLOPPY CUTTING NOISES GARTH and KLAUS     [react as they stumble in] CHNOSSOS No! Stay away!  I am not finished! GARTH    Holy Cow! KLAUS    Mein Gott! CHNOSSOS You will not take away my perfect specimen! GARTH    I don't want it. KLAUS    But you, old man, must be stopped. CHNOSSOS Nooooo- Urk! MUSIC OUTSIDE SOUND    TWO MEN WALK BACK TO THE BOAT SOUND    BEHIND THEM THE PLACE BURN   KLAUS    Mein gott.  That could have been either one of us. GARTH    We can't tell none of them girls what we saw in there. KLAUS    There is no reason they should need to know. GARTH    Good.  You and me, Klaus old buddy, are the only ones who will ever know what the winner of this damned game was gonna get. KLAUS    ...Skinned and mounted as a trophy. END CREDITS

Relevant History
Episode 49 - World War Zero: Part 2

Relevant History

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 22, 2022 125:57


In 1756, the French and British war over North America spills over to Europe. Prussian leader Frederick the Great, a British ally, takes the opportunity to make a pre-emptive attack on French-allied Austria, Poland, Saxony, and Russia. Soon, Sweden joins the counterattack against Prussia, and virtually all of Europe is at war. But the Seven Years' War will continue to spread. The French and British fight battles in West Africa, and the French and British East India Companies struggle for dominance in India. In North America, fighting goes on, with the British assaulting key French forts along the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River, to cut them off from their inland colonies. But who will dominate? The French alliance and their overwhelming land power in Europe - or the British alliance, with their sea power and financial might? At this phase of the war, it remains an open question. MAP OF EUROPE IN 1756: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bf/Europe_1748-1766_en.png/1280px-Europe_1748-1766_en.png SUBSCRIBE TO RELEVANT HISTORY, AND NEVER MISS AN EPISODE! Relevant History Patreon: https://bit.ly/3vLeSpF Subscribe on Spotify: https://spoti.fi/38bzOvo Subscribe on Apple Music (iTunes): https://apple.co/2SQnw4q Subscribe on Google Music: https://bit.ly/30hUTRD RSS feed: https://bit.ly/2R0Iosz Relevant History on Twitter: https://bit.ly/3eRhdtk Relevant History on Facebook: https://bit.ly/2Qk05mm Relevant History SubscribeStar: https://www.subscribestar.com/relevant-history Official website: https://bit.ly/3btvha4 Episode transcript (90% accurate): https://docs.google.com/document/d/e/2PACX-1vTjito9Cf2Fhm4gRuJE_3pYDC9blnCJrEh6PmhB0SBKZF1s8FXrlUwK2B2KbgrZqfZGWOZfg99BrVk-/pub Music credit: Sergey Cheremisinov - Black Swan

Not Your Mom's Romance Book Club
My Darling Duke by Stacy Reid

Not Your Mom's Romance Book Club

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 19, 2022 55:39


Ellen and Mom discuss the wallflowers, wheelchairs, and "White Fang-ing" in My Darling Duke by Stacy Reid.  Plus, former lives as Prussian courtesans.  Come hang out with us! Twitter/Instagram: @notyourmomsromFacebook Group: Not Your Mom's Facebook GroupEmail: notyourmomsromancebookclub@gmail.comNot Your Mom's Romance Book Club is part of the Frolic Podcast Network. You can find more outstanding podcasts to subscribe to at Frolic.media/podcast

Kings and Generals: History for our Future
3.13 How to start a drug cartel in the 19th century

Kings and Generals: History for our Future

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 12, 2022 54:44


Last time we spoke about the numerous attempts of Britain to open the markets of the Qing dynasty. First we talked about the disastrous and quite embarrassing Macartney mission to China which would begin a series of more and more bad relations. After Macartney's mission came a significant increase in opium export to China via India on the part of the East India company. The British were literally and economically dependent on Chinese tea and were beginning to use nefarious methods to get their fix. Then came the Amherst mission which was even more of a catastrophe than the Macartney mission, the man did not even get to meet the Emperor. And so the Canton system of trade went unchanged, but for how long could this system manage the ever increasing demand from the British for more trade? Events are about to unfold which will see a entire nation swept up into a drug cartel.   This episode is how to start a drug cartel in the 19th century   Welcome to the Fall and Rise of China Podcast, I am your dutiful host Craig Watson. But, before we start I want to also remind you this podcast is only made possible through the efforts of Kings and Generals over at Youtube. Perhaps you want to learn more about the history of Asia? Kings and Generals have an assortment of episodes on the history of asia and much more  so go give them a look over on Youtube. So please subscribe to Kings and Generals over at Youtube and to continue helping us produce this content please check out www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals. If you are still hungry for some more history related content, over on my channel, the Pacific War Channel where I cover the history of China and Japan from the 19th century until the end of the Pacific War. The year was 1830 and the 13 factories of Canton were rustling with business. The rules that governed the hundred or so foreigners who populated the factories were as strict as ever. After the Amherst mission George Staunton remained in Canton and took up a job working for the East India Company. What had changed the most since Staunton had come to Canton as a little boy was that competition was increasing. By 1830 the private traders taking up residence in the Canton foreign factories increased and they came from numerous nations such as India, Armenia, Britain, America and such. They were all competing with the East India Company which held a monopoly over British trade in Canton, but the private British traders now outnumbered the company 2 to 1. All of the private traders resented the company, as one scornful American put it “by its improper interferences and assumptions of superiority the company has earned the same dislike and unpopularity which a despotic and tyrannical government has entitled it to, in all other places where its influence extends”. The company was a mammoth, many of its armed vessels were at Canton, but it had become sluggish and slow to react. The trade between India and Canton which was making private merchants filthy rich was not being carried on the company's ships, the reason being that that cargo was opium.    Some private merchants built ships and anchored them 60 miles away from Canton on some outlying islands, not daring to come any closer to the port. They would station their “receiving ships” there at places like Lintin Island far away from the Canton authorities and these ships would act as floating warehouses for drug deals. Foreign vessels came from India with cargoes of opium and would stop at Lintin, offload their chests and then proceed to Canton with their cargo contained no contraband and thus clean for inspection. Their captains came to port and met with Hong merchants, though some dealt with black market merchants. After agreeing on a price, the foreign merchant took their payment for the opium and the Chinese dealers sent their own boats to Lintin to retrieve the shipments. The warehouse ships anchored at Lintin did not own the cargo, they were merely holding it for other unknown merchants who assumed the risks of getting it there. The Chinese smugglers then took the responsibility for the illicit drugs when they smuggled it into China. The Chinese smugglers also bribed government officials to ensure no inspections would be made at Lintin island or that such inspections would be announced in advance. One captain of a warehouse boat, Robert Bennet Forbes earned 800,000 dollars of today's currency per year for these operations.   The opium grew magnificently well in India and the East India Company would go bankrupt without the profit it gained from the illicit trade. Although the East India Company consistently avoided carrying opium to China on its own ships, that did not mean it did not take part in the trade network. The company dominated the opium supply within India and held auctions in Calcutta where it would sell to the smugglers. Everyone got a piece, the East India Company, the foreign smuggler and the Chinese merchants. The proceeds after all when said and done was payments of silver which were handed over to the East India Company's treasury whom would give the smugglers in return bills to use in India or Britain. Thus the company would enjoy a constant flow of silver.   Now the East India Company did its best to contain the cultivation of opium in India, but as time went by Indian entrepreneurs realized the massive gains that could be made and began to produce opium and ship it to ports on India's coast. The East India Company needed to keep a tight lid on how much opium made it to Canton to ensure prices remained high and that the Qing dynasty did not crack down on the trade. But in their efforts to thwart the opium cultivators trying to compete with them, they ended up simply increasing production exponentially. The company literally began to buy out its competitors to try and control the production of opium, but by that point the price per chest of opium had dropped to nearly half its value. This would have a disastrous side effect. Up until this point in the 1820's, opium remained an expensive luxury good, but with the price of it dropping soon the non wealthy in China began to purchase it and the trade expanded. By 1823 opium surpassed cotton as the largest Indian export to China. By 1828 opium was looking like the only commodity left that could reliably secure a profit for merchants in the area. 10,000 chests of opium made its way to Canton in 1828. By 1831 nearly 20,000 chests reached Canton, quadrupling the trade over the course of a decade.  Those chests did not include another 8% coming from Turkey via American smugglers, nor western Chinese grown opium. Those nearly 20,000 chests, 18956 to be more precise were worth nearly 13 million at the time, making it the most lucrative commodity trade in the world.    The independent traders, IE: smugglers formed their own community in Canton that rivaled the East India Company's factory. Their leader was the infamous William Jardine, a Scot with a degree in medicine from Edinburgh. Jardine had come to Canton as a surgeon's mate for the East India Company in 1802. When he graduated to full surgeon he was given a small space in the ship to carry his own cargo. He soon found that an illicit trade in Canton would provide him more profit than his work in medicine. Thus in 1817 after working 15 years for the company he quit to become a free merchant. After 3 years of his new life as a trader he ran into a fellow scot of higher birth named James Matheson who had like him begun the illicit business. The 2 men complemented another, Matheson was 12 years younger, more outspoken and temperamental and quite a good writer. He also had social connections back home in Britain and a lot of money. Jardine was more reserved and had a better head for business, but it was Matheson who was more willing to take big risks. In 1823 Matheson tried to sell some opium in Canton and failed horribly, but his family's wealth kept him afloat. In 1828 the 2 purchased a firm called Magniac & co and would rename it in 1832 to Jardine Matheson & Co. Stands to this very day.    Their company began doing business with opium merchants in Bombay and elsewhere in India. They settled down to live in “creek factory”, just 2 doors down from the East India company factory. They opened a newspaper called the Canton register which began a campaign to abolish the East India Company's monopoly in Canton. To allow their illicit business to work, Matheson got an appointment as a Danish consul and Jardine a Prussian consul. They both mingled with many of the big smugglers in Canton like a Parsi named Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy and competed with other companies such as the Russel & Co. The Russel & Co was an American firm which would end up handling 1/5 of the Indian opium coming into Canton, so do not believe this was exclusively a British enterprise.   On the other side of this, the Qing government efforts to suppress the illicit trade were infrequent and half hearted in part because many officials were themselves involved in the business. Officials along the coast and those in Canton were many of the former corrupt officials that worked under Heshen and thus were not strangers to working the system. Despite its official illegal status, the Canton opium trades flourished. A Hong merchant named Wu Bingjian, but known to the foreigners as Houqua rose to prominence. As stated by Thomas Forbes in 1828 “Houqua as a man of business I consider the first in the country”. Houqua was the most influential trader in Canton. He was in his mid 60's, had drooping eyes, a pointed goatee and a long neck. Houqua handled all the business of the East India Company's factory in Canton along with other factories. He was revered by the foreign community for his honesty and business sense. Teas marked with his imprimatur were considered the best quality in the world. Houqua became a household name even in Britain and America and as it happens was likely the richest man in the world at one point. In the 1830's the Americans estimated Houqua was worth perhaps 26 million. Houqua lived on an island across from Canton and in a spare office there John Murray Forbes worked for Houqua as his secretary. Forbes at the age of 18 would be chartering multiple ships loaded with Houquas tea and would receive a generous 10% commission.    Now going back in time, in 1820, Emperor Jiaqing died and Emperor Daoguang took the throne. In 1810 Emperor Jiaqing revived his grandfather Emperor Yongheng's opium ban and by 1813 despaired at how it was spreading amongst the elite, even within his own palace. Apparently imperial guards and Qing officials in the palace were abusers of it. After his death, Emperor Daoguang carried forward his fathers opposition to opium. He said early into his reign “Opium is a great harm to the customs and morals of the people”. He ordered an end to the coastal drug smuggling, targeting corrupt officials who were allowing opium to come into China. “If there are traitors who try to collect taxes off opium to enrich themselves, or wh personally smuggle it into the country, punish them immediately and severely in order to expunge this massing of insects”. The same year he made these edicts a large number of scholars from coastal provinces showed up to take the civil service examination in Beijing only to die of convulsions from opium withdrawals over the 3 day test. How many addicts there were is hard to estimate. In 1820 with nearly 5000 chests being imported each year that would support roughly 40,000 habitual users, less than a hundredth of a single percent of the population. But by 1830 opium usage was exponentially increasing, the Daoguang emperor's initial concerns became full on alarm. He wrote an edict in January of 1830 “Opium is flooding into the interior, the multitude of users expands day by day, and there are more and more people who sell it; they are like fire and smoke, destroying our resources and harming our people. Each day is worse than the last”. The reports pouring in from provinces were shocking. From Zhili province a report read “there are opium smokers everywhere, especially in the government office. From the governor general all the way down through the ranks of officials and their subordinates, the ones who do not smoke opium are very few indeed”.   In response the the growing reports, in 1831, the Daoguang emperor order greater efforts be made to suppress the opium smuggling. Yet despite his orders, Beijing was unable to exert control over the provinces so affected because the local kingpins were proving themselves to be better providers for the locals than the central government. It was the kingpins employing people, providing income, security and by far could strike fear upon the populace if they were angered. When government officials would show up to crack down in the provinces, village mobs would attack them and turn them right back. This made Daoguang and his court tred very carefully as they understood how a full on rebellion was very possible. Thus Daoguang advisers cautioned any general campaign to stamp out opium smoking, do not go after the petty commoners suffering from financial hardships and addiction, but instead focus on hindering the smugglers.   Between 1831-1833 many minor conflicts occurred that would have amounted to nothing if it was not for the efforts of independent opium dealers looking to get rid of the East India Company. Of particular note was Jardine Matheson & Co who constantly wrote back to London the problems arising from allowing the company to hold a monopoly. Eventually the efforts of the smugglers paid off as in 1833 it was put to a vote to terminate the company's monopoly. By the autumn of 1833, news reached Canton that the East India company's monopoly would not be renewed when its charter expired the following May. Not only would it lose its monopoly, the East India Company would also no longer be allowed by the British government to continue its trade with China. The East India Company that had dominated trade for more than 2 centuries in Canton would vanish.   The Hong merchants were quite apprehensive at the news, it was not clear to them how the trade would now function. The Viceroy of Canton ordered the British to appoint a “tai pan” a chief executive who would be held accountable by Chinese officials for British trade conduct in Canton. The British government recognized the need to replace the role of the East India company with an alternative arrangement and agreed to create 3 superintendents of trade, a Chief superintendent, supported by 2 subordinates. “The Chief superintendent of trade would preside over a Court of Justice with criminal and admiralty jurisdiction for the trial of offenses committed by his majesty's subjects in the said dominions  or on the high sea within a hundred miles from the coast of China”. Now if you read that closely you realize, Britain just stipulated claims of extraterritoriality within the territory of the Qing dynasty.   Jardine and Matheson both worried the position of the superintendent would fall to George Stauton who arguably was the most qualified person for the job. But Staunton was an East India company man and they both worried he would bring with him the same bureaucracy that impeded upon the dealings of the independent merchants. Jardine and Matheson also took a hardline against Stauton between 1831-1833 trying to get the company abolished, he most likely would now return the favor. But to their joy, Staunton did not get the job, it went instead to William John Napier. Napier was a tall, redheaded and gallant captain of the Royal Navy and a veteran of the Napoleonic wars and fought in the legendary battle of Trafalgar. His qualifications and expertise in the trade of China amounted to nothing at all. Napier had zero experience in diplomacy, nor trade and he knew nothing about China. The cherry on top of all of this was that he was a proponent of free trade. He was to put it frankly, absolutely perfect for the smugglers.    For Napier it seems he fantasied about the power he might be capable of wielding in China, a country he understood to be “an enormous Empire of 40,000,000 that hands only together by a spiders web. What a glorious thing it would be to station a naval squadron along the coast and how easily a gun brig would raise a revolution and cause them to open their ports to the trading world”. Napiers ambitions were known to some, such as Earl Grey who sent him a private letter politely asking Napier to “exercise the most careful discretion in all your dealings with the Chinese. Given the suspicious character of the Qing government and the Chinese people, nothing must be done to shock their prejudices or to excite their fears”. Lord Napier was expected above all to keep the peace at Canton and to do no harm to the trade relations between Britain and China. Earl Grey had told him in person “persuasion and conciliation should be the means employed rather than anything approaching to the tone of hostile and menacing language. In the very worst case, should this not work, you are to show submission for a time and wait for new instructions from Britain”. Thus Napier was forbidden from pursuing any aggressive action. Napier also received instructions from Lord Palmertson at the foriegn office which likewise told him much of what Earl Grey said. Palmertson said the highest priority was to avoid any conflict with the Chinese. It was desirable to establish a line of communication with Beijing, but Napier was not an ambassador and should not go to Beijing even if opportunity arose because he “might awaken fears, or offend the prejudices of the Qing government”. Palmertson also asked Napier to find out if it was possible to make a survey of the Chinese coast, but not to make a survey. Lastly Palmertson instructed Napier not to negotiate with the Qing officials at Canton. If the opportunity presented itself, Napier was to write back home and await instructions. Just before departing, Napier would ask to be supplied with plenipotentiary powers just in case an opportunity to meet the Emperor arose, and was flat out denied this.    Napier sailed off from Plymouth on February 7 of 1834 on the 28 gunship Andromache, taking with him his wife and 2 daughters. While enroute, Napier read all that he could of the 2 previous missions particularly Amherst's notes about the status of China. Napier was excited to read about how Amherst described China as a nation oppressed by an alien dynasty and that the Han people wanted free trade. He became more and more convinced that his idea of sending a single squadron could force the Qing government to open every port in China to britain. He arrived at Macao on July 16 of 1834 and had instructions from Lord Palmertson to go straight to Canton and announce himself directly. This was an error on Palmertsons part as he obviously did not know that all foreigners were supposed to first go to Macao and await Chinese authority to come to Canton. This mistake would lead to terrible results.   OnJuly 23 Napier sailed for Canton and got to the city on July 25. He went to the factory compound at Canton and read aloud his commission to all the British traders.Then he wrote a letter to announce his arrival to the governor general.   The governor general was Lu Kun who refused to accept the letter because Napier had come to Canton unannounced without applying for a permit to enter Canton. Lu Kun said he had no idea why Napier was here, only that he had arrived on a warship and claimed to be in charge of British trade. Lu Kun was aware that Napiers arrival meant the East India companies role was ended in canton and that a new set of regulations for trade were going to be needed. However Lu Kun did not have the authority to establish any new regulations himself without orders from the emperor. So ironically both these men have the same issue. Lu Kun asked Houqua to meet with Napier to sound out the business and report back to him so they could inform Emperor Daoguang. On July 26 Houqua met with Napier and explained that the governor general required a Taipan to communicate and do trade, as they had done in the past. Napier brushed this off and said he preferred to communicate directly with the governor general. Napier ignored Houqua and sent a delegation of british merchants through canton to deliver his letter to Lu Kun. No Qing officials would dare accept the letter and Houqua pleaded with Napier to give him the letter so he could deliver it. Napier was insistent to directly address Lu Kun and refused. The next day, Houqua advised changing the letter into a petition implying Napier into a supplicant status. This greatly pissed off Napier. To add to Napiers anger, Lu Kun did not know what title to use for Napier so he wrote the term “yimu” meaning “headman” which was used for tribal chiefs and Napier's staff translated this out of context to mean “barbarian eye”. This came off as derogatory for the British.   Napier was making a large error, he thought he was dealing with China, but in reality he was only dealing with a single individual. That single individual, Lu Kun was in a position that should he disappoint the Emperor he would lose his job. All Lu Kun cared about was following protocol and not accidentally setting any new precedents. He had no authority to negotiate a new system of trade and to even border on that was to lose his job. Any of the former East India company veterans or many of the independent merchants could have easily explained this to Napier, but they didn't. Napier did not trust the former company staff and the independent merchants were vying for new trade negotiations. Napier ended up listening to the council of fellow Scots, Jardine and Matheson. Jardine and Matheson had gone to work on Napier from the very beginning helping him establish himself in Canton.   By august 9th, Napier still was unable to get his letter delivered and was becoming furious. Napier wrote to Palmersson complaining about the situation and that the Chinese were demanding he leave Canton and return to Macao. Napier went on to showcase his personal views “His majesty's government should not be ruled by the ordinary forms prescribed among civilized people. Lu Kun is a presumptuous savage. He was an alien Manchu, like the Daoguang emperor himself whom were nothing more than intruders in the country. The real people of China, the Han Chinese all wanted British trade, it was just this illegitimate government that was holding them back. The Manchus may have been fierce and strong once upon a time, but now after generations of rule they were a wretched people, inconceivably degraded, unfit for action or exertion. The British would be best off using its military power to force the Manchu government to open China's ports once and for all”. So in only 3 weeks the man sent to maintain peaceful trading relations was basically calling for war. On August 23 some Qing officials showed up sent by Lu Kun asking when Napier was going to return to Macao and Napier responded he would go entirely according to his own convenience.    Napier felt the trade relations were now threatened and decided to take his case to the people. Napier was certain the independent merchants and local cantonese would rally to him because they all wanted free trade. He began creating posters declaring how“He had been insulted and humiliated by the corrupt governor general Lu Kun whose ignorance and obstinacy were allowing the Hong merchants to shut down Britain's trade at Canton.Thousands of industrious Chinese who live by the European trade must suffer ruin and discomfort through the perversity of their Government. The only thing his people want is to trade with all China, on principles of mutual benefit, and that the British would never rest until they reached that goal”. The next day another poster went up, this one made by the Qing “a lawless foreign slave, Napier has issued a notice. We know not how such a dog barbarian of an outside nation as you, can have the audacious presumption to call yourself superintendent”. The poster also suggested cutting Napiers head off and displaying it on a stake.   On the evening of september the 4th, as Napier was eating dinner with some guests, servants rushed in to warn him that armed men had appeared at the front gates. Napier went to the gates to see Qing soldiers had surrounded the factory building and an official was nailing an edict from the governor general to the factory wall as he announced the official shutdown of trade and ordered all Chinese employees of the factory to vacate immediately.  Soon all the Chinese staff, servants, porters, guards and such left the factory, leaving Napier with just a handful of companions. Napier heard someone in the crowd say he was going to burn down the factory that very night and Napier knew action had to be taken.    Napier called upon his 2 nearby gunboats, Andromache and Imogene, both 6th rate Royal Navy frigates with 54 guns between them. Napier believed under the circumstances he had sufficient reason to defy his orders from Britain and ordered the gunboats to force passage through the Tiger's Mouth.  They were to deal with whatever resistance was made upon them and to take up positions in Whampoa and protect British subjects and their property. After ordering the ships off he addressed a letter to Lu Kun and the Hong merchants declaring “you have opened the preliminaries of war. His imperial majesty will not permit such folly, wickedness, and cruelty as you have been guilty of, since my arrival here, to go unpunished”. Unfortunately, the British governments actual response to Napiers call for war would not reach Canton until it was far too late. The British governments response was of course, to tell him to back down and to follow instructions and behave. “It is not by force and violence that his majesty intends to establish a commercial intercourse between his subjects and China”.    The 2 warships forced their passage through the Tiger's Mouth and exchanged fire with the Chinese forts that guarded it. Napiers 2 frigates unloaded more than 700 rounds into the Chinese forts, 2 British sailors were killed with 5 wounded.The forts were hammered into silence and thus ended what is called the Battle of the Bogue. The Chinese forts lacked the firepower that the British cannons held. The 2 warships proceeded to Whampoa, but the Chinese built heavy obstacles upriver, such as a large cable drawn across the river with hundreds of fire rafts loaded with gunpowder and a fleet of war junks to try and block the passage towards Canton. The 2 warships were not able to get close enough to Canton to be visible from the factories in it. The shock and awe that Napier had wanted to inflict did not come to fruition. The British merchants refused to followed Napiers lead, most simply wanted trade to resume, not a war. Jardine and Matheson were some of the very few who supported Napiers hardline stance, but most asked Napier to obey Lu Kun's orders and to go to Macao immediately. Many of the merchants began to petition Napier complaining how much financial losses he was causing them. Meanwhile Lu Kun made it clear he had zero problems with the merchants, it was Napier alone as to why trade was shut down and that normal commerce would resume the second he left. Napier felt betrayed by his own people and was humiliated.    Napier was quite alone in the empty factory building, out of reach from his 2 gunboats and the Qing were making sure no provisions reached the factory. He realized the consequences if British trade suffered serious harm from his personal actions and coincidentally he was beginning to become quite ill. Thus Napier backed down, on september 21 he ordered the 2 gunboats to pull out and he left Canton a broken man. Trade resumed to normal a fews days after his departure. Britain's first chief superintendent of trade, a proud veteran of Trafalgar and the Napoleonic wars had been brought to his knees by Lu Kun. After a 5 day trip under heavy Qing military escort, Napier arrived in Macao pale and feverish. He died 2 weeks later.   The British public did not mourn the loss of Napier. The Duke of Wellington summed up their views by stating “the attempt to force upon the Chinese authorities at Canton an accustomed mode of communication with an authority of whose powers and of whose nature they had no knowledge had failed, as it is obvious that such an attempt must invariably fail, and lead again to national disgrace”. Jardine and Matheson alongside 85 other independent merchants all signed a petition to the new King of England William IV, demanding revenge for Napiers humiliations. Within China the situation was getting worse. Patronage, bribery and embezzlement were becoming the norm among civil officials. Opium was weaving its way through the fabric of Chinese society. In spite of Daoguang's edicts to control the illicit drug the trade was growing exponentially. A major north south land transport route for opium emerged through Hunan province and with it some uprisings sprang up. The Qing government sent military forces to pacify the uprisings but ironically the soldiers that were sent were heavy users of opium and performed terribly. Forces which were sent to opium heavy regions would fall victim to the substance. The Chinese economy was falling into a depression. Grain prices deflated, driving down the income of farmers. Unemployment rose and the Qing government tax revenues were declining. Soon it became expensive to maintain public works like flood control which led to shoddy construction giving way to destructive episodes of flooding. With the flooding came agricultural failures and with that famines.   China's monetary system was collapsing, a major problem was the side effect of the opium trade, the exportation of silver. The Hong merchants paid for the opium with silver, but could not accept silver as payment for tea or silk because it would indicate that they had exported silver in the first place which was illegal. Thus silver was pouring out of China and not coming back in and on top of this, since the 1820 the worlds supply of silver had been coming from mines in Mexico and Peru, but national revolutions in Latin America had shut down those mines. The combination of these 2 factors had a disastrous effect on China.   Silver was the international currency, but copper coins were an important part of China's internal economy. A tael of silver was worth 1000 copper coins during normal times, moving such a large amount of copper was logistically unstable thus silver played a crucial role in China's economy. Silver was the basis of tax payments, a medium for all long distance trade conducted within China and abroad. But copper was used as a medium for the local economies, the marketplace and menial wages. The income and savings for all the lower classes of China, farmers laborers, craftsmen was all paid in copper. As silver flooded out of China it became more and more valuable and this skewed its exchange with copper to the point of absolute mayhem. By 1830 a tael of silver was worth 1365 copper coins and soon it rose to 1600, then to 2000 by the late 1830's. With the inflation came a need for higher taxes, but the lower class could not afford to pay them.   The Qing court debated many ways to remedy the situation. Some said they should merely open ports to appease the traders, some went as far as saying they should simply lift the illegal status of opium so it could be traded accordingly and proper taxes could be levied. In the end Emperor Daoguang increased his hardline stance against opium. Now commoners and soldiers convicted of smoking opium would be punished with 100 lashes and 2 months in the cangue (plank of wood with their hands and neck inside). Even family members of opium users could be punished, such as a father failing to control his children from smoking it.    Now when Britain got rid of the East India Company's monopoly, the responsibility for the conduct of British opium traders in China shifted from the company to the British government itself. The government of Britain tried to pretend the trade did not exist, but the public was learning more and more about it, especially after the Napier affair. Back to Jardine & Matheson's petitions to the king, they demanded a full fledged ambassador, backed up by a war fleet, to demand reparation for China's apparent crimes. More and more letters came to Britain demanding war like action and that just a small force of 2 frigates and 3 or 4 armed vessels could blockade most of the sea trade for the Qing empire. “Intercepting its revenues in their progres to the capital, and taking possession of all the armed vessels of the country”. Such actions they argued would not see full scale war, it would just lead to more amenable trade relations. The new man to replace Napier was a longtime East India company man named John Davis. And to their misery he immediately rejected their demand for reparations and was adamantly against their free trade movement. Davis subscribed to the idea that China trade should be conducted with caution and respect. As Jardine & Matheson continuously called for war, Davis sent word back to Palmersson in Britain to ignore them. Davis was far more optimistic that Britain could find a peaceful way after the embarrassing Napier situation. Jardine & Matheson would not quit, and Matheson went back to Britain to drum up support for a punitive expedition against China.   While Matheson held no significant influence over the British government, fortunately Lady Napier did whom he was pushing to rally support for the cause. He used Lady Napier to gain an audience with Lord Palmerston, but as much as he tried to persuade the man, Palmerston like many other officials believed the Canton trade would regain its balance naturally with time and noninterference. Before leaving to go back to China in 1836, Matheson created a hundred page pamphlet titled “the present position and prospects of the British trade with China”. The piece argued for the necessity of a british naval expedition to open China or trade would simply come to an end.    Back in Canton, Davis appointed Charles Elliot as secretary to the committee of superintendents. Charles Elliot was a light haired, thin lipped captain in the Royal Navy. In 1830 he was appointed protector of slaves in British Guyana where his job was to investigate the most abusive practices of the British plantation owners and represent the interests of the slaves who suffered under them. The experience hardened Elliot into an abolitionist. Lord Palmerston saw him as a convenient person at the right time to take up the cause in China against opium and had sent him alongside Napier. Eliot was a calculating man, obsessed on how his actions would be interpreted back home in Britain, angling to improve his career. Davis took a strong liking to Elliot, he was flexible and not as headstrong as Napier. Davis also knew he was not expected to hold his position long, the chief superintendent should not be a former company man. Davis wanted to save face and resigned preemptively. When he resigned he lobbied for Elliot to be made the new superintendent. And thus Elliot got the job to his surprise.    Elliot would likewise have a new governor general to deal with, Lu Kun died and was replaced by Deng Tingzhen. They started of on the right foot, Elliot presented his credentials as the new superintendent of trade at Macao and asked for permission to come to Canton. His polite and respectful approach was approved by the emperor and he was welcomed to Canton and took up residence at the old British factory. In Chinese he was referred to as Lingshi “consul” a respectable title that could not be confused with barbarian eye. In november of 1836, just 5 months after Elliots arrival, the Daoguang Emperor issued an edict banning both the importation and use of opium throughout China. Deng Tingzhen proclaimed “The smoke of opium is a deadly poison. Opium is nothing else but a flowing poison; that it leads to extravagant expenditure is a small evil, but as it utterly ruins the mind and morals of the people, it is a dreadful calamity.” The crackdown was immense, Qing forces under Deng chased down Chinese smugglers and destroyed their transport ships. They went after dealers on land breaking the supply lines leading the Chinese smugglers to demand higher and higher fees from the foreign traders to transport the opium.   Jardine wrote letters back to Bombay stating the once flourishing opium traffic was falling apart “the Drug market is becoming worse every day owing to the extreme vigilance of the authorities, and we see no chance of amendment”. Though Elliot hate the opium trade he knew it was a evil necessity for Britain and feared an outbreak of violence between the Chinese government forces and the increasingly desperate British opium traders. Because the traders were resorting to more dramatic actions Elliot feared the honest traders in canton would soon face consequences because of the opium traders. Then the Hong merchants sent word to Elliot from the Emperor urging him to banish the British opium traders vessels from Canton, but Eliot pleaded that his government never gave him such authority. Elliots orders the Foreign Office were to make sure Britain's drug of choice, tea, made it safely out of China and into the teacups of English drawing rooms for the ritual afternoon tea”. They were also to ensure the safety of British subjects in China. Without any authority to stop the opium smugglers he sought action that would at least thwart violence. Elliot wrote to Palmerston in 1837 asking if Britain could make a diplomatic intervention in China to reduce the risk of losing the tea commerce.   Elliot, Deng Tingzhen the Chinese and independent merchants all were under the belief the Emperor was on the verge of declaring opium legalized. Indeed Deng and many other high ranking Qing officials had pressed the case for legalization for quite awhile and the Emperor had been showing a lot of interest in it as a solution for the silver crisis. Elliot proposed sending another ambassador accompanied by a peaceful naval force to argue in favor of legalizing opium.  His thinking was that by displaying power, but not guns blazing, could in a respectful manner impress the Qing the importance of the tea trade to both nations. Elliot also had a lot of suggestions for the ambassador. For one that he should inform the emperor that half of the opium was coming from free areas of India that Britain did not control. Also that if Britain stopped its opium traders, other nations would simply fill its space. In light of such logic the only outcome had to be legalization of opium.   Palmerston was aghast, Elliot of all people who was so against the illicit trade was now arguing on the side of the opium smugglers? Palmerston could not agree to such an idea to argue the cause of the smugglers to the emperor no, instead he proposed a “china courts bill” that would grant Elliot formal legal authority over the British subjects in China. He foresaw the creation of a British court of law in Canton, under the superintendent with jurisdiction over all British subjects 100 miles of the Chinese coast. Thus Elliot would have authority both in civil and criminal disputes. Palmerston hoped Elliot would be able to keep the free traders in line and banish the worst offenders, thus appeasing the Chinese. Palmerston never thought such an act would be seen by the Chinese as interfering with their own jurisdiction and authority. The bill was a complete breach of Chinese sovereignty, and thus when it went through parliament it was utterly destroyed.    Meanwhile back on the Chinese side, Deng Tingzhen was continuing to make progress at crushing the opium trade. But then in 1838 a Qing official named Huang Juezi submitted a new method of crushing the opium trade and stopping the loss of silver. His proposal “thus, the way to defend against this calamity, lies not with foreign merchants but with the wicked chinese”. He argued it was impossible to block the opium by embargo and it risked foreign trade. To go after the traffickers had proven to be ineffective, because of the extremity of official corruption. Thus they should target the Chinese consumers. As he summed it up “if there were no common users of opium in China then there naturally would be no dealers, no traffickers and no international smuggling trade to drain silver out of China”. It was going to be an exceptionally harsh policy, but Emperor Daoguang was intrigued and brought the proposal to the court.   The majority of officials were against it, but the vast majority were also against legalization. One official who was for Huang Juezi's proposal was Lin Zexu the governor general of Hunan and Hubei provinces. Ah yes, for my Chinese listeners or those familiar with Chinese history, one of the most famous figures has emerged onto the stage.  I would like to take this time to remind you all that this podcast is only made possible through the efforts of Kings and Generals over at Youtube. Please go subscribe to Kings and Generals over at Youtube and to continue helping us produce this content please check out www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals. If you are still hungry after that, give my personal channel a look over at The Pacific War Channel at Youtube, it would mean a lot to me.  The British were walking a tightrope between getting their tea fix and not being banned from trade with China because of the Opium smuggling. Silver was flooding back into Britain while being drained from China and enough was enough for the Qing dynasty, now they would wage war on the illicit drug.  

FITSNews Week in Review
Rockstar Cheer, Thornblade, Political Racism, Abortion Update – Week In Review 9/9/2022

FITSNews Week in Review

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 10, 2022 42:28


Last week, two of my kiddos stopped by the set of our ‘Week In Review' program. This week, we were graced by the presence of their beautiful mother – who happens to be the chief executive officer of this news outlet.A Prussian princess raised on 9 Mile in Eastpointe, Detroit, Katrina Folks brings the accountability to FITSNews – enabling us to hold those in power accountable for their actions (and inactions).Amazingly, after her visit I still have a job …As has been the case for the last two weeks, the metastasizing Rockstar Cheer scandal led our weekly coverage – as it seems poised to do for many weeks to come. In fact, on this week's show I announced that FITSNews is producing a new podcast entitled “Cheer, Incorporated” which will be devoted to the story.The podcast will be hosted by our research director Jenn Wood and produced by our director of special projects, Dylan Nolan.Look for the first episode to drop this coming Tuesday (September 13, 2022).Here are the notes from the rest of the news we covered during yet another hectic week holding people accountable in South Carolina … and beyond.

The Michael Knowles Show
Ep. 1081 - Biden Goes Full Evil Dictator, Never Go Full Evil Dictator   

The Michael Knowles Show

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 6, 2022 54:01


Click here to join the member exclusive portion of my show: https://utm.io/ueSEl Biden channels his inner Prussian in a speech calling half the country evil, Instagram bans Pornhub, and a new study shows the massive benefits of Ivermectin as a treatment for COVID.   Check out our daily news podcast Morning Wire on Apple Podcasts, Spotify, DailyWire+ or wherever you listen to podcasts.   Become a DailyWire+ member today to access movies, shows, and more: https://utm.io/ueMfc  — Today's Sponsors: Bambee puts your HR on autopilot. Schedule A FREE HR Audit www.Bambee.com/MICHAEL Skip the grocery store & choose Good Ranchers for 100% American meat. $30 OFF your order + FREE Shipping! GoodRanchers.com/KNOWLES or use code: KNOWLES at checkout! Learn more about your ad choices. Visit podcastchoices.com/adchoices

Way of the Hermit
21st Degree: Prussian Knight (or Noachite)

Way of the Hermit

Play Episode Play 54 sec Highlight Listen Later Sep 4, 2022 35:28 Transcription Available


In this episode, we discuss the 21st Degree - “Prussian Knight” as we continue our exploration of "Morals & Dogma: The Annotated Edition". It is highly recommended that you read the chapter in order to fully follow our discussion."Morals and Dogma" is available from these sites:Albert Pike's Morals and Dogma: Annotated Edition (to purchase)Morals and Dogma (free but unannotated online PDF)Albert Pike's Morals and Dogma (Audible audiobook for purchase)Images and Diagrams:The Tower of Babel (painting by Hans Bol)Harpokrates (sculpture)Overview:Introduction (01:14)The Degree Ritual (01:40)Purpose of the Degree (10:34)Morals and Dogma (13:45)Speak Evil of No One; Guard Over Yourself (16:12)Pantheism and Atheism Condemned (18:22)Be Satisfied That God is Real (21:18)The Noachites (22:54)The Tower of Babel (24:08)Moon Lodges (25:58)Jewel of the Degree (28:11)The Degree Apron (30:06)Conclusions (31:56)Links:Scottish Rite Ritual Monitor & Guide (Amazon)A Bridge to Light (Amazon)Resolves, Divine, Moral and Political, of Owen Felltham (Amazon)Vehmic Court (Wikipedia)Noahidism (Wikipedia)Seven Laws of Noah (Wikipedia)Tower of Babel (Wikipedia)Harpocrates (Wikipedia)Sub Rosa (Wikipedia)What's a Moon Lodge (Orrstown Lodge)Tranquility Lodge #2000 (Actual Lodge on the Moon)Fiat justitia ruat caelum (Wikipedia)

The Age of Napoleon Podcast
Episode 94: History on Horseback

The Age of Napoleon Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 1, 2022 63:43


In early October, 1806, Napoleon led the Grande Armée to war once again, this time against the Prussians. The events of the next week would change the course of history, and have a surprisingly profound impact on western philosophy. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit podcastchoices.com/adchoices

A History of Europe, Key Battles
69.2 Schleswig War of 1864

A History of Europe, Key Battles

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 26, 2022 23:27


When in November 1863 King Frederick VII of Denmark died, a dispute arose over who had a legitimate claim to rule over the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. Otto von Bismarck saw this as a great opportunity to increase Prussian power in the region and decided, together with the Austrians, to invade Denmark.The key battle in the war was the siege of Dybbøl in April 1864This month, August 2022, I'm doing a cycling challenge to raise money for Brain Tumour Research. More info at: www.justgiving.com/fundraising/carl-rylett-cycle274www.patreon.com/historyeuropewww.historyeurope.netMusic composed by Anton Bruckner (Erinnerung) and Sergei Rachmaninoff (Preludes, number 10, Lento in B minor)Picture - Siege of Dybbol Our GDPR privacy policy was updated on August 8, 2022. Visit acast.com/privacy for more information.

Stories of our times
The Prussian prince, the MI6 spy and the plot to kill Hitler

Stories of our times

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 22, 2022 31:53


This August, we're revisiting some of our favourite episodes from the past year.In the summer of 1944, some of Adolf Hitler's most trusted senior officers narrowly failed in their attempt to assassinate him. But was that the whole story? A recently unearthed file reveals Britain had a man at the heart of Operation Valkyrie.This podcast was brought to you thanks to the support of readers of The Times and The Sunday Times. Subscribe today and get one month free at: thetimes.co.uk/storiesofourtimes. Guests: Josh Glancy, special correspondent, The Sunday Times, andPrince Frederick Solms-Baruth V.Host: Manveen Rana. Our GDPR privacy policy was updated on August 8, 2022. Visit acast.com/privacy for more information.

A History of Europe, Key Battles
69.1 Schleswig War of 1864 - Background

A History of Europe, Key Battles

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 19, 2022 23:03


A border dispute between the German Confederation and the Kingdom of Denmark in the regions of Schleswig and Holstein breaks out into an inconclusive war in 1848-1850, and tensions remain into the 1860's.Meanwhile, a common culture was developing across the German population of Europe, with the literary works of Goethe and Schiller, and philosophers Kant and Hegel. On the political scene, Otto von Bismarck rises to power as the Prussian chief minister. He urges the need for the king's military reforms, famously stating that the great questions of the time would not be resolved by speeches or parliamentary votes but by ‘iron and blood'.This month, August 2022, I'm doing a cycling challenge to raise money for Brain Tumour Research. More info at: www.justgiving.com/fundraising/carl-rylett-cycle274www.patreon.com/historyeuropewww.historyeurope.netMusic composed by Edvard Grieg (Peer Gynt Suite - Aase's Death, Anitra's Dance)Picture - Otto von Bismarck Our GDPR privacy policy was updated on August 8, 2022. Visit acast.com/privacy for more information.

Talking Strategy
Episode 6: Clausewitz: The Father of Strategic Studies with Professor Beatrice Heuser

Talking Strategy

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 16, 2022 28:32


Prussian general Carl von Clausewitz created a new way of thinking about war in the West: a study of the phenomenon and its complex social nature, where previous authors had produced prescriptive manuals or homed in on ethics or the laws of war. Thus, Clausewitz is challenging to engage with and richer and rewarding in the insights he provides. Clausewitz can be considered the father of Strategic Studies as a discipline. Occasionally, somebody comes along and pronounces Clausewitz obsolete – to the tremendous relief of students who think that obviates reading the big fat book he left us - On War. But those who have done so have read him narrowly or to have been proved wrong by subsequent evolutions of warfare. The good news for students is that, ironically, On War is easier to read in the modern English translation than in its original obsolescent German, although scholars will argue endlessly over nuance of meaning. Clausewitz's approach has brought him loyal and prominent followers such as Bernard Brodie and Colin S. Gray in the US, Corbett and Sir Michael Howard in the UK, Svechin in Russia, and Mao in China. In this episode, Beatrice Heuser discusses Clausewitz and his intellectual legacy with Paul O'Neill, Director, Military Sciences, RUSI, homing in on the long-term legacy of this most famous of the “dead Prussians”.

Bloody Violent History
Battle of Britain 1940 with James Holland

Bloody Violent History

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 9, 2022 76:36


1.  Lead up to the Battle  2.  The Commanders and the Kit  3.  Summary of the Battle  @ 43.42 Reading,  Richard Hillary cont.... 4.  Key moments and Hot points  5.  Troops, tactics and tech  6.  Some individuals  7.  Conclusion and AftermathToday we going to discuss the Battle of Britain with James Holland.  Fought in the skies above Britain between the Royal Air Force and Nazi Germany's Luftwaffe in the summer of 1940.  We are very fortunate to be joined by a historian who has written extensively on the second world war.  His 2010 book, the ‘Battle of Britain', is highly regarded and a must read on the subject.  Per Ardua Ad Astra.This is, our section on some of the most important Battles in History.  The Prussian military theorist, Carl von Clausewitz, said that War is Politics by other means.  And in war, battles are fought – on land, on sea and in the air.  Many are inconclusive, some are a step towards eventual victory and of course the winner of the last battle is generally the victor.  We are going to examine some iconic Battles which have either brought a war to a close or have had such an important effect on the war that they have decisively changed its direction and outcome.  A very few of these end up defining a conflict or even a nation.So it goes,Tom Assheton and James Jackson Reference:Battle of Britain (2010) and Brothers in Arms (2021)   by James HollandThe Last Enemy by Flight Lieutenant Richard HillaryReach for the Sky by Paul BrickhillBooks recommended by James Holland:First Light by Geoffrey WellumSmoked Trails in the Sky by Tony BartleyScramble by Tom Neil See also:YouTube: BloodyViolentHistoryhttps://www.instagram.com/bloodyviolenthistory/https://www.jamesjacksonbooks.comhttps://www.tomtom.co.uk If you enjoy the podcast, would you please leave a short review on Apple Podcasts/iTunes, Spotify or Google Podcast App? It takes less than 60 seconds, and it really helps to spread the wordSee https://simplecast.com/privacy/ for privacy information

The Age of Napoleon Podcast
Episode 93: A Ridiculous War

The Age of Napoleon Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 1, 2022 32:54


In 1806, France and Prussia went to war. The Grande Armée was at the height of its powers, but the French did not want this fight. The Prussian army had huge problems, but was eager to prove itself against Napoleon. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit podcastchoices.com/adchoices

Grey History: The French Revolution
1.43 The Invasion of France

Grey History: The French Revolution

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 1, 2022 74:41


On the eve of the Invasion of France in August 1792, the courts of the First Coalition were maintaining an uneasy alliance. Events in Poland had reinforced the long-standing distrust between the courts of Berlin, Vienna, and St. Petersburg, and developments in the east would fundamentally alter the trajectory of the allies' advance. This episode examines how events in Poland impacted the Prussian invasion, as well as the nature of the army that marched with the Duke of Brunswick. We'll also explore the key battles of 1792, including Valmy and Jemappes, along with the amazing highs and lows of the campaign. Finally, we will unpack how the military situation in late 1792 dramatically impacted the politics of the new French Republic, leading to a renewed determination to wage a crusade for universal liberty.Episode Extra: The Battle(s) of ValmyExplore not only the original Battle of Valmy, but the highly contested historical debate surrounding the skirmish. Historians differ massively on how to interpret the events of September 20, 1792, so this will be full of Grey (Military) History!Access the episode extra here:https://www.patreon.com/posts/episode-extra-1-69517375Support the Show & Access Bonus Content:https://www.patreon.com/greyhistoryWish to make a one-off donation to support Grey History?https://ko-fi.com/greyhistorySend your questions, praise, and scorn here:https://greyhistory.com/contact/Sign Up for the Newsletter:https://mailchi.mp/0e846e8d26f5/grey-history-newsletterFollow on Social Media:https://www.facebook.com/greyhistorypodcastshttps://www.instagram.com/greyhistorypodcasts/https://twitter.com/greyhistorypod

Let's Grow Big Together
Muscle Worship for Fun & Entertainment - Andrew Dombos

Let's Grow Big Together

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 26, 2022 91:09


Bodybuilding is now a competitive sport, but its roots lie in show business. Strongmen have long been a staple of circus acts for their feats of strength but it was Prussian bodybuilder Eugen Sandow, who, under the management of Florenz Ziegfeld, went from lifting heavy objects onstage to capturing the world's imagination by posing and flexing his muscles for fun and entertainment.Over a hundred years later, there's a club night called FLEX in San Francisco's leather bar Powerhouse, which has bodybuilders come show off their muscles and invites the audience to join in on the fun with a best biceps contest.Today FLEX organizer, bodybuilder and performer Andrew Dombos joins us to talk about putting together his muscle worship quarterly events, inspired by classic live muscle worship videos made by JimmyZ where audiences marvel at muscular physiques.ANDREW DOMBO: instagram.com/musclepupbadgeFAUSTO FERNOS: instagram.com/faustofernosMARC FELION: instagram.com/marcfelionPlus--➤ The sadomasochistic nature of working with a bodybuilding coach.➤ Preacher Dumbbell Hammer Curls will make you love your biceps.➤ Adding pre-digested carbs like Highly Branched Cyclic Dextrin into your workout drink for a great pump➤ Why Watermelon is wonderful.Episode #3041

Talking Strategy
Episode 3: War and the French Enlightenment: Comte de Guibert

Talking Strategy

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 26, 2022 22:51


The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars profoundly affected all of Europe and became watersheds in the history of strategy. Until then, French thinking on war had dominated European discourse for a good two centuries, even though the word ‘strategy' had not yet been imported into European languages from the Greek. Crucial among the French thinkers of this period was Comte de Guibert (1743–1790), who has been called the prophet of the wars of the French Revolution, foreseeing the transformation of war into the people's cause, rather than merely that of their monarchs. In a republican spirit, Guibert dedicated his first work, the General Essay on Tactics, ‘to my fatherland' – reason enough to publish it anonymously, even though he noted that the king was part of his fatherland! Guibert – like Prussian military theorist Carl von Clausewitz – changed some of his fundamental views during his lifetime. In his youth, Guibert wrote what would become a bestseller throughout the Western world, in which he made the case for an army of citizen-soldiers who would be unbeatable. However, after fighting in the French conquest of Corsica and then serving in the French War Ministry, he decided that overseas campaigns required a professional army. The arguments he put forward still stand up to scrutiny today. To discuss Guibert and his works, we are joined by Dr Jonathan Abel, Assistant Professor of Military History, US Army Command and General Staff College, the author of Guibert: Father of Napoleon's Grande Armée (2016) and translator of Guibert's General Essay on Tactics (2021).

Feast of Fun : Gay Talk Show
Muscle Worship for Entertainment - Andrew Dombos

Feast of Fun : Gay Talk Show

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 26, 2022 91:09


Bodybuilding is now a competitive sport, but its roots lie in show business. Strongmen have long been a staple of circus acts for their feats of strength but it was Prussian bodybuilder Eugen Sandow, who, under the management of Florenz Ziegfeld, went from lifting heavy objects onstage to capturing the world's imagination by posing and flexing his muscles for fun and entertainment.Over a hundred years later, there's a club night called FLEX in San Francisco's leather bar Powerhouse, which has bodybuilders come show off their muscles and invites the audience to join in on the fun with a best biceps contest.Today FLEX organizer, bodybuilder and performer Andrew Dombos joins us to talk about putting together his muscle worship quarterly events, inspired by classic live muscle worship videos made by JimmyZ where audiences marvel at muscular physiques.ANDREW DOMBO: instagram.com/musclepupbadgeFAUSTO FERNOS: instagram.com/faustofernosMARC FELION: instagram.com/marcfelionPlus--➤ The sadomasochistic nature of working with a bodybuilding coach.➤ Preacher Dumbbell Hammer Curls will make you love your biceps.➤ Adding pre-digested carbs like Highly Branched Cyclic Dextrin into your workout drink for a great pump➤ Why Watermelon is wonderful.Episode #3040

Talking Strategy
Episode 2: German Land Warfare Strategy at the Turn of the 20th Century

Talking Strategy

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 19, 2022 27:32


At the turn of the 20th century, Imperial Germany was a dominant force in thinking about military strategy with a focus on land warfare commensurate with its geography. Prussian strategists agreed with most of their French colleagues that war would involve mass armies, and that their strategy had to be offensive. Three Prussian strategists of land warfare were particularly influential in shaping the thinking that guided the Imperial German Army's conduct in the First World War: Colmar von der Goltz, Alfred von Schlieffen and Friedrich von Bernhardi. Controversial in different ways and rivals with one another, they nevertheless exerted a strong influence on the conduct of land warfare, and on thinking about harnessing society in total war in which anything was permitted (the primordial violence and hatred in Clausewitz's terms). In this episode of Talking Strategy, Professor Stig Förster from the University of Bern joins hosts Professor Beatrice Heuser and Paul O'Neill. Professor Förster discusses the controversies surrounding the German strategists, the horrors spawned by the ideas of von der Goltz and Bernhardi, and how war does not work to the timetable envisaged by von Schlieffen in his ‘Schlieffen Plan', which set out how Imperial Germany would fight in the First World War.

Loser Like Me
Bonus: The New Democratic Republic of Old Socialist Prussian Sloviskia

Loser Like Me

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 13, 2022 63:08


Before we start season 3 we're watching Spies are Forever, a Tin Can Bros musical pastiche of James Bond that we thought was pretty okay! We discuss how playing things straighter can make a parody funnier, point out symbolism in homoerotic duels, and introduce a Texas Man (just like in Dracula). If you want to contact us, we can be found at loserlikemepod@gmail.com, or @loserlikemepod on twitter. Tanner can be found @SparkyUpstart, and Christina @CWoodsArt. Check out the Corner Pod Net Discord here: https://discord.gg/Tp3jznED.

Talking Strategy
Episode 1: Sir Julian Corbett and the British Way of War

Talking Strategy

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 12, 2022 38:26


Sir Julian Corbett was at the heart of strategy debates before, during and immediately after the First World War. Educator of the British Royal Navy, he was strongly influenced by Prussian General Carl von Clausewitz, but adapted Clausewitz's theories to include the naval dimension that was missing in most Prussian writings. In his theories of 'maritime strategy', which were inherently ‘joint', he combined the traditional Prussian emphasis on land warfare with his own naval concepts and thinking about economic warfare. In the first episode of this new series of podcasts, Professor Andrew Lambert joins hosts Professor Beatrice Heuser and Paul O'Neill. Andrew sees in Corbett the defender of a distinct British role in the world, advocating a 'British Way of War' detached from the European continent, privileging war at sea over war on land. Can this be reconciled with Corbett's famous dictum that ‘since men live upon the land and not upon the sea, great issues between nations at war have always been decided – except in the rarest cases – either by what your army can do against your enemy's territory and national life or else by the fear of what the fleet makes it possible for your army to do'?

The Life and Times of Frederick the Great
Maria Theresa Part One: Know Thy Enemy

The Life and Times of Frederick the Great

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 5, 2022 21:32


This week is a mini-biography of Maria Theresa, the woman who inherited the Habsburg lands. This episode is crucial to gain a different perspective than the Prussian view of the beginning of the War of Austrian Succession. Email for questions: aavdakov01@gmail.com For Ad-Free episode on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/frederick_the_great_podcast Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/frederick_the_great_podcast/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/fredthegpodcast --- This episode is sponsored by · Anchor: The easiest way to make a podcast. https://anchor.fm/app

California Liberty Project
Episode 6: Educational freedom & choice, w/ Melissa Wheeler of Kern Resource Center

California Liberty Project

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 3, 2022 47:21


In this episode focusing on educational choice and freedom, I discuss the Prussian and proto-Progressive roots of the American public-school system, as well as exiting the government-education complex. I describe many of the problems in our government-run schools, but then I got to talk with Melissa Wheeler of Kern Resource Center about some great, proactive, and positive solutions. In the first part of the episode, I also revisit some of the key topics that have remained in the general societal conversation about the Dobbs SCOTUS decision and abortion in America. Be sure to subscribe, and please share this episode of the California Liberty Project! Learn more about educational choices and alternatives in Kern County, California, here: Kern Resource Center – Education Outside the Box --- Send in a voice message: https://anchor.fm/californialibertyproject/message

Relevant History
Episode 46 - Prussian Roulette: Part 2

Relevant History

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 23, 2022 122:02


At the end of 1743, Europe is divided in two. On the one side, Austrian Archduchess Maria Theresa struggles to hold on to her ancestral lands, supported by her allies in Britain, the Netherlands, and Piedmont-Sardinia. On the other side, France and Spain are trying to conquer the old Habsburg lands, while Frederick the Great in Prussia continues to pose a real threat. Meanwhile, the French and Spanish are also trying to start a rebellion in Great Britain. The War of the Austrian Succession is among the most chaotic in history. In this episode, Dan untangles the various threads of the war, and how it would change geopolitics forever. SUBSCRIBE TO RELEVANT HISTORY, AND NEVER MISS AN EPISODE! Relevant History Patreon: https://bit.ly/3vLeSpF Subscribe on Spotify: https://spoti.fi/38bzOvo Subscribe on Apple Music (iTunes): https://apple.co/2SQnw4q Subscribe on Google Music: https://bit.ly/30hUTRD RSS feed: https://bit.ly/2R0Iosz Relevant History on Twitter: https://bit.ly/3eRhdtk Relevant History on Facebook: https://bit.ly/2Qk05mm Relevant History SubscribeStar: https://www.subscribestar.com/relevant-history Official website: https://bit.ly/3btvha4 Episode transcript (90% accurate): https://docs.google.com/document/d/e/2PACX-1vTz5W4ah3YlDIvs5z4jPoTZYqGpXeiyJdpDjBrdSJ1RMYoF0jDZAVOqgL68r7WJSkOr_7lVJMfeNUt2/pub Music credit: Sergey Cheremisinov - Black Swan

Arts & Ideas
ETA Hoffmann

Arts & Ideas

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 22, 2022 45:04


The German Romantic author of horror and fantasy published stories which form the basis of Jacques Offenbach's opera The Tales of Hoffmann, the ballet Coppélia and the Nutcracker. In the theatre he worked as a stagehand, decorator, playwright and manager and he wrote his own musical works. His opera Undine ended its run at the Berlin Theatre after a fire. During his lifetime he also saw Warsaw and Berlin occupied by Napoleon and during the Prussian war against France, he wrote an account of his visit to the battlefields and he became entangled in various legal disputes towards the end of his life. Anne McElvoy marks 200 years since his death gathering together literary and musical scholars to look at his legacy. Joanna Neilly is Associate Professor and Fellow and Tutor in German at the University of Oxford. Keith Chapin is senior lecturer in music at Cardiff University. Tom Smith is a BBC/AHRC New Generation Thinker. He is Senior Lecturer and Head of German at the University of St Andrews. You can find details about performances of Offenbach's works on the website of the society http://offenbachsociety.org.uk/ Producer: Tim Bano

The Life and Times of Frederick the Great
Frederick's Infantry Part Two

The Life and Times of Frederick the Great

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 21, 2022 21:02


This week, we will be focusing on the equipment and tactics the Prussian infantry used throughout the reign of Frederick the Great. Email for questions: aavdakov01@gmail.com For Ad-Free episode on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/frederick_the_great_podcast Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/frederick_the_great_podcast/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/fredthegpodcast Armchair Historian Linear Warfare video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=83_h4N_lwJc Musket Firing Demonstration: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xlU70PfpdPU --- This episode is sponsored by · Anchor: The easiest way to make a podcast. https://anchor.fm/app

Uncensored Tactical Podcast
Tactical Training Culture 3.0

Uncensored Tactical Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 18, 2022 39:38


Today Dave and Pat discuss how the old Prussian schooling model has been used as a primary means of transferring knowledge for many years and how people have decided to question the standard in order to bring the training-realm into a new and much more effective age. Enjoy. Patreon.com/UTAC (anything above the $2 level gets you aftershow access) Patreon is literally the backbone of all of the Uncensored Tactical operations. And even just a tip of $2 a month really means a lot to us.  -Pat

HistoryPod
18th June 1815: Battle of Waterloo heralds the final defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte

HistoryPod

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 18, 2022


Combined British and Prussian military forces defeated the French, but Wellington himself said that the battle was ‘the nearest-run thing you ever saw in your ...

Riya's Ramblings
Riya's Ramblings: Ep 59 - Philadelphia fun - Part 1 of a 3 part series

Riya's Ramblings

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 13, 2022 19:12


I recently went on vacation, and we went to Philadelphia and New York, and then dropped my brother off to his job. This will be a 3 part series with one about Philadelphia, one about New York, and one about Ben Franklin. I will talk about all the things we did relating to Ben Franklin in another episode. This episode will be about my experiences in Philly. Valley Forge is an important part of US history and is located outside Philly. We spent a couple of hours there and learned some really interested facts. · The place where the US “army” stayed in the winter during the American Revolution · Before Valley Forge, it was just some volunteer farmers, but during winter in Valley forge, they're trained and became a fierce enemy, · George Washington was the general, but they needed someone to help with more discipline · Friedrich Wilhelm Rudolf Gerhard August Freiherr von Steuben, a Prussian military officer, comes to Valley Forge on Feb 23, 1778. · There was a lack of food, and basic cleanliness Pennsylvania State House · Philly was the capital before DC · This is where George Washington and John Adams were elected into president · This is also where the constitution was discussed, and many people were curious about how it was gonna work · This is also where the senate was meeting then, this was almost like the white house Liberty Bell · Made to represent freedom and independence · Built in 1752, but cracked in February 1846 · It was used for announcements and had been with America before and after independence · John Pass, and John Stow's name are on the bell because they helped make recasts of the original bell · Pennsylvania was misspelled as Pensylvania (single “n”) because that was an accepted spelling then Reading terminal Market · It is a place with SO MANY OPTIONS of food · It is like the king of all food courts, and you basically have to visit · It is also great for small business to show off their food and culture · There were a ton of Amish stands and so many different cuisines and different flavors. · Opened in 1893, it is 78,000 sq ft, and more than 80 merchants · We got donuts, pickles, crepes, Greek food, sandwiches Rocky steps · We climbed the rocky steps just like Rocky Balboa did in the movie “Rocky”. · In the movie he climbs the stairs, and when he finishes he poses triumphantly. · The steps lead up to the Philadelphia museum of art. · There is also a statue of Rocky that you can pose with · The movie did so well that the steps of the museum get more tourists than the museum The road leading to the Rocky steps is a tree-lined Parkway with flags of countries from around the world. This international tribute began in 1976 as part of the US Bicentennial Celebration. It symbolizes Philadelphia as a global tourism destination. Stay tuned for the next two episodes when I talk about the rest of my trip!! Last episode riddle: This episode riddle: I am a bird, a person and a fruit. What am I? A KIWI!!! (A kiwi is a flightless bird, a fruit and also a nick name for a person from New Zealand) Shoutout to Emma who emailed me and got it right! This episode's riddle: What has many ears but can't hear? Email me: RiyaRamblings@gmail.com with your answer. Have you been to Philly? What was your favorite thing to do? Let me know and I will include it in a future episode. And as always, listen, rate, share

Relevant History
Episode 45 - Prussian Roulette: Part 1

Relevant History

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 8, 2022 128:52


The War of the Austrian Succession marks the beginning of the transition from dynastic politics to a more modern sense of nationalism. At the time, though, it merely seems like a calamity. What begins as a personal land grab by the young Prussian King Frederick the Great turns into a general European war, as multiple powers try to grab land from the vulnerable Austrian Archduchess Maria Theresa.   This war won't remain confined to Europe. Thanks to the involvement of colonial powers, the war spreads throughout the globe. In the Caribbean, a British fleet under Edward Vernon terrorizes the Spanish Main in the War of Jenkins' Ear. From the coast of South America to the mountains of central Europe, Prussian aggression shakes up the world's geopolitical order.   SUBSCRIBE TO RELEVANT HISTORY, AND NEVER MISS AN EPISODE!   Relevant History Patreon: https://bit.ly/3vLeSpF Subscribe on Spotify: https://spoti.fi/38bzOvo Subscribe on Apple Music (iTunes): https://apple.co/2SQnw4q Subscribe on Google Music: https://bit.ly/30hUTRD RSS feed: https://bit.ly/2R0Iosz Relevant History on Twitter: https://bit.ly/3eRhdtk Relevant History on Facebook: https://bit.ly/2Qk05mm Relevant History SubscribeStar: https://www.subscribestar.com/relevant-history Official website: https://bit.ly/3btvha4   Episode transcript (90% accurate): https://docs.google.com/document/d/e/2PACX-1vT7oCdxuhqpBvWyMai_TOOihUSLqOTXbtd_Ft-jb5vYEKQVVHQJM5CcbOQYdmZIrb5Rf0Osl5zw75XK/pub   Music credit: Sergey Cheremisinov - Black Swan

School Sucks: Higher Education For Self-Liberation

The Essential School Sucks, #9 of 50 Theme One: The Real Problems With Public School This final show - thoroughly remastered - about the problems of K-12 public schooling, is primarily focused on the recent dark history, Outcome-Based Education, how it was applied to the children of the 90s, and how it has been "perfected" since then. Original Notes: Today's show is a followup to the previous conversation with Dave Smith - a deeper level of exploration of the history of school, covering a longer period of time, and showing the progression of control over the public mind. (Edited Audio from Brett on Free Man Beyond the Wall) Pete's question: what you believe is the biggest conspiracy behind turning the schools into the indoctrination centers they are today? It's hard to pick just one. A STORY OF INCREASING LEVERAGE OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGERS (AND BOILED FROGS) 1840s-1930s - Mandatory public education in America began as part of a quest for a perfect society with the Puritans in Massachusetts who were seeking a religious utopia - Prussian system replaces the predictability of slavery in a labor force, and to standardize immigrants to that predictability - social and industrial harmony - The dramatic shift from family and community-based approach to an industrial, collectivist approach - there's no going back - This quest was soon taken up by Progressives and democratic socialists who were seeking a secular utopia "So a precedent is set, collectivism is ratcheted up at every stage and with every turn of the screw, the system becomes more accepted. It become harder and harder to imagine society without it and all that it does becomes...fine, and once it's fine it becomes invisible." 1930s-1970s - Louis Alber, head of National Recovery Act New York 1933: “Russia and Germany are attempting to compel a new order by means typical of their nationalism – compulsion. The United States will do it by moral (per)suasion. Of course we expect some opposition, but the principles of the New Deal must be carried to the youth of the nation. We expect to accomplish by education what dictators in Europe are seeking to do by compulsion and force.” - Teacher training (1967-1974)run by a nexus private foundations, academia, corporations, think tanks and govt agencies, coordinated through the US Office of Education (three examples below) + Designing Education for the Future, by Education Department says education is a means to achieve economic and social goals of a national character + Behavior Science Teacher Education Project (1968 Michigan State University) predicts "chemical experimentation" on children? + Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives as "a tool to classify the ways that individuals are to act , think or feel as the result of some unit of instruction" 1980s-Present - Outcomes-Based Education and the remediation of improper thoughts - Peg Luksik "Who Controls Our Children" - student profiling and data-sharing - The Dark Side Of Nationwide School Tests By B.K. Eakman: "if behavior-modification curricula can be brought into the classroom as legitimate learning material; if teachers, or even bona fide mental-health workers, can use the schools to "treat" youngsters for real or imagined psychological problems - then are schools really educational institutions or day-care clinics?" Our Partners https://files.fireside.fm/file/fireside-uploads/images/b/b9f98e30-82d3-4781-8400-880c6dc8086f/2gtm0QVk.png Visit Praxis (https://discoverpraxis.com/schoolsuckspodcast/) Please Support School Sucks School Sucks was one of the longest running liberty-minded podcasts on the web, and the only one completely devoted to the issue of education (versus public school and college). Your support keeps the show alive, which keeps us at the top of the options for education podcasts and leads to new people discovering our work. Please help us continue to spread this important message further! One-Time Donation Options:Paypal/Venmo;Donate DASHDonate ETHEREUMDonate LITECOINDonate BITCOINDonate BITCOIN CASHDonate ZCASH Recurring Options: Support Us On PATREONYou support our mission, and you want to help us continue to reach new people with our message and media. Your contribution helps us maintain presence, and to further build the legacy of School Sucks Project. And please bookmark and use this link for your Amazon shopping: Shop With Us Our Private Community: https://files.fireside.fm/file/fireside-uploads/images/b/b9f98e30-82d3-4781-8400-880c6dc8086f/fNnDUPqb.png Visit The Uni-iversity (https://sspuniversity.com/) Originally Released February 12, 2020 As "[PODCAST #642] With Every Turn of the Screw…"

The Daily Gardener
May 20, 2022 National Pick Strawberries Day, Ludwig Leichhardt, Tulips by Joseph Breck, Pi Beta Ph spring party, Cuke Season in Blackville, Garden Maker by Christie Purifoy, and Dahlia Facts

The Daily Gardener

Play Episode Listen Later May 20, 2022 15:59


  Subscribe Apple | Google | Spotify | Stitcher | iHeart   Support The Daily Gardener Buy Me A Coffee   Connect for FREE! The Friday Newsletter | Daily Gardener Community   Historical Events National Pick Strawberries Day Here are a few fun facts about this beloved sweet fruit: The etymology of the name strawberry (books about this topic) is likely a corruption of the phrase "strewn berry." This would reference the way the plant produced thanks prolifically to runners, resulting in berries strewn about the ground. Fragariaphobia is a little-known word and is the fear of strawberries. In terms of their uniqueness, strawberries are the only fruit that wears its seeds on the outside, and the average strawberry has 200 seeds. Strawberries are perennial and are members of the rose family. The strawberry flower averages five to seven petals. In terms of harvesting, strawberry plants are hand-picked about every three days. A single acre of land can grow almost 50,000 pounds of strawberries. California produces a billion pounds of strawberries every year which means that 75% of the American strawberry crop is grown in California - with Florida and North Carolina in the 2nd and 3rd place. As for strawberry quotes, the author Tsugumi Ohba, Death Note Box Set, wrote, If you keep my secret, this strawberry is yours.   1846 On this day, the Prussian botanist Ludwig Leichhardt (books about this person) wrote a letter to a fellow botanist about his impressive and arduous collecting efforts in Australia. For his part, Ludwig loved Australia. He wrote, I would find it hard to remain in Germany, or even in Europe, now. I [prefer] the clear, sunny skies of Australia. On this day, 1846, Leichhardt wrote a letter to his botanist contact and friend, the Italian Gaetano Durando, living in Paris. Ludwig's message conveys the extreme difficulties and dangers faced by the early plant explorers. He wrote, My dear friend, You have, no doubt, noticed and regretted my long silence... But you must bear this in mind, my good friend, ...  it was not my lot to travel all at my ease...  Gladly would I have made drawings of my plants, and noted fully all particulars of the different species which I saw; and how valuable would such memoranda have been... [as] four of my pack-horses having been drowned.  Botanical and geological specimens thus abandoned — how disappointing! From four to five thousand plants were thus sacrificed... In the spring of 1848, Ludwig Leichhardt and a small group of explorers began what was to be a two- to three-year expedition across Australia. Shortly after starting the trek, the entire party vanished with barely a trace. Still known as the 'Prince of Explorers,' Leichhardt was 35 when he was lost to time.    1858 On this day, in The Flower Garden, Or Breck's Book of Flowers, Tulips at their peak per Joseph Breck A bed of late tulips is generally in its highest perfection about the 20th of May and may be kept in fine condition a fortnight longer, taking the trouble to erect an awning over them.  I take up my Tulips about the 20th of June, and dry them undercover in an airy place, and, when dry, take off the offsets and plant them out, while the flowering roots are each wrapped in a piece of waste paper, and put away, in a box or drawer, in a dry place, until wanted to plant.  One hundred different varieties, with their names and colors, reputed to be the very best, mabe obtained from Holland, at the cost of about $25; but I have found, by experience, that some of the rarer and most expensive sorts are not included. Very good border Tulips, including finedouble sorts, early and late, single, parrots, etc, may be obtained from 50 cents to $1 per dozen, and some of the common sorts at much less price.   So there is some tulip pricing for you courtesy of Joseph Breck back in 1858. And just for comparison, I went out to brecks.com and priced some of their deluxe tulips. They sell eight tulips for $15.   1922 On this day, the sorority of Pi Beta Phi at West Virginia University held a party to celebrate the arrival of spring. In a report of their activities to the 1922 edition of The Arrow, the chapter wrote, The spring party comes on May 20. It will be a Japanese party, with lanterns, spring blossoms, and wooden programs.   Present Day On or around this day in Blackville, South Carolina, that Cuke Season gets underway.  The Encyclopedia of South Carolina (2000) says this about Blackville:  Named for Alexander Black, an early railroad executive who shipped cantaloupes, watermelons, and cucumbers in large quantities by rail.  During the "cuke" season, beginning about May 20, the town council employs an auctioneer to conduct daily sales, generally starting at 10 in the morning and frequently lasting until 6. At the auction, growers may accept or refuse the offered prices. Buyers are usually local produce merchants, though there are often purchasers from markets out of state.    Grow That Garden Library™ Book Recommendation Garden Maker by Christie Purifoy  This book came out in January of 2022, and the subtitle is Growing a Life of Beauty and Wonder with Flowers. This is Christie's third book, and her books have to do with beauty and placemaking, sustainability, and love. Her first book is Roots and Sky: A Journey Home in Four Seasons. This book is about purchasing her beautiful property called Maplehearst in Pennsylvania. Her second book was released in 2019 and is called Placemaker: Cultivating Places of Comfort, Beauty, and Peace, and this is about creating a garden home for yourself. I view her latest book Garden Maker as part of this garden trilogy. In this very spiritual and inspirational book, Christie walks us through how to grow a beautiful garden and create your own little slice of heaven here on earth. Now, in addition to teaching you how to make a garden. Christie is a cut flower expert, and she's a master at creating beautiful bouquets and other arrangements. In this book, Christie teaches you some of her tried and true techniques and her easiest bouquet recipes. In addition to sharing her list of favorite shrubs - she calls these superhero shrubs. She also shares her favorite flowers - she calls these flowers of importance. And then last but not least, her favorite self-sowers in a section she calls self-sowing salvation.   Now Christie is a lyrical writer. Her tone is super friendly and personable. When I read one of her books, I always feel like I'm reading something that a garden friend wrote for me. But best of all, and I think more important than any of her credentials, is her passion for plants and the garden because that comes through loud and clear in every word she writes in this book. I wanted to end this review today with a little excerpt from what Christie wrote in the introduction to Garden Maker. She writes, I grow flowers because cannot help myself.  I grow flowers as if some magician at the center of the universe has cast his spell on me, and I will never want my old unenchanted life back again. In my flower garden, I am the weaver of stories. In my flower garden, am the composer of seasonal songs. Or maybe I am more conductor than composer.  This garden of mine is certainly singing a song, but the song delights me, moves me, and surprises me. I cannot recommend flower gardening for the sober-minded.  I cannot recommend it for those afraid of mysterious rabbit holes, who prefer to keep their two feet fixed firmly to a clean and solid, and entirely predictable floor.  I cannot, in good conscience, recommend intoxicating moonflowers or romantic roses to anyone who values utility and efficiency and productivity above all.  But for those who read fairy tales or cry at arias, for those who suspect that heaven lies just behind the veil of this everyday world, well, to those I say: Welcome to the garden.  Welcome to this holy work.  I understand if you are afraid.  The thorns are knife-sharp, and the weeds are always waging their quiet wars.  But here is the promise that has been made to each one of us:  "Those who sow with tears will reap with songs of joy" (Psalm 126:5).  Every garden is singing a song for the One who made us, and we are invited to sing along.   Beautiful verse. And by the way, can you tell that Christie has a Ph.D. in English Literature from the University of Chicago? Yes, you can. She's a beautiful writer. This book is 208 pages of a love letter to flowers, plants, gardens, and garden making. You can get a copy of Garden Maker by Christie Purifoy and support the show using the Amazon link in today's show notes for around $16.   Botanic Spark 1804 On this day, Lady Holland sent home a parcel of seeds from Spain,  and they were Dahlia seeds. The story was shared in The Complete Dictionary of Practical Gardening (1807): In the spring of 1805 all the parcels of seed were sewn, including four varieties of Dahlia. The Dahlia Rosea was the most handsome and produced plenty of seeds. And all the plants of 1805, except one, were taken up before Christmas and planted in pots or large pans.  They were kept in a very cold greenhouse, and they began to push new shoots in the middle of April [the following year].   The genus Dahlia (books about this flower) got its name in the 18th century. Swedish botanist Andreas Dahl. Surprisingly after Lady Holland introduced Dahlias to Europe, many top gardeners thought the Dahlia was just too flamboyant to use in their gardens. But in modern gardens, Dahlias are beloved. Both the roots and the Dahlia flowers are used medicinally. The Dahlia is also the official flower of both Seattle and San Francisco. And if you're planning a wedding, Dahlias are the perfect flower for the bridal bouquet. In floriography or the language of flowers, the beautiful Dahlia represents commitment and everlasting love.   Thanks for listening to The Daily Gardener And remember: For a happy, healthy life, garden every day.    

The Art Career Podcast
Dana Prussian : Investing, Leveraging, and Selling Art

The Art Career Podcast