Country in central Europe in existence from 1525 to 1947
The German forces reached the outskirts of the French capital on 15 September and General Helmuth von Moltke, the commander of the Prussian army, gave the order to begin surrounding the ...
Among the conflicts that convulsed Europe during the nineteenth century, none was more startling and consequential than the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871. Deliberately engineered by Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck, the war succeeded in shattering French supremacy, deposing Napoleon III, and uniting a new German Empire. But it also produced brutal military innovations and a precarious new imbalance of power that together set the stage for the devastating world wars of the next century. In Bismarck's War: The Franco-Prussian War and the Making of Modern Europe (Basic Book, 2023), historian Rachel Chrastil chronicles events on the battlefield in full, while also showing in intimate detail how the war reshaped and blurred the boundaries between civilian and soldier as the fighting swept across France. The result is the definitive history of a transformative conflict that changed Europe, and the history of warfare, forever. AJ Woodhams hosts the "War Books" podcast. You can subscribe on Apple here and on Spotify here. War Books is on YouTube, Facebook and Instagram. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/military-history
Among the conflicts that convulsed Europe during the nineteenth century, none was more startling and consequential than the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871. Deliberately engineered by Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck, the war succeeded in shattering French supremacy, deposing Napoleon III, and uniting a new German Empire. But it also produced brutal military innovations and a precarious new imbalance of power that together set the stage for the devastating world wars of the next century. In Bismarck's War: The Franco-Prussian War and the Making of Modern Europe (Basic Book, 2023), historian Rachel Chrastil chronicles events on the battlefield in full, while also showing in intimate detail how the war reshaped and blurred the boundaries between civilian and soldier as the fighting swept across France. The result is the definitive history of a transformative conflict that changed Europe, and the history of warfare, forever. AJ Woodhams hosts the "War Books" podcast. You can subscribe on Apple here and on Spotify here. War Books is on YouTube, Facebook and Instagram. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/history
Among the conflicts that convulsed Europe during the nineteenth century, none was more startling and consequential than the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871. Deliberately engineered by Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck, the war succeeded in shattering French supremacy, deposing Napoleon III, and uniting a new German Empire. But it also produced brutal military innovations and a precarious new imbalance of power that together set the stage for the devastating world wars of the next century. In Bismarck's War: The Franco-Prussian War and the Making of Modern Europe (Basic Book, 2023), historian Rachel Chrastil chronicles events on the battlefield in full, while also showing in intimate detail how the war reshaped and blurred the boundaries between civilian and soldier as the fighting swept across France. The result is the definitive history of a transformative conflict that changed Europe, and the history of warfare, forever. AJ Woodhams hosts the "War Books" podcast. You can subscribe on Apple here and on Spotify here. War Books is on YouTube, Facebook and Instagram. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/german-studies
Among the conflicts that convulsed Europe during the nineteenth century, none was more startling and consequential than the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871. Deliberately engineered by Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck, the war succeeded in shattering French supremacy, deposing Napoleon III, and uniting a new German Empire. But it also produced brutal military innovations and a precarious new imbalance of power that together set the stage for the devastating world wars of the next century. In Bismarck's War: The Franco-Prussian War and the Making of Modern Europe (Basic Book, 2023), historian Rachel Chrastil chronicles events on the battlefield in full, while also showing in intimate detail how the war reshaped and blurred the boundaries between civilian and soldier as the fighting swept across France. The result is the definitive history of a transformative conflict that changed Europe, and the history of warfare, forever. AJ Woodhams hosts the "War Books" podcast. You can subscribe on Apple here and on Spotify here. War Books is on YouTube, Facebook and Instagram. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/new-books-network
Bismarck. Napoleon III. France. Prussia. Germany. The siege of Paris. The great precursor to World War One. Today I talk about it all when I sit down with Rachel Chrastil and talk about her new book: Bismarck's War: The Franco-Prussian War and the Making of Modern Europe. Click the link to buy the book. But, honestly, even if you don't, you are going to love this excellent historian interview. WebsitePatreon Support Western Civ 2.0This show is part of the Spreaker Prime Network, if you are interested in advertising on this podcast, contact us at https://www.spreaker.com/show/5553835/advertisement
This week we take a look at The Prussian Empire. From what Germany was like before The Unification to the rise of Bismarck, The Franco Prussian War, and all the way up to The First World War, and the creation of the Weimar Republic. All this, and more this week on "Well That Aged Well", with "Erlend Hedegart".Support this show http://supporter.acast.com/well-that-aged-well. Hosted on Acast. See acast.com/privacy for more information.
Marshal Blucher was the face of the Prussian army during the Napoleonic Wars and despite losing 5 battles to Napoleon, he was always rallied his troops and inspired them to fight on. Special guest Philip Wagenknecht joins the podcast to tell us more about this energetic leader. Twitter: @pertinaxS , @andnapoleon --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/generalsandnapoleon/support
The German Romantic author of horror and fantasy published stories which form the basis of Jacques Offenbach's opera The Tales of Hoffmann, the ballet Coppélia and the Nutcracker. In the theatre he worked as a stagehand, decorator, playwright and manager and he wrote his own musical works, his opera Undine ended its run at the Berlin Theatre after a fire. But during his lifetime he also saw Warsaw and Berlin occupied by Napoleon and during the Prussian war against France, he wrote an account of his visit to the battlefields and he became entangled in various legal disputes towards the end of his life. Anne McElvoy is joined by: Joanna Neilly Associate Professor and Fellow and Tutor in German at the University of Oxford. Keith Chapin senior lecturer in music at Cardiff University. Tom Smith a BBC/AHRC New Generation Thinker. He is Senior Lecturer and Head of German at the University of St Andrews. You can find details about performances of Offenbach's works on the website of the society http://offenbachsociety.org.uk/ Producer: Tim Bano
Ben Lewis is the author of "Oswald Spengler and the Politics of Decline" and the primary translator at Marxism Translated ). We discuss his recent book on Spengler and Spengler's complicated legacy. Are you ready to unlock the enigmatic mind of Oswald Spengler and his intriguing theories that have influenced modern discourse? Our esteemed guest, Ben Lewis of Marxism Translated, guides us through the intellectual labyrinth of Spengler's ideas, his surprising relevance in the 21st century, and his seismic impact on the conservative revolutionary movement. We peel back the layers of Spengler's admiration for August Babel, his complex relationship with National Socialism, and his critique of Marxism as well as his unique theories of utility and the marginist theory.Delving deeper into the perplexing world of Spengler, we take a magnifying glass to his controversial views on democracy and civilization and his idiosyncratic take on the relationship between Prussian socialism and his own work. Relying on Lewis's expert analysis, the twists and turns of Spingler's reception in Europe and the U.S are unraveled along with the ideological factors behind the works of Kautsky and Bernstein. Get ready for a deep dive into the ways in which Spingler's thought has influenced the likes of Nietzsche, Hegel, and others.To conclude this intriguing exploration, we'll shine a light on the challenges of interpreting historical figures, the ripple effect of Spengler's theories on American socialism, and the significance of accurate translations of German works. Delve into the fascinating role of hindsight in understanding history, and the multi-layered complexities of the SPD's relationship to Marxism. Whether you're a seasoned scholar or a curious newcomer, this conversation offers fresh insights into the life and work of a lesser-known but influential figure in contemporary discourse. Get ready for an intellectual voyage that's bound to ignite thought and stir curiosity. Support the showCrew:Host: C. Derick VarnAudio Producer: Paul Channel Strip ( @aufhebenkultur )Intro and Outro Music by Bitter Lake.Intro Video Design: Jason MylesArt Design: Corn and C. Derick VarnLinks and Social Media:twitter: @skepoetYou can find the additional streams on Youtube
Elizabeth has been busy putting her house in order which means that I have a number of loose ends to tie up. Plus we get to meet a distant relative and we'll also see what's been going on with the Austrians, French and Prussians. Click on one of the links below to join the Boyar Duma where for a small monthly subscription you'll receive the following -Exclusive membership of the Boyar Duma and a shout out on the PodcastAd-free podcasts - (ads may come in on the free feed at some point in the future but never for subscription members)At least one members only episode per monthGeneral release episodes at least 1 week earlier than normal Transcripts for each episode (Patreon Only) Via PatreonGo to the podcast website https://www.historyofrussia.net/and visit the Membership Page or the Patreon Logo on the home pageOr go to https://www.patreon.com/historyofrussia_boyarduma Via Apple Podcastssearch in apple podcasts for ‘Boyar Duma' or the ‘History of Russia podcast-members only' and hit subscribe.https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/the-history-of-russia-members-only/id1696439936 Via Spotify Search in spotify for 'Russia members only'https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/damon-boar/subscribe Hosted on Acast. See acast.com/privacy for more information.
In today's episode, we'll talk about the relationship between Voltaire and Frederick, the diplomatic situation during the time after the First Silesian War, and some military reforms in the Prussian military. My Links: Amazon Wishlist for Books: https://www.amazon.com/hz/wishlist/ls/UZK1RES5MF5F?ref_=wl_shareAd-Free Episodes: https://www.patreon.com/frederick_the_great_podcastEmail for questions: firstname.lastname@example.orgInstagram:https://www.instagram.com/frederick_the_great_podcast/Twitter: https://twitter.com/fredthegpodcast Hosted on Acast. See acast.com/privacy for more information.
In this electrifying episode of The Adams Archive, we plunge into the profound depths of 'Silent Weapons for Quiet Wars,' a document whose enigmatic existence challenges our perceptions of reality. This isn't just any document – it's a manifesto, a blueprint, that reveals a grand design of societal manipulation on an unprecedented scale. This piece of evidence has spent too long in the shadows, obscured by skepticism and disinformation. We're bringing it to light and giving it the critical analysis it deserves. It speaks of control via economics, technology, education - seemingly ordinary facets of society that, according to this document, are in fact weapons in a silent war waged on humanity. As we traverse the labyrinth of cryptic language and unnerve ourselves with the chilling implications, we question: what if this is real? What does it mean for our world as we know it? We explore theories, inspect connections to clandestine organizations, and investigate the practical implications of the strategies outlined in this document. Join us as we unmask the unthinkable truths hidden within 'Silent Weapons for Quiet Wars. ----more---- All Links- Https://linktr.ee/theaustinjadams Substack: https://austinadams.substack.com Merch: https://antielite.club ----more---- Full Transcription: Adams Archive. Hello, you beautiful people and welcome to the Adams Archive. My name is Austin Adams, and thank you so much for listening today. On today's episode, we are going to be discussing what I would say is the single most terrifying document I've ever laid eyes on. And maybe not just that. I mean, and this, this says a lot because I've done a lot of deep dives into different, uh, documents that have come out that were top secret, that were c I A documents, whether it was about MK Ultra or Operation Northwoods. And in MK Ultra, they were literally taking people and electrocuting their brains to try to manipulate them or get rid of their memory. They were drugging people with L S D while they were. With prostitutes and watching the reactions there, there, there's so many things that they were doing that were horrifying. But the document I'm about to show you is the most terrifying, least discussed, top secret document that has ever gotten into the hands of a civilian. And the reason I say that is not on the individual basis, right? The, the documents like the MK Ultra documents are terrifying because it could have been you, it could have been me. But the document I'm about to show you was you. It was me. It was everybody on this planet was affected by this document. By this plan that was implemented to perfection. And as I start to walk through this with you, you'll realize more and more how this has been seeded deeply into the fabric of our reality. Regardless of what country you're in, regardless of where you went to school, how much money you think you have in the bank. Every single one of us has been affected by this document. And that is what it makes it so terrifying. Okay. The document that I'm about to show you and I'm about to walk you through in this deep dive is called Silent Weapons for Quiet Wars. Now, this document was produced. Found in 1986, July 7th by somebody from the IB who who purchased a copier. Okay? This document came from somebody who purchased a copier from the surplus sale by I B M. They reached inside of it and took this out in 1986. Now, this document was originally used at the very first known Bilderberg meeting in 1954. And adopted by the policy committee. Now, the reason that we have eyes on this today and the way that we do, the way that this document is broken down is based on the idea that the people that looked at this document were a part of a c i, a small group who were chosen for reasons that we'll find out in just a moment, but it was to catch them up to speed on the worldwide conspiracy that was happening and unfolding. Right in front of our eyes and has continued to and will continue to for a very long time. So let's go ahead and read through the preface. And again, this document is called Silent Weapons for Quiet Wars. I. Before we do that, go ahead and subscribe. Leave a five star review. Head over to the ck Austin Adams sub stack.com. I'm actually going to be reviewing a document that I went through and highlighted every single piece of it that I found to be the most interesting. This is a 40 po, 45 page document, so it's not a light read, but I went through and highlighted everything that I found to be of value in this document for you, and I will include this document in this. Weeks' sub that will be sent out. Okay? So you'll actually be able to look at the highlights that I found, value the annotations to them. The exact document that I'm reading from this will be in that sub stack, so Austin Adams sub stack.com. Go ahead and subscribe. Leave a five star review. And if I could ask you within this podcast episode, if you find this to be of interest, if you find the things that I'm talking about here to be held true in your life and it shocks you just as shocked as I was, please share this episode, share it with two people, and have those people share it with two people. Okay? I would appreciate it from the bottom of my heart. Just share it, send it to two people, and you go, this is wild. That's all you have to say. This is wild. Go ahead and hit that share button and send it to two people that you wanna discuss this with 'cause they should hear about it too. And if everybody does that, this will reach the masses and we will start to get the word out. Because like I said, this is one of the most terrifying, least discussed, top secret documents that has ever gotten in the hands of a civilian. Alright. All right. On that note, let's. Jump into it. The Adams archive. Oh, all right. Let's jump into it. We're gonna start with the preface here, and this is again, is silent weapons for quiet wars, and we'll find out the meaning of that in just a moment. But I will tell you at certain points, this is somewhat technical in the way that it reads. So I will do my best to read the document to you. Reformat it for you in a simple way so you can understand the sentiment. 'cause I'm sure even just listening to it is even more tough than reading it. But I will take the analysis that I've done up until this point and give you it once I read through it. So if it sounds a little bit technical, stay with me. 'cause I will give you my simplistic version of what it actually means right after. Okay. So, Here is the preface of this document. Conspiracy theories are nothing new to history plots, to kill Caesar and overthrown Rome abounded, for instance. However, it is seldom that concrete clues to such plots come to light and are generally known. Silent weapons for quiet wars, an introduction programming manual. Was uncovered quite by accident on July 7th, 1986 when an employee of Boeing Aircraft co purchased a surplus I B M copier for scrap parts at a sale, and discovered inside details of a plan hatched in the embryonic days of the Cold War, which called for control of the masses through manipulation of industry, people's pastimes, education, and political leanings. It called for a quiet revolution, putting brother against Brother. Diverting the public's attention from what is really going on. The document you're about to read is real. It is reprinted in its virgin form with diagrams as a touch of reality. Now, where I found this document, you guys was a dark corner of a dark corner of a dark corner. Of the internet to say the least. Okay. Now there has been many, many conversations in other dark corners of the internet about this document, but it has not gone into the mainstream psyche. This has not been a topic of conversation to the extent that it should be because this document lays out all of it, and we talked about it in the last episode, how Yuval Harri a World Economic Forum advisor. Also the author of Sapiens, the book, the Worldwide Phenomenon nonfiction book. Historical uh, book Sapiens came out and said, how ridiculous is it that there's a globe? People think there's a small group of people who control everybody. Hmm. Well, we're about to find out just how ridiculous that is. It's very systematic. Okay. So where I found this document was very, uh, I would say, So, so where I found this document had a list of other documents that were around it, so I kind of had to sift through it. But there's the, the way that this is so meticulously because some people, you know, will try to give illegitimacy to this document, but it's, it's, it's been, uh, it's been said to be true by people who have seen so many top secret government documents. This outlines who it was approved or, or thought to be true by, and everything that we talk about here. Even if this document wasn't written up by the c i a, which again, if you read it, it very clearly, I believe that to be the case. Um, well, not, not even the ccia A, but the, the heads of these Bilderberg groups and then reformatted into the ccia A so that they could catch them up to speed on this conspiracy. It outlines everything perfectly. It's, it's all about social engineering of the masses. So it says, And it, it is patently impossible to discuss social engineering or the automation of society, the engineering of social automation systems. I e silent weapons on a national or worldwide scale without implying extensive objectives of social control and destruct destruction of human life, i e slavery and genocide. This manual is in itself an analog declaration of intent. Such a writing must be secured from public scrutiny. Otherwise it might be recognized as a technically formal declaration of domestic war. Furthermore, wherever any person or group or person's in a position of great power and without full knowledge and consent of the public uses such knowledge and methodologies for economic conquest, it must be understood that a state of domestic warfare exists between said person or group of persons in the public. The solution of today's problems require an approach which is ruthlessly Ruth ruthlessly candid with no agonizing over religious, moral, or cultural values. Now, here's the part where it talks about how they qualify for this project. You have qualified for this project because of your ability to look at human society with cold. Objectivity and yet analyze and discuss your observations and conclusions with others of similar intellectual capacity without the loss of discretion or humility. Now I'm actually gonna go ahead and share my screen with you guys. So you can see what I am looking at while I'm walking you through this. Uh, so here you go. Um, it is actually up there. So if you're not following on the video, if you're just listening on the podcast, you can have head over to YouTube, you can have head over to Rumble. If you should go to the sub stack, it'll be embedded on there for you as well. So you'll be able to actually look through the document when I'm looking at it and talking you through it. So it is up on the screen now. This goes on to say, uh, Uh, of similar intellect, intellectual capacity. Without the loss of discretion or humility, such virtues are exercised in your own best interest. Do not deviate from them. In other words, this document should scare the shit out of you, but you are a psychopath, so it doesn't. Continue being a psychopath, and that is why we have chosen you for this position. Uh, historical introduction. This says, silent weapon technology was evolved from operations research, a strategic and tactical methodology developed under the military management in England during World War ii. The original purpose of operations research was to study the strategic and tactical problems of heir and land defense with the objective of effective use of limited military resources against foreign enemies. It was soon recognized by those in positions of power that the same methods might be useful for totally controlling a society, but better tools were necessary. So when they found this out in the, let's say 19 43, 19 42, uh, they did not have the technology to. Implement the theories that were laid out during this findings of operations research. Right? So operations research was, how can we infiltrate and degrade a country without having to go in there with tanks? How? Where can we get these silent weapons? And we see this play across our society today, whether it's through social engineering of social media, which is obviously one of the most complex things of this. The algorithms, Google searches, all of those things are now a part of this social engineering censorship. All of those things, but back then they didn't even have the computer yet, so they couldn't, even if they had the data sets that they needed to analyze, which we'll find out what they were analyzing it for in just a minute, they wouldn't have had a way to calculate it in in enough time. So they needed further technology is what it was talking about. But better tools were necessary. It said social engineering. The analysis and automation of a society requires the correlation of great amounts of constantly changing economic information or data. So a high speed computerized data processing system was necessary, which could race ahead of the society and predict when society would arrive at Ululation Relay. Computers were slow, but the electronic computer invented in 1946 by J Presper Eckert, and John w Mackley filled the bill. The next breakthrough was the development of the Simplex method of linear programming in 1947 by the mathematician George b Danzig. Then in 1948, the transistor invented by Jay Bardeen, W H Britain and W Shockley promised great expansion of the computer field by reducing space and power requirements. Now with these three inventions under their direction, those in positions of power strongly suspected that it was possible for them to control the whole world with the push of a button, is what this document says. Now, immediately, once this was found out, so they started to formulate this economic theory of data and how they could predict both how people would act for economic gain and for power gains. They couldn't have the technology yet to allow them to analyze the data, even if they had it as soon as they had the technology. In 1948 with the transistor, the Rockefeller Foundation got in at the ground floor. They did this by making four year, a four year grant to Harvard College funding the Harvard Economic Research Project. For the study of the structure of the American economy, one year later in 1949, the United States Air Force actually joined in on this. In 1952, the grand period terminated and a high level meeting of the elite was held to determine the next phase of social operations research. The Harvard project had begun very fruitful or have been very fruitful, as is born out of the publication of some of its results in 1953, suggesting the feasibility of economic. Social engineering. So this is where it leaves that paper trail, right? We know that this happened. We know the grants were funded by the Rothchild family. We know the timeframe. We know that the, the reasoning that they were doing this engineered in the last half of the decade in the forties, the new quiet war machine stood, so to speak, in sparkling gold plated hardware on the showroom floor by 1954 with the creation of the Maser. In 1954, the promise of unlocking unlimited resources of fusion atomic energy from the heavy hydrogen in seawater and the consequent availability of unlimited social power was a possibility only decades later, the combination was irresistible. So what they're talking about here is that energy was the new gold. So by unlocking these scientific endeavors, we're gonna learn about what science truly is for in just a second when they lay it out for us. But by learning and unlocking these codes to the universe, they could also unlock massive amounts of power, massive amounts of capital. So, although the silent weapon system was nearly exposed 13 years later, the evolution of the new weapon system has never suffered any major setbacks. Political introduction in 1954. It was well recognized by those in positions of authority that it was only a matter of time, only a few decades before the general public would be able to grasp and upset the cradle of power for the very elements of the new silent weapon technology were as accessible for a public utopia. As they were for providing a private utopia, meaning that if the general public had gotten a hold of this technology and used it for good, and used it for the betterment of society, it would have allowed us to thrive as, as a species, it would've allowed us to have a public utopia where everybody gained from it. But instead, a small group, a small boardroom meeting with the Bilderberg group, i e what you know, We know today as something like the World Economic Forum, and they still have these Bilderberg group meetings allowed for a private utopia. For a small group of individuals, energy is recognized as the key to all activity on earth. Natural science is the study of sources and controls of natural energy and social science, theoretically expressed as economics is the study of the sources and control of social energy. So this is where they're kind of taking this formula, this idea of energy and, and reformatting it, repositioning this theory of energy into what they. A lot what they learn to manipulate, right? They learn to manipulate energy first. Then they reformat That, reformulate that into understanding how to manipulate people because people are just energy, they're saying. Right. Uh, energy is recognized as the key to all activity, activity on earth. Social science theoretically expresses economics, right? Saying that the way that people's energy, the movement of people, the thoughts of people exposes itself through economics by the, where they spend their money, where they spend their time, and how they react to things, right? So that is the study of the sources in control of social energy. Both are bookkeeping systems. Mathematics. Therefore, mathematics is the primary energy science, and the bookkeeper can be king if the public can be kept ignorant of the methodology of the bookkeeping. All science is a means to an end. The means is knowledge. The end is control beyond. This remains only one issue. Who is the beneficiary, and that's why. The Rothchilds realized this and they quickly sprung into action as soon as they saw the technology t itself, so that they could be the ones who were the beneficiary of the knowledge, the knowledge leading to control. And that is why we are where we are today. In 1954, this was the issue of the primary concern. Although the so-called moral issue was raised in the view of the law of natural selection, it was agreed that it is that a nation or world of people who will not use their intelligence are no better than animals who do not have intelligence at all. Such people are beasts of burden and stakes on the table by choice and consent. Did you hear that? Do you hear the way that they talk about you and I? People who will not use their intelligence are no better than animals who do not have intelligence. Such people are beasts of burden and stakes on the table by choice and consent. They said consequently is the inter interest of future world order peace and tranquility. It was decided. To privately wage, a quiet war against the American public with the ultimate objective of permanently shifting the natural and social energy, wealth of the undisciplined and irresponsible many into the hands of the self-disciplined, responsible, and worthy few, so they rigged the system. In order to implement this objective, it was necessary to create secure. To create, secure and apply new weapons, which as it turned out were a class of weapons so subtle and so sophisticated in their principle of operation and public appearance as to earn for themselves the name, silent weapons. In conclusion, the objective of economic research is conducted by the magnets of capital or banking in the industries of commodities or goods and services is the establishment of an economy which is totally predictable and manipulatable. So what they start to lay out here for you is that in order, Well, let's just read this says, in order to achieve a totally predictable economy, the low class elements of society must be brought under total control, right? In order for them to be able to profit both economically and power based off of this predictable economy, they need to make it predictable and to make it predictable, you have to fall in line to the programming. You must be housebroken. It says trained. And assigned a yoke and long-term social duties from a very early age before they even have an opportunity to question the propriety of the matter. Right. You wanna talk about four and five-year-olds going to have a full-time job in kindergarten, going to school to wait for a bell to tell them when to go do the next thing. Being put in the position of submission to somebody in a position of dominance. Being told everything that they have to do when they have to do it, how to draw their, how to draw something, how to dot their i's how to, you know, all of it. So you have to. Entice conformity from the very beginning, and the Rockefellers also funded the general education board in the 1920s. The general education board, which we're gonna get into in one of our next deep dives, was taking the Prussian model, which leveraged education as a system of creating obedience instead of intelligence in the 1920s. To make it so that this system of education, education through enslavement of thought was implemented nationwide. Thus started the programming of the general public, which allowed you and I to behave predictably just like they wanted. So we can be housebroken trained in assigned a yoke and long-term social duties from an early age, making everything predictable, making the general mass public move as a flock in order to achieve conformity. It says, The lower class family unit must be disintegrated by a process of increasing preoccupation of the parents and the establishment of government operated daycare centers for the occupationally orphaned children. That's a terrifying way of putting it, that is dead accurate. In order to achieve such conformity, the lower class family unit must be disintegrated. By a process of increasing preoccupation of the parents and the establishment of government operated daycare centers for the occupationally orphaned children, the quality of education given to the lower class must be of the poorest sort so that the moat of ignorance isolating the inferior class from the superior class is and remains incomprehensible. To the inferior class with such an initial handicap, even the bright lower class individuals have little, if any, hope of extricating themselves from their assigned lot in life. This form of slavery is essential to maintain some measure of social order, peace and tranquility for the ruling upper class. Are you terrified yet? Does this sound, does this ring true to you? This is exactly the playbook that has set up in the society for obedience, for social credit scores, for digital currency, for censorship. Exactly. And the, the United States of America was the proving grounds of this. Description or descriptive introduction of the silent weapon. It says, so now it explains how they're going to do it. Everything that is expected from an ordinary weapon is expected from a silent weapon by its creators, but only in its manner a functioning. It shoots situations instead of bullets propelled by data processing instead of chemical reactions. Originating from bits of data instead of greens of gunpowder from a computer instead of a gun operated by a computer programmer instead of a marksman under the orders of a banking magnet instead of a military general. It makes no obvious explosive noises, causes no obvious physical or mental injuries, and does not obviously interfere with anyone's daily social life. Yet it makes an unmistakable noise. Causes unmistakable, physical and mental damage, and unmistakably interferes with the daily social life i e unmistakable to a trained observer, one who knows what to look for. The public cannot comprehend this weapon and therefore cannot believe that they're being attacked and subdued by a weapon. The public might instinctively feel that something is wrong, but that is because of the technical nature of the silent weapon. They cannot express their feeling in the rational way or handle the problem with intelligence. Therefore, they do not know how to cry for help and do not know how to associate with others to defend themselves against it. When asylum weapon is applied, gradually the public adjusts and adapts to its presence and learns to tolerate its encroachment on their lives until the pressure. Becomes too great and they crack up. Therefore, the silent weapon is a type of biological warfare. It attacks the vitality options and mobility of the individuals of a society by knowing, understanding, manipulating, and attacking their sources of natural and social energy and their physical, mental, and emotional strengths and weaknesses. Wow. So the silent weapon is a biological warfare. It attacks the vitality options and mobility of the individuals of society by knowing, understanding, manipulating, and attacking their sources of natural and social energy and their physical, mental, and emotional strengths. And weaknesses, right? You wanna talk about big pharma, right? You wanna talk about the introduction of allopathic medicine by the rothchilds. Right. Basically eliminating osteopathic and homeopathic medicine again, right around the same time. Right in the, the early 19 hundreds. That's why the, the World War II was the precipice of change. The industrialization of our nation was really the enslavement of our nation. That's when you had the education system, uh, turn into what it is today with bells ringing, telling your children where to go and how to act. That's when you had allopathic medicine telling you that your body has nothing to do with its own state of health. That's when you had the introduction of industrialized food, which poisoned you instead of nourished you. That's when you had the introduction of the military industrial complex, which served to empower the banking elites with profitability at the detriment of your son's lives. All of this was pre-planned and written out in this document called Silent Weapons for Quiet Wars, Ensuring predictability through our actions by enslaving our minds first, by poisoning us through our food, poisoning us through our entertainment, poisoning us through the indoctrination of the education system. All of this, all of this wove the fabric for what we know as modern society today, and we're reading the playbook. Here's an interesting quote by one of the Rothchilds themselves, Meyer Anhe Rothchilds, 1943 to 1812 and said, give me control over a nation's currency and I care not who makes its laws. Meyer Am shell Rothchilds. When you control the money, you already control the politicians. And when you control the politicians, you control the law and you in turn control the people. Today's silent weapons technology is an outgrowth of a simple idea discovered, succinctly expressed, and effectively applied by the quoted Mr. Meyer Amschel Rothschilds. Mr. Rothschild discovered the missing passive component of economic theory known as economic inductance. He of course did not think of this discovery in these 20th century terms. And to be sure, mathematical analysis had to wait for the second industrial revolution, the rise of the theory of mechanics and electronics, and finally the invention of the electronic computer before. Before it could be effectively applied in the control of the world economy. So this part is where it gets a little technical. Okay. Everything up in here was like theory of societal engineering. Right now we're getting into the idea of how energy and, and the, the energy of the world actually works side by side with the energy of people and by learning to manipulate one gives you the theory of how to manipulate the other. Okay, so this starts to break it down. It breaks it down technically for you. And again, I will give you my reframe of this, uh, so as to allow you to actually understand what I'm talking about without scouring this document back and forth and back and forth. Uh, so this is what a, how is lays it out. It says General Energy concepts and the study of energy systems. There always appears to be three elementary concepts. These are potential energy, kinetic energy, and energy dissipation. In corresponding to these concepts, there are three idealized, essentially pure physical counterparts called passive components. In the science of physical mechanics, the phenomenon of potential energy is associated with a physical property called elasticity or stiffness, and can be represented by a stretching spring. An electronic science potential energy is stored in a capacitor instead of a spring. This property is called accidents. Instead of elasticity or stiffness, right? Think of a rubber band, Now it goes on to say that in the science of physical mechanics, which is the second part of this, the phenomenon of kinetic energy is associated with a physical property called inertia or mass, and can be represented by a mass or a flywheel in motion and electronic science, kinetic energy is stored in an inductor in the magnetic field instead of a mass. This property called inductance instead of inertia. Alright, so bear with me here because then in just a second, it takes all three of these concepts and formulates it for societal engineering. It says In the science of physical mechanics, the phenomenon of energy dissipation is associated with a physical property called friction or resistance, and can be represented at by a dash pot or a device which can converts energy into heat. An electronic science dissipation of energy is performed by an element called either a resistor or a conductor. The term resistor being the one generally used to describe a more ideal device. Like a wire employed to convey electronic energy efficiently from one location to another. The property of a resistance or a conductor is measured as either resistance or conduct conductance. Reciprocals. Alright, now it says in economics, this is where it takes that idea of energy dissipation of conductance and cap capacitance. Right, the capacity and reformulates it into currency, right? Into how people react to things. Okay, so it talks about capital is capacitance, right? That's money, stock inventory, investments in buildings and durables, right? So the, the capacity, the capacitance is capital, the conductance. The flow of the energy is goods. That's where the exchange happens. And then the inductance, the influence of the population of industry on output is services. So the capacitance is capital, that's the money, the conductance, what where it flows from is goods, right? And then, The dissipation or the inductance is services. All of the math mathematical theory developed in the study of one energy system, right? Mechanics or electronics, can immediately be applied in the study of any other energy systems, including economics. So what Mr. Rothschilds had discovered was that the basic principle of power, influence, and control over people as applied to economics. That, that principle is when you assume the appearance of power, people soon give it to you. So lemme reread that for you. What Mr. Mr. Rothschilds had discovered was the basic principle of power, influence, and control over people as applied to economics. That principle is when you assume the appearance of power, people soon give it to you. Now when we start to get into this, this is where fractional banking came from, was this idea. Right. The, and, and now what we know is, you know, zero Reserve banking, but is supposed to be what fractional reserve banking was, I think, until 2021 or 22 when they changed it to zero reserve banking, which is far worse. Right? So this is where the, the creation of the Federal Reserve comes from, is this idea. So, Mr. Mr. Rothschild had discovered that currency or deposit loan accounts had the required appearance of power that. It could be used to induce people, right? The inductance with people corresponding to a magnetic field, it says into surrendering their real wealth in exchange for a promise of greater wealth, right? An instance of compensate. Of real instead of real compensation, right? So instead of giving you gold for your services, I'm gonna give you an i O U, this piece of paper that we printed out of a machine that says, you know, we got you. All you have to do is agree with somebody else that we got you and we got them, and you guys exchanged that. Gotcha. And you know, now you're, now you're, you know, exchanging currency. So they would put real collateral in exchange for a loan of promissory notes. I. Mr. Rothschild found that he could issue more notes than he had backing for fractional banking. So long as he had someone's stock of, had someone's stock of gold as a persuader to show his customers. So picture him with a big bank behind him. Or a, a big, uh, you know, um, box of gold, a a big, you know, vault of gold. And in that vault of gold, he had a million, a million dollars worth of, you know, dollars. He had a a million dollars worth of gold. And in exchange of that million dollars, he handed out $10 million to other people saying, you know, I got this million right behind me. You don't have to worry about it. If you come back to me for your 500,000, I'll give you the 500,000. Of course, I got it. Look behind me. Right, but little did they know that he doesn't have 10 million, which is what he loaned out. So he now owes more than he has in possession. So if any one time everybody comes to get it at the same time, none of it really exists. Right. Fractional banking, I. Mr. Rothschilds loaned his promissory notes to individuals and to governments. These would create overconfidence. Then he would make money scarce, tighten control on the system, and collect the collateral through the obligation of contracts. So let's say that you own, uh, a $500,000 house that I loaned you the money for, that you're paying me monthly on. Now the economy that I squeeze goes to shit, and you can't afford the mortgage. Now, I made you pay me $200,000 of the 500,000, but you couldn't pay the whole thing because I screwed the economy over, and now I own all of those assets again. Rinse and repeat the cycle. Was then repeated. These pressures could be used to ignite a war. Then he would control the availability of currency to determine who would win the war. Right? This man with all the perceived power, with all the gold in the vault behind him, told both sides of the war that I got you. I got you. But then depending on who he gave the most loans to printed the most money for. Would win the war. Of course, war is just a war of attrition. Everything's a war of attrition, right? It's just who has the most money? Who has the most, uh, shiny metal machines that are gonna blow stuff up? The government, which agreed to give him control of its economy and economic system, got his support and in turn won the war. And maybe that's what we're seeing play out right now between NATO and Russia and China and all of these things going on, is we're seeing who's going to give. The banking cartels, the control of the economic system. And whoever does that is gonna get the most money. They're gonna get the most funding, right? They're gonna get the most bombs, they're gonna get the most tanks, and in turn, they're gonna win. The war goes on to say the collection of debts was guaranteed by economic aid to the enemy of the debtor. Collection of debts was guaranteed by economic aid. To the enemy of the debtor. The profit derived from this economic methodology made by Mr. Rothschilds all the more able to expand his wealth. He found that the public greed would allow currency to be printed by government order beyond the limits of backing and precious metals, or the production of goods and services, and that's how we get to inflation, right? Public greed would allow currency to be printed by government. Order beyond the limits of backing and precious metal or the production of goods and services, right? We got off of the gold standard and immediately what happens? Inflation. Inflation, go back and ask your grandparents about it, right? How much did the car cost in this structure? Right? And so a parent ca, capital as paper inductor, right? The inductor in the structure credit presented by is a pure element called currency as the appearance of capital, but in the effect negative capital. Hence it was the appearance of service, but is in fact indebtedness or debt. It is therefore an economic inductance instead of a economic capacitance, and if balanced in no other way will be balanced by the negation of population, right? War and genocide. I. The total goods and services represent real capital called the Gross National Product, and currency may be printed up to this level and still represent economic capacitance, but currency printed beyond this level is subtractive and represents the introduction of economic inductance in constitutes notes of indebted. Alright, let's go ahead and let's do this 'cause this will be interesting if we can take this. Actually get it to, let's see here how I can do this. I wanna see if I can carry this over and have a chat. G p t write a simplistic, let's say like a, a first grade level and explain that for us. So let me go ahead and take a picture of this, copy over the text and ask it to explain it that way, because I think that's a value. This is a little bit more, uh, complex than. Then how we, uh, you know, having me over here try to explain it to you. So let me go ahead and, and put it in here. So I took it, let's go take it to chat, g b t. Please explain this at a fifth grade level. All right, so it's saying, imagine we have a system where people use something called currency as a form of credit. This currency looks like money or resources, but it's actually like negative capital because it creates debt. So it seems like a helpful service, but it actually puts people in debt, right? The currency, the money. Is all just credit, right? There's not, there's not actually backed by anything, which all it means is that, you know, you see the national debt ticker just keeps going up and up and up. So it seems like a helpful service, but it actually puts people in debt instead of being like a container that holds in stores value like a piggy bank. This currency acts more like a force that causes changes in the economy, like pushing or pulling things around. When this force gets out of balance and there's too much currency, it can lead to problems. To balance this system, something extreme like war or genocide might happen. This is because the excess currency needs to be brought back to balance. And unfortunately, throughout its history, war has been one way that this has been achieved. Uh, right. Remember, this is just an explanation of some ideas in the text. As you grow older, you'll learn more about economics and different viewpoints on these topics. Hmm. Let's see if it can try again. Alright, cool. So, where war is therefore balancing the system by killing the true creditors, the public, which we have taught to exchange true value for inflated currency, it says, and now my screen goes away. So I think that's an interesting analogy, right? Like it's not a piggy bank. The, the money that we have is not a piggy bank. It's a, it's a an i o U. And, and once there's enough IOUs out there that people hold onto, eventually you, the best way to get some of those IOUs back is by eliminating the people, apparently. Uh, so it says that Mr. Rothschild had discovered that the currency gave him the power to rearrange the economic structure to his own advantage, to shift economic inductance to those economic positions, which would encourage the greatest economic instability and oscillation. The final key to economic control had to wait until there was sufficient data and high speed computing equipment to keep close watch on the economic oscillations by creating price shocking and excess paper energy credits, paper inducted and inflation. I. Alright. Now the next part of this is talk, talking about how they test the system, right? How, how do they formulate results? Like how, how did they get the data right? And we're gonna see some of these things ring true when we think back to the time of the, uh, thinking back to. The covid situation where we had no toilet paper for a weird amount of time or maybe a few months ago when, when eggs cost $20 for fricking 12 of them, right? This is a, a form of shockwave testing, which is what we're gonna learn about right now, and it starts by learning the principle of shockwave testing again in energy and reformulating it for how we deal with people and society and societal engineering. So it says, the aviation field provided the greatest evolution in economic engineering, by the way, of its mathematical theory, which is shockwave testing. In this process, what they would do is they would take something on an airplane and they would test how much force could be applied to that, uh, that piece of technology. Right? So a projectile is fired from an airframe on the ground and the impulse. Of the recoil is monitored by vibrational transducers connected to the airframe and wired to chart recorders right? So I was trying to say, how much energy can we put on this airframe of this aircraft until it explodes? Shockwave testing, right? How, how durable is the material and how is it going to react when we impose some type of force on it? By studying the echoes and reflections of the recoil impulse in the airframe is possible to discover critical vibrations in the structure of the airframe, which either vibrations of the engine or. Olian vibrations of the wings or a combination of the two might reinforce resulting in the resonant self-destruction of the airframe in flight as an aircraft, right? So what they wanted to figure out was how much gunpowder can we put on the side of this airplane until it rips apart, right? How big are the booms that we can make until the whole thing falls apart from the standpoint of engineering, this means that the strengths and weaknesses of the structure of the airframe in terms of vibrational energy can be discovered and manipulated. Now again, here comes the application in economics to use this method of airframe shock testing. In economic engineerings, the price of commodities are shocked and the public consumer reaction is monitored Data. The resulting echoes of the economic shocker interpreted theoretically by computers and the socioeconomic structure of the economy is thus discovered. How do people react when we do this thing? We get large enough data sets. Right. Why do you think data's so important when it comes to your social media? Why do you think data's so important when it comes to all of your transactions on, on your finances? Right. Why is the digital currency important? Because the more data that they can get, the more they can realize how to manipulate you. And the more they can profit, the more power that they can have by knowing exactly how you'll react to X and y, because they want. To be more rich and more powerful. They can predict how you're gonna react. They can then invest in the commodities that they know are going to be having shortages early. Or when you, let's say get rid of toilet paper, for example. Maybe people run and buy bidets, or maybe when you have a nationwide panic, people run and buy ammunition, maybe something like that, right? So when you can predict those reactions with a large enough data set, you can then, React ahead of time and profit from those reactions because now you know, now you've shockwave tested the mass public and now you know how they're gonna react when you get rid of toilet paper. Now you know how they're gonna react when you threaten locking them down and shutting down all their businesses. Right? And if you can boil the water up into the point to where the frog's gonna jump out or revolt against you, like we saw with Covid eventually, So they, they dialed up the heat just until the point where they saw us buying ammunition just to the point where they saw people running and getting guns just until the point where people were rioting, not rioting to the extent where they were gonna overthrow the government, but when they were rioting to the point where they were, you know, breaking down in targets and stealing everything out of it. Right. They don't want a complete collapse. 'cause then they lose all of their control, but they do want to dial it up because then now they know the next time that they go to do this, exactly how the public will react. Shockwave testing. Okay, now it says that, um, if this process, uh, it is by this process that partial differential and in indifferent matrices are discovered that define the family household and make possible its evaluation as an economic industry. Which is dissipative consumer structure. Then the response of the household to future shocks can be predicted and manipulated. It says, in society becomes a reg, a well-regulated animal with its reigns under control of a sophisticated computer, regulated social energy bookkeeping system. Eventually, every individual element of the structure comes under computer control through a knowledge of personal preferences. Such knowledge guaranteed by computer Association of consumer preferences, right? U P C codes, zebra striped pricing codes on packages, right? They're talking about literal barcodes. Right. All that is tracking, all that is data set sets, right? Um, it says with identified cus to consumers right. Identify via association with the use of credit cards and later a permanent tattooed body number invisible under normal ambient illumination. Right? That's the, uh, that's the microchip in you that, that they're gonna talk about, right? That's the, that's the digital credit score, right? That's the digital, uh, digital currency. Right. So maybe it's a little bit different than what they expected in 1986, but very, very close. Right? Credit cards were literally designed just so they could get the data of your buying decisions, right? That's every c v s phone number that you put in. That's, uh, the, the barcodes on the back of it. All of it is data, not data for, I mean, yeah, target uses it for their data, but data for the, the company that owns Target. Why do you think BlackRock owns all of these companies? It wants the data, it wants to predict, it wants to throttle economies, it wants to prop one up while it goes to war with Ukraine. It wants to, uh, manipulate financial markets here so that you could have, uh, the downfall of a country over here. Right? So it says summary economics is. Only a social extension of a natural energy system. It also has its three passive components because of the distribution of wealth and the lack of communication and lack of data. This field has been the last energy field for which a knowledge of these three passive components has been developed. Since energy is the key to all activity on the face of the earth, it follows that in order to attain a monopoly of energy. Raw goods, materials and services. And to establish a world system of slave labor, it is necessary to have a first strike capability in the field of economics. In order to maintain our position, it is necessary that we have absolute first knowledge of the science of control over all economic factors in the first experience at engineering the world economy. In order to achieve such sovereignty, we must at least achieve this one end. That the public will not make either the logical or mathematical connection between economics and the other energy sciences, or to learn to apply such knowledge. Hmm. Right. Public first private utopia. They wanted to hone this technology and to keep it to themselves so they can meet at Berg, so they can meet in the Swiss Alps of the World Economic Forum meetings and talk about how they're gonna manipulate you. It is only a matter of time before the new breed of private programmer and economists will catch onto this far reaching implications of the work begun at Harvard in 1948. The speed of which they can communicate their warning to the public will largely depend upon how effective we have been at controlling the media, subverting education, and keeping the public distracted with matters of no real importance. All right, now here's the economic model. It says, the Harvard Economic Research Project in 1948 was an extension of the World War II operations research, right? We learned about that. It was felt that with sufficient mathematical foundation and data, it would be nearly as easy to predict and control the trend of an economy as to predict and control the trajectory of a projectile. Such has proven to be the case. Moreover, the economy has been transformed into a guided missile on target. To make sure history of it all. It was discovered that an economy obeyed the same laws of his electricity and that all of the mathematical theory and practical and computer know-how developed for the eco electronic field could be directly applied to the study of economics. I. The discovery was not openly declared, and its more subtle implications were in our kept closely guarded secrets. For example, that in an economic model, human life is measured in dollars and that the electric spark generated when opening a switch connected to an active inductor is mathematically analogous to the initiation of war, right? Turn on and off the amount. Of dollars, right? The human life, right? That's where you get into the depopulation agenda, right? If you can expand the, the, the expand the, the people that are on this earth and then immediately contract them down to a smaller amount, the amounts of goods still remains the same. It's already been produced, so now it goes into a smaller and smaller group of hands. So that's where the depopulation agenda comes into control. That's where war comes into control. It's, it's, it's a mechanism of, of inflating and deflating the amount of money owed that getting rid of debts that are owed to the government that the government owes to you. Right. The greatest hurdle it says, which theoretical economists faced was the accurate description of the household as an industry. This is a challenge because consumer purchases are a matter of choice, which in turns is influenced by income, price, and other economic factors. This hurdle was cleared in an indirect and stati a statistically approximate way by an application of shock testing to determine the current character characteristics called current technical coefficients of a household industry. Finally, because problems in theoretical electronics can be translated very easily into problems of theoretical electronics, and the solution translated back again. It follows that only a book of language translation and concept definition needed to be written for economics. The remainder could be gotten from standard works on mathematics and electronics. This makes the publication of books on advanced economics unnecessary and greatly simplifies project security. All right, so now it goes into a bunch of diagrams. Okay? Now again, this will be on the sub stack, so you can go read through those and look through them yourself. I don't find much value if you've comprehended a little bit more of what I've talked about here, but it basically talks about how the flow of economics and utilizing one industry for supply to demand, um, then results in what they want, right? So, so more control, more money, more power. Alright. It uses these, you know, kind of electronic models and, uh, to give you a, a better discussion surrounding what we talked about already. So it, it just lays it all out for you. But that's a pretty consistent, uh, or a pretty, uh, technical way of going about this. So let's go ahead and we'll scroll past that for now. All right. There is one part that I wanna point out though. It says the social welfare system. Okay, this is just a small piece of it. Uh, it says the problem with sub stabilizing the economic system is that there is too much demand on account of one, too much greed and two too much population, right? 'cause it goes into how other large are te alternatives to war, right? As economic inductors and economic flywheels are an open-ended social welfare program, or, An enormous but fruitful open-ended space program, right? Nasa, could you imagine that right? An enormous open-ended space program with no end in sight. Right there. There's nothing, there's no real end, there's no real goal. Uh, so you can have that as one balancing mechanism. You can have war, right? Too much demand on the count of too much greed. And too much population can be balanced with open-ended space programs, social, large, social, open-ended welfare programs and war. Okay? It says the problem with stabilizing economic systems is that there is too much demand on an account of too much greed and too much population. This creates excessive economic inductance, which can only be balanced with economic capacitance, right? So true resources or value in goods and services. The social welfare. The social welfare program is nothing more than an open-ended credit balance system, which creates a false capital industry to give non-productive people a roof over their heads and food in their stomachs. This can be useful, however, because the recipients become state property in return for the gift. A standing army for the elite for who he pays. The Piper picks the tune for who he pays. The piper picks the tune. Hmm. So this is why we see the Democrats, the liberal, the left, right, which this knows no left and right, but this does this, this is important, right? This is why when you have these soc, social and ec, this is why they say, right, I'll, I'll, uh, find me a young man who's a Republican. I'll show you somebody without a heart. Uh, find me an old man who's a liberal, and I'll show you somebody without a brain. Right? It's like when you can enslave somebody by giving them a stipend. Right. That's literally how they did this. This can be useful putting a roof over their heads and food in their stomach for people who are completely unproductive because the recipients become state property in return for the gift. A standing army for the elite, for he who pays the piper picks the tune, right? If they give you the money, you fall in line. You do what they say. You are now docile. So I found that to be interesting. All right, so the next part of this, right now that we've gone through the more technical aspect of the energy portions and how that's, that social energy relates to, right, the, the findings of scientific energy. Uh, let's go ahead and pull up this next part. If my computer will play nice with me and it doesn't want to, alright. But I found that to be interesting, right? Even the shockwave testing, when you start to think of things in this way, when you start to think of data, right? Everybody's been talking about data, data, data. What does Facebook, well, Facebook makes their money from data, right? Why is data so important? Well, when you have enough data, you can predict actions. Right. Where are people gonna spend their money? How are people gonna react physically? All right, so I. It goes on to say that those who get hooked on the economic drug must go to the elite for the fix. And this, the method of introducing large amounts of stabilizing capacitance is by borrowing on the future credit of the world. I. Okay, so those who get hooked, hooked on the economic drug must go to the elite for the fix. They own the banks, they own the printing machine to give out the credit. Like what gives you the right you, there's no, there's nothing there. It's all a facade. It says in this, the method of introducing large amounts of stabilizing money, right by printing stuff. Is borrowing on the future credit of the world inflation, right? What we print today affects our children tomorrow, right? Things cost more. This is the fourth law of motion onset, and consists of performing an action and leaving the system before the reflected reaction returns to the point of action. A delayed reaction, right? They don't have to deal with it. Your children, our great-grandchildren, deal with it. The means of surviving. The reaction is by changing the system before the reaction can return. By. This means politicians become more popular in their own time and the public pays later. In fact, the measure of me measure of such a politician is the delay time, right? How long does it take for everything to crumble after Joe Biden leaves? After so much money is poured into the system after it's printed to send to Ukraine. The same thing is achieved by a government, by printing money beyond the limit of the gross national product and the economic process called inflation. This puts a large quantity of money into the hands of the public and maintains a balance against their greed, creates a false self-confidence in them, and for a while stays the wolf from the door. They must eventually resort to war to balance out the account because war ultimately is merely the act of destroying the creditor, right? The people killing off people, and the politicians are the publicly hired hitmen that justify the act to keep the responsibility and blood off the public conscience. So just by printing money eventually, it's literally taking life. If the people really cared about their fellow man, it says they would control their appetites, their greed, their procreation, so that they would not have to operate on a credit or welfare social system, which steals from the worker to satisfy the bum. Since most of the general public will not exercise restraint, there are only two alternatives to reduce the economic inductance of the system. One, let the populace bludgeon each other. To death and war, which will only result in the total destruction of the living earth. Number two, take control of the world by the use of economic silent weapons in the form of quiet warfare, and reduce the economic inductance of the world to a safe level by a process of benevolent slavery and genocide. Print, fight, print, fight, print, fight, the balancing act. Eventually somebody has to pay for that. Getting rid of the creditor, getting rid of the people that erode the money, eliminating the population. The latter option has been taken as the obviously better option. It says at this point it should be crystal clear to the reader why absolute secrecy about the silent weapons is necessary. The general public re refuses to improve its own mentality and its faith in the fellow man. It has become a herd of proliferating barbarians and so to speak, a blight upon the face of the earth. They do not care enough about economic science to learn why they have not been able to avoid war. Despite religious morality and their religious or self-gratifying refusal to deal with earthly problems renders the solution of the worldly problem unreachable to them. It is left to those few who are truly willing to think and survive as the fittest. To survive to solve the problem for themselves is the few who really care. Otherwise, exposure of the silent weapon would destroy our only hope of preserving the seed of the future True humanity. Hmm. So that's where you get the idea and this sociopathic idea that there should be a ruling class, that there should be slaves, that there should be peasants, that there should be bums because you don't know any better and you're too stupid and too lazy and not enough. You don't have enough self-awareness and you don't have enough intellect to, to actually grasp what's going on in these financial systems. And, and instead, we're just gonna send you off to war to die. So we can pay off the bets so that we, the debts that we owe, so that, You know, we can drive our Ferraris to Davos and meet once a year to talk about how we're going to further our enslavement of you through our children. All right? It goes on to show some more of those examples, uh, showing the diagrams of how these stages of s schematics simplification, right? Where is war play into this? So it it, it has mathematical equations, which are beyond my scope of understanding, uh, but. It talks about the final bill of goods, says the final bill of goods is called the final bill of goods or the bill of final demand, and is zero when the system can be closed by the evaluation of the technical coefficients of the non-productive industries, governments and households. Households may be regarded as a productive industry with labor as its output product. Interesting. So that's how they look at you, huh? Says the household industry, the household, the industries of finance, manufacturing, and government. Real counterparts of the pure industries of capital goods and services are easily defined because they're generally logically structured. Because of this, their processes can be described mathematically and their technical coefficients can be easily deduced. This however, is not the case with the service industry known as the household industry. Household models when their industry flow diagram is represented by a two block system of households on the right and all other industries. On the left, the following results, so there's another diagram. It says The arrows to the left. Yeah. You'll have to kind of read through this so you actually get an idea of what it's talking about. Let's see. This is applied to economics. This means that all of the households in one region or in the whole nation are studied as a group or class rather than individually. And the mass behavior, rather than the individual behavior, is used to discover useful estimates of the technical coefficients governing the economic structure of the hypothetical single household industry. Right? So taking a a general average allows them to say, you know, even if 30% of the country isn't gonna get vaccinated, we're betting on the 70%. Right. We know 70% compliance is enough to get us to where we need to go. The next time around that we do this, it says, one method of evaluating the technical coefficients of the household industry depends upon shocking the prices of a commodity and noting the changes in the sales of all, of all of the commodities, right? So when we get rid of toilet paper, how does that affect the general economy? Where do people start to put their money? Where do, where does that panic lead us? It's so easy to make us panic. Which is exactly all that was, was a shockwave test, getting rid of toilet paper to see how people would react. So the next time, how easily is it to predict your reactions and profit from it? Right? In the shock testing of an aircraft frame, the recoil impulse of a firing gun is mounted to the airframe causing shockwaves, right? We talked about this. It is as they tell the A aviation engineers, the conditions under which some parts of the airplane or the whole airplane or its wings will start to vibrate or flutter like a guitar string, a flute read, or a tuning fork and disintegrate or fall apart in flight. Economic engineers achieve the same result by studying the behavior of the economy and the consumer public by carefully selecting a staple commodity such as beef, coffee, gasoline, eggs, toilet paper, maybe, or sugar. And then causing a sudden change or shock in its price or availability, thus kicking everybody's budget and buying habits out of shape. They then observe the shockwaves, which result by monitoring the changes in the advertising prices, and sales of that and other commodities. The objective of such studies is to acquire the know-how to set the public economy into a predictable state of motion or change even a controlled self-destructive state. Of motion, which will convince the public that a certain expert of people should take care of the money system and reestablish security rather than liberty and justice for all. When the subject citizens are rendered unable to control their financial affairs, they of course become totally enslaved a source of cheap labor. Not only the prices of commodities, but also the availability of labor can be used as the means of shock testing. Labor strikes, deliver excellent test shock results to an economy, especially in the critical service areas as trucking or transportation. And you wanna talk about the transportation industry during c O D communication. Public utilities is energy, water, garbage collection, et cetera. We have seen this playbook play out, and it was written in the fifties. These, exactly the playbook that was used during covid By shock testing, it has found that there is a direct relationship between the availability of m
Why is financial education not part of our school system? To understand that, you have to understand where our school system came from. Our educational system started during the industrial revolution and was influenced heavily by the Prussian system. What do you think of when you hear “industrial revolution?” I think of factories and conveyor […] The post 378: Forcing Schools to Teach Financial Literacy appeared first on Wealth Formula.
In this episode, Mick chats with scholar and business leader Dr Kate Devitt from Better Beliefs. They discuss her upcoming chapter on Meaningful Command in a future where autonomous systems are ubiquitous in military forces. Mick and Kate also discuss the ethical underpinnings of human interaction with emerging technology in the context of armed conflict. Kate provides a pragmatic answer to the final question. You can also grab a book & crack on here. Apple Premium Subscribers can access the extended version of this episode through the Apple Podcast App.
Mike Rashid King ( IG: @MikeRashid ) is a fitness content creator with 1.4 mil followers on IG and 1.5 mil subs on Youtube. He is the Founder of The Ambrosia Collective, Co founder Snackhouse Foods, a partner in Trifecta food delivery and the founder of The Sacred Society. ——————————————————— Michael's Men of Action program is a Master's course dedicated to helping people elevate their social lives by building elite social circles and becoming higher status. Click the link below to learn more: https://m.moamentoring.com/podcast Join Michael's free MOA group on Skool: https://www.skool.com/men-of-action-free ———————————————————— Become an affiliate for MOA Mentoring: https://www.moamentoring.com/earn Subscribe on Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/user/MichaelSartain Listen on Apple Podcast: https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/the-michael-sartain-podcast/id1579791157 Listen on Spotify: https://open.spotify.com/show/2faAYwvDD9Bvkpwv6umlPO?si=8Q3ak9HnSlKjuChsTXr6YQ&dl_branch=1 Filmed at Sticky Paws Studios: https://m.youtube.com/channel/UComrBVcqGLDs3Ue-yWAft8w 0:00 Intro 0:42 Upbringing and home invasion charges 6:08 Getting into boxing 7:12 Going to college at Arizona State 8:42 17-year-olds on steroids 9:21 School shootings 9:54 *The crack epidemic 11:52 ***Rules were created by weak men 13:54 **Debating a Holocaust denier 15:26 Victim mentality 16:33 ***How do we know the Earth is round? 21:07 Using Illuminati symbology 22:15 **People that are clever with other people are scared 23:50 Being close to Fresh & Fit 25:40 **Women who have good relationships with their fathers 26:49 ***The Prussian system of education 29:40 Respecting Putin and Russia 31:10 Online education 32:59 ***Mike's take on Andrew Tate 40:40 Things are bound to happen when men and women are together 41:50 ***Polygyny 43:48 The Blue Pill Alpha video by Rollo 45:33 The GSS study about sexless men 47:25 Stoicism helped to deal with girls 50:06 **Staying in your lane and league with girls 52:32 Selling drugs and manslaughter 1:07:31 Being charged and arrested 1:09:01 ***How prosecutors make charges 1:11:34 **Jail is worse than prison 1:11:56 Secret indictments 1:14:15 Being processed out 1:15:36 Praying to not knock everybody out 1:17:03 Getting the ankle bracelet removed 1:19:37 Figuring out what to do next 1:24:21 Stature of limitations 1:26:12 Getting to the marshalls 1:28:01 Being in Hell 1:31:32 People don't understand violence 1:32:24 Racial politics in prison 1:34:08 The saddest part about prison 1:35:36 How to carry yourself 1:37:27 Protecting people 1:38:12 Social media content during arrest 1:43:00 Nobody respects a snitch 1:43:57 ***What was the inflexion point where things blew up? 1:46:50 **Online coaching 1:49:56 “The Sacred Society” event 1:51:36 Only good things happen to me 1:52:46 **Self-mastery 1:54:50 Not hating on exes 1:57:46 *The world tells you “no” 1:59:31 ***No desire to listen to Rollo 2:04:22 Debates should not be personal attacks 2:06:02 Three pillars of revenue 2:08:26 Kevin Gates 2:11:55 Outlaws winning 2:14:30 ***Having several women when going out 2:17:50 **Language is an inferior way of communication 2:20:44 Being friends and not adversarial with women 2:22:45 ***Being honest with women 2:28:15 There are tiers of women 2:29:39 Cheating with a couple doesn't count 2:31:35 ***Sleeping with female friends 2:36:04 ***Dealing with haters 2:45:56 Not allowing people in the circle 2:51:15 50 Cent 2:54:32 Hip-hop 2:55:43 Having a younger peer group 2:58:38 Steroids 3:03:25 ***Lifting on an empty stomach 3:06:52 ***Evolution selected for competent and dangerous men 3:10:20 ***Racism 3:15:46 ***The patriarchy 3:19:49 **Minors being able to transition gender 2:23:49 China's military 3:25:09 He wouldn't live anywhere other than the US 3:28:28 The US supporting Ukraine to fight Russia 3:31:26 ***Meditation and visualization 3:39:35 We take scientific advancements for granted 3:41:25 ***The Egg 3:46:39 Social media
Last time we spoke about the battle of the Yalu River. It was an absolutely catastrophic week for the Qing dynasty. Within just two days they suffered a major land defeat and now a defeat at sea that practically annihilated the Beiyang fleet. Corruption and incompetence ran rampant as the Beiyang fleet crews found themselves undertrained, understaffed, lacking ammunition and what ammunition they did have, some of it was filled with concrete and porcelain. The Qing dynasty's corruption problems were shown on full display as the IJN combined fleet outperformed them, despite having smaller warships and less of them. Quick firing guns defeated the big guns at Yalu and now the Japanese held control over the seas. The Beiyang fleet now flee's to Weihaiwei to try and repair their ships for another chance at a decisive naval battle, but will it ever come to be? #52 The First Sino-Japanese War of 1898-1895 Part 4: The Battle for Port Arthur Welcome to the Fall and Rise of China Podcast, I am your dutiful host Craig Watson. But, before we start I want to also remind you this podcast is only made possible through the efforts of Kings and Generals over at Youtube. Perhaps you want to learn more about the history of Asia? Kings and Generals have an assortment of episodes on history of asia and much more so go give them a look over on Youtube. So please subscribe to Kings and Generals over at Youtube and to continue helping us produce this content please check out www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals. If you are still hungry for some more history related content, over on my channel, the Pacific War Channel where I cover the history of China and Japan from the 19th century until the end of the Pacific War. After the battle of the Yalu River, the Japanese had a enormous boost to their propaganda campaign. Despite this the Qing backed press continued their charade of blemishing the losses, take this article from the North China Herald "In spite of the reiterated denials of the Japanese authorities that any of their vessels were badly injured in the recent naval fight, information which we have been able to gather from quarters entitled to all credence, corroborates in a very circumstantial manner the statement that the Japanese lost four vessels in the actual fight, and more probably later on, as the Chinese heavy guns treated them very severely. The Chinese engaged fought with wonderful bravery; there were no skulkers." Despite their claims, by September the 20th the jig was up for the Qing government as foreign military advisers who had participated or witnessed the battle at Yalu arrived to Tianjin. They began spilling the story to the western press, and unlike the Japanese press, the Qing could not simply write them off as mere propaganda. The foreign press corroborated the Japanese reports that 5 Qing warships were had been sunk and “to a man regard the statement that the Japanese lost no ships as a barefaced lie”. Even the foreign eye witnesses could not believe not a single Japanese ship was sunk. The reports caused severe issues for Beijing. This alongside other issues prompted Emperor Guangxu to take an unprecedented move, he summoned Inspector General Constantin von Hanneken, a Prussian officer who was working as a military adviser to the Beiyang fleet for an imperial audience. Von Hanneken was also one of the engineers who helped build the defenses at Port Arthur known to the Chinese as Lushunkou and at Weihaiwei. He of course was present at the battle of the Yalu and the EMperor demanded to learn what actually transpired from him. It certainly says a lot about your Empire, when you would trust a foreigner over your officials. It is also at this point Japan altered its position on foreign reporters. As mentioned near the beginning of this series, the Japanese opted to have a blackout on news about the war. On August 2nd of 1894 an Imperial Ordinance had been published requiring all newspapers and other publicans to submit any information concerning diplomatic or military affairs to the Japanese government authorities prior to publication. Well after the victories at Pyongyang and Yalu, the Japanese government decided to undermine the Qing war propaganda efforts by allowing foreign correspondence to accompany the IJA. Foreigners would not be given the same accommodation for the Qing ground forces. As explained by a reporter for the Peking and Tientsin times “no one could guarantee the safety of a foreigner accompanying the Chinese troops. Two interpreters accompanying the Second Japanese Army were captured and killed by Chinese forces”. Another major event occurred after the disaster at Yalu, Empress Dowager Cixi abandoned her plans for her extravagant 60th birthday celebration, which really adds to the myth about the embezzlement of naval funds. On September 25th, EMperor Guangxu issued this edict “"H.I.M. the Empress-Dowager, in view of the continuation of the war with Japan, cannot bear to be celebrating her birthday anniversary with great rejoicing while her subjects and soldiers are all suffering from the hardships of war, hence she has commanded that the triumphal progress from Eho [the Summer Palace or Yiheyuan, to the Forbidden City and the celebrations at the former place be given up, and only the ordinary celebrations settled upon in the Palace be observed on the auspicious day. We did our best to try to pray her Majesty to reconsider the above decision, but the grace and virtue of her Majesty has resisted our prayers." It was estimated by the French press that Empress Dowager had spent nearly 80 million francs in preparation for the celebration that was canceled. This is about the time you hear rumors of Empress Dowagers infamous embezzling scandal. It was said by many that she had siphoned naval funds in the figure of 100 million taels which was the reason why the Qing Navy received no significant funding after 1889. As I mentioned in the previous episode, its not so black and white, but indeed the summer palace did see serious renovations. Some of those renovations costs upto 14 million taels and it seems like at least 11 million did come from funds originally dedicated to the navy. There is also a huge amount of irony, as one of these renovations was to refurbish a marble pavilion in the shape of a boat for one of the palace gardens. Too good to be true some would say. The first two key battles of the war were focused on expelling the Chinese from the Korean Peninsula. After the victory at Yalu, the war theater now shifted to Manchuria. The IJA wanted to clear a way from the Korean border to the Liaodong Peninsula in preparation for an attack upon one of her grandest and most important fortresses and naval bases, Port Arthur. The Fortress of Port Arthur took over 16 years to build and its naval station was considered superior to that of Hong Kong. If Port Arthur were to fall, the Qing would be unable to repair their best damaged ships and would succumb to a naval war of attrition. Guarding the southern shores of the Bohai was China's second most important naval base, that at Weihaiwei. Weihaiwei and Port Arthur worked together to check any sea approaches to Beijing. If both fell, the rest of the war would literally descend into mop up operations. Japan's war plan was to execute a pincer attack against Beijing. Their forces would advance in 3 columns. 1) Part of the 1st IJA would move south through Manchuria towards the Liaodong Peninsula; 2) the 2nd IJA would land on the Liaodong Peninsula and advance upon Port Arthur; 3) another part of the 1st IJA would advance from the Korean border towards Mukden, hoping to seize it and use it as a down payment later on to decapitate the Qing dynasty. Once Port arthur was taken, the 1st IJA would continue their land campaign in Manchuria to clear a path to Beijing while the 2nd IJA would amphibious attack Weihaiwei. If successful this would obliterate the Qing southern naval forces and leave Beijing at their mercy. As a coup de grace, the Japanese were also organizing a 3rd IJA at Hiroshima in anticipation for amphibious landings at Dagu to march upon Beijing. However the Japanese were under no illusions of this all coming to be, they figured great powers would intervene at some point to limit their war aims. The Qing counterstrategy was quite minimal; it rested upon the assumption the Japanese would never be capable of crossing the Yalu River. After their defeat at Pyongyang the Qing ground forces made their next stand 125 miles to the north along the Yalu River. The river constituted the boundary between Korea and China. It was deep and wife, making it a formidable obstacle for the advancing Japanese army. Two fortified outposts faced another fromm opposite sides of the river, one at Jiliancheng on the Manchurian side and the other at Uiji on the Korean side. These became the headquarters for the opposing armies. General Song Qing fortified the northern bank of the Yalu for 7 miles going as far south as Andong and 10 miles north to Hushan. General Song Qing was 74 years old, famous for helping suppress the Taiping 30 years prior. He was one of Li Hongzhang's subordinates during the campaign against the Taiping and Nian rebellion. Since 1880 he had served as an assistant to Li Hongzhang, overseeing the defenses of Manchuria. By 1882 he alongside his troops took up a station at Port Arthur, and apparently there he had done very little to modernize the Manchurian army. After the battle of Pyongyang, Li Hongzhang put him in charge of directing the war and gave him authority to reorganize the army. Meanwhile the 1st IJA led by Field Marshal Count Yamagata Aritomo departed from Pyongyang on October 23rd. The 56 year old Yamagata was the father of the modern Japanese army, a leading Meiji era statesman. He had overseen the introduction of national conscription in 1873, the reorganization of the army along first French, then Prussian lines in 1878 and the adoption of an independent General staff system. During the 1880s he also oversaw the organization of the national police force and system of local government. He was prime minister from 1889-1891, during his time he introduced the imperial rescript on education. So needless to say he was a colossal figure. His plan was based on Napoleons successful tactic of making a feint to the front while delivering a blow to the flank, this time directed at Hushan. He planned to use a small force to attack the Qing left flank, in the hopes of turning its flank and feinting the movements of the main bulk of his army. The main bulk would concentrate on the center of the Qing lines. But to do all of this, he had to cross the Yalu. The Japanese had learned bitter lessons about fording large rivers at Pyongyang, they could have massively lost the battle because they never prepared the tools to ford such things. This time the IJA carefully prepared themselves. Yamagata occupied Uiju by October 23rd with around 10,000 troops of the 3rd and 5th divisions of the 1st IJA. On the other side of the Yalu, General Song Qing had 16 km's of fortifications in the form of hundreds of redoubts and trenches manned by nearly 23,000 troops. On the night of October 24th, the Japanese crept up to the Yalu river near Uiji and secretly erected a pontoon bridge to get the main body of their forces across. Miraculously this went undetected. The IJA 3rd division led by General Katsuro Taro performed a night attack against Hushan. Incredibly, upon attacking Hushan, the Japanese found the Qing garrison had deserted their fortifications the night before! Simultaneously the IJA 5th division led by General Nozu Michitsura sent his men over the pontoon bridge and attacked Jiuliancheng, also finding positions deserted. In fact only a Qing rear guard even bothered to make a token resistance! In less than 3 hours of combat the fortifications at Hushan and Juliancheng were already in Japanese hands? According to a military analyst named Du Boulay, "The Chinese garrison [at Jiuliancheng] which might have inflicted great damage on the hostile army from behind battlements of solid masonry, silently decamped during the night, keeping up a desultory fire in the meantime, in order to encourage the belief that they intended to retain possession of the stronghold." When the Japanese came to Dandong the situation was the very same. The Qing had abandoned enormous quantities of weapons, rice and other war materials. The battle to stop the Japanese from entering Manchuria resulted in about 34 deaths and 111 wounded or the Qing and practically nothing for the Japanese. It had turned out the field commanders, Generals Yikteang'a, Ye Zhicheng and Nie Shicheng had all retreated to Fenghuangcheng. Yiketang'a was a Manchu general in control of banner forces from Heilongjiang province and not under direct command of Li Hongzhang. The 1st IJA split into two groups to pursue the fleeing Qing forces. One group was commanded by Lt General Taro who advanced northwards towards Fenghuangcheng chasing after General Nie Shichengs men. At Fenghuangcheng, Yiketang and Nie chose to torch the city and fled the scene by October 30th. By November 15th, the Japanese seized Xiuyan just due west of Fenghuangcheng. By taking both these cities the land approaches to Port Arthur were now severed. Meanwhile the other Japanese group led by Lt General Oku Yasukata were advancing north towards Mukden. Severe winter conditions began to hit the region as General SOng Qing moved his forces to Liaoyang to block the Japanese advance upon Mukden. Because of the descending winter, both sides went into winter quarters. The Qing sources at this point stopped claiming victories, and instead began presenting events as brave encounters against overwhelmingly superior numbers. Take this from the North China Herald on November 2nd "When the Japanese army of forty odd thousand attacked Chiuliench'eng [Jiuliancheng] on the 24th of October there were only a little over 5,000 Chinese troops to oppose the enemy. But it took the latter two whole days to take the city. When the city was abandoned all the modern Krupp and Hotchkiss guns, over twenty in number, were carried along with the army, the ones left to the enemy being some thirty odd old muzzle-loading pieces, a hundred years old, which had been placed there many years ago as a defence against possible native or Corean marauders." Because of the absence of decent telegraph lines or good roads, communications were extremely slow to come out of the Manchurian campaign. Initial coverage tended to be based more so on rumor than fact, kind of like social media today. It would often take more than a month for a comprehensive account to become known. General Song Qing's forces had retreated in the general direction of Liaoyang to protect Mukden. It was after all the ancestral home of the Manchu, thus it held tremendous symbolic importance for their dynasty. The city could not afford to lose if the Manchu hoped to still control China. But for the Japanese, Mukden was like their trump card to play later, their primary target of course was Port Arthur. The Manchu leadership were following the traditional strategy focusing on the land war and dynastic continuity while overlooking the need to deny the Japanese access to the coast to continue landing their forces. They assumed China's vast territory and population would prove too much for the Japanese Army, that time was on their side and a war of attrition would deliver victory. This was a possibility of course, a strong government could abandon their capital and continue to fight, but the Manchu's fought under the belief they would lose the dynasty if they left the capital too long. If they were absent too long, perhaps the Han would strike a deal with the Japanese. Thus it was imperative to the Manchu they must thwart Japanese landings in China proper; the key to this of course was to deny Japan access to the key ports in Bohai. To do this they had to hold Port Arthur which held the only repair facilities capable of maintaining their best warships. Their land forces needed to concentrate at Port Arthur, not disperse in Manchuria. The next order of business for the Japanese was to seize Jinzhou and then Dalian which were on either neck of the Liaodong Peninsula. Once they were taken the Japanese could launch a land offensive against Port Arthur whose primary defenses anticipated an attack by sea. The 2nd IJA of Major General Nogi Maresuke and Lt General Baron Yamaji Motoharu began arriving at Pi-tse-Wo, present day Pikou along the Liaodong Peninsula on October 24th. Their first objective was Jinzhou, the most important fortified town in southern Fengtian province. It was a major transportation intersection, located at the fork in the road from China proper to the Liaodong Peninsula and Korea. One route followed the western coast of the Peninsula going to Niuzhang and further to parts of the Great Wall of China at Shanhaiguan. The other route went northward to the Yalu River. Jinzhou held a garrison of 1500 soldiers equipped with four 240mm, two 210mm and two 150mm artillery pieces. On November the 6th, General Nogi's men stormed Jinzhou, taking it with very little resistance. Jinzhou was actually quite a tough position to defend because it was surrounded by hills, making it easy for an enemy to position their artillery to batter the fortifications. The next day General Nogi's men advanced upon Dalian. Dalian was garrisoned by 3500 soldiers equipped with 5 forts and batteries consisting of eight 240mm, four 210mm, 6 150mm and two 120mm artillery pieces. It was a formidable fortress and it was taken without a single shot fired. Yes Dalian defenders had all fled to Port Arthur the night prior. Taking Jinzhou and Dalian was literally a cake walk. Dalian was a port town and its dock facilities greatly aided the Japanese supply lines. The Qing defenders of Dalian had left so fast they had even abandoned plans that showed the minefield locations for Port Arthur's defenses. While all of this was going on, the Beiyang fleet and limped back to Port Arthur by early November only to receive orders from Li Hongzhang over in Tianjin, to withdraw to Weihaiwei. It seemed Li Hongzhang did not want to risk another tussle with the IJN combined fleet. Thus Port Arthur would not be reinforced by the Beiyang warships big guns, and to add insult to injury, as the Beiyang fleet was pulling into Weihaiwei, the battleship Zhenyuan struck some rocks at the entrance to her harbor and had to be beached. The only dockyards capable of repairing either of the two giant German built battleships were at Port Arthur, thus one of China's best warships was out of commission. The commander of the Zhenyuan, Commodore Lin Taizeng, who was the grandson of the famous Lin Zexu who had legendary destroyed the crates of Opium that led to the opium wars was so ashamed of what had happened he committed suicide via opium overdose. That is quite the case of bad luck. After the battle of Yalu, both Li Hongzhang and Admiral Ding Ruchang's top priority was the preservation of the Beiyang Fleet. Ding was given instructions throughout the rest of the war to defend the Bohai coast from Weihaiwei to the Yalu, basically this meant protecting Beijing where the Manchu leadership were. This strategy wasted the Beiyang fleet on convoy duty instead of interrupting the IJN transportation of troops and materials to the theater of war. But from the Manchu point of view, the top priority was the protection of the dynasty and their most dangerous enemy was not necessarily the Japanese, but rather the Han population of China. Before the battle would commence over Port Arthur, Colonel J.F Maurice of the British Royal artillery informed the London and China express this “a comparatively small Chinese naval force could make it very difficult for the Japanese to transport large quantities of troops to the Asian mainland. Yet Admiral Ding did nothing to impede their troop build up to assault Port Arthur”. The Japanese Weekly Mail were complete dumbfounded at this time and produced this in an article “"When we begin to think what the loss of Port Arthur would signify for the Chinese Fleet, and what the abandonment of the place to its fate would imply under the circumstances, we can not but marvel at China's apparent inaction. Port Arthur is the only dock in north China. Did it come into Japanese possession, the Chinese war-ships would have no place to go for repairs and consequently dare not risk an engagement. Moreover, Port Arthur alone is not invested. The Japanese are holding the entrance to Pechili [Bohai] Gulf...Yet despite its easy accessibility for purposes of relief, and despite the crippling consequences involved in its capture, the Chinese seem resolved to leave it to its fate." It was unbelievable from the Japanese point of view. The very lifeline of the Japanese military relied upon her sealanes and transport. It was so direly needed, even merchant ships were helping the Japanese military to perform the task and they did so completely undaunted. As explained by the North China Herald “ordinary unarmed merchantmen, have been regularly plying to and fro without any escort, and they could have been waylaid and sent to the bottom time after time had China but risen to the occasion. The movement of the Chinese fleet have throughout the war been. . . utterly and incomprehensibly imbecile. . . The Chinese fleet has not attempted to meet the Japanese fleet in the open sea, or weighed a single anchor to hinder and debar the unprotected transports of Japan passing to and fro with their freight of eager invaders”. After the war, Hilary A Herbert the United States secretary of the navy provided an analysis on China's performance against the Japanese. "China had in this war a chance, and only one chance to win, and that lay in her fleet. To seize this chance required aggressive and daring use of that navy. Instead, China had entered upon a losing game of transporting troops to Korea, the battle ground Japan had chosen, in competition with an enemy, whose lines by sea were shorter and whose transports were as three to one. The result of this game was shortly seen in the numbers that met each other at the battle of Ping Yang [P'ydngyang]. Japan, having beaten China in transporting troops to Korea, was then allowed to choose her own time and place for a sea fight in the battle off the Yalu. The first of the untoward results of the unfortunate policy of scattering her war ships upon which China had embarked, was that she was worsted off Asan [at Feng Island], where three of Japan's ships attacked two of the Chinese vessels." The Chinese were doomed. To defeat Japan, China needed to be aggressive and daring. But the whole incentive system in the Qing dynasty penalized anyone who left its traditional war path, which was losing them said war. To break with the norm, to defy traditions and such, even if met with success in battle meant the creation of enemies within the Qing court. No one was willing to take daring action, not even the champion of China at this time, Li Hongzhang. With Dalian in hand, the Japanese had gained yet another perfect location to have their massive convoys deliver troops and materials. Dalian in many ways was the perfect base of operations to launch an attack upon Port Arthur. Reports began to circulate that within the fortress of Port Arthur, the soldiers had lost all discipline. The foreign military advisor Captain Calder reported this to Li Hongzhang “at Port Arthur with the growing unruliness of the so-called defenders, that the fabric was tottering. The Generals did little else but quarrel amongst themselves and act in opposition. Soldiers were wandering about in mobs, taking pot-shots at electric light lamps and destroying everything in the most wanton way. In some of the smaller forts the soldiers were finding amusement in discharging the smaller guns at everything and anything a small fishing boat for instance”. Before the Japanese made it to Port Arthur, the Chinese defenders of the city began looting it. The North China Herald stated on December 21st "commander of the submarine mines and torpedo corps, in his fright, cut the connecting electric wires and carrying away the firing apparatus immediately fled, his example being well imitated by those under him, so that of the 600 odd torpedoes laid in the harbour not a single one was fired against the enemy. "news of the fall of Port Arthur has been expected every day...Foreigners from Newchwang [Niuzhuang] and Port Arthur give a most deplorable account of the state of things among the common people. All who can are fleeing with such of their possessions as they can take away."" Skirmishes between the Japanese and Chinese began on November 20th on the outskirts around Port Arthur. The next day the main attack began. The Japanese lacked the proper grade and range of ammunition for their larger siege guns, thus the Qing held an enormous advantage in artillery. But the Japanese were able to storm the forts. As reported by the Japan Weekly Mail on December 8th "Chinese gunnery was hopelessly ineffective...What fighting followed was mere carnage...The Chinese officers abandoning their men to their fate, got on board two small steamers that remained in the harbour and put out to sea." It proved unnecessary for the Japanese to besiege the fortress, because the Chinese had given up quickly. The Japanese had begun their assault at midnight on the 21st under some heavy fire initially, but they had stormed all the important landward defenses by noon the following day. Defense by land required coordination among the forts on the semicircle hills surrounding the fortress. But the Chinese were not coordinating, thus the Japanese picked the smaller forts off one by one, turning their fort guns upon the others. Eventually the Japanese took forts closer to Port Arthur and began using their guns on the dockyards and arsenal. The shore fortifications held out a bit longer, but the final one was neutralized by 5pm. During the night of the 22nd, the Chinese defenders began deserting their remaining positions. Most of the Qing officers fled using two small boats in the port, literally ditching their men to their fate. The Qing had abandoned 57 large caliber and 163 small caliber artillery pieces. Within the fortifications and the dockyards were enormous stores of coal that the Japanese would readily take for their warships. The taking of Port Arthur was a colossal victory for Japan. There were outrageous estimates from the Japanese that they had inflicted over 4000 casualties upon the Qing at Port Arthur and only received 300 in return. Regardless of the real figures, it was the turning point of the war from the perspective of the western world. But while it was a grand victory it would represent a defeat for the Japanese. Ever since the sinking of the Kowshing, the Japanese had striven to acquire a reputation for absolute impeccable behavior on the battlefield. Since then they had demonstrated their military prowess, their high degree of civilization and their humane treatment of civilians and POW's. From a public relations viewpoint, they were brilliant. Even the anti-Japanese North China Herald reluctantly had to agree "Official corruption has certainly sapped China's strength and brought about defeat and loss, and Japan's humane treatment has certainly been the chief cause of her victories." Japan had signed the Geneva Convention and Minister of War Marshal Oyama Iwao had alerted the IJA of their responsibilities as such “Japanese soldiers must never forget that however cruel and vindictive the foe may allow himself, he must nevertheless be treated in accordance with the acknowledged rules of civilization; his disabled must be succored and his captured kindly and considerately protected.Our Army fights for the right and in accordance with the principles of civilization. Our enemies are the military forces of the country with which we are at war, not the individuals of the country. Against the force of our foe we must fight with all resolution, but as soon as any of his soldiers surrender, are taken prisoners, or receive wounds, they cease to be enemies, and it becomes our duty to treat them with all kindness." But at Port Arthur the Japanese would fail tremendously. Because of how the Japanese had treated civilians so well, alongside Oyama's publicized promises, countless civilians stayed within Port Arthur when the Japanese took it. When the Japanese patrols first entered the Port Arthur region on November 18th, they came upon mutilated Japanese bodies. Thomas Cowan of the London Times and James Creelman of the New York World were traveling with the Japanese patrol forces and witnessed this. Cowan had this to say "The sight was most revolting and was sufficient to excite revengeful feelings in the hearts of the best disciplined men." Creelman described what they saw when entering Port Arthur “the Japanese troops found the heads of their slain comrades hanging by cords, with the noses and ears gone" and "a rude arch in the main street decorated with bloody Japanese heads." Throughout the war, the IJA would discover severed heads and other mutilated body parts of their fallen comrades, but until Port Arthur they had not taken their revenge it seemed. One particularly bad incident occurred on November 18th when the IJA found a large group of wounded soldiers they had left behind in an area, were severely mutilated with their hands and feet cut off. As one eye witness, James Allan wrote after the war "Strongly as the massacre by the Japanese troops in Port Arthur is to be condemned, there is not the slightest doubt in the world that the Chinese brought it on themselves by their own vindictive savagery towards their enemies...[O]ne of the first things I saw on the morning of the 19th was a pair of [Japanese] corpses suspended by the feet from the branches of a huge camphor tree...They had been disemboweled; the eyes were gouged out, the throat cut, the right hand severed. They were perfectly naked, and groups of children were pelting them with mud and stones." When the Japanese began moving into the region on November 18th, the Qing government had issued bounties on POW's. Up to 50 taels were given for Japanese heads or other body parts. When the Japanese came to the fortress of Port Arthur there were several mutilated body parts of their comrades displayed at the entrance to the city. Several soldiers including Lt Kijiro Nanbu vowed revenge. The IJA entered the city at around 2pm and they began killing everyone who remained in the city. Here is a diary entry from Makio Okabe of the 1st division “As we entered the town of Port Arthur, we saw the head of a Japanese soldier displayed on a wooden stake. This filled us with rage and a desire to crush any Chinese soldier. Anyone we saw in the town, we killed. The streets were filled with corpses, so many they blocked our way. We killed people in their homes; by and large, there wasn't a single house without from three to six dead. Blood was flowing and the smell was awful. We sent out search parties. We shot some, hacked at others. The Chinese troops just dropped their arms and fled. Firing and slashing, it was unbounded joy. At this time, our artillery troops were at the rear, giving three cheers [banzai] for the emperor.” James Allen tells us "Nobody was spared, man, woman, or child, that 1 could see. The Chinese appeared to offer no resistance. Many of them prostrated themselves on the ground before the butchers with abject submission, and were shot or stabbed in that posture. The dead were mostly the townspeople; their valiant defenders seemed to have been able to make themselves scarce.the diabolical orgy of murder and mutilation, rape, lust, and rapine."" Thomas Cowan had this to say during the first day of the cities capture "I was greatly surprised next day to find them still killing the Chinese. They practically routed out the whole of the town: every house was entered and searched; the Chinese were driven out and killed; some were even killed in the houses." The Japanese press tried to place the blame of the massacres upon coolies working for the IJA, but as Cowan explained “The murders were all done by soldiers in uniform; not the work of coolies, so far as I could see." The Japanese press also tried to argue the case that it was difficult to distinguish civilians from combatants, and indeed many Qing soldiers wore civilian clothing, but this did not account for the killing of women and children. Again Cowan tells us "the hillsides around Port Arthur were strewn with their uniforms. I saw scores of Chinese hunted out of cover, shot down and hacked to pieces, and never a man made any attempt to fight...I watched intently for the slightest sign of cause, confident that there must be some, but I saw none whatever. The Japanese perhaps also are barbarous at heart, like the Chinese. To prove it, for the fact remains that a dozen white men saw these Japanese commit these savageries for four clear days after the day of the fight." Western press reports like Cowan were corroborated by diaries from Japanese soldiers. Creelman ran into a Japanese legal advisor named Agria Nagao of the 2nd IJA who told him this "On the night of the second day [of the massacre] the legal adviser of the army told me that Field Marshal Oyama regarded the continued slaughter as quite justifiable. 'Prisoners are a burden.We took a few hundred prisoners at Pingyang [Pyongyang], and we found it very expensive and troublesome to feed and guard them. We are taking practically no prisoners here."'" The massacre lasted several days, and one of the reports many Western audiences would remember was this chilling one from Cowan “Thursday, Friday, Saturday, and Sunday were spent by the soldiery in murder and pillage from dawn to dark, in mutilation, in every conceivable kind of nameless atrocity, until the town became a ghastly Inferno to be remembered with a fearsome shudder until one's dying day. I saw corpses of women and children, three or four in the streets, more in the water ... Bodies of men strewed the streets in hundreds, perhaps thousands, for we could not count – some with not a limb unsevered, some with heads hacked, cross-cut, and split lengthwise, some ripped open, not by chance but with careful precision, down and across, disembowelled and dismembered, with occasionally a dagger or bayonet thrust in the private parts. I saw groups of prisoners tied together in a bunch with their hands behind their backs, riddled with bullets for five minutes and then hewn to pieces. I saw a junk stranded on the beach, filled with fugitives of either sex and of all ages, struck by volley after volley until – I can say no more.” The scale of the killing has long been debated. Figures range dramatically. Scout reports sent by Li Hongzhang placed civilian deaths at 2700 within the city, but this did not account for the countless people slaughtered in the surrounding area. After WW2 the CCP built a cemetery proclaiming the death toll to be 20,000, this figure includes the soldiers as well, but the number has been orthodoxy ever since. Creelman asserted 60,000 were slain, which would have represented the entire population around Port Arthur. It was a atrocious beyond imagination. As Creelman explains in the greater context of national status "The Japanese troops entered Port Arthur on Nov. 21 and massacred practically the entire population in cold blood. The defenseless and unarmed inhabitants were butchered in their houses and their bodies were unspeakably mutilated. There was an unrestrained reign of murder which continued for three days. The whole town was plundered with appalling atrocities. It was the first stain upon Japanese civilization. The Japanese in this instance relapsed into barbarism." Japan's meticulous crafted public image as the only civilized nation in the Far East was shattered. It would even threaten to upset the ratification of an American-Japanese treaty providing japan juridical equality. Japan had undone so much they had worked for in just a few days of senseless slaughter. I would like to take this time to remind you all that this podcast is only made possible through the efforts of Kings and Generals over at Youtube. Please go subscribe to Kings and Generals over at Youtube and to continue helping us produce this content please check out www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals. If you are still hungry after that, give my personal channel a look over at The Pacific War Channel at Youtube, it would mean a lot to me. The victory and capture of Port Arthur was a major turning point of the war, but it represented not just victory but also a defeat in many ways for Japan. Her public image had been shattered by senseless slaughter, would it undue everything?
The war expands and disaster strikes. This episode explores the entry of England and Holland into the revolutionary war, as well as the French invasion of the Dutch Republic in February 1793. As Belgium begins to break, the Austrians and the Prussians unleash a devastating counter-attack, crippling the French military and causing chaos behind the lines. In the resulting disarray, General Dumouriez goes rogue. The consequences of his actions have a direct impact on the Reign of Terror.Episode Extra:Dutch Exiles and Dumouriez's CommissionersEARLY ACCESSEpisode 55 "Civil War in the Vendee"SUPPORT GREY HISTORY! Sponser Grey History and access exclusive bonus episodes, an ad-free feed, and many more fantastic perks. Help do your part ot keep the show on the air!JOIN PATREON HEREOther:Send your questions, praise, and scorn hereSign Up for the Newsletter (Free Bonus Episode)FacebookInstagramTwitter
Genevieve Caufield joins the podcast to speak about the Prussian anchoress and visionary Dorothea of Montau (1347-1394). We talk about the joys of having two "lives" (neither of which say mush about her life), replacing her heart with a fiery lump of flesh, and declarations of orthodoxy.
Last time we spoke about about the emerging war between Big brother China and Little brother Japan. Li Hongzhang struggled to do everything he possible could to thwart the outbreak of war with Japan, but he could not stop the inevitable. The Japanese began landing troops and soon seized King Gojong trying to force Korea to take up the reforms they wanted them to. Li Hongzhang tried to keep the Qing forces at a distance, but the Japanese would not stop reinforcing their position in Korea. Eventually Li Hongzhang decided to play with what he thought was a Japanese bluff, sending further reinforcements to Asan, but the IJN intercepted the transports and disaster struck. The IJN sank the Kowshing and other Qing vessels ushering in the first shots of the First Sino-Japanese War. The Genie was out of the bottle and could not be put back in. #50 The First Sino-Japanese War of 1898-1895 Part 2: The battles of Seonghwan and Pyongyang Welcome to the Fall and Rise of China Podcast, I am your dutiful host Craig Watson. But, before we start I want to also remind you this podcast is only made possible through the efforts of Kings and Generals over at Youtube. Perhaps you want to learn more about the history of Asia? Kings and Generals have an assortment of episodes on history of asia and much more so go give them a look over on Youtube. So please subscribe to Kings and Generals over at Youtube and to continue helping us produce this content please check out www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals. If you are still hungry for some more history related content, over on my channel, the Pacific War Channel where I cover the history of China and Japan from the 19th century until the end of the Pacific War. The battle of Pungdo and sinking of the Kowshing robbed the Qing of 1100 men and 12 pieces of artillery along with other war materials that were needed at Asan. It's important also to remember the major differences between Japan and China when it came to their military forces. The Qing were composed of multiple different forces, as a journalist at Le Journal des debats politiques et litteraires said “there are chinese troops: there is no Chinese army, or rather there are as many armies as there are regions”. I know for those of you listening to the series I repeat the structure of the Qing military too often, but I imagine some people listening only joined us for the First Sino-Japanese War, so welcome and here is how the Qing military works. You have the 1) 8-banners army made up of Manchu, Mongol, Muslim and Han banners, 2) the Green Standard army which can be honestly seen more as a armed police force, made mostly because the 8-banners were very outdated 3) then there is the Yong Ying militias and hired mercenaries 4) lastly we have the foreign training army which are basically private armies held by grand officials like Li Hongzhang. The Yong-Ying's were pretty much the bread and butter, serving as a kind of national guard and sent to hot spots within the empire where rebels would break out. Many of these Yong-Ying types received foreign training thus fall into that 4th category, making them like the cream of the crop. Overall Yong-Ying's and well trained troops make up 10% of the total Qing forces, the Green standards make up the vast majority. Li Hongzhang like I said had a personal army, the Huai Army, created to fight the Taiping back in the 1860's. They were the elites, but as Li aged, he lessened his oversee on them. Adding to Li's age, the Qing court was reluctant to fund such an army, led by a Han no less, who might become too powerful and unseat their Manchu ruled dynasty. I mean they had good reason to worry, Li Hongzhang's teacher Zeng Guofan got to a point he could have done this with his army, he just chose to retire instead, kind of a Sulla thing to do I always find. Now as you can see the Qing military is quite regional in nature with many warlord like figures controlling private armies and the Qing state controlling the less effective forces, it severely lacked unity. So to was the situation of the Qing navy. There were 4 autonomous squadrons: the Beiyang (northern), Nanyang (southern), Fujian and Guangdong. Only the Beiyang possessed a modern fleet based at Weihaiwei and under the control of Li Hongzhang, yes old Li had a lot of firepower. China's arsenals and naval academics were the property of their province of origin and count not be counted on to supply other provinces in the event of…oh I dunno a war. We saw during the Sino-French War of 1884-1885 how this could led to disaster, when Li's Beiyang fleet declined to help the Nanyang fleet. Well, that decision came to bite him right in the ass, as now it would be the Nanyang fleet who would ignore his calls for him. Even within the Beiyang fleet, the guns and ammunition were not standardized. Gunpowder was local and not appropriate for import guns resulting in logistical mayhem. The supply system was likewise very ad hoc and prone to flaws leading to the Beiyang squadron grossly undersupplied. Again another reason for all of this ridiculousness, was the Manchu not wanting the Han military to be strong enough to overthrow them. The Manchu deliberately prevented the creation of a unified national army, it was the basis of their strategy since they defeated the Ming dynasty. The German press would focus on the fundamental weaknesses of the Qing land forces and on the eve of the war an article stated this “the lack of a unified command. Each of the provincial armies was the personal creation of that province's governor. It is naturally in the interest of each [provincial] Viceroy to retain the fruit of his exertions for himself; in no case is he inclined to come to the assistance of a neighbour who is worse provided, and incur the danger of denuding his own province, for whose safety he is responsible with his head. The same system of individual responsibility applied down through the military ranks. It squelched initiative and promoted defensive rather than preemptive action. By this system, common action is virtually excluded." It really was a terrible system, backed by horrific punishment for failure. Punishments ranged from exile to cudgel blows to executions. If you failed to hold your position against an enemy attack you were decapitated. If you destroyed arms the Qing government gave you, you would receive a lethal number of cudgel blows. In an era of slow communications, this made things a nightmare for commanders in the field, you could not retreat because of decapitation and could not destroy your weapons to prevent them from falling into enemy hands. Basically Qing officers would be forced to go into battle as scheduled and stay there until victory or death. In contrast the Japanese as described by the same German article as before "When three decades ago, Japan awoke out of the sleep of her isolation and attached herself to the civilisation of the West, her first care was the re-organisation of her army. The result may truly be called astonishing. The Japanese army is in reality a European force and any one of their army divisions, with the exception of the cavalry, which is small and would look badly mounted, might march through the streets of any town on the Continent, without, at first sight, being recognised as Oriental troops." Though obviously 19th century racist, it indeeds shows how Japan had what we would consider a modern army. The Times of London had this to say about them "They are brave, temperate, patient, and energetic, and though the Chinese might be made, under European officers, as fine soldiers as they are, at this moment they are about 200 years behind them; and, although the victory is not always to the strong, as found out in the Boer campaign, from every data that a soldier can judge by the Japanese should beat the Chinese in Korea with the greatest ease." Indeed the Japanese army was based on the Prussian model, with universal conscription and a standard term for service. They had Murata Type 18 Breech-loading rifles with the same type of ammunition, 75mm field guns and mountain pieces based on Krupp design. While the Qing scrambled for the right ammunition, when it could be found at all because of the rampant corruption involving embezzlement of military funds, the Japanese had excellent materials and logistical capabilities. The Japanese navy was based on the British and French, adopting the Jeune D'école doctrine. While the Qing had some large foreign purchased battleships, the Japanese focused on arming faster cruisers to combat them. Now the Japanese military strategy for this war was to first seize control of the sea so they could transport soldiers to the mainland at will. From there the IJA would invade Korea to expel the Chinese. Once Korea was occupied, Japan would strike at Weihaiwei which would provide naval access to Peking. This could be followed up with an invasion of Zhili province, though that notably would be an enormous task. The IJA invading forces would be in two groups; the 1st IJA under Yamagata Aritomo who would invade Korea and enter Manchuria from the north and the 2nd IJA under Marshal Oyama Iwao who would invade Manchuria from the south and attack the Liaodong Peninsula, hoping to meet the 1st IJA at Weihaiwei afterwards. For both nations the only efficient way to deploy troops to Korea was via the sea. There could be no war if Japan could not ferry her troops, and for China despite sharing landmass, the situation was arguably the same. China had the railway line between Tianjin to the cost and north to Shanhaiguan, but that was as good as it got, it did not reach the Korean border. The road system in Manchuria was terrible adding to the logistical issue. Japan's military got the Japan mail steamship company to lend her 90 steamships to transport the troops to alleviate other warships for military tasks. On the other side, the Chinese merchant fleet which was about ⅓ the size of Japans barely helped them. An article from Berlin's Neue Preussische Zeitung stating “China has 40 troop transports versus Japan's 450”. It was obvious to all, controlling the sea would win the war. The Pall Mall Gazette interviewed a long-time resident of Japan who predicted the war would be won at sea, stating "Which ever side holds the chief commercial ports of Korea...with the capital, completely controls the country. If Japan succeeds at the outset in sweeping the Chinese from those waters...she wins the key to the whole situation. It would be impossible for China to send up troops since the land route entailed an enormous distance where provisioning and feeding a large army would be unmanageable even for a well-organized European nation." Despite all of this, the Chinese leadership believed they held time on their side and that a war of attrition would see them victorious. They also had considerable assets in the Beiyang fleet, such as their two great ironclad battleships, the Dingyuan and Zhenyuan. However the Qing warships were overagged and basically obsolete. The ships were ill maintained, their crews lacked discipline. The Qing ships were much slower than the Japanese. The Qing battleships main armament was short barreled guns in twin barbettes mounted in echelon which could only fire in restricted arcs. Their short barrels meant their shells had a low muzzle velocity, poor penetration and terrible accuracy at long range. The Japanese emphasized quick firing guns, quicker ships and would outfire the Qing dramatically. There is honestly a litany of issues with the Beiyang fleet, take the signals books issued to it, they were all written in English, a language very few Beiyang officers understood. Regardless, I do not want to delve too much on the Beiyang fleet here, because that is certainly going to come about later. When the Japanese began landing forces at Chemulpo, Li Hongzhang had missed a key opportunity to destroy their transports. He made a crucial strategic error, ordering his fleet to sortie east of the Yalu-River, away from the Korean Peninsula. Basically he was trying to minimize any risk to his precious two battleships. He opted to use his fleet to deter attacks and help the Qing convoys of troops. His mindset was that of a “prevent-defeat strategy”, he sought to preserve his navy, this decision ceded the initiative to the Japanese. Now the Japanese could choose the timing and location of hostilities. Obviously Li believed time was on his side and that eventually they would overwhelm the Japanese with pure numbers. He was prolonging as much as he could, there was also a belief the winter months would hurt the Japanese, while the Manchu warriors would hold a distinct advantage. Now as a result of Li Hongzhang trying to thwart further conflict, the Qing had deliberately encamped their forces outside Seoul. General Ye Zhichao had 3000 men stationed at Seonghwan and another 1000 at his HQ in Cheonan, just a bit northeast of Asan. He had been hunkering down awaiting the arrival of reinforcements, but the battle of Pungdo and loss of the Kowshing delivered an enormous setback to this. Major General Oshima had roughly 4000 men with him and he began to march upon Asan from Seoul. Ye Zhichao was very aware of this and had his men erected forts, dug trenches, made earthworks, and flooded surrounding rice paddies. Ze Zhichao planned a pincer attack against Seoul, by massing troops at Pyongyang in the north and Asan in the south. The Japanese divided their forces to make a night attack: a small diversionary force would engage the Qing at the front while the main bulk would march upon their rear flank. The diversionary force consisted of 4 companies of infantry with one engineer who began their attack on the night of July 28th. Meanwhile 9 companies of infantry, 1 cavalry and a battalion of artillery snuck around the Qing defensive lines by crossing the Ansong river. The Qing fought hard but were unable to hold out. The Qing forces at Seonghwan had to flee for their lives back to Asan which was 10 miles southwest, and in doing so they left a large amount of weapons and supplies. The Japanese pursued them to Asan where further disaster struck the Chinese. Despite spending over 3 weeks fortifying the area, it seems their defeat at Seonghwan had broken their morale, as the Qing forces at Asan literally fled upon seeing the Japanese approaching the city. As a result the Japanese took Asan the next day. The Chinese were estimated to have 500 casualties while serving the Japanese 34 deaths and 54 wounded. The Chinese survivors fled towards Pyongyang, which would be a brutal 26 day march as they had to detour widely to avoid being hit by Japanese forces coming out of Seoul. The victory confounded columnists who all came to a similar conclusion that “the Chinese forces fight badly and are ill equipped”. A reporter for the Yokohama based Japan Weekly Mail had this to say : "The Chinese are indeed skilled in the art of running away. As they fled they generally cast off their uniforms and donning the clothes of Koreans made the best of their way to what they considered safe places. The directions toward which they fled are unmistakably indicated by the cast-off uniforms. Even the Vice-commander of the Chinese troops appears to have been tempted to avail himself of this method, for his uniform was left behind in camp." It would be a theme played out during this war. The Qing forces would take the habit of disguising themselves as civilians to escape battles. This would unfortunately result in many Japanese troops not trusting Chinese civilians near battlefields leading to atrocities. It is plain to see why Qing troops did this, as we have already seen, retreating was met with extremely harsh punishment, you were better off trying to escape into the crowd. A commander from the Shanghai based North-China Herald had a different take on the battle of Seonghwan "The Chinese have retired from the Yashan [Asan] district after several day's heavy fighting, 10,000 Japanese against 3,500 Chinese. In the first days, the Japanese met with a sharp reverse and severe losses, the Chinese loss being unimportant. On July 29th the Chinese withdrew, leaving the camp in charge of a guard of 300 men, who were attacked and captured by an overwhelming force of Japanese before dawn. The guard was killed. The Japanese lost 500 men, found only heavy baggage in the camp, and took no prisoners, many Chinese noncombatants in the vicinity being slain." Despite such claims, the Japanese had not engaged a small guard at Asan, it was the main body of Qing forces. The Qing had been handily defeated and alongside the men lost a ton of equipment. The Qing court had no way of knowing any of this however, because of the cell like structure of their military, who would simply report back to them victories or very minor defeats. In fact on August 3rd, General Ye Zhichao was congratulated in an imperial decree for quote “killing over 2000 Woren”, he received bonus payment for himself and his troops. Later on when the Qing court figured out what really happened, General Ye would escape decapitation only because he used the bonus payments to pay off officials to speak on his behalf. From the offset of the war the Qing government had a policy of publicizing false war bulletins, but the realities of what was actually happening on the battlefields could not be concealed from the western viewers. Every battle was reported a Chinese triumph in China and this actually was very reminiscent of our tale of the French-Sino War. A small article sprang up from a British reporter in Shanghai stating this "I read somewhere during the Franco-Chinese war [of 1884-5] the native papers of Shanghai reported the death of Admiral Courbet thirty-seven times, while the number of the killed among the French, according to these reliable (?) sheets reached 1,600,000. The amount of falsehood which these papers have poured forth since the commencement of the 'War of Pygmies and Pigtails' is simply astounding. O, that the word liar' had the same force in Chinese as in English for no other purpose than to enable one to tell a celestial, You are a liar!'" There are a wide variety of reasons the Qing government pumped up the propaganda this way. Ironically a major reason was because of their policy of decapitating defeated commanders. The Qing court officials also had barely any real knowledge of what was going on because 1) all the commanders were sending false reports back to them and 2) when defeated commanders were brought back to Beijing, they were beheaded so fast they never got to make real reports of what occurred on the battlefield. The court would only really begin to figure things out in times of war when the battles got closer to Beijing! And above all else, the Qing court could not allow the bad reports to get to the Han public out of fear they would rise up to topple their Manchu rule, something that remained their top obsession throughout the Dynasties lifetime. After the defeat at Asan a rumor emerged that the Emperor had demoted Li Hongzhang by stripping him of the Order of the Yellow Riding Jacket. Many speculated Li was demoted because he failed to thwart war. Regardless Li Hongzhangs presumed demotion cast a shadow over his ability to perform official dealings. Li Hongzhang would tragically become a very useful Han scapegoat for the Qing dynasty. Now while the loss at Asan meant the Qing plan to perform a pincer attack against Seoul was lost, it certainly did not mean the loss of Korea however. The bulk of Qing forces were stationed at Pyongyang, the old capital of Korea. The city sat on the right bank of the Taedong River which was large enough to provide a shipping route to the sea. Holding Pyongyang was imperative, it defended the approach to the Yalu river and behind that lay Manchuria, Qing soil. Pyongyang was surrounded by the wide river to the east and south, with cliffs along the river banks, mountains to the north and the massive city with fortified walls that could prolong a siege. The Qing seemed to hold all the major advantages, they had been massing troops and supplies and constructing fortifications at Pyongyang for almost 2 months. Altogether the Qing had 13,000 troops dispersed at 27 forts surrounded by trenches and moats. The majority of the Qing troops also arrived to Pyongyang by boat, while the Japanese all have to trek overland, via miserable Korean roadways crossing mountains and rivers. The Qing had invested a lot in Pyongyang because they were not just defending the city, they intended to recapture the rest of Korea using it as a main base, thus it was given their most modern equipment. Some Qing troops would carry American Winchester rifles, they had in total four artillery pieces, 6 machine guns and 28 mountain guns. On paper this looked wonderful for them, however there were serious problems. The reality of the situation was summed up just prior to the battle by the Pall Mall Gazette s "from more than one source agree that the Chinese army in Northern Korea is in a deplorable condition. The generals are said to be grossly incompetent, the minor officers discontented and disheartened, and the rank and file exhausted and dispirited. What roads there were a month ago have been washed away by floods. Transport through Manchuria to Korea is impossible; guns, ammunition, and food stores are blocked, and spoiling all along the long route southward. Food is becoming scarcer every day at the front.” The four Chinese commanders at Pyongyang each commanded their own army, but none adequately coordinated with the others. When the Japanese attacked, they did parcel out static defensive sectors, but this became more of a hindrance than help. Their plan was very simple: if their lines failed to hold out at Pyongyang, surely they would be able to hold out at Yalu….yes great plan. The Qing commanders in the field had no real worst-case scenario plans. Weak logistics and organization plagued the Qing forces throughout the war. Now for the Japanese, Pyongyang held symbolic importance going all the way back to Toyotomi Hideyoshi's invasion during the 16th century. After the victory at Seonghwan, the Japanese held a reinforced brigade about 8000 strong within Korea led by General Oshima. Around 7000 of these troops were concentrated around Seoul and Chemulpo. The Japanese controlled southern Korea and it was time to expel the Chinese from it completely. The Japanese had 4 routes to march upon Pyongyang from; one via Chemulpo; one from Pusan; one from Wonsan and another done amphibiously, by landing on the eastern coast near the mouth of the Taedong River. The Japanese were hard pressed for time, as every day could see more Qing forces marching into Korea from Manchuria. Thus the route from Pusan was rejected and they opted for sending the bulk of their forces to march from CHemulpo on the west coast and two smaller forces from Wonsan on the east. The idea to land forces at the mouth of the Taedong river was not rejected outright, but they were going to only consider it as a last resort. The Chemulpo force would be the 1st Army led by Marshal Yamagata Aritomo consisting of the 5th provisional Hiroshima division led by Lt General Nozu Michitsura and the 3rd provisional Nagoya division led by General Katsura Taro. Although Aritomo held overall command, he did not land at Chemulpo until September 12th, thus Lt General Nozu commanded the 1st Army against Pyongyang. His Wonson column was led by Colonel Sato Tadashi; another from Sangnyong was led by Major General Tatsumi Naobumi with the Combined Brigade led by Major General Oshima Yoshimasa. Nozu's plan was for the combined brigade to make a frontal assault from the south, while his main division attacked from the southwest and flanking maneuvers would be carried out by the two columns. On September 15th approximately 10,000 Japanese troops made a three-pronged attack on Pyongyang. At 4:30am on the 15th, the attack began from the east with an artillery barrage on the forts along the west bank of the Taedong river to divert the Chinese attention from the main attack. The Japanese feigned an attack from the south while Nozu and Oshima performed flanking maneuvers to deliver a massive blow from the north. The Japanese army's main bulk designated to hit from the southwest would actually not end up participating in the main attack that broke through the principal Chinese fortifications. The fighting was fierce, with the Chinese launching repeated cavalry charges, igniting prearranged blazes, picture the scene from the last samurai if you saw that amazing film, by the way I did a review of it on the pacific war channel hint hint. The Japanese found themselves in blazes of fire and repeatedly being charged upon by cavalry units and while it was certainly valiant and showcased the bravery of the Qing forces, it was unbelievably stupid. The Qing had not taken advantage of the natural barrier that was the Taedong river and literally charged into the field, instead of forcing the Japanese to march through a muddy nightmare. There was no attempt to attack the Japanese columns as they crossed the river when they were extremely vulnerable. The Japanese had utterly failed to prepare the necessary equipment for crossing the Taedong river, they had no pontoon bridges so they ended up just stealing Korean river boats to ferry troops in secret. This was an enormous opportunity to smash the Japanese, but the Qing utterly failed to grab it. The Japanese successfully deceived the Chinese as to where their main attack was coming from. The 24 hour long battle saw heavy rain, causing massive amounts of mud for the Japanese to march through. The Japanese artillery was too far back initially to be effective, leading the vanguard troops who had taken the first line of Qing defense, some earthworks to abandon them in the morning. This ironically caused the Qing to begin writing reports to the Chinese press that they had already won the battle and that the Japanese were even fleeing. In reality the Columns from Wonsan and Sangnyong had seized the major fortress at Moktan-tei, due north of Pyongyang, giving the Japanese a position to bring their artillery to bare upon the city walls. Once their artillery began raining hell from Moktan-tei the Qing's defensive position was shattered and they offered their surrender at 4:30 on the 15th. During the night many Qing forces tried to flee for the coast and border town of Wiju along the lower reaches of the Yalu river. Japanese snipers killed large numbers of the fleeing Chinese as they did. As a result of the surrender, in the morning two Japanese columns entered the northern gate of the city unopposed, but because there was no way to communicate this with rest of the forces, the main bulk of the Japanese army continued its attack against the city's west gate. Later that day they would find it all undefended to their surprise. Later that morning the Combined brigade entered the city through the south gate. After seizing control of the city it was estimated the Qing casualties were around 2000 killed with 4000 wounded while the Japanese only reported 102 deaths and 433 wounded. 700 Chinese were taken prisoner, many escaped north fleeing for the Yalu. Many believed “the flower of the Chinese army was all but annihilated at Pyongyang”, indeed Li Hongzhang's elite Huai army with the best equipment had lost there. Though there was also rumors in China that Li Hongzhang actually held back his best troops. A reporter at the Japan Weekly Mail had this to say : "What resistance was made could not have been very great. This is the more surprising, as the Chinese took possession of the city on the 4th of August and had ample time to thoroughly entrench themselves." Commander of the British Royal Artillery at Colchester, Colonel J.F Maurice had this to say about the battle "Field Marshal Yamagata has conducted the campaign in the most brilliant manner, and his tactics would not have disgraced a Western general." One article from the North China Herald noted the ethnic loyalties that did not look too good for the Manchu “ Troops under the Moslem general Zuo Baogui had fought very well until he had perished in combat. In contrast, the Manchu troops have hitherto proved themselves utterly untrustworthy. The Jilin Manchus are far more intent on hunting for something to fill their opium pipes, than on doing anything to uphold the dynasty which has pampered them for so long a time that they seem to have concluded that the dynasty exists for their special benefit. The forces of the Jilin division remained under the separate command of a Manchu general. The Manchu forces at Pyongyang "retreated almost intact" rather than fight." Indeed the Muslim General Zuo Baogui, a Shandong citizen died in action from Japanese artillery and a memorial was constructed for him. It did not look good for the Manchu, and countless Han readers would have been ignited with bitterness about this. At Pyongyang it was reported, the Qing left behind 35 good field guns, hundreds of magazine rifles, hundreds of breechloaders, 2000 tents and 1700 horses. The magazine rifles were noted to be superior to the Japanese Murata rifles. Hallmarks of the Qing campaign for the war were present at Pyongyang; the abandonment of large quantities of war supplies; the looting and abuse of local civilian populations; the torture and mutilations of POW's and the use of civilian attire to flee the scene. up the abandoned supplies. The New York Times described the fleeing Chinese as "only too apparent. Rifles, swords, and ammunition, which they had thrown away in their haste to escape, were constantly being found. The fugitives had acted the part of bandits. Villages had been pillaged and afterwards set on fire. Farms had been destroyed and all the stored produce burned. The Korean natives who had resisted the robbers had been ruthlessly slaughtered. Many bodies were found hacked with spear thrusts. The whole line of retreat was one scene of desolation."According to a reporter at Moskovskie vedomosti, "The people fear Chinese soldiers much more than the invasion by the Japanese." The Qing troops had little choice but to plunder or starve because their military's logistics were frankly a joke. Plunder was the only solution for the Chinese soldier while the Japanese soldier had a modern logistical line keeping them going. Western observations were notably disgusting with how the Qing treated POW's, after all many nations had signed the August 22nd 1864 Geneva convention mandating the protection of POW's. But in retrospect, the Qing could not even take care of their own forces let alone the mouths of the enemy. There was also the issue of how the Qing had an official reward system built on payment per head. However that does not explain the wide ranging atrocities committed such as disembowelment, removal of facial features, extraction of livers, cutting off of penises and so on. The Qing penal code held insurrection to be “the worst of the ten abominations” and the Chinese most likely considered the Japanese actions to be basically an insurrection against their confucian order meriting the most severe punishments. Punishments under the penal code short of execution included cangue, handcuffs, shackles, caning, ankle crushers, finger crushers, the Chinese rack and the ever favorite prolong kneeling on chains. A lot of the horror was due to the Chinese views of their own cultural supremacy and disgust for barbarians. The American secretary of state ordered his consul in Shanghai to hand over to the Qing authorities two Japanese found spying. The Qing officials promised no harm would come to them, but we are left with this account. “The tortures included kneeling on chains while their captors stood on their legs, the removal of fingernails, the crushing of tongues, the pouring of boiling water on their handcuffed wrists until the metal reached the bone, the smashing of their groins, and decapitation just before they expired from all the other abuses” The Japanese coming off the bad publicity of the Kowshing incident took the opportunity to earn recognition from the west by showcasing how their modern Japanese medical units treated the Chinese POW's with utmost care. The Japanese military transported around 600 POW's to Tokyo, 111 of whom were sick or wounded who notably received top quality care. A correspondent from The Japan Weekly Mail had this to say "What has proved a thousand times more interesting to me is the way the Chinese prisoners and wounded have been treated, and for this I hardly know how to express my admiration...I had some conversation with a captured commander. He said he could not understand the meaning of the Japanese kindness...I went from there to the hospital for wounded Chinese. They were treated exactly as if they were Japanese...I do not see how Japan can be refused the place she rightly claims among the civilized nations of the world." Again, this is from a Japanese correspondent. After the battle of Pyongyang, there would be scant to no reports about the welfare of Qing POW's. Diaries from Japanese soldiers after the war would indicate the Japanese were not interested in taking POW's since they would just burden their supply lines as they marched deeper into Manchuria. I would like to take this time to remind you all that this podcast is only made possible through the efforts of Kings and Generals over at Youtube. Please go subscribe to Kings and Generals over at Youtube and to continue helping us produce this content please check out www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals. If you are still hungry after that, give my personal channel a look over at The Pacific War Channel at Youtube, it would mean a lot to me. The battles of Seonghwan and Pyongyang have caused the Qing forces to flee all the way to the last existing natural barrier before Manchuria, the Yalu River. While the Qing be able to stop the Japanese from marching upon their land?
In this episode, Mick chats with scholar and author Dr Jade McGlynn from King's College London's War Studies department. They discuss her book on the Russian-Ukrainian War, Russia's War. Mick and Jade discuss the Russian population's perceptions of the war in Ukraine. Jade provides a confronting answer to the final question. You can also grab a book & crack on here. Apple Premium Subscribers can access the extended version of this episode through the Apple Podcast App.
Welcome to The ET Podcast, today we're talking about the Prussian Education System and the selfishness behind it. 0:00 0:16 (Intro) 1:48 (Prussian Education) 39:28 (ETification) 46:04 (Outro) Head over to https://gratefulapparel.com and use the code ET23 for 15% off your next purchase. Thanks for joining us! If you enjoyed this conversation be sure to like and subscribe to see more special guests, pod-lucks, and conversations! The ET Podcast puts the spotlight on actual influencers, who are really making a positive change in the world. We also discuss, review, and get into the truth about all things biblical, pop culture, and fun. Join in on a new convo with Erick & Tré every other Tuesday. #Podcast #ETPodcast #Episode180
Among the world's harrowing marine survival stories, the strangest might be a crew's escape from one of the earliest submarines. It was 1851, and the 26-foot-long sub, designed and captained by a Prussian carpenter, was powered by a couple sailors spinning treadwheels. When the vessel floundered during a trial run and began sinking to the bottom of a German harbor, there was only one very frightening way to get out alive—which is why the crew got into what was almost certainly the first-ever underwater fistfight. Please tell us what you think about the show and how we can make it better. Fill out a brief survey at outsideonline.com/podsurvey. The Outside Podcast is made possible by Outside+ subscribers. Learn about the many benefits of a subscription and sign up now at outsideonline.com/podplus.
Prussian immigrant Louis Wagner came to America hoping to make a better life for himself. Working as a fisherman in the Isle of Shoals it seemed he was living the dream, until he found himself down on his luck.See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
“No, not quite naked. I shall have my uniform on.” Curious last words of King Frederick William I of Prussia (1713-40) Paul and Mikey kick off Season 3 by going Prussian! Join them as they cast a quizzical eye over the man they called the ‘Soldier King'.See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
In this episode, Mick chats with scholar and author Natalia Wojtowicz about her book, Wargaming Experiences: Notes from a Wargaming Lecturer. Mick and Natalie discuss the intricacies of wargaming and the differences between civilian and military approaches. Natalia provides an insightful answer to the final question. You can also grab a book & crack on here.
Sesión con el tercero de los repasos de discos que, en 2023, cumplen diez años DAFT PUNK - Get Lucky DISCLOSURE - When A Fire Starts To Burn ICONA POP tf CHARLI XCX - I Love It NIN – Everything COLD WAR KIDS - Miracle Mile BABYSHAMBLES - Nothing Comes To Nothing BEST COAST - I Don't Know How ROBIN THICKE ft T.I. & PHARRELL WILLIAMS – Blurred Lines (Buffetlibre Remix) THE ROYAL CONCEPT – Gimme Twice SMILE – City Girl PIXIES - Green And Blues FOXYGEN - We Are The 21st Century Ambassadors Of Peace And Magic NIÑO Y PISTOLA – By The Grace Of God THE STRYPES - What A Shame JAKE BUGG – Me and You THE PRUSSIANS – The Hills Escuchar audio
Mark is joined by the comedian and actor Miles Jupp for a special Coronation edition of the podcast. In an extended interview, Mark and Miles discuss the big ideas of monarchy, religion – and whether David Attenborough secretly likes to go fly-tipping. Plus, there's Mark's take on what the Coronation ceremony itself will involve, including the Wolverhampton Dragoon Guards of the Prussian battalions of the Noble Emissaries of Mansfield. Oh – and masturbating hedgehogs.Get ad-free extended episodes, early access and exclusive content on Patreon:https://www.patreon.com/wtfisgoingonpodFollow What The F*** Is Going On? with Mark Steel on Twitter @wtfisgoingonpodFollow Elliot Steel @elliotsteelcom and his podcast @BtecPhilosophAnd visit our website www.whatthefisgoingonpodcast.co.uk for more information. Get bonus content on Patreon Hosted on Acast. See acast.com/privacy for more information.
Episode Synopsis Does science have ultimate authority on truth and reality, or is it being weaponized to constrict the thinking and dumb down the masses? We talk about this and much more, including: Does science have any limitaions? Are there any superpowers now or in history that reject the supernatural? What do the Egyptians, Greeks, Nazis and N.A.S.A have in common? How does the Prussian educational model effect our understanding of science? How do we “know” that we can “know” anything? What are the philosophic presuppositional underpinnings to science? Does all of this move us to a desired end? Is Jesus really the answer to the problem? Original Air Date April 26th, 2023 Show Hosts Jason Spears & Christopher Dean Our Patreon Consider joining our Patreon Squad and becoming a Tier Operator to help support the show and get access to exclusive content like: Links and Resources Studio Notes A monthly Zoom call with Jason and Christopher And More… Connect With Us LetsTalk@ORPpodcast.com Facebook Instagram Click Here to Listen to our Episodes Via the Web
In this episode, Mick chats with former author Heidi Langbein-Allan about her debut book, Save the Last Bullet, a historical memoir co-authored with her father about his experiences as a boy soldier in Nazi Germany. Mick and Heidi discuss the indoctrination and use, and abuse, of children in Hitler's regime and the profound effect it had on her father as he dedicated his life to fighting fascism. Heidi provides an insightful answer to the final question. You can also grab a book & crack on here.
April 23: Saint Adalbert, Bishop and Martyr 956–997 Optional Memorial; Liturgical Color: Red Patron Saint of the Czech Republic and Poland Pagans cut down a courageous bishop in the frozen North Old, stodgy, traditional Catholic Europe in tension with new, liberal, flexible Europe is not a new dichotomy. A millennium ago the roles were reversed. It was old, stodgy, traditional pagan Europe in tension with new, groundbreaking, and progressive Catholic Europe. As the missionary monks, abbots, and bishops of Europe fanned out, ever northward and ever eastward, into upper Germany, Scandinavia, Poland, and the Baltics, they met the warrior tribes and painted chieftains of old Europe, men with skin like bark. These forest clans gathered in sacred groves to offer sacrifice to their pagan idols under the broad canopies of large oaks. In these open- air temples, they butchered prisoners of war and cattle in offerings to their dark powers, sprinkling the blood of the slain on their bodies. Yet from the eighth through the eleventh centuries, missionaries poured into these remote lands, shining the light of the Gospel into its darkest corners. Teutonic and Norse paganism, for all of its unwritten creeds of courage and manliness, was doomed. It was strong, but the Church was stronger. Paganism could not stop vital, solid, well-organized Catholicism with its coherent monotheism, sacred worship, Ten Commandments, self-sacrificing missionaries, and its Gospel of love and respect for all. The Catholic Church does not arrive to a mission territory, however, as a full-fledged institution. The Church arrives in a person who embodies all that the Church teaches and symbolizes. This person is the Church to those he encounters. Today's saint was one of the first missionary bishops to penetrate into the lands of Prussia, in Northeastern Germany. And for daring to preach the Gospel to coarse men, he was murdered on the frigid coast of the Baltic Sea. The Prussians thought he was a Polish spy, and a pagan priest upset at the disruptions Adalbert was causing in Prussian society commanded his death. Saint Adalbert's lifeless body was ransomed for its weight in gold by a Polish king and returned to Poland. He was eventually canonized as Saint Adalbert of Prague, since he was born and raised in Bohemia. He remains a saint equally claimed by both the Polish and Czech people and a seminal figure in early medieval Europe. Courageous men like Saint Adalbert don't just happen. They are forged over time in red hot fires. Adalbert had a long, difficult, and interesting ecclesiastical career before giving his life for the faith. He was baptized as Vojtěch. But he was so impressed with the saintly German Bishop named Adalbert who taught him, that he took his tutor's name at Confirmation. Adalbert was then named Bishop of Prague at a young age, a consecration whose responsibilities turned him into a far more serious Christian. He quickly matured into his exalted vocation. Bishop Adalbert started aggressively challenging the people of his diocese to shed their pre-Christian customs and to learn what it meant to be true children of God. But Adalbert had a strong temperament and came from a noble family with serious enemies, all of which led him to abandon his diocese twice and flee to Rome. In the Eternal City, he came to know the Benedictines and lived as a monk for several months. Later he would establish Benedictine monasteries in the North in the hope of holding the Christian ground he gained. And to the North he always returned: to Bohemia, to Germany, to Hungary, and to Poland. He was a multilingual and multicultural Pan Slavic Bishop fully equipped to evangelize throughout Central and Eastern Europe. The rough Prussian people who murdered Adalbert were not fully conquered and converted until 1239, when the Teutonic Knights planted themselves in that land more than two hundred years after Saint Adalbert's death. Yet somebody had to take the first step on the long journey of converting the Prussians. Someone first had to hear “No” a thousand times before someone unknown, much later, ever heard “Yes.” Adalbert heard “No” first and died for it. His body absorbed the blows so that other bodies could walk safely. His suffering and death proved that he, an educated man, was just as sturdy as the rugged men he sought to convert, and so was worthy of adding the title of martyr to that of bishop and monk. Saint Adalbert, we ask that you intercede before God to make all missionaries as courageous as you were, willing to place themselves in difficult situations for the good of the Church. By your example, may we be brave witnesses to the fact that death is sometimes preferable to life.
Synopsis On today's date in 1892, the Adamowski Quartet gave a concert in Boston that included two movements from a String Quartet by a 32-year old composer named Charles Martin Loeffler. For the past 10 years, Loeffler had been the associate concertmaster of the Boston Symphony, and just the previous year they had premiered his first orchestral piece. Loeffler told people he was born in the Alsace region of France in 1861, which would account for his French manners and the French titles he gave some of his pieces. In fact, Loeffler was born in Berlin, but he never forgave the Prussians for the political persecution and imprisonment of his father, and left Berlin for Paris as soon as he could. In 1881, at the age of 20, Loeffler came to the United States, where, as he put it, he found Americans “quick to reward genuine musical merit and to reward it far more generously than Europe.” In 1887, he became an American citizen, and in short order established himself as one of our leading composers. After his death in 1935, Loeffler's music fell into neglect for many decades, but his elegant and well-crafted music is attracting renewed interest—and recordings—today. Music Played in Today's Program Charles Martin Loeffler (1861 – 1935) String Quartet in a DaVinci Quartet Naxos 8.559077
For transcriptions and more detailed shownotes, please go to: https://swordschool.com/podcast/you-cant-learn-swordfighting-from-a-book-with-dr-antti-ijas/ To support the show, come join the Patrons at https://www.patreon.com/theswordguy Dr. Antti Ijäs is a grant-funded researcher, whose recent doctoral dissertation is a scholarly examination of Royal Armouries MS I.33 and includes a complete transcription and translation of the entire manuscript. In our conversation we talk about 1.33 as the first, complete, fight book and its position in the wider fencing context of the time. We compare it to later sources but also talk about much earlier ones, all the way back to the Ancient Greeks. Antti has written an article, Greek Papyri of Pragmatic Literature on Combat Technique (P. Oxy. III 466 and LXXIX 5204) about two papyri fragments of a book on wrestling. Which of course leads us on to talking about Ancient Greek sex manuals… Changing the subject, Antti is also a practitioner of bayonet fencing, and we talk about the development of competing methods in Europe, with the Swedes, Prussians and Saxons (and others) each coming up with their own systems.
Dietrich Heinrich von Bülow (1757–1807) was called ‘everything from a conceited crank to the founder of modern military science' (R R Palmer). Probably the last Prussian strategist to sympathise with the French Revolution, he had a keen interest in the relationship between political aims and war as their instrument, and in geopolitics: he correctly prophesied that the 19th century would produce in Europe the smallest number of states since states came into being, after the territorial expansion of the strong by conquering or annexing smaller powers. Von Bülow's Spirit of the Modern System of War combined geopolitics with geographic considerations, ideas about the balance of power in Europe and geometric treatises on how to calculate and establish the best chances of success in battle by focusing on magazines and lines of supply and movement. He was unfairly ridiculed for his geometric approach by Clausewitz, who, at the same time, borrowed Bülow's main tenet: ‘If something can be effected by force and cannot be achieved by negotiations, diplomacy turns into war, or conflict with reasons becomes conflict with physical forces'. And he concluded: ‘war is a means for the achievement of diplomatic aims'. Sound familiar? This week's guest on Talking Strategy, Dr Arthur Kuhle, studied History and Arts History at the Universities of Berlin and Belfast from 2006 to 2012. He completed his PhD at the Humboldt University Berlin on the intellectual predecessors of Carl von Clausewitz, a work subsequently published in German. After working at the University of Göttingen for some time, he is now engaged in research on the history of the climate of the Himalayas and its relevance for the emergence of early civilisations there.
For this special episode the Rev'd Dr Jamie Franklin was joined by Robin Monotti Graziadei, the producer of the new film 'The Book of Vision' starring Charles Dance and Lotte Verbeek, directed by Carlo Hinterman and executively produced by Terrence Malick.The Book of Vision is about healing, medicine and the human soul. It tells the story of a real Prussian doctor from the eighteenth century whose approach was medicine was one of listening and developing a human connection with his patients. This approach is contrasted with the emerging modern idea of human beings as machines that simply need to be tinkered with in order to produce health.Robin and Jamie talked about the relevance of the film's themes to the response to Covid-19 and what that response revealed about society's understanding of healing, health and medicine. They also spoke about the importance of a holistic approach to health that involves not only preventing ourselves from becoming ill but cultivating and nourishing our souls as well as our bodies.Support us on Patreon (https://www.patreon.com/irreverend) or Buy Me a Coffee (https://www.buymeacoffee.com/irreverend)For your merchandise needs: https://irreverendmerch.bss.designLinks:Prevent Watchdog Blacklist: CS Lewis and more details on the list Gary Lineker owns the inept BBCSNP Leadership - Humza Yusuf, up to birth sex-selective abortion Notices:Find links to our episodes, social media accounts and ways to support us at https://www.irreverendpod.com!Thursday Circles: http://thursdaycircle.comJamie's Good Things Substack: https://jamiefranklin.substack.comIrreverend Sermon Audio: https://irreverendsermonaudio.buzzsprout.comSupport the show
After a blustery week of wild, mad, March weather, why not join us tonight as we enjoy a sunny moment beside the canal and contemplate on the powerful word-play of some very old Celtic bards. Journal entry: 17th March, Friday“The sun is warm To the west the clouds are Prussian blue Like mountains of the imagination. A woodpecker laughs From somewhere across the fields Which fill with lambs And the sound of young Calling to old. A branch hangs whose scars are unhidden.”Episode Information:In this episode I read extracts from the following poems:Amergin Glúingel: ‘The song of Armergin'Taliesin: ‘An Unwelcome crowd.'In also briefly refer to the following:Miles Hadfield's (1950) An English Almanac published by JM Dent and Sons. Alexandra Harris' (2015) Weatherland published by Thames and Hudson. Hana Videen's (2022) The Wordhord: Daily Life in Old English published by Princeton University Press. With special thanks to our lock-wheelersfor supporting this podcast.Mary Keane. Arabella Holzapfel. Rory and MJ. Narrowboat Precious Jet. Linda Reynolds Burkins. Richard Noble. Carol Ferguson. Tracie Thomas Mike and Tricia Stowe Madeleine SmithGeneral DetailsIn the intro and the outro, Saint-Saen's The Swan is performed by Karr and Bernstein (1961) and available on CC at archive.org. Two-stroke narrowboat engine recorded by 'James2nd' on the River Weaver, Cheshire. Uploaded to Freesound.org on 23rd June 2018. Creative Commons Licence. Piano and keyboard interludes composed and performed by Helen Ingram.All other audio recorded on site. For more information about Nighttime on Still WatersYou can find more information and photographs about the podcasts and life aboard the Erica on our website at noswpod.com. It will also allow you to become more a part of the podcast and you can leave comments, offer suggestions, and reviews. You can even, if you want, leave me a voice mail by clicking on the microphone icon.Support the showBecome a 'Lock-Wheeler'Would you like to support this podcast by becoming a 'lock-wheeler' for Nighttime on Still Waters? Find out more: 'Lock-wheeling' for Nighttime on Still Waters.ContactFor pictures of Erica and images related to the podcasts or to contact me, follow me on: Facebook at https://www.facebook.com/noswpod Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/nighttimeonstillwaters/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/NoswPod Mastodon: https://mastodon.world/@nosw I would love to hear from you. You can email me at email@example.com or drop me a line by going to the nowspod website and using either the contact form or, if you prefer, record your message using the voicemail facility by clicking on the microphone icon.
This is where wine is so interesting. When you find regions of the world where wine is life and the passion of the people who make these wines transcends the business of wine, things start to get interesting. Up in the northeast of Italy as it borders Slovenia is the region of Friuli. The stories that emanate from this obscure part of the wine world are fascinating. The stories of the Prussians during WWI, the proximity to the Dolomites, and the crazy rocky soil, all contribute to the wine in the bottle. We had a good time with the conversation.
The crew of a U-Boat in the Great War find some danger runs very very deep CAST Cap. Karl Heinrich - Rick Lewis Lt. Keinze - J. Hoverson Crew: Shawn Connor & Bryan Hendricksen Music by: Kevin MacLeod (Incompetech.com) Recorded with the assistance of Ryan Hirst of Neohoodoo Studio Editing and Sound: Julie Hoverson Cover Art - Brett Coulstock "What kind of a place is it? Why it's a U-boat of the Kaiserliche Marine - can't you tell?" ______________________________________________________________ THE TEMPLE Cast: Lieutenant Commander Karl HEINRICH, Graf von Altberg-Ehrenstein, Lieutenant-Commander in the Imperial German Navy, Prussian (mid 30s?) Lieutenant Jurgen KIENZE, second in command, "womanish Rhinelander" (30) Boatswain MULLER, elderly "superstitious Alsatian swine" SCHMIDT [mid 20s - goes mad] ZIMMER [mid 20s - leads delegation to get rid of idol] BOHIN [mid 20s - goes mad] RAABE [early 20s - engineer] SCHNEIDER [early 20s - engineer] OLIVIA Did you have any trouble finding it? What do you mean, what kind of a place is it? Why, it's a U-Boat of the Kaiserlich Marine, can't you tell? (That's World War I, for all you younger folks...) [My apologies for any mischaracterization of Germans - it's all from Lovecraft's original text. His complete lack of knowledge of U-Boats also - But I had to leave in the portholes to support the story. Any mistakes in military etiquette of the time are probably mine, though.] MUSIC SCENE 1. AMBIANCE U-BOAT ENGINE SEAMEN [murmuring voices] SOUND HATCH OPENS, CLANGING FOOTSTEPS KIENZE Achtung! Kapitanleutnant Heinrich on deck! SEAMEN [instantly silent] HEINRICH [commanding, slightly angry sounding] Ser gut! I have been reviewing the log regarding the sinking of the British freighter Victory, and I must say [getting ominous] that you are - most definitely - [spitting out the words] the single, absolute, most efficient U-boat crew in the Atlantic. [laughs] At ease, at ease. SEAMEN [Excited chatter] KIENZE I myself cannot wait to view the film we took. HEINRICH Ya, ya. [aside] The camera was off before we sank the lifeboats? KIENZE As always, Kaleu. SOUND HEARTY CLAP ON SHOULDER HEINRICH Most excellent. Come Kienze, I have a bottle of some fine Schnapps. You must help me celebrate. MUSIC in then under SCENE 2. HEINRICH [on a recording, tired sounding] On August 20, 1917, I, Karl Heinrich, Graf von Altberg-Ehrenstein, Lieutenant-Commander in the Imperial German Navy and in charge of the submarine U-29, deposit this bottle and record in the Atlantic Ocean at a point to me unknown but probably about North Latitude 20 degrees, West Longitude 35 degrees, where my ship lies disabled on the ocean floor. MUSIC HAS FADED OUT SCENE 3. SFX SUBMARINE SURFACES SOUND HATCH OPENS AMBIANCE CALM SEA, OCCASIONAL BIRDS SOUND FOOTSTEPS ON METAL HEINRICH [grunt - stretching noise] There is nothing like the first step out on deck after a victory, eh?. KIENZE A "Victory"? [chuckles] Ya. Very amusing. MULLER [off] Kaleu, sir! Come! SOUND FOOTSTEPS ON METAL HEINRICH What could be so-- Oh! MULLER He must be from the Victory, sir! KIENZE Alive? HEINRICH Don't be foolish, Kienze, we were far too long submerged. He would have had a better chance if he let go and braved the waves. [shouting off] Remove the corpse! [NOTE - red text will come back at the end in echoes] ZIMMER Sir! His hands are in a death grip! HEINRICH Fingers break more easily than railings. ZIMMER [hesitantly] uh... Aye sir! SOUND POUNDING NOISES HEINRICH [sanctimonious] One more victim of the unjust war of aggression the English schweinhunds are waging upon the Reich. KIENZE Truly, he is our victim. Nothing more. HEINRICH You do not see the whole picture - [amused] Just like a soft-headed Rhinelander. If you were a solid Prussian like myself-- SEAMEN [OFF - NOISE OF AN ALTERCATION] HEINRICH Vas is los? Go and see. SOUND FOOTSTEPS ON METAL KIENZE What is this? What is this? Achtung! SOUND SCRAMBLE OF MEN GETTING TO THEIR FEET KIENZE What is so very exciting? ZIMMER Sir! Schmidt took something from the pocket of the ... [gulp] d-dead one. KIENZE Schmidt? Would you show this to me? SCHMIDT It is nothing, Leutnant. KIENZE I will judge that. Give it me. [beat] Well, this is... certainly something. I am confiscating it - now put that over the side. SOUND FOOTSTEPS ON METAL HEINRICH So? KIENZE A bauble. Ivory, I think - looks like a classical bust, ya? HEINRICH Not a senator, though - this one is much too young and handsome. KIENZE Possibly a kaiser? HEINRICH Or a god. KIENZE [reluctantly] It is yours, if you want it. It might be valuable-- HEINRICH No, no. I have not the sentimental-- MULLER [off, screams] SOUND FOOTSTEPS RUNNING ON METAL HEINRICH [puffing only slightly] What is it? SCHMIDT [shivering with fear] Muller, sir - it is Muller! KIENZE Muller's unconscious. HEINRICH Wake him. SOUND SLAPS MULLER [wails] SOUND ANOTHER SLAP MULLER [gasps, is silent] HEINRICH Get him up here. [command] Stations! SOUND RUNNING FEET CLANG AWAY KIENZE Are you going to talk sense now? MULLER [hollow] His eyes! His eyes! KIENZE Whose eyes? Speak sense! SOUND SLAP HEINRICH Enough! Muller. Tell me what is wrong. MULLER Ya, mein kapitan! [trying to calm down] The body - the eyes were closed. But when they rolled it over the side, they opened - and they were mocking us! HEINRICH [casual] Superstitious rubbish. Muller, you have seen corpses before now, and-- MULLER Sir! But that is not all! He-- [sullen, inward] You will not believe me! KIENZE You are under orders to speak. MULLER I-- watched as the body hit the water. I saw it sink beneath the waves, and-- HEINRICH And--? MULLER [almost a whisper] It drew its limbs in, and swam away. KIENZE You filthy lying--! [grunt as about to slap him again] HEINRICH Nein, Leutnant. [calming] Muller. You know this cannot be true, don't you? MULLER But I saw-- HEINRICH Water is deceptive. It is strange, ya, that the body simply sank - but that is probably due to its waterlogged condition after being held under on our railing for hours. Beyond that--? It is all a trick of the light. MULLER Truly? HEINRICH I will hear no more about it, ya? MÜLLER But you should keep no part of him on the ship - it is bad luck. The statue-- HEINRICH Is nothing. It is a trinket. You go about your duties now, Boatswain. SOUND RELUCTANT FOOTSTEPS AWAY HEINRICH Pfaugh. [muttered growl] Superstitious Alsatian swine! Why am I surrounded by inferior-- KIENZE Kaleu? Do you wish that I throw the bust overb-- HEINRICH Nonsense. We do not give in to fear. We are men of the twentieth century - and, more importantly, officers in the Kaiserliche Marine. KIENZE I could... tell them I threw it-- HEINRICH Do not show weakness. It makes you sound unreliable. MUSIC in and under SCENE 4. HEINRICH [canned] The next day a very troublesome situation was created by the indisposition of some of the crew. Evidently suffering from the nervous strain of our long voyage, they had had bad dreams. When weather turned choppy, we descended to a depth where the sea was comparatively calm, despite a somewhat puzzling southward current which we could not identify from our oceanographic charts. MUSIC HAS FADED OUT SCENE 5. SOUND HATCH CLOSES SFX SUBMARINE SUBMERGES SOUND FOOTSTEPS ON METAL RAABE Under-Engineer Raabe, here to make a report, sir! HEINRICH Where is Schneider? RAABE He is ... unwell, sir. HEINRICH What is wrong? RAABE He... did not sleep well, sir. HEINRICH What? KIENZE It is the same with many of the men, Kaleu. They are feverish and say they have had bad dreams. HEINRICH If they are shirking, I will-- RAABE Sir, no! Schmidt is burning up with fever, screaming all night in his berth. HEINRICH [sympathetic] Then you did not sleep well either, I expect? RAABE Nein, Kaleu. HEINRICH [very pleased] Yet you are here, like a good sailor. Good man-- MULLER [muttered off] It is the idol. It is accursed. HEINRICH What? Muller? MULLER [panicky] Nothing. I said nothing sir. KIENZE He said-- HEINRICH [grim] I heard what he said. Muller, I will have none of this wild peasant superstition on my ship! KIENZE [amused undertone] You forget, mein noble Kapitan, I am a commoner as well. HEINRICH [dismissively] Burgher stock. [teasing slightly] And they made you an officer - you must have some good qualities. MULLER What does it matter? We are all doomed! RAABE [dismissive] Doomed? Because some men are sick? HEINRICH Sehr gut. We must remain rational at times like these. Retain our iron German will. [sharp] Kienze? KIENZE [snapping to] Ya mein kapitanleutnant? HEINRICH Remove Boatswain Muller. KIENZE Ya, Kaleu. MUSIC in and under SCENE 6. HEINRICH [canned] The moans of the sick men were decidedly annoying; but since they did not appear to demoralize the rest of the crew, we did not resort to ... extreme measures. It was our plan to remain where we were and intercept the liner Dacia, mentioned in information from agents in New York. MUSIC HAS FADED OUT SCENE 7. SOUND INSIDE THE BOAT. MANY FEET RUNNING ACROSS METAL, FEET STOP ABRUPTLY CROWD [muttering, backs up Zimmer throughout the scene.] HEINRICH Und vas is los? ZIMMER [clears throat] Kapitanleutnant, we must request - most strenuously - that you-- HEINRICH Is this about that knickknack? What sort of Gypsies are you, to believe such phantasms? ZIMMER But what could it hurt, sir? It is surely not so valuable that it is worth risking-- HEINRICH What? Risking what? The only thing we are risking here is our mission. BOHIN We will all die! ZIMMER Shh. [trying to sound reasonable] Morale, mein kapitan. It is such a small thing, yet would mean so much to the men. HEINRICH [low, despising] I see no men here. MUSIC IN AND UNDER SCENE 8. HEINRICH [canned] Everyone seemed inclined to be silent now, as though holding a secret fear. Many were ill, but none made a disturbance. Lieutenant Kienze chafed under the strain, and was annoyed by the merest trifle - such as the schools of dolphins which passed the U-29 in increasing numbers, and the growing intensity of that southward current which was not on our chart. MUSIC HAS FADED OUT SCENE 9. SOUND HATCH CLANGS SHUT AMBIANCE UP TOPSIDE SCHMIDT That makes seven of us. We can surely-- ZIMMER Muller is still in irons. He can be no help. BOHIN Muller saw them! ZIMMER Shh. None of the crazy talk, Bohin. We cannot let ourselves-- BOHIN [too intense to be sane] I have not seen them, but they call to me! Their voices are like the waves - but waves that make words! SCHMIDT [sigh] So there are six of us. SOUND HATCH OPENS, A COUPLE OF FOOTSTEPS RAABE What is going on here? SCHMIDT [snort] We are planning a party. What does it look like? RAABE What is happening that makes everyone so-- BOHIN There! In the WATER! They have come! RAABE --Crazy? SOUND RUNNING FOOTSTEPS, A STRUGGLE, A BODY SLAMMED AGAINST METAL. MUSIC IN AND UNDER SCENE 10. HEINRICH [canned] He was in a detestably childish state, and babbled of some illusion of dead bodies drifting past the portholes; bodies which he recognized, in spite of bloating, as having seen dying during some of our victorious German exploits. And he said that the young man we had found and tossed overboard was their leader. This was very gruesome and abnormal. MUSIC HAS FADED OUT SCENE 11. RAABE Seaman Bohin tried to leap off the deck. We had to hold him down until the madness left him, sir. KIENZE All for such a small thing. SOUND SMALL IVORY STATUE SET ON TABLE RAABE That is what this is all about? KIENZE Just that. SOUND FOOTSTEPS, STATUE IS SNATCHED UP AND PUT AWAY IN A POCKET ZIMMER Sir! Leutnant Kienze? Bohin is gone! He is nowhere on the ship. MUSIC IN AND UNDER SCENE 12. HEINRICH [canned] It at length became apparent that we had missed the Dacia altogether. Such failures are not uncommon, and we were more pleased than disappointed, since our return to Wilhelmshaven was now in order. MUSIC HAS FADED OUT SCENE 13. SOUND MEASURED FOOTSTEPS AMB INSIDE SEAMEN [Muffled, CHEERS!!!] HEINRICH [sigh] This soft-headedness is not good. Morale is the result of willpower, not coddling. KIENZE Still, I too will be glad when this trip is over. That southern current we have blundered into bothers me. HEINRICH It explains how we missed our target. Not every inch of the ocean is charted properly. KIENZE But it is so strong - to be overlooked. RAABE [clears his throat] Sir? HEINRICH Schneider still not feeling well? RAABE He prefers to remain in the engine room, sir. He does not like ... being near portholes. KIENZE Portholes? RAABE His dreams haunt him. [hurriedly] But he is not impaired in his job. HEINRICH [teasing] Well, certainly you did not come all this way to tell us Senior Engineer Schneider does not like portholes. Out with it! RAABE Something fantastic has happened. The boat - it is surrounded by -- dolphins. HEINRICH Dolphins? How many? SOUND KIENZE'S FOOTSTEPS GO AWAY KIENZE [off] Ya, come and look! They are everywhere! HEINRICH Finally something the superstitious can interpret as a good sign, ya? KIENZE [jubilant] Just as we decide to return to Schlicktown! This should truly mollify them. HEINRICH [dry] How fortunate. MUSIC IN AND UNDER SCENE 14. HEINRICH [canned] At noon June 28 we turned northeastward, and despite some rather comical entanglements with the unusual masses of dolphins, were soon under way. MUSIC HAS FADED OUT SCENE 15. SOUND SNORING [HEINRICH] SFX EXPLOSION HEINRICH [wakes up] What? What? SOUND MANY RUNNING FEET, SOME BARE, ONE PAIR OF BOOTS STOMPS THROUGH CALMLY HEINRICH Report. Someone report! SCHMIDT This is your fault, you swine! You made us‑‑ SOUND SLAP, BODY HITS METAL WALL HEINRICH SHUT UP. Is there anyone who can talk sense? KIENZE [breathless, and coughing] They have the fire out. The explosion was in the engine room. HEINRICH What caused it? KIENZE They