In this episode of Rob and Slim Interviews, we talked to David The Producer of "The Unwritable Rant" with Juliette Miranda, Bronx Johnny from "Ron and Fez" & "High Society Radio", Actor Steve Coulter, and Roger from "The Roger The Wild Child Show". Follow our guest on Twitter & check out their sites: David The Producer: https://twitter.com/BehindTheRant https://theunwritablerant.com/ Bronx Johnny: https://twitter.com/BronxJohnny1 https://twitter.com/HSRadioshow https://gasdigitalnetwork.com/gdn-show-channels/high-society-radio/ Steve Coulter: https://twitter.com/coulter28 The Roger The Wild Child Show: https://twitter.com/rtwcshow Support us and our sponsors: Ryder Doll: https://twitter.com/FlirtRyderDoll phone sex and erotic content for men who crave the best. Horror Author Isaac Thorne: https://www.isaacthorne.com/ Adam and Eve: https://www.adameve.com/ use discount code ROB at checkout for 10% off & more. Spunk Lube: https://www.spunklube.com/
Dr. Lauryn welcomes Dr. Savannah Gardner back to talk social media. They cover batching, finding inspiration for posting, mental health, controversial posts, and so much more. As a special bonus Savannah gives some killer October social post ideas for your clinic! To learn more about Savannah: @savannahzgardner Rate & subscribe wherever you get your podcasts! Join the Weekly Slay mailing list HERE To get the exclusive sheslays savings go HERE If you have a question or feedback, make sure to tell us: Website Instagram Facebook Twitter
The one constant in life is change, even for great investors. Earlier this year The Motley Fool Co-Founder, David Gardner announced that he was changing his focus. As he told fellow “Fools” as the global online investing community members jokingly refer to themselves: “....where you place your focus in life matters, and now I am choosing to shift my focus from the stock market and invest time in other endeavors. After nearly 30 years focused on publicly picking stocks, this wasn't a decision I took lightly.” It wasn't a decision The Motley Fool team, members, followers and at least one member of the financial press, namely me, took lightly either, which is why I wanted to talk to David. The good news is Gardner is not totally leaving the fold. He is Chairman of The Motley Fool Foundation, devoted to bringing “financial freedom to all.” He remains Co-Chairman of The Motley Fool with fellow Fool Co-Founder and younger brother Tom, a very successful investor in his own right, who has also been managing and growing the business as CEO. David Gardner will continue as Chief Rule Breaker “for life” he expects, and he will continue his weekly podcast, “Rule Breaker Investing,” in which every ten weeks he recommends what he calls a 5-stock sampler theme, culled from The Motley Fool's Stock Advisor and Rule Breakers picks. I asked Gardner to take us through his Rule Breakers rules. What are the lessons he's learned from three decades of active investing? WEALTHTRACK #1816 broadcast on October 15, 2021 More Info: https://wealthtrack.com/3-decades-of-investment-lessons-learned-from-the-motley-fools-chief-rule-breaker-david-gardner/ --- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/wealthtrack/support
Matthew Bannister on Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, once described as the world's most dangerous man - but hailed as a hero in his native Pakistan for leading the country's development of nuclear weapons. Dr. R. Allen Gardner, the American ethologist who trained a chimpanzee to use sign language. Beresford King-Smith, who played a key backstage role in the success of the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra. And memories of the long life of Joyce Jackson who has died aged 107. Interviewed guest: Stephen Maddock OBE Interviewed guest: Mary Lee Jensvold Interviewed guest: Umer Farooq Interviewed guest: Gordon Corera Interviewed guest: Mary Lee Jensvold Interviewed guest: Sarah Allatt Archive clips used: DocsOnline, Nuclear Tango 26/05/2009; AP, Clinton condemns Pakistans Nuclear Tests 28/05/1998; Al Jazeera English, Abdul Qadeer Khan 10/10/2021; Geo News, Funeral prayers for Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan 10/10/2021; WGBH, BBC Horizon - Washoe the Chimp 04/11/1974; YouTube, Unidentified clip of Beatrix and Allen Gardner with Washoe the Chimp 13/02/2009; Sarah Allatt, Private interviews of Joyce Jackson 2021; BBC, Scrapbook for 1924 23/02/1955; British Pathé, Sir Alan Cobham shows how he will refuel in the air 1934; Inter-Pathé History, British Declaration of War 03/09/1939; BBC Radio 4, On The Town - Birmingham 02/01/1980; Central Television, Simon Rattle on the Record 1988.
Join Marissa as she discusses Agricultural Communication and Journalism with Kortni Gardner, a Utah 4-H Agriculture and Animal Science Assistant at USU Extension. Kortni and Marissa cover many topics, such as pivoting pathways as a student, Collegiate 4-H and USU Extension, the value of getting involved and building connections early, and the importance of staying resilient. Kortni, a 2019 USU grad, currently works at USU Extension as a Utah 4-H Agriculture and Animal Science Assistant. As a student, she fulfilled many roles, such as Staff Writer for the USU Statesman and USU TRIO Student Support Services Social Media Specialist. Kortni is a passionate communicator interested in working in the Agricultural Communications and Journalism field, with a desire to educate youth in the 4-H and FFA Programs.
On Thursday's edition of The James Crepea Show on Fox Sports Eugene, James discusses how the Pac-12 enters Week 7, UCLA beat reporter James H. Williams of the Orange County Register and Washington beat reporter Mike Vorel of the Seattle Times preview the Bruins vs. Huskies matchup, NCAA women's basketball tourney expanding to 68, Arizona State beat reporter Michelle Gardner of the Arizona Republic previews Saturday's game with Utah, Denver Post columnist Sean Keeler previews Arizona vs. Colorado and the Rocky Mountain Why
Photo: George Washington praying at Valley Forge Dr Bond inoculated Washington's troops: "Finding the Small pox to be spreading much and fearing that no precaution can prevent it from running through the whole of our Army, I have determined that the troops shall be inoculated. This Expedient may be attended with some inconveniences and some disadvantages, but yet I trust in its consequences will have the most happy effects. Necessity not only authorizes but seems to require the measure, for should the disorder infect the Army in the natural way and rage with its usual virulence we should have more to dread from it than from the Sword of the Enemy. Under these circumstances I have directed Doctr Bond to prepare immediately for inoculating in this Quarter,1 keeping the matter as secret as possible, and request that you will without delay inoculate All the Continental Troops that are in philadelphia and those that shall come in as fast as they arrive."* CBS Eye on the World with John Batchelor CBS Audio Network @Batchelorshow 7/8 The Indispensables: The Diverse Soldier-Mariners Who Shaped the Country, Formed the Navy, and Rowed Washington Across the Delaware, by Patrick K. O'Donnell From the bestselling author of Washington's Immortals and The Unknowns, an important new chronicle of the American Revolution heralding the heroism of the men from Marblehead, Massachusetts On the stormy night of August 29, 1776, the Continental Army faced capture or annihilation after losing the Battle of Brooklyn. The British had trapped George Washington's forces against the East River, and the fate of the Revolution rested upon the shoulders of the soldier-mariners from Marblehead, Massachusetts. Serving side by side in one of the country's first diverse units, they pulled off an “American Dunkirk” and saved the army by transporting it across the treacherous waters of the river to Manhattan. In the annals of the American Revolution, no group played a more consequential role than the Marbleheaders. At the right time in the right place, they repeatedly altered the course of events, and their story shines new light on our understanding of the Revolution. As the acclaimed historian Patrick K. O'Donnell dramatically recounts, beginning nearly a decade before the war started, and in the midst of a raging virus that divided the town politically, Marbleheaders such as Elbridge Gerry and Azor Orne spearheaded the break with Britain and shaped the nascent United States by playing a crucial role governing, building alliances, seizing British ships, forging critical supply lines, and establishing the origins of the US Navy. The Marblehead Regiment, led by John Glover, became truly indispensable. Marbleheaders battled at Lexington and on Bunker Hill and formed the elite Guard that protected George Washington. Then, at the most crucial time in the war, the special operations–like regiment, against all odds, conveyed 2,400 of Washington's men across the ice-filled Delaware River on Christmas night 1776, delivering a momentum-shifting surprise attack on Trenton. Later, the Marblehead doctor Nathaniel Bond inoculated the Continental Army against a deadly virus, which changed the course of history. White, Black, Hispanic, and Native American, this uniquely diverse group of soldiers set an inclusive standard of unity the US Army would not reach again for more than 170 years. The Marbleheaders' chronicle, never fully told before now, makes The Indispensables a vital addition to the literature of the American Revolution. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. * The Marblehead doctor Nathaniel Bond had a problem. During the Battle of Lexington and Concord, in obedience to his Hippocratic Oath, he had treated British soldiers. For performing his duty as a doctor, he was falsely accused of being a Loyalist and had his life threatened by an angry mob. "Doctor Nathaniel Bond, of Marblehead, having been charged before this Committee with having acted an unfriendly part to this Colony, the said Committee appointed Joseph Warren, Esq., Colonel Thos. Gardner, and Lieut. Colonel Joseph Palmer, as a Court of Inquiry, to examine witnesses in the case, and hear and determine the same; and upon full enquiry into the case, they are clearly of the opinion that said Bond's general behaviour has been friendly to American liberty; and though he may have discovered an imprudent degree of warmth in some instances, yet we do not find any proof of an inimical temper or disposition to this Country, and therefore recommend him to the esteem and friendship of his Country, that (as the errour which occasioned his being brought before this Committee appears to have been altogether involuntary, and was such as several of our most firm friends were led into, by false rumours spread, of the transactions of the nineteenth instant) no impressions to the Doctor's disadvantage may remain on the minds of any person whatsoever. [signed] Joseph Warren, Chairman.” April 26, 1775. .
Goz is joined by CBS 6 Albany's sports anchor Gardner Royce. Topics include The book that inspired his career Why being a sports writer was the first plan Selecting a college across the country How he secured an internship with NFL Network Landing the first professional job Literally sweating through his CBS6 audition Best advice for young sports anchors.
Blue Wire's Chase Thomas is joined by 49ers Hub's Evan Sowards to talk about what happened in Week 5 in the NFL, Trey Lance's first starter for the Niners, the Falcons winning in London, the Seahawks losing Wilson, the Dolphins' disastrous season continuing, the Panthers losing two straight, the Bills blowing through Kansas City and much more (1:00). Then, OU Daily's Austin Curtright joins the program to talk Oklahoma vs. Texas, what happened, Lincoln Riley's coaching versus Sark, Spencer Rattler's future in Norman, upcoming battles against Oklahoma State and Baylor and much more (60:00). Lastly, the Arizona Republic's Michelle Gardner joins the program to talk about Arizona State versus Stanford, how the Sun Devils won, why ASU could crash the CFP, Jayden Daniels, and Herm's calm coaching style (80:00). Host: Chase Thomas Guests: Evan Sowards, Austin Curtright, Michelle Gardner Learn more about your ad choices. Visit podcastchoices.com/adchoices
American Olympic Gold Medalist English Gardner was our very first guest on this show!! Due to a last minute cancellation we decided to revisit this episode. We had no idea it would feel so emotional listening back!! We hope you love it as much as we do. English is a star and she shares her journey to Gold and her role as caretaker through her moms breast cancer journey. Go listen now!
Sermon: What Can Make A Difference?Hebrews 11:1-6Join us this episode as Major Pam Gardner brings us the message. Faith is meant to make a Difference . . . ...in Our Storms of Life, ...in Our Relationships with God, ...in All our Lives. Thank you for tuning in, we invite you to join us on Facebook for other online events: Sunday 10:30AM Worship Service (in person and on Facebook)Monday 2:00PM Vivificados en Cristo (Spanish Worship, only on Facebook)Wednesday 5:00pm Family Fun Night (1st and 3rd Wednesdays)Food DistributionTuesday and Thursdays from 1pm to 3pm Road To Recovery 5pm, In person and zoom meeting, email us for more information.For more information on our live stream, in person programs or up coming events, you can reach out to us by emailing: AnaheimCorps@usw.salvatoinarmy.orgWe'd like to get to know you a bit more, and see how we can serve or pray for you.
in this episode of the podcast, Broc and Tysen discuss a many plethora of things that I honestly do not recall. i'm typing this at midnight and i've had 9 hours of sleep in 2 days idgaf. listen to the podcast or don't.
On Wednesday's edition of The James Crepea Show on Fox Sports Eugene, James discusses bad sports TV announcers, who some good college football TV announcers are and Pac-12 game TV ratings, previewing Arizona State-Stanford, Sun Devils beat reporter Michelle Gardner of the Arizona Republic recaps ASU's win over UCLA and previews the matchup with Stanford and KREM sports director Brenna Greene recaps Washington State's win over Cal and previews its matchup with Oregon State
Moto2™ race-winner Sam Lowes joins us to talk about this year's world championship, where Aprilia has improved since his time there in MotoGP™ in 2017, the rise of Remy Gardner and the records being set by Gardner's 20-year-old teammate Raul Fernandez, while we wrap up last Sunday's return of the Grand Prix of the Americas and a typical Marc Marquez masterclass in Texas.
On today's episode we are starting a brand new series on the Vertigo Comics Series Y: The Last Man by Brian K. Vaughan and Pia Guerra. This is one of the all time best independent comic book series' ever, so this is going to be incredibly special.For the next five weeks we are reading volumes 1-5 of Y: The Last Man. On today's episode we are going over issues #1-10.As always, there are going to be full and complete spoilers for Y: The Last man #1-10YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCfuClIQs1UWbWcKNbO-rkkgInstagram: https://www.instagram.com/cameronreadscomics/Twitter: https://twitter.com/CameronReadsCom See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
It's Episode 134 of the Tailgate Guys BBQ Show Podcast and we visit with reigning Jack Daniels World Invitational BBQ champion Travis Clark. It's a wide-ranging conversation about The Jack, his Clark Crew BBQ restaurant, the state of competition BBQ, judging, meat quality and more. Travis is never afraid to speak his mind, which as a show host or listener is rewarding. We also talk turkey with Beth Breeding, vice-president for communications and marketing for the National Turkey Federation. The addition of a Turkey Smoke championship chase has been a positive move for KCBS and Beth said the organizations are fired up to do it again, in bigger fashion, in 2022. Make sure to check out TurkeySmoke.org for some great recipe ideas, plus more competition info. Meanwhile, co-hosts Lyndal and Steve talk about their cooking week, which included a leap into the deep waters of Steak Cookoff Association competition. They also talk MLB playoffs, which is truly one of the great times on the sports calendar. We want to thank a new sponsor this week, our friend Randy VanSlyke of High I Que BBQ. Randy owns and operates Home Technology Solutions in Gardner, Kansas. Pro Technology Solutions offers Gardner and the Kansas City area services such as audio/visual installation - so if you need someone to install those big-screen TVs and sound systems or provide various other home automation expertise, give Randy a call at (913) 927-1185 Thanks to our other sponsor/marketing partners who make our show possible: Blues Hog BBQ Sauce, Royal Oak Charcoal, The Butcher Shoppe, Iowa BBQ Store, Affordable Income Tax & Payroll, Arkassippi Smoke Live and The Arkassippi Combo, Vietti Marketing, In the Garden of Eden, Gray Wolf Smokers and The BBQ League. Special thanks to Marty “Sign Man” Prather and Domino's Pizza, an “Official American Royal World Series of BBQ” sponsor of our team. Have a great BBQ Week! #SmokeEmIfYouGotEm
One of the leading causes of divorce is finances. We utter this vow not realizing our power, as a unified couple, to overcome financial hardships when they arise. Today’s guests, Leticia and Rod Gardner, transparently share how they’ve dealt with the sacred vow, “For Richer or For Poorer.”
One of the leading causes of divorce is finances. We utter this vow not realizing our power, as a unified couple, to overcome financial hardships when they arise. Today’s guests, Leticia and Rod Gardner, transparently share how they’ve dealt with the sacred vow, “For Richer or For Poorer.”
Love Critical Role? The Adventure Zone? Dimension 20? How about tabletop games like Pathfinder? Blades in the Dark? Dungeons & Dragons? We got you. In this week's Misshelved, listen in as Foggy Pine Books's Abby Rice talks to cartoonist Whitney Gardner about all things Dungeons & Dragons. SHOP FOGGY PINE BOOKS: foggypinebooks.com FULL TRANSCRIPTIONS + SHOW NOTES: misshelved.nebrinkley.com SUPPORT US ON PATREON: patreon.com/nebrinkley LEARN MORE ABOUT BOOKS: tinyletter.com/misshelved MORE PLACES TO LISTEN: anchor.fm/misshelvedpod Edited by Nicole Brinkley and Natalie Orozco. Logo by Jean Michel. Music by Mark Shwedow.
Better Horses Radio NATIONAL with guests Pastor Steve Stafford, Dr. Fred Gardner, Laurel Walker Denton (Lolli), Riley Olson, and Brent Wright - October 3rd 2021
The New Orleans Saints are elevating WR Kenny Stills and C Austin Reiter. Though Reiter will likely be an emergency option at his position, the expectation is that Stills' highly-anticipated return to New Orleans will lead to him seeing playing time. How much will he factor in and how much does his play style match the Saints' current offense? Locked On Saints listeners also sent in a ton of questions for the bonus episode. Does the Saints' current playstyle limit Jameis Winston? Will Marquez Callaway get going? Will Taysom Hill be more involved this week? On the defensive side, a healthy Pete Werner could mean a short leash for Zack Baun who's transitioning to off-ball linebacker. Meanwhile, the Saints continue to get healtier on defense with Marshon Lattimore and C.J. Gardner-Johnon returning after missing last week's action and Tanoh Kpassagnon and Payton Turner on pace to be available as well. Follow Ross on Twitter @RossJacksonNOLA Support Us By Supporting Our Sponsors!Built Bar Built Bar is a protein bar that tastes like a candy bar. Go to builtbar.com and use promo code “LOCKED15,” and you'll get 15% off your next order. BetOnline AG There is only 1 place that has you covered and 1 place we trust. Betonline.ag! Sign up today for a free account at betonline.ag and use that promocode: LOCKEDON for your 50% welcome bonus. Rock Auto Amazing selection. Reliably low prices. All the parts your car will ever need. Visit RockAuto.com and tell them Locked On sent you. Manscaped Fellas, don't gamble on shaving your balls with the wrong tools! Choose MANSCAPED™, Your Balls Will Thank You™! Get 20% off + free shipping with the code LOCKEDON at manscaped.com. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit podcastchoices.com/adchoices
In this episode of the podcast, Tysen and I fly by the seed of our pants and get into your guys' questions, something about 9/11, and then johnny cash. This is honestly a very funny episode so please listen and have a good time.
On Thursday's edition of The James Crepea Show on Fox Sports Eugene, James previews a big swing weekend in Pac-12 play, Washington beat reporter Mike Vorel of the Seattle Times previews the Huskies vs. Cal, USC beat reporter Ryan Kartje of the L.A. Times previews the Trojans and Oregon State, KREM sports director Brenna Greene previews Washington State and Utah, Arizona State beat reporter Michelle Gardner of the Arizona Republic and Colorado beat reporter Brian Howell of the Boulder Daily Camera preview the Buffs and Sun Devils
We talk with Anthony Amore, chief of security at the Gardner Museum, about what that means for those still hoping the mystery will one day be solved, and why this story is still so compelling, more than 30 years later.
The New Orleans Saints were without nine starters in Sunday's loss against the Carolina Panthers. Which starters were missed the most? There's reasonable argument for Michael Thomas, Kwon Alexander, and Marshon Lattimore. But two 2019 draft steals could have made a huge difference in the results of the loss. Center Erik McCoy and defensive back C.J. Gardner-Johnson both would have held roles and responsibilities integral to the team's success in Charlotte. The exotic looks and blitz packages from the Carolina front, McCoy has seen before along with Drew Brees. The task of shutting down Christian McCaffrey is easy for no defender, but Gardner-Johnson was said to be a big part of the Saints' game plan in that arena. In today's Locked On Saints, host Ross Jackson delves into the the changes the team had to make without these key players, what struggles their absences created, and where the outlook gets better moving forward. Additionally, which injuries from last week's reports to keep an eye on this week and how a restructure of wide receiver Tre'Quan Smith's contract signifies the possible return to the field for a familiar face at wideout. Follow Ross on Twitter @RossJacksonNOLA Support Us By Supporting Our Sponsors! Built Bar Built Bar is a protein bar that tastes like a candy bar. Go to builtbar.com and use promo code “LOCKED15,” and you'll get 15% off your next order. BetOnline AG There is only 1 place that has you covered and 1 place we trust. Betonline.ag! Sign up today for a free account at betonline.ag and use that promocode: LOCKEDON for your 50% welcome bonus. Rock Auto Amazing selection. Reliably low prices. All the parts your car will ever need. Visit RockAuto.com and tell them Locked On sent you. Manscaped Fellas, don't gamble on shaving your balls with the wrong tools! Choose MANSCAPED™, Your Balls Will Thank You™! Get 20% off + free shipping with the code LOCKEDON at manscaped.com. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit podcastchoices.com/adchoices
Hollow Earth Theory Well hello there passengers, and welcome to yet another exciting day aboard the MidnightTrain. Today we delve deep into the mysterious, creepy, possibly conspiratorial world that is our own. What do I mean by that? Well we are digging our way to the center of truth! Today, we learn about Hollow Earth… and for the flat earthers out there… you're gonna wanna hang out for a minute before you dip outta here… also fuck you. (Cinematic trailer voice) In a World where there exists people who think the world is a flat piece of paper with trees growing out of it and a big guy who flips the piece of paper over to switch between day and night. One man wants to change that idea. His name… is Edmund Halley. Yes that Halley. The one known for the comet he discovered. But before we explore more about him and his findings, let's discuss what led us to this revolutionary hypothesis. So besides idiots who believe the earth is flat, I mean stupid-endous personalities, there are other more interesting characters that believe the earth is completely hollow; or at least a large part of it. This is what we call the Hollow Earth Theory. Now where did this all come from? Well, nobody cares, Moody. That's the show folks! Ok, ok, ok… fine. Since the early times many cultures, religions, and folklore believed that there was something below our feet. Whether it's the lovely and tropical Christian Hell, the Jungle-esque Greek Underworld, the balmy Nordic Svartálfaheim, or the temperate Jewish Sheol; there is a name for one simple idea. These cultures believed it to be where we either come from or where we go when we die. This may hold some truth, or not. Guess we will know more when the time comes. The idea of a subterranean realm is also mentioned in Tibetan Buddhist belief. According to one story from Tibetan Buddhist tradition, there is an ancient city called Shamballa which is located inside the Earth. According to the Ancient Greeks, there were caverns under the surface which were entrances leading to the underworld, some of which were the caverns at Tainaron in Lakonia, at Troezen in Argolis, at Ephya in Thesprotia, at Herakleia in Pontos, and in Ermioni. In Thracian and Dacian legends, it is said that there are caverns occupied by an ancient god called Zalmoxis. In Mesopotamian religion there is a story of a man who, after traveling through the darkness of a tunnel in the mountain of "Mashu", entered a subterranean garden. Sounds lovely. In Celtic mythology there is a legend of a cave called "Cruachan", also known as "Ireland's gate to Hell", a mythical and ancient cave from which according to legend strange creatures would emerge and be seen on the surface of the Earth. They are said to be bald, taller than most with blue eyes and a big, bushy beard… fucking Moody. There are also stories of medieval knights and saints who went on pilgrimages to a cave located in Station Island, County Donegal in Ireland, where they made journeys inside the Earth into a place of purgatory. You guys know purgatory, that place or state of suffering inhabited by the souls of sinners who are shedding their sins before going to heaven. In County Down, Northern Ireland there is a myth which says tunnels lead to the land of the subterranean Tuatha Dé Danann, who are supposedly a group of people who are believed to have introduced Druidism to Ireland, and then they said fuck it and went back underground. In Hindu mythology, the underworld is referred to as Patala. In the Bengali version of the Hindu epic Ramayana, it has been depicted how Rama and Lakshmana were taken by the king of the underworld Ahiravan, brother of the demon king Ravana. Later on they were rescued by Hanuman. Got all that? The Angami Naga tribes of India claim that their ancestors emerged in ancient times from a subterranean land inside the Earth. The Taino from Cuba believe their ancestors emerged in ancient times from two caves in a mountain underground. Natives of the Trobriand Islands believe that their ancestors had come from a subterranean land through a cavern hole called "Obukula". Mexican folklore also tells of a cave in a mountain five miles south of Ojinaga, and that Mexico is possessed by devilish creatures who came from inside the Earth. Maybe THAT'S where the Chupacabra came from! In the middle ages, an ancient German myth held that some mountains located between Eisenach and Gotha hold a portal to the inner Earth. A Russian legend says the Samoyeds, an ancient Siberian tribe, traveled to a cavern city to live inside the Earth. Luckily, they had plenty of space rope to make it back out. The Italian writer Dante describes a hollow earth in his well-known 14th-century work Inferno, in which the fall of Lucifer from heaven caused an enormous funnel to appear in a previously solid and spherical earth, as well as an enormous mountain opposite it, "Purgatory". There's that place, again. In Native American mythology, they believed that the ancestors of the Mandan people in ancient times emerged from a subterranean land through a cave at the north side of the Missouri River. There is also a tale about a tunnel in the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation in Arizona near Cedar Creek which is said to lead inside the Earth to a land inhabited by a mysterious tribe. It is also the belief of the tribes of the Iroquois that their ancient ancestors emerged from a subterranean world inside the Earth. The elders of the Hopi people believe that a Sipapu entrance in the Grand Canyon exists which leads to the underworld. Brazilian Indians, who live alongside the Parima River in Brazil, claim that their forefathers emerged in ancient times from an underground land, and that many of their ancestors still remained inside the Earth. Ancestors of the Inca supposedly came from caves which are located east of Cuzco, Peru. So, this is something that has been floating around a shit ton of ancient mythos for a long ass time. Well, ya know… before that silly thing called SCIENCE. Moving on. Now to circle back to our friend Edmund. He was born in 1656, in Haggerston in Middlesex (not to be confused with uppersex or its ill-informed cousin the powerbottomsex). He was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist; because what else was there to do in the 1600's but be a know-it-all? He was known to work with Sir Isaac Newton among other notable (but not gonna note them here) proponents to science. In 1692 he proffered the idea that the earth was indeed hollow and had a shell about 500 miles thick with two inner concentric (having a common center, as circles or spheres… hear that flat earthers??) shells and an inner core. He proposed that the atmospheres separated the shells and that they also had their own magnetic poles and that the shells moved at different speeds. This idea was used to elucidate(shed light upon… yes pun intended) anomalous(ih-nom-uh-luhs) compass readings. He conceptualized that the inner region had its own atmosphere and possibly luminous with plausible inhabitants. MOLE PEOPLE!! He also thought that escaping gases from the inner earth caused what is now known as the Northern Lights. Now another early ambassador to this idea was Le Clerc Milfort. Jean-Antoine Le Clerc, or known by a simpler name, Louis Milfort. Monsieur Milfort was a higher ranking French military officer who offered his services during the late 1700's. He is most notably known for leading Creek Indian warriors during the American Revolutionary War as allies of the British. I guess having a common enemy here would make sense as to why he chose this group to lead. He emigrated in 1775 to what was then known as the British Colonies of North America. But we all know there is nothing Bri'ish about us. Now why would a higher ranking French military Officer want to emigrate from his home to a place of turmoil? Great question Moody! I knew you were paying attention. Well, a little about this French saboteur. He was known by many aliases, but we will just stick with Louis (Louie) for all intents and purposes. Louis was born in Thin-le-Moutier, near Mezieres, France. He served in the French Military from 1764 to 1774. Now this is according to his memoir that was dated in 1802. He left France after he ended up killing a servant of the king's household in a duel. Apparently, the king's servant loved the king. So much so that when Louis read aloud a poem that he had written that included the king, the servant jumped up, tore off his glove and slapped Louis across the face not once, but 4 fucking times! This is obviously something that Louis could not just let happen, so he challenged the servant to a duel. Not just any duel, mind you. He challenged him to a duel of what was then known as a “mort de coupes de papier.” The servant died an excruciating death and Louis fled. Here is the poem that started the feud. There's a place in France Where the naked ladies dance There's a hole in the wall Where the men can see it all But the men don't care Cause they lost their underwear And the cops never shoot Cause they think it's kind of cute There a place in France Where the alligators dance If you give them a glance They could bite you in the pants There's a place on Mars Where the ladies smoke cigars Every puff she makes Is enough to kill the snakes When the snakes all die They put diamonds in their eye When the diamonds break The dancing makes them ache When the diamonds shine They really look so fine The king and the queen Have a rubber ding-a-ling All the girls in France Have ants in their pants Yes, this is 100% bullshit… but, you'll have that shit stuck in your head for days. Now as much as we tried to find ACTUAL information as to why there was duel and why it was with a servant of the king, we couldn't find much. But after digging up some more information on Louis we found out that he ended up going back to France to be a part of the Sacred Society of Sophisians. This group is also known as the secret society of Napoleon's Sorcerers… This may have to be a bonus episode so stay tuned for more! Now back to the “Core” of our episode. The Creek Indians who are originally from the Muscogee [məskóɡəlɡi](Thank wikipedia) area which is southeast united states which roughly translates to the areas around Tennessee, Alabama, western Georgia and Northern Florida. Louis adapted their customs and assimilated into their Tribe. He even married the sister of the Chief. Now after Louis and the rest of the people in the American Revolutionary War lost to the U.S. he decided to lead the Creek Tribe on an expedition in 1781 because, well, they had nothing else to do. On this expedition they were searching for caverns where allegedly the Creek Indians ancestors had emerged from. Maybe even the Origin of Bigfoot. Yes, the Creek Indians had believed that their ancestors lived below the earth and lived in caverns along the Red River junction of the Mississippi River. Now during the expedition they did come across these caverns which they suspected could hold 20,000 of their family in. That's pretty much all they found. They didn't have video cameras back then otherwise, I'm pretty sure they would have found footage of bigfoot though. Another advocate was Leonhard Euler, yes, you heard right. Buehler… Buehler… No Leonard Euler. A great 18th century mathematician; or not so great if you didn't enjoy math in school unlike moody who was the biggest nerd when it came to math. Euler founded the study of graph theory and topology. No moody, not on-top-ology. Mind always in the gutter. Euler influenced many other discoveries such as analytic number theory, complex analysis, and the coolest subject ever; Infinitesimal Calculus. Which is Latin for BULLSHIT. But anyways I digress. This guy knew his stuff BUT he did think with all his “infinite” wisdom that the earth was in fact hollow and had no inner shells but instead had a six hundred mile diameter sun in the center. The most intriguing and plausible theory he had within this whole idea was that you could enter into this interior from the northern and southern poles. Let's hold to that cool hypothesis for right now and move along with our next Interesting goon of the hollow earth community. With Halley's spheres and Eulers's Holes came another great man with another great theory. Captain John Symmes! Yes you know Captain Symmes. HE was a hero in the war of 1812 after being sent with his Regiment to Canada and providing relief to American forces at the battle of Lundy's Lane. He was well known as a trader and lecturer after he left the army. In 1818 Symmes announced his theory on Hollow Earth to the World! With his publication of his Circular No. 1. “I declare the earth is hollow, and habitable within; containing a number of solid concentric spheres, one within the other, and that it is open at the poles 12 or 16 degrees; I pledge my life in support of this truth, and am ready to explore the hollow, if the world will support and aid me in the undertaking.”— John Cleves Symmes Jr., Symmes' Circular No. 1 While there were few people who would consider Symmes as the “Newton of the West”, most of the world was less than impressed. Although his theory wasn't as popular as one would expect, you gotta admire the confidence he had. Symmes sent this declaration at a rather hefty cost to himself to “each notable foreign government, reigning prince, legislature, city, college, and philosophical societies, throughout the union, and to individual members of our National Legislature, as far as the five hundred copies would go.”15] Symmes would then be followed by an exorbitant amount of ridicule for his proclamation, as many intellectuals were back then. This ridicule would later influence a rather bold move, Cotton. We'll touch on this later. What was so special about his theory that got 98% of the world not on the edge of their seats? Well, to start he believed the Earth had five concentric spheres with where we live to be the largest of the spheres. He also believed that the crust was 1000 miles thick with an arctic opening about 4000 miles wide and an antarctic opening around 6000 miles wide. He argued that because of the centrifugal force of the Earth's rotation that the poles would be flattened which would cause such a gradual gradation that you would travel into the Hollow Earth without even knowing you even did it. Eventually he refined his theory because of such ridicule and criticism. Now his theory consists of just a single hollow sphere instead of five concentric spheres. So, now that we know all about symmes and his theory, why don't we talk about what he decided to do with his theory? What do you think, Moody? You think he created a cult so he could be ostracized? Or do you think he gave up and realized he was silly? Hate to be the bearer of bad news here but he decided to take his theory and convince the U.S. congress to fund and organize an expedition to the south pole to enter the inner earth. Good news and bad news folks. Good news, congress back then actually had some people with heads on their shoulders as opposed to those today and they said fuck that noise and denied funding for his expedition. Hamilton, Ohio even has a monument to him and his ideas. Fuckin' Ohio. Next up on our list of “what the fuck were they thinking?” We have Jeremiah Reynolds. He also delivered lectures on the "Hollow Earth" and argued for an expedition. I guess back in those days people just up and went to the far reaches of the earth just to prove a point. Reynolds said “look what I can do” and went on an expedition to Antarctica himself but missed joining the Great U.S. Exploring Expedition of 1838–1842, even though that venture was a result of his craziness, I MEAN “INTEREST”. He gained support from marine and scientific societies and, in 1828, successfully lobbied the House of Representatives to pass a resolution asking then-President John Quincy Adams to deploy a research vessel to the Pacific. The president, for his part, had first mentioned Reynolds in his November 4, 1826, diary entry, writing: “Mr Reynolds is a man who has been lecturing about the Country, in support of Captain John Cleves Symmes's theory that the Earth is a hollow Sphere, open at the Poles— His Lectures are said to have been well attended, and much approved as exhibitions of genius and of Science— But the Theory itself has been so much ridiculed, and is in truth so visionary, that Reynolds has now varied his purpose to the proposition of fitting out a voyage of circumnavigation to the Southern Ocean— He has obtained numerous signatures in Baltimore to a Memorial to Congress for this object, which he says will otherwise be very powerfully supported— It will however have no support in Congress. That day will come, but not yet nor in my time. May it be my fortune, and my praise to accelerate its approach.” Adams' words proved prophetic. Though his administration opted to fund Reynolds' expedition, the voyage was waylaid by the 1828 presidential election, which found Adams roundly defeated by Andrew Jackson. The newly elected president canceled the expedition, leaving Reynolds to fund his trip through other sources. (The privately supported venture set sail in 1829 but ended in disaster, with the crew mutinying and leaving Reynolds' ass on shore.) Per Boston 1775, the U.S. Exploring Expedition only received the green light under the country's eighth president, Martin Van Buren. As Howard Dorre explains on his Plodding Through the Presidents blog, multiple media outlets (including Smithsonian, in an earlier version of this article) erroneously interpreted Adams' description of Reynolds' ideas as “visionary” as a sign of his support for the hollow earth theory. In fact, notes Bell in a separate Boston 1775 blog post, the term's connotations at the time were largely negative. In the words of 18th-century English writer Samuel Johnson, a visionary was “one whose imagination is disturbed.” The president, adds Dorre, only agreed to support the polar expedition “after Reynolds abandoned the hollow earth idea.” I had always heard that he was a believer in mole people and hollow earth, turns out his words were just misinterpreted. Hmm… I wonder if there are any other books out there where the overall ideas and verbage could and have been misinterpreted causing insane amounts of disingenuous beliefs? Nah! Though Symmes himself never wrote a book about his ideas, several authors published works discussing his ideas. McBride wrote Symmes' Theory of Concentric Spheres in 1826. It appears that Reynolds has an article that appeared as a separate booklet in 1827: Remarks of Symmes' Theory Which Appeared in the American Quarterly Review. In 1868, a professor W.F. Lyons published The Hollow Globe which put forth a Symmes-like Hollow Earth hypothesis, but failed to mention Symmes himself. Because fuck that guy, right? Symmes's son Americus then published The Symmes' Theory of Concentric Spheres in 1878 to set the record straight. I think the duel would have been a better idea. Sir John Leslie proposed a hollow Earth in his 1829 Elements of Natural Philosophy (pp. 449–53). In 1864, in Journey to the Center of the Earth, Jules Verne described a hollow Earth containing two rotating binary stars, named Pluto and Proserpine. Ok… fiction. We get it. William Fairfield Warren, in his book Paradise Found–The Cradle of the Human Race at the North Pole, (1885) presented his belief that humanity originated on a continent in the Arctic called Hyperborea. This influenced some early Hollow Earth proponents. According to Marshall Gardner, both the Eskimo and Mongolian peoples had come from the interior of the Earth through an entrance at the North Pole. I wonder if they knew that. NEQUA or The Problem of the Ages, first serialized in a newspaper printed in Topeka, Kansas in 1900 and considered an early feminist utopian novel, mentions John Cleves Symmes' theory to explain its setting in a hollow Earth. An early 20th-century proponent of hollow Earth, William Reed, wrote Phantom of the Poles in 1906. He supported the idea of a hollow Earth, but without interior shells or inner sun. Ok, no sun. Got it. The spiritualist writer Walburga, Lady Paget in her book Colloquies with an unseen friend (1907) was an early writer to mention the hollow Earth hypothesis. She claimed that cities exist beneath a desert, which is where the people of Atlantis moved. Mmmk. Deserts and Atlantis. Check. She said an entrance to the subterranean kingdom will be discovered in the 21st century. Pretty broad brush she's painting with there. Next up we're gonna talk a little about Admiral Richard E. Byrd. According to Hollow Earth theorists, Byrd met an ancient race underground in the South Pole. According to Byrd's “diary,” the government ordered Byrd to remain silent for what he witnessed during his Arctic assignment: March 11, 1947 “I have just attended a Staff Meeting at the Pentagon. I have stated fully my discovery and the message from the Master. All is duly recorded. The President has been advised. I am now detained for several hours (six hours, thirty- nine minutes, to be exact.) I am interviewed intently by Top Security Forces and a Medical Team. It was an ordeal!!!! I am placed under strict control via the National Security provisions of this United States of America. I am ORDERED TO REMAIN SILENT IN REGARD TO ALL THAT I HAVE LEARNED, ON THE BEHALF OF HUMANITY!!! Incredible! I am reminded that I am a Military Man and I must obey orders.” After many polar accomplishments, Byrd organized Operation Highjump in 1947. The objective: construct an American training and research facility in the South Pole. Highjump was a significant illustration of the state of the world and the cold war thinking at the time. The nuclear age had just begun, and the real fears were that the Soviet Union would attack the United States over the North Pole. The Navy had done a training exercise there in the summer of 1946 and felt it needed to do more. The northern winter was coming, and Highjump was a quickly planned exercise to move the whole thing to the South Pole. Politically, the orders were that the Navy should do all it could to establish a basis for a [land] claim in Antarctica. That was classified at the time.Now Operation High jump could probably be its own episode, or is at minimum a bonus. But we'll get some of the important details on how it pertains to this episode. Some say the American government sent their troops to the South Pole for any evidence of the rumored German Base 211. Nazis were fascinated with anything regarding the Aryan race. They traveled all over the world including Antarctica to learn more of alleged origins. The Germans did make their mark in the South Pole. However, what they have discovered doesn't compared to what Byrd recorded in his diary. the time. The nuclear age had just begun, and the real fears were that the Soviet Union would attack the United States over the North Pole. The Navy had done a training exerci but was that all it was “For thousands of years, people all over the world have written legends about Agartha (sometimes called Agarta or Agarthi), the underground city. Agartha (sometimes Agartta, Agharti, Agarath, Agarta or Agarttha) is a legendary kingdom that is said to be located in the Earth's core. Agartha is frequently associated or confused with Shambhala which figures prominently in Vajrayana Buddhism and Tibetan Kalachakra teachings and revived in the West by Madame Blavatsky and the Theosophical Society. Theosophists in particular regard Agarthi as a vast complex of caves underneath Tibet inhabited by demi-gods, called asuras. Helena and Nicholas Roerich, whose teachings closely parallel theosophy, see Shambhala's existence as both spiritual and physical. Did Byrd find it? He claims to have met “The Master,” the city's leader, who told him of his concerns about the surface world: “Our interest rightly begins just after your Race exploded the first atomic bombs over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. It was that alarming time we sent our flying machines, the ‘Flugelrads' to your surface world to investigate what your Race had done…You see, we have never interfered before in your Race's wars and barbarity. But now we must, for you have learned to tamper with a certain power that is not for your Man, mainly that of atomic energy. Our emissaries have already delivered messages to the power of your World, and yet they do not heed.” Apparently, the government knew about Agartha before Byrd. Marshall Gardner wrote A Journey to the Earth's Interior in 1913 and published an expanded edition in 1920. He placed an interior sun in the Earth (ah ha! The Sun's back!) and built a working model of the Hollow Earth which he actually fucking patented (U.S. Patent 1,096,102). Gardner made no mention of Reed, but did criticize Symmes for his ideas. DUEL TIME! Around the same time, Vladimir Obruchev wrote a novel titled Plutonia, in which the Hollow Earth possessed an inner Sun and was inhabited by prehistoric species. The interior was connected with the surface by an opening in the Arctic. The explorer Ferdynand Ossendowski wrote a book in 1922 titled Beasts, Men and Gods. Ossendowski said he was told about a subterranean kingdom that exists inside the Earth. It was known to Buddhists as Agharti. George Papashvily in his Anything Can Happen (1940) claimed the discovery in the Caucasus mountains of a cavern containing human skeletons "with heads as big as bushel baskets" and an ancient tunnel leading to the center of the Earth. One man entered the tunnel and never returned. This dude was a sniper with the Imperial Russian Army during World War I Moody is going to love these next examples. Novelist Lobsang Rampa in his book The Cave of the Ancients said an underground chamber system exists beneath the Himalayas of Tibet, filled with ancient machinery, records and treasure. Michael Grumley, a cryptozoologist, has linked Bigfoot and other hominid cryptids to ancient tunnel systems underground. According to the ancient astronaut writer Peter Kolosimo a robot was seen entering a tunnel below a monastery in Mongolia. Kolosimo also claimed a light was seen from underground in Azerbaijan. Kolosimo and other ancient astronaut writers such as Robert Charroux linked these activities to DUN DUN DUNNNN….UFOs. A book by a "Dr. Raymond Bernard" which appeared in 1964, The Hollow Earth, exemplifies the idea of UFOs coming from inside the Earth, and adds the idea that the Ring Nebula proves the existence of hollow worlds, as well as speculation on the fate of Atlantis and the origin of flying saucers. An article by Martin Gardner revealed that Walter Siegmeister used the pseudonym "Bernard", but not until the 1989 publishing of Walter Kafton-Minkel's Subterranean Worlds: 100,000 Years of Dragons, Dwarfs, the Dead, Lost Races & UFOs from Inside the Earth did the full story of Bernard/Siegmeister become well-known. Holy fucking book title, Batman! The science fiction pulp magazine Amazing Stories promoted one such idea from 1945 to 1949 as "The Shaver Mystery". The magazine's editor, Ray Palmer, ran a series of stories by Richard Sharpe Shaver, claiming that a superior pre-historic race had built a honeycomb of caves in the Earth, and that their degenerate descendants, known as "Dero", live there TO THIS DAY, using the fantastic machines abandoned by the ancient races to torment those of us living on the surface. As one characteristic of this torment, Shaver described "voices" that purportedly came from no explainable source. Thousands of readers wrote to affirm that they, too, had heard the fiendish voices from inside the Earth. The writer David Hatcher Childress authored Lost Continents and the Hollow Earth(1998) in which he reprinted the stories of Palmer and defended the Hollow Earth idea based on alleged (cough… “alleged”) tunnel systems beneath South America and Central Asia. Hollow Earth proponents have claimed a number of different locations for the entrances which lead inside the Earth. Other than the North and South poles, entrances in locations which have been cited include: Paris in France, Staffordshire in England, Montreal in Canada, Hangchow in China, and The Amazon Rain Forest. Ok, have you two gents heard of the Concave Hollow Earth Theory? It doesn't matter, we're still going to talk about this lunacy. Instead of saying that humans live on the outside surface of a hollow planet—sometimes called a "convex" Hollow Earth hypothesis—some whackamuffins have claimed humans live on the inside surface of a hollow spherical world, so that our universe itself lies in that world's interior. This has been called the "concave" Hollow Earth hypothesis or skycentrism. Cyrus Teed, a doctor from upstate New York, proposed such a concave Hollow Earth in 1869, calling his scheme "Cellular Cosmogony". He might as well have called it Goobery Kabooblenuts. See, I can make up words, too. Anyway, Teed founded a group called the Koreshan Unity based on this notion, which he called Koreshanity. Which sounds like insanity and would make far more sense. The main colony survives as a preserved Florida state historic site, at Estero, Florida, but all of Teed's followers have now died. Probably from eating Tide Pods. Teed's followers claimed to have experimentally verified the concavity of the Earth's curvature, through surveys of the Florida coastline making use of "rectilineator" equipment. Which sounds like something you use to clean out your colon. Several 20th-century German writers, including Peter Bender, Johannes Lang, Karl Neupert, and Fritz Braut, published works advocating the Hollow Earth hypothesis, or Hohlweltlehre. It has even been reported, although apparently without historical documentation, that Adolf Hitler was influenced by concave Hollow Earth ideas and sent an expedition in an unsuccessful attempt to spy on the British fleet by pointing infrared cameras up at the sky. Oh boy. The Egyptian mathematician Mostafa “Admiral Akbar” Abdelkader wrote several scholarly papers working out a detailed mapping of the Concave Earth model In one chapter of his book On the Wild Side (1992), Martin Gardner discusses the Hollow Earth model articulated by Abdelkader. According to Gardner, this hypothesis posits that light rays travel in circular paths, and slow as they approach the center of the spherical star-filled cavern. No energy can reach the center of the cavern, which corresponds to no point a finite distance away from Earth in the widely accepted scientific cosmology. A drill, Gardner says, would lengthen as it traveled away from the cavern and eventually pass through the "point at infinity" corresponding to the center of the Earth in the widely accepted scientific cosmology. Supposedly no experiment can distinguish between the two cosmologies. Christ, my head hurts. Gardner notes that "most mathematicians believe that an inside-out universe, with properly adjusted physical laws, is empirically irrefutable". Gardner rejects the concave Hollow Earth hypothesis on the basis of Occam's razor. Occam's razor is the problem-solving principle that "entities should not be multiplied beyond necessity", sometimes inaccurately paraphrased as "the simplest explanation is usually the best one." Purportedly verifiable hypotheses of a Concave Hollow Earth need to be distinguished from a thought experiment which defines a coordinate transformation such that the interior of the Earth becomes "exterior" and the exterior becomes "interior". (For example, in spherical coordinates, let radius r go to R2/r where R is the Earth's radius; see inversive geometry.) The transformation entails corresponding changes to the forms of physical laws. This is not a hypothesis but an illustration of the fact that any description of the physical world can be equivalently expressed in more than one way. Contrary evidence Seismic The picture of the structure of the Earth that has been arrived at through the study of seismic waves is quite different from a fully hollow Earth. The time it takes for seismic waves to travel through and around the Earth directly contradicts a fully hollow sphere. The evidence indicates the Earth is mostly filled with solid rock (mantle and crust), liquid nickel-iron alloy (outer core), and solid nickel-iron (inner core). Gravity Main articles: Schiehallion experiment and Cavendish experiment Another set of scientific arguments against a Hollow Earth or any hollow planet comes from gravity. Massive objects tend to clump together gravitationally, creating non-hollow spherical objects such as stars and planets. The solid spheroid is the best way in which to minimize the gravitational potential energy of a rotating physical object; having hollowness is unfavorable in the energetic sense. In addition, ordinary matter is not strong enough to support a hollow shape of planetary size against the force of gravity; a planet-sized hollow shell with the known, observed thickness of the Earth's crust would not be able to achieve hydrostatic equilibrium with its own mass and would collapse. Based upon the size of the Earth and the force of gravity on its surface, the average density of the planet Earth is 5.515 g/cm3, and typical densities of surface rocks are only half that (about 2.75 g/cm3). If any significant portion of the Earth were hollow, the average density would be much lower than that of surface rocks. The only way for Earth to have the force of gravity that it does is for much more dense material to make up a large part of the interior. Nickel-iron alloy under the conditions expected in a non-hollow Earth would have densities ranging from about 10 to 13 g/cm3, which brings the average density of Earth to its observed value. Direct observation Drilling holes does not provide direct evidence against the hypothesis. The deepest hole drilled to date is the Kola Superdeep Borehole, with a true vertical drill-depth of more than 7.5 miles (12 kilometers). However, the distance to the center of the Earth is nearly 4,000 miles (6,400 kilometers). Oil wells with longer depths are not vertical wells; the total depths quoted are measured depth (MD) or equivalently, along-hole depth (AHD) as these wells are deviated to horizontal. Their true vertical depth (TVD) is typically less than 2.5 miles (4 kilometers). Ok, then let's discuss what actual scientists, like ALL OF THEM, believe the earth is actually composed of. The inner core This solid metal ball has a radius of 1,220 kilometers (758 miles), or about three-quarters that of the moon. It's located some 6,400 to 5,180 kilometers (4,000 to 3,220 miles) beneath Earth's surface. Extremely dense, it's made mostly of iron and nickel. The inner core spins a bit faster than the rest of the planet. It's also intensely hot: Temperatures sizzle at 5,400° Celsius (9,800° Fahrenheit). That's almost as hot as the surface of the sun. Pressures here are immense: well over 3 million times greater than on Earth's surface. Some research suggests there may also be an inner, inner core. It would likely consist almost entirely of iron. The outer core This part of the core is also made from iron and nickel, just in liquid form. It sits some 5,180 to 2,880 kilometers (3,220 to 1,790 miles) below the surface. Heated largely by the radioactive decay of the elements uranium and thorium, this liquid churns in huge, turbulent currents. That motion generates electrical currents. They, in turn, generate Earth's magnetic field. For reasons somehow related to the outer core, Earth's magnetic field reverses about every 200,000 to 300,000 years. Scientists are still working to understand how that happens. The mantle At close to 3,000 kilometers (1,865 miles) thick, this is Earth's thickest layer. It starts a mere 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) beneath the surface. Made mostly of iron, magnesium and silicon, it is dense, hot and semi-solid (think caramel candy). Like the layer below it, this one also circulates. It just does so far more slowly. Near its upper edges, somewhere between about 100 and 200 kilometers (62 to 124 miles) underground, the mantle's temperature reaches the melting point of rock. Indeed, it forms a layer of partially melted rock known as the asthenosphere (As-THEEN-oh-sfeer). Geologists believe this weak, hot, slippery part of the mantle is what Earth's tectonic plates ride upon and slide across. Diamonds are tiny pieces of the mantle we can actually touch. Most form at depths above 200 kilometers (124 miles). But rare “super-deep” diamonds may have formed as far down as 700 kilometers (435 miles) below the surface. These crystals are then brought to the surface in volcanic rock known as kimberlite. The mantle's outermost zone is relatively cool and rigid. It behaves more like the crust above it. Together, this uppermost part of the mantle layer and the crust are known as the lithosphere. The crust Earth's crust is like the shell of a hard-boiled egg. It is extremely thin, cold and brittle compared to what lies below it. The crust is made of relatively light elements, especially silica, aluminum and oxygen. It's also highly variable in its thickness. Under the oceans (and Hawaiian Islands), it may be as little as 5 kilometers (3.1 miles) thick. Beneath the continents, the crust may be 30 to 70 kilometers (18.6 to 43.5 miles) thick. Along with the upper zone of the mantle, the crust is broken into big pieces, like a gigantic jigsaw puzzle. These are known as tectonic plates. These move slowly — at just 3 to 5 centimeters (1.2 to 2 inches) per year. What drives the motion of tectonic plates is still not fully understood. It may be related to heat-driven convection currents in the mantle below. Some scientists think it's caused by the tug from slabs of crust of different densities, something called “slab pull.” In time, these plates will converge, pull apart or slide past each other. Those actions cause most earthquakes and volcanoes. It's a slow ride, but it makes for exciting times right here on Earth's surface. https://www.imdb.com/list/ls003260126/?sort=user_rating,desc&st_dt=&mode=detail&page=1 BECOME A P.O.O.P.R.!! http://www.patreon.com/themidnighttrainpodcast Find The Midnight Train Podcast: www.themidnighttrainpodcast.com www.facebook.com/themidnighttrainpodcast www.twitter.com/themidnighttrainpc www.instagram.com/themidnighttrainpodcast www.discord.com/themidnighttrainpodcast www.tiktok.com/themidnighttrainp And wherever you listen to your favorite podcasts. Subscribe to our official YouTube channel: OUR YOUTUBE Support our sponsors www.themidnighttraintrainpodcast.com/sponsors The Charley Project www.charleyproject.org
Conclusion to my favorite crime books over the last few months.Thank you to betterhelp.com for sponsoring this week's episode, save 10% with my promo code WHO. To help SUPPORT THIS SHOW you can do so via Venmo with my username @bill-huffman-3 or via PayPal with my username @williamhuffman3, all contributions go directly to making these shows available. Thank you!On October 27th, there will be an anniversary walk in honor of Amy Mihaljevic who was abducted from Bay Village in 1989. You can Contribute to the Amy Milhaljevic Fund at Bay Village City Hall. The fund is used to pay for resources that can help solve this case such as DNA, mDNA, Genealogy testing, travel expenses for Phil Toursney (FBI ret.) who travels to Bay from out of state to work on the case, and other incidentals.SOURCES:American Kingpin: https://www.amazon.com/American-Kingpin-Criminal-Mastermind-Behind/dp/1591848148King of Confidence: https://www.amazon.com/King-Confidence-Dreamers-Frontier-Believers/dp/B088HJ96GT/ref=sr_1_1?crid=1Z9KA7DBSLQVU&dchild=1&keywords=king+of+confidence+miles+harvey&qid=1631811191&s=books&sprefix=king+of+conf%2Cstripbooks%2C412&sr=1-1Say Nothing: https://www.amazon.com/Say-Nothing-Murder-Northern-Ireland/dp/1984883216/ref=tmm_pap_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=1631811224&sr=1-1All the Devils Are Here: https://www.amazon.com/All-Devils-Are-Here-audiobook/dp/B004CJN7AU/ref=sr_1_2?crid=XO66X7Q6UWMI&dchild=1&keywords=all+the+devils+are+here&qid=1631811255&s=books&sprefix=All+the+devil%2Cstripbooks%2C183&sr=1-2The Gardner Heist: https://www.amazon.com/Gardner-Heist-Worlds-Largest-Unsolved/dp/0061451843/ref=tmm_pap_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=1631811294&sr=1-1
Today's Co-Hosts: Ben Criddle (@criddlebenjamin) Subscribe to the Cougar Sports with Ben Criddle podcast:Apple Podcastshttps://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/cougar-sports-with-ben-criddle/id996764363Google Podcastshttps://www.google.com/podcasts?feed=aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cuc3ByZWFrZXIuY29tL3Nob3cvMTM2OTkzOS9lcGlzb2Rlcy9mZWVkSpotifyhttps://open.spotify.com/show/7dZvrG1ZtKkfgqGenR3S2mPocket Castshttps://pca.st/SU8aOvercasthttps://overcast.fm/itunes996764363/cougar-sports-with-ben-criddle-byuSpreakerhttps://www.spreaker.com/show/cougar-sports-with-ben-criddleStitcherhttps://www.stitcher.com/s?fid=66416iHeartRadiohttps://www.iheart.com/podcast/966-cougar-sports-with-29418022TuneInhttps://tunein.com/podcasts/Sports-Talk--News/Cougar-Sports-with-Ben-Criddle-p731529/
Ronnie Gardners life started out terrible and only got worse over the years. Ultimately his actions would cost the lives of three men and ruin the lives of countless others including his own.For show notes go to www.theywillkill.com