Podcast appearances and mentions of sean finnegan

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Best podcasts about sean finnegan

Latest podcast episodes about sean finnegan

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473 What Is Earth Science? (Will Barlow)

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Play Episode Listen Later Dec 8, 2022 49:38


So far we've considered physics and biology in our exploration of scripture and science. Today we begin to consider how earth science and the bible fit together. This becomes particularly significant when considering interpretations for Noah's flood. We'll get to that next time. But, for today, our teacher will lay out the basics of geology and earth science to give us a good overview. He'll also cover radiometric dating, which has a bearing on how scientists determine the age of the earth. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8VzgrLAFXfg&embeds_euri=https%3A%2F%2Flhim.org%2F&feature=emb_imp_woyt See below for notes. —— Links —— We are doing follow-up discussions to these episodes on YouTube. Check them out! See other episodes in this Scripture and Science Class Check out Barlow's previous podcast episodes Learn more about and support the church Barlow and his team are starting in Louisville, KY, called Compass Christian Church Find more articles and audios by Barlow on his website: Study Driven Faith Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here —— Notes —— Geology, Earth Science, and Atmospheric Science • Geology• Important cycles• Plate tectonics Geology • Types of rocks/rock cycle• Geological principles• Dating methods• Structure of the Earth What is Geology? Geology is the study of the Earth and the processes related to the Earth. • Geologists study rocks (and the rock cycle)• Subfields include atmospheric studies (meteorology), volcanology (studying volcanos), and mineralogy (study of minerals) Types of Rocks There are three major categories of rocks: • Sedimentary - formed by pressure acting on sediment• Igneous - formed by lava• Metamorphic - formed by extreme pressure and heat The Rock Cycle Since wind and water are constantly affecting change, there is a rock cycle. Geological Principles There are several main principles of geology: • Superposition• Cross-cutting relationships• Uniformitarianism Dating Methods There are major types of dating: • Absolute dating• Relative dating Absolute Dating Absolute dating is based on radioactive decay. What is radioactive decay? • Some forms of certain elements are (by nature) unstable• Over time, these elements change on the atomic level (sometimes losing protons and neutrons; sometimes exchanging protons and neutrons, etc.) Carbon Dating Carbon dating uses the decay of Carbon - 14 • Carbon - 12 has 6 neutrons and 6 protons• Carbon - 13 has 7 neutrons and 6 protons• Carbon - 14 has 8 neutrons and 6 protons What happens when Carbon - 14 decays? • Carbon - 14 exchanges a neutron for a proton• This changes the element from carbon to nitrogen• The reaction also produces an electron and an antineutrino So, how does this tell us anything about dating? • Radioactive decay is a process that is well understood• The half-life for carbon - 14 is ~5,700 years• This means, that it takes 5,700 years for the amount of carbon -14 in a sample to cut in half Is carbon dating exact? • No - it's a statistical process• However, there is a range of probable dates given Relative Dating What is relative dating? • Relative dating uses the geological principles of superposition and cross-cutting relationships to provide estimates on how old certain features are• Example: dating a rock layer based on the age of another layer (dated using radiometric dating) Structure of the Earth How do scientists know about the structure of the Earth? • Scientists understand what waves do when they hit various materials (ex: ultrasound imaging)• Seismological data from earthquakes has given us insight into the structure of the Earth The Water Cycle The water cycle is the process by which water goes through the phases of liquid, gas, and solid. • The water cycle helps moderate temperatures on Earth• The water cycle also supports life through crops and drinking water Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles Carbon and nitrogen also experience cycles of solid, liquid, and gas. • The carbon cycle is important for the support of life.• Disruption of the carbon cycle is one of the biggest fears of those promoting climate change. Plate Tectonics History of plate tectonics • Ancients did not believe in tectonic separation• In 1620, Sir Francis Bacon noted that Africa and South America looked like they could have fit together• Similar animal fossils and other pieces of evidence started getting scientists' attention• In 1925, Alfred Wegener formally proposed plate tectonic theory and was ridiculed.• In 1930, Wegener died while on expedition in Greenland, trying to find evidence for his theory.• In the late 1960s, almost overnight, the theory of plate tectonics reached scientific mainstream. Evidence for plate tectonics: • Paleomagnetic data• Similar rock outcroppings• Fossil evidence• Spreading of the sea floor• Direct evidence - we can observe the movement! Challenges to plate tectonics: • Where is the energy coming from?• Why are the continental plates moving like they are? “Even today, many questions pertaining to plate tectonics remain unanswered. Many exceptions to rigid rules have been found throughout the world. Although classical plate tectonic theory works well for oceanic crust, it has a difficult time explaining the motion of the continents”— Jon Erickson, Plate Tectonics, page 259. Challenges for Geology There are several concerns with geology as a science: • The principle of uniformitarianism is impossible to prove and so it's an assumption• Relative dating techniques can use circular logic at times

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472 Why I (Still) Don’t Believe in Evolution (Sean Finnegan)

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Play Episode Listen Later Dec 2, 2022 37:17


I'd like to take an opportunity to interrupt this Scripture and Science class. We've just done three episodes on evolution. The first one covered the basics of what evolution is. Our second teaching evolution covered biblical problems and the third surveyed some scientific problems. Then Will interviewed Sam about his beliefs in both Christianity and evolution. I figured we'd just leave it there and move on to hear what Will had to say about geology. But after seeing various comments coming in, I decided it would be good to interject some of my own thoughts both defending my reasons for honestly engaging with evolution as well as my reasons for still not believing in it. My reasons: Lack of evidence for evolution Problem of first life Mutations as an inadequate mechanism Humans ill-adapted for survival Allegorical readings of Genesis are ad hoc Evolution undermines the Fall Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts —— Links —— We are doing follow-up discussions to these episodes on YouTube. Check them out! See other episodes in this Scripture and Science Class Check out Barlow's previous podcast episodes Learn more about and support the church Barlow and his team are starting in Louisville, KY, called Compass Christian Church Find more articles and audios by Barlow on his website: Study Driven Faith Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here

Dermot & Dave
It Seems Foil Arms And Hog Are Very Big In China

Dermot & Dave

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 30, 2022 7:32


Have you ever heard of the site 'Bilibili'? Sean Finnegan, Conor McKenna and Sean Flanagan AKA Foil Arms And Hog joined Dermot and Dave to chat about being famous in China, their new tour and they treated the ads to a live sketch!

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471 Scripture & Science 11: Scientific Objections to Evolution (Will Barlow)

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Play Episode Listen Later Nov 23, 2022 37:22


Since it's inception, evolutionary theory has remained controversial for many. Although one might think only uneducated laypeople find the idea unpalatable, quite a sizeable minority of scientists too struggle to come to terms with Darwinism. In today's episode, Will Barlow explores a number of major scientific objections to evolution, including the Cambrian explosion, mutations as an insufficient mechanism, irreducible complexity, and the fossil record itself. Additionally, he briefly explores the issue of abiogenesis--the presumed starting point for any evolutionary development. Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sdx6kuhRqQY&feature=emb_imp_woyt See below for notes. —— Links —— We are doing follow-up discussions to these episodes on YouTube. Check them out! See other episodes in this Scripture and Science Class Check out Barlow's previous podcast episodes Learn more about and support the church Barlow and his team are starting in Louisville, KY, called Compass Christian Church Find more articles and audios by Barlow on his website: Study Driven Faith Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here —— Notes —— Scientific Objections to Evolution • Evidence problems (open scientific questions)• Methodological problems• Evolution or design? Evidence Problems The theory of evolution has several major open problems that are yet to be solved: • The Cambrian Explosion• Mutations The Cambrian Explosion Much of the fossil record could be viewed in a light to support evolution, but the Cambrian Explosion poses a big problem: • The theory of evolution requires slow changes over a long time• Cambrian explosion was a big change in a short period of time Simply put, what is the Cambrian explosion? • Evolution would predict species would diverge and lead to new genera, families, orders, classes, and then phyla• Most animal phyla (and many major classes within them) appear fully formed in the Cambrian period “According to modern paleontologists James Valentine, Stanley Awramik, Philip Signor, and Peter Sadler, the appearance of the major animal phyla near the beginning of the Cambrian is ‘the single most spectacular phenomenon evident in the fossil record.'”— Jonathan Wells, The Politically Incorrect Guide to Darwinism and Intelligent Design, page 16. Some scientists have suggested that pre-Cambrian organisms might be too delicate to make good fossils • Recent scientific discoveries have shown that this is untrue• Scientists have found fossils in the Cambrian period that are small and soft tissued Mutations Mutations are considered incredibly important to the evolutionary framework: • Recall that as populations are isolated and different conditions exist, random mutations lead to speciation (according to evolution)• Recent studies on mutation have challenged this understanding “Rather than mutations building up molecular machinery, improving an organism relentlessly, many mutations actually destroyed parts of a creature's DNA, or rendered some of the molecular machinery it coded for ineffective. It turns out that some of the mutations which break things can sometimes have a salutary effect.”— Michael Behe, “God and Evolution,” God is Great, God is Good, page 86. Mutations that break genes can have a positive effect. For example: • If a child receives the gene for sickle cell anemia from one parent and not the other, that child will experience more resistance to malaria Evolutionist Richard Lenski and his team observed a situation in bacteria where two successive mutations improved the survivability of the bacteria.However, there is one problem… “The first mutations to help were the breaking of genes. The bacteria rapidly lost the ability to make the sugar ribose (a component of RNA); for some reason that helped the mutant bacteria compete against non-mutants. A handful of other genes involved in metabolism were also deleted. Some bacteria had their ability to repair DNA badly damaged. Most bacteria lost the ability to metabolize the sugar maltose.” “The mutations were incoherent, scattered in different genes, with no recognizable theme among them. They were not in the process of building any new system in the cell. They simply took advantage of opportunities that helped them grow faster in their current milieu. This is what random mutation does, even when it ‘helps.'”— Michael Behe, “God and Evolution,” God is Great, God is Good, page 89. Methodological Problems The theory of evolution has many methodological problems: • Misleading Evidence for evolution• Irreducible complexity• The fossil record• Origin of life Misleading Evidence for Evolution Proponents of evolution have used several pieces of misleading information: • Haeckel's embryos• Miller's origin of life experiment Haeckel's Embryos If you look at many scientific textbooks, you will find a drawing of Haeckel's embryos.The problem is that they are fake! Miller's Experiment Stanley Miller conducted a series of experiments in 1953 to demonstrate that life could spontaneously arise: • Miller used an atmosphere of hydrogen, methane, ammonia, and water vapor — and life appeared!• However, that atmosphere is not the scientifically accepted atmosphere Irreducible Complexity “If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed which could not possibly have formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down.”— Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species Michael Behe (professor of biochemistry) believes that there are many examples that violate Darwin's principles.He calls these “irreducibly complex” things “machines.” An “irreducibly complex” system is “a single system which is composed of several well-matched, interacting parts that contribute to the basic function, and where the removal of any one of the parts causes the system to effectively cease functioning.”— Behe, Darwin's Black Box, page 39. Behe uses an example from modern life to explain what he means by an “irreducibly complex” system: a mousetrap.Can a mousetrap work without a hammer, spring, or platform? Behe give many examples in his book of systems that, from a biochemical perspective, are irreducibly complex: • Blood clotting• Bacterial flagellum Responses to Behe: • Collins says that most of Behe's examples may have plausible solutions in the future• Dawkins argues that there is not an “all or nothing” nature to certain examples Behe gives• Lenski's experiment showed that bacteria could see successive mutations (two-step machine) The Fossil Record What about the fossil record? It is perhaps the only place where we can scientifically observe speciation (the change in species over time).Jonathan Wells challenges the fossil record. Imagine that you dig in your backyard and find two skeletons! They are both dated to 30 years ago. One is adult sized and the other is half of that.Can you assume a familial relationship? We can apply this type of critical thinking to the fossil record. Just because two fossil specimens look like they are related does not make them related. Consider archaeopteryx. Is it half-bird, half-reptile? Does it fit in the gap that evolutionists want?It does not. The supposed reptilian precursors to this animal are found after it in the fossil record. “We are not even authorized to consider the exceptional case of the archaeopteryx as a true link. By link, we mean a necessary stage of transition between classes such as reptiles and birds, or between smaller groups. An animal displaying characters belonging to two different groups cannot be treated as a true link as long as the intermediary stages have not been found, and as long as the mechanisms of the transition remain unknown.”—Pierre Lecomte du Nouy, cited in Strobel, The Case for a Creator, page 58. Origin of Life Remember that evolution does not describe the origin of life — the theory begins when life begins.However, it is interesting to challenge abiogenesis theories in conjunction with evolution. Challenges to abiogenesis theories: • The probability of randomly producing a “simple” protein are astronomically low• No natural selection available before life begins Evolution or Design? What is the best conclusion given the evidence? • If we believe in evolution, it still could be consistent with God-designed life and guidance.• If we don't believe in evolution, there is strong evidence for design in the living beings around us.• Either way, atheism doesn't do the best job of explaining the evidence.

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470 Scripture & Science 10: Biblical Objections to Evolution (Will Barlow)

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Play Episode Listen Later Nov 18, 2022 39:11


Having looked at what the theory of evolution teaches last time, today we're going to think through how well evolution fits with the bible. Will Barlow covers two main scriptural objections that young earth creationists bring against evolution before exploring three more issues that arise from the perspective of old earth creationism. How does Genesis 1 fit with evolution? Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wZysp0JF3CA&feature=emb_imp_woyt See below for notes. —— Links —— We are doing follow-up discussions to these episodes on YouTube. Check them out! See other episodes in this Scripture and Science Class Check out Barlow's previous podcast episodes Learn more about and support the church Barlow and his team are starting in Louisville, KY, called Compass Christian Church Find more articles and audios by Barlow on his website: Study Driven Faith Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here —— Notes —— Genesis 1 and Evolution • Review of evolution• YEC and evolution• OEC and evolution• Non-literal views and evolution Review of evolution Misconception #1: “It's just a theory!”Misconception #2: It means to explain how life beganMisconception #3: Evolution says that humans evolved from apesMisconception #4: Evolution is a progression from simpler organisms to more complex organisms YEC and Evolution How does YEC view evolution? • In short, YEC reject the theory of evolution• YEC make both Scriptural and scientific arguments to defend their position - we will focus on the Scriptural arguments for now Scriptural Objection #1 “Adam and Eve are no longer the first humans, and original sin goes out the window. This does irreparable damage to the biblical redemption narrative. The Bible says that death came into the world because of man's sin (Romans 5:12) and that all of creation labors under a curse because of sin (Romans 8:22). Scripture also says that Christ is the last Adam, come to redeem us from the sin brought into the world through the first man, Adam (1 Corinthians 15:22, 45).” “If Adam were a mythical figure, which is what evolution demands, even in a Christianized form, the entire parallel between the two Adams and the kinsman redeemer concept is destroyed. By advocating evolution, theistic evolutionists are undermining the very tenets of Christianity.” Scriptural Objection #2 “Jesus, when explaining marriage to the Sadducees, referred to Adam and Eve as existing from the beginning of creation (Mark 10:6). According to those who accept millions of years, Adam and Eve only existed after billions and millions of years of death: this makes Jesus either ignorant or a liar.”Scriptural Objection #3 “Further, when God finished his creation he called everything very good (Genesis 1:31). In order for the millions of years to be true, God would have to be calling the fossil record, which records disease, death, violence, and suffering, very good. That is inconsistent with the character of God revealed throughout the rest of Scripture.” Answering YEC Scriptural Objections Genesis 1:26   Then God said, "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. And let them have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over the livestock and over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth." Genesis 1:27   So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. Nothing in Genesis 1 or 2 says how God created man (or for that matter, any other plant or animal). Objection #1: No Literal Adam and Eve • Day-Age: Can fit a lot of evolutionary evidence, but believe in special creation of humans• Gap: Reconstitution of life; could hold to evolution in the “gap” period; believe in special creation of humans• Walton: Ancients unaware of the problem Objection #2: Adam and Eve existed from the “beginning of creation” • “Beginning,” in this context, can refer more to the institution of marriage than the physical creation of the Universe and Earth Objection #3: God called death in the fossil record “very good” • The original audience of Genesis would have had no concept of the fossil record, so we do not have to assume knowledge of it in our reading of this text OEC and Evolution In general, most OEC views still end up rejecting evolution • Most OEC view accept YEC critique #1 but refute critiques #2 and #3• The primary OEC view that does not reject evolution is Collins' non-literal view (which he calls BioLogos) Collins' View on Adam “In the first place, the biblical texts themselves seem to suggest that there were other humans present at the same time that Adam and Eve were expelled from the Garden of Eden. Otherwise, where did Cain's wife, mentioned only after he left Eden to live in the land of Nod (Genesis 4:16-17), come from?” “Some biblical literalists insist that the wives of Cain and Seth must have been their own sisters, but that is both in serious conflict with subsequent prohibitions against incest, and incompatible with a straightforward reading of the text.” “The real dilemma for the believer comes down to whether Genesis 2 is describing a special act of miraculous creation that applied to a historic couple, making them biologically different from all other creatures that had walked the earth, or whether this is a poetic and powerful allegory of God's plan for the entrance of the spiritual nature (the soul) and the Moral Law into humanity.”-Francis Collins, The Language of God, pg. 207 Day-Age and Evolution Most Day-Age advocates reject evolution • I believe, however, that evolution could mostly work with Day-Age• The main sticking point is the origin of humans Gap Theory and Evolution Most Gap Theory advocates reject evolution • I believe, however, that evolution could mostly work with Gap Theory• The main sticking point is the origin of humans• The additional point of discontinuity would be the catastrophic event between verses 1 and 2 “According to its kind” and Evolution Some creationists have asserted that the phrase “according to its kind” would preclude evolution • Genesis 1:11-12 - Vegetation “according to its kind”• Genesis 1:21 - Sea creatures and birds• Genesis 1:26 - beasts of the earth Genesis 1:21   So God created the great sea creatures and every living creature that moves, with which the waters swarm, according to their kinds, and every winged bird according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. However, in Genesis 1, “kind” appears to be a loose biological grouping • We still see this today• Species can only procreate within a genus• Often, offspring cannot procreate Does “according to its kind” mean that these animals will always stay inside of that “kind”? • Evolution suggests that animals can only procreate within a genus• Genesis 1 is talking about procreation• Thus, there is no difficulty hereGenesis 1 and Evolution Where does the text disagree with evolution? • YEC: all over the place• Day-Age: Just the origin or humans• Gap Theory: Origin of humans and the need to reconstitute life Origin of Humans Questions to consider as we examine the options: • Why do human life and civilization seem to advance suddenly approximately 10,000 years ago?• Language• Cities What about the genetic evidence? How do we address the evidence for the evolution of man presented by Francis Collins? • Even Collins admits that an efficient Creator could resolve much of the evidence• Mutations over the past 6,000 years could explain the non-functioning gene evidence Does the Bible preclude evolution? Not necessarily.In my judgment, the biggest issue Biblically is with the origin of humanity.What do you believe about Adam? The Tree of Life

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469 Scripture & Science 9: What Is Evolution? (Will Barlow)

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Play Episode Listen Later Nov 11, 2022 35:42


Having taken a short break from our Scripture & Science series, we are back. Today begins a series of three episodes exploring evolution. Whether you believe in evolution or not, it's important to understand what the theory claims and how evolutionists reason. In this episode, Will Barlow briefly explains how evolutionists explain the gradual change from one species to another. He dispels four common misconceptions and delves into the genetic insights popularized by Francis Collins who is both an evolutionist and a Christian. Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HDi6QRlyfSE&feature=emb_imp_woyt See below for notes. —— Links —— We are doing follow-up discussions to these episodes on YouTube. Check them out! See other episodes in this Scripture and Science Class Check out Barlow's previous podcast episodes Learn more about and support the church Barlow and his team are starting in Louisville, KY, called Compass Christian Church Find more articles and audios by Barlow on his website: Study Driven Faith Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here —— Notes —— Biochemistry and Evolution • Common misconceptions with evolution• General framework of evolution• Modern evolutionary theory Common misconceptions with evolution Misconception #1: “It's just a theory!” • Often, opponents of evolution will state that it is a theory (and use that term pejoratively)• However, evolution does account for much of the scientific evidence and has made many successful predictions Definition of “theory”“A scheme or system of ideas or statements held as an explanation or account of a group of facts or phenomena; a hypothesis that has been confirmed or established by observation or experiment, and is propounded or accepted as accounting for the known facts; a statement of what are held to be the general laws, principles, or causes of something known or observed.”-Richard Dawkins, The Greatest Show of Earth, pg. 9 Common misconceptions with evolution Misconception #2: It means to explain how life began • Often, opponents of evolution attack the beginning of life problem• However, evolution does not attempt to account for the beginning of life; this is the theory of abiogenesis Misconception #3: Evolution says that humans evolved from apes • This is a vast over-simplification of the theory• Evolution teaches that all life came evolved from a single organism, so apes and humans share an ancestor Misconception #4: Evolution is a progression from simpler organisms to more complex organisms • This is another over-simplification of the theory• No particular animal alive is more advanced than any prior animal in history• Current animals are simply better suited to survive than their ancestors General framework of evolution Thought experiment: Millions of years ago, there's an animal named “tom” that is a mammal • At one point, there is one population of “toms”• However, some time later, the population splits in two due to a geographical issue (let's say a mountain pass)• On one side of the mountain, there is more rain• On the other side of the mountain, there is less rain and more heat• Since the populations have been split (and are not sharing genetic information), random mutations occur in each population• Since the environments are different, the random mutations that lead to “better” alternatives are different• Over time, these mutations build up into noticeable differences• Eventually, two new species emerge: “tom a” and “tom b”Predictions of evolution Successful prediction #1: Scientists have demonstrated that DNA is more advanced as life is more advanced • For example, human DNA is 96% similar to chimpanzee DNA• Yet the number of protein-encoding genes is roughly the same for all animals and plants! Genetic Complexity “Our complexity must arise not from the number of separate instruction packets, but from the way they are utilized.”-Francis Collins, The Language of God, pg. 137 Predictions of evolution The concept of the “tree of life” is another important prediction of evolution.We should expect to see intermediate species in the fossil record and the genetic record as we study the world around us. Support for the tree of life: • Transition between fish and amphibians — we can find fish that could walk and breathe oxygen• Genetic sequencing has mostly confirmed scientists' predictions, with a few surprises! “At the level of the genome as a whole, a computer can construct a tree of life based solely upon the similarities of the DNA sequences of multiple organisms…. Bear in mind that this analysis does not utilize any information from the fossil record, or from anatomical observations of current life forms. Yet its similarity to c biology, biochemistry, evolution, what is evolution?, do Christians believe in evolution?, can a Christian believe in evolution?, common misconceptions about evolution, evolutionary theory, Richard Dawkins, The Greatest Show on Earth, ancestors, tree of life, Charles Darwin, speciation, macro evolution, micro evolution, predictions of evolution, DNA, chimpanzee, Francis Collins, The Language of God, fish, amphibians, junk DNA, human evolution, ancient repetitive elements, ARE, genetics, onclusions drawn from studies of comparative anatomy… is striking.” Successful prediction #2: Breeders and agriculture experts have demonstrated “micro-evolution” countless times. • Ex: dog breeds• Ex: Hybrid crops• Detractors of evolution sometimes say that micro-evolution is possible but “macro-evolution” is not• Francis Collins argues that the distinction is an artificial one Successful prediction #3: Accumulation of “junk DNA” • Darwin's theory predicts that mutations that do not affect function (located in “junk DNA”) will accumulate slowly over time• We see this, as well as “silent” differences in the genetic codeWhat about man? Does evolution successfully show that humans evolved? • Richard Dawkins demonstrates that the fossil record is full of so-called “missing” links• Perhaps even more powerful, Francis Collins gives evidence for human evolution from genetics What is Francis Collins' best piece of evidence? What happens when we compare the human genome to other animals' genomes?What about genes that appear to be non-functional in humans but functional in multiple species? Fact #1: Comparing human and mouse genomes • The overall size of the genome is roughly the same• The inventory of protein-encoding genes is remarkably similar• The order of genes is generally the same over substantial stretches of DNA• The existence of similar AREs (ancient repetitive elements) On AREs: “When one aligns sections of the human and mouse genomes, anchored by the appearance of gene counterparts that occur in the same order, one can usually also identify AREs in approximately the same location in these two genomes.” “The process of transposition often damages the jumping gene. There are AREs throughout the human and mouse genomes that were truncated when they landed, removing any possibility of their functioning. In many instances, one can identify a decapitated and utterly defunct ARE in parallel positions in the human and mouse genome.” Fact #2: Comparing human and chimpanzee chromosomal fusion “Recently… it has become possible to look at the precise location where this proposed chromosomal fusion must have happened…. But they are found right where evolution would have predicted, in the middle of our second fused chromosome.” Fact #3: Comparing human and chimpanzee genetic function • Caspase-12 is a functional gene in chimpanzees (and many other mammals, including mice)• The human version is found in the identical location as the chimp version, but lacks the function

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468 Touching the Supernatural (Dale Allison)

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Play Episode Listen Later Nov 3, 2022 60:34


Renowned Historical Jesus Scholar and Princeton Theological Seminary Professor, Dale Allison's life changed forever when he was just sixteen years old. In fact, he has chronicled nine profound spiritual experiences throughout his life. These extraordinary moments of transcendence led him to a comparative study to learn more about what is happening to people all around the world in our time. The result? A book that catalogues and describes weird encounters with angels in white, sudden terminal lucidity, near death experiences, and even encounters with evil spiritual entities. This is not the typical sort of book written by someone who has made a career of scholarship within a guild that generally prefers naturalism and reductionism to the miraculous or inexplicable. Nonetheless, now tenured and sitting atop a mountain of published successes--and without concern about his career--Professor Allison feels free to explore his own numinal episodes as well as those of a staggering number of others--most of whom keep such experiences to themselves. Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts https://youtu.be/H4_ZSJH6SRs —— Links —— Get the book we discussed, Encountering Mystery For more about Dale Allison, see his books on Amazon Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here —— Questions —— You begin your book by telling three personal experiences of the transcendent. Were you worried what people would think about you as a distinguished scholar of Jesus and the New Testament, especially among the more secular-minded elements in the academy? You remark on the difficulty of acquiring accurate statistics on mystical experiences because people tend to keep their encounters private. Why is that? And yet, they seem to be increasing, or at least reported more (see p. 21) You talk about a small piece of paper that you keep in your desk draw that chronicles nine experiences you've had between 1979 and 1999. Do you think it's important for people to maintain their memories of extraordinary events? Honestly, your little piece of paper reminded me of Blaise Pascal's night of fire. He sowed it into his house jacket and it was only discovered after he died. Why do you think there's so much shame and silence surrounding people's experiences of spiritual realities? Let's talk about the dark side. You related some stories of people who experienced love or joy or light and then others where people felt terrified by the numinous. Let's talk about the so-called old hag experience (Newfoundland Legend). What is that? You found one source that claimed approx. 20% of North Americans have had this experience (p. 24). How do you make sense of that? Is it that people are in an altered stage of consciousness and can perceive a spiritual dimension that is usually invisible to them? Specifically, could you share about your daughter? (She saw shadow people and had PTSD for 10 years!?) Have you thought much about psychedelics? There's increasing research about micro dosing where people have similar experience to what you cover in the book, both benevolent and malevolent.prayer (skip)...though one story about the lady who saw a phone number and called a pay phone and got the guy who was struggling with negative thoughts Angels: you talk about the AIW (angel in white) as well as anti-gravity stories. You talk about people nearly falling off roofs or falling and then floating downwards. These are especially hard for people to believe since they aren't subjective experiences. These are either the most powerful or the most ridiculous. Did you struggle to include these? Sudden clarity among the dying..other dreams and visions (60%) Many Christians hold to cessationism, probably b/c it's easy. Dismiss everything as hearsay and hallucination. But, you're book, essentially makes that view impossible. But this raises another problem. Read p. 82. How do you respond to this objection?

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467 Parenting Wayward Adult Children (Mary DeMuth)

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Play Episode Listen Later Oct 28, 2022 43:48


Today we're taking a little break from our Scripture and Science class for an author interview. I'm talking with Mary DeMuth who wrote, Love, Pray, Listen, which is about parenting wayward adult kids with joy. Because faith is not genetic, our children get to decide for themselves whether or not they will follow Jesus. Some believe in the home and then stand strong a lifetime. Others, have to go over fool's hill and after a period of rebellion, come back to the faith with a powerful testimony. Still others, leave and never come back. What's more, you have no idea what's going to be the case with your kids. We parent, we teach, we pray, we love, but God has not given us the right to force our adult kids to believe. How do we deal with this? Well, Mary DeMuth has some answers to encourage you and help you maximize the possibility of them coming back to the faith. Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts https://youtu.be/HsL8PcG_w3Y —— Links —— For more about Mary DeMuth, see her website at marydemuth.com Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here —— Questions —— 1. Your book is for the parents of adult wayward children. What made you want to write about this? 2. Share a little about your own story. 3. A lot of Christ-followers with wayward adult children probably blame themselves. What would you say to them? 4. You talk about joy throughout the struggle. How can parents possibly have joy while their children are rejecting God and embracing our culture's hostile attitude toward the bible and biblical Christianity? 5. Let's talk about love. Tell us some ways we can love wayward adult children biblically and effectively. 6. What else. Anything else on this? Politics? other secondary issues that parents get fixated on 7. What about prayer? How can we pray for our adult children biblically and effectively? 8. What about listening? How can we listen to our adult children biblically and effectively? 9. Let's talk about LGBT issues. How can parents both express love and retain their biblical ethics when their child says, "I'm gay" or "I'm trans"? 10. For those of us who still have our children in the home (like me). What would you say we can do to avoid losing them once they move out? 11. How can people learn more about you?

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466 Scripture & Science 8: Fine-Tuning (Will Barlow)

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Play Episode Listen Later Oct 21, 2022 43:51


This episode rounds out three sessions focused on physics. Today we're learning about the incredibly precise conditions required for life to exist in our universe. From the strength of gravity to the properties of carbon or water to the beauty of math and the stars, Pastor Will Barlow enumerates several key ways in which the cosmos is finely-tuned to support life. Next he covers several of the common responses atheists put forward to explain this incredible precision. Barlow briefly responds to each before concluding that the God hypothesis fits the best. Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oQYtxleTue0 See below for notes. —— Links —— We are doing follow-up discussions to these episodes on YouTube. Check them out! See other episodes in this Scripture and Science Class Check out Barlow's previous podcast episodes Learn more about and support the church Barlow and his team are starting in Louisville, KY, called Compass Christian Church Find more articles and audios by Barlow on his website: Study Driven Faith Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here —— Notes —— What is fine-tuning? Fine-tuning is the idea that the existence of life on Earth is due to remarkably precise “settings” in the natural world. • Example: baking a cake vs. baking a “fine-tuned” cake• Example: Finding a watch in a forest Fine-tuning in Scripture Romans 1:20   For his invisible attributes, namely, his eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly perceived, ever since the creation of the world, in the things that have been made. So they are without excuse. Categories of fine-tuning • Cosmological• Properties of carbon and water• Beauty in math, physics, and nature Cosmological fine-tuning Example One: The Balance between forces • A 1% change in the strong nuclear force would have a 30-1,000 fold impact on oxygen and carbon production in stars• Small changes to gravity would make large life impossible• The balance between gravity and electromagnetism allows for gentler yellow stars like our Sun “The expansion speed, the material content of the universe, and the strengths of the basic forces, seem to have been a prerequisite for the emergence of the hospitable cosmic habitat in which we live.”-Martin Rees, physicist and skeptic Example Two: The Balance between other quantities • The proportion of hydrogen converted to helium• Nuclear physics is precisely designed to produce enough carbon to support life• The existence of supernovas lead to second and third generation stars capable of supporting life• A specific variable, called the “phase-space volume” appears to be fine-tuned to one part in 10,000,000,000^123 (1 followed by 10^123 zeros)• The expansion rate of the Universe is perfect for life• The amount of dark energy appears to be fine-tuned to 1 part in 10^120 Example Three: Earth's place in the Universe • The size of the Earth is perfect to support life• The moon supports the Earth's axial tilt, which makes Earth's climate stable• The moon runs the tides, which help moderate the climate• The moon protects the Earth from asteroid strikes, comets, etc.• The Sun is the right kind of star to support life• The Earth is in the right “zone” in its orbit around the Sun to support lifeProperties of carbon and water Example One: Carbon • Carbon forms stable compounds - is the only element able to produce DNA and RNA• Carbon can store more genetic information than any other element Example Two: Water • Universal solvent• Frozen water less dense than liquid water, which preserves life in ponds and makes the water cycle more efficient• The water cycle allows water to moderate the temperature of landlocked regions• High latent heat allows small bodies of water to exist and support life• Surface tension allows for water skiing (and more importantly, for capillary action) Beauty in math, physics, and nature • F = m * a• E = m * c^2• F = (G * m1 * m2) / r^2 Why are these elegant equations true? Beauty in math, physics, and nature A powerful example: Eclipses • The apparent size of the moon and the apparent size of the Sun are essentially identical!• There is no reason why this must be the case• Beauty and discovery The existence of God How do atheists respond to fine-tuning? • Richard Dawkins uses the WAP (weak anthropic principle)• Basically, WAP asserts that we would not be here to marvel the fine-tuning of the Universe, unless the Universe existed as it did. "In essence, the weak anthropic principle wrongly asserts that the statement of a necessary condition of an event eliminates the need for a causal explanation of that event. Oxygen is a necessary condition of fire, but saying so does not provide a causal explanation of the San Francisco fire. Similarly, the fine tuning of the physical constants of the universe is a necessary condition for the existence of life, but that does not explain, or eliminate the need to explain, the origin of fine tuning.” • Victor Stenger attacks fine-tuning several ways • He argues that carbon (for example) is a natural consequence of the scientific order• He also says that the Universe is mostly uninhabitable - maybe not as fine-tuned as we thought! How to respond to Stenger? • Carbon still came from nuclear reactions as given by the conditions of the laws of physics we have - it could have been different• The Universe is not a waste of space - tells the story of God and is a place for us to explore Three further objections to fine-tuning: • Observational Selection Effect• Problems with Probability• Naturalistic Explanations What does fine-tuning say about the existence of God?I believe that the Universe was fine-tuned for life.While this is not direct evidence for God, I think the existence of God fits the evidence far better than any other option.

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464 Scripture & Science 6: Physics and Astronomy (Will Barlow)

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Play Episode Listen Later Oct 7, 2022 36:01


Now that we've considered a bunch of the options for interpreting creation in Genesis, we are moving to look at astronomy. In today's episode Will Barlow moves into his home territory--physics. You'll learn about the weird nature of light, how particles do strange things at the quantum scale, and how the big bang model actually leads to belief in God. If you've ever been curious how to talk to science-minded friends and relatives about belief in God, today's episode should help! Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iiRc2q_RFX4&list=PLN9jFDsS3QV1Etu1jXO3jbUQ6CFI-2k6W&index=6 See below for notes. —— Links —— We are doing follow-up discussions to these episodes on YouTube. Check them out! See other episodes in this Scripture and Science Class Check out Barlow's previous podcast episodes Learn more about and support the church Barlow and his team are starting in Louisville, KY, called Compass Christian Church Find more articles and audios by Barlow on his website: Study Driven Faith Check out the early Christian quotes about the Hebrew version of the Gospel of Matthew here Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here —— Notes —— Overview of Modern Physics • Light• General Relativity• Quantum Mechanics• The Big Bang Light • Perhaps the most interesting and necessary to support life• Comes in many forms• Can act as a wave or a particle (unique!)• Light can act like a wave (ex: sound or water)• Light can act like a particle (ex: basketball)• Light seems to know the fastest path through a material• The speed of light is a well-known quantity and is considered the “speed limit of the Universe” General Relativity • Has been verified enough to use in everyday items like GPS• Gravity can bend light and make “impressions” in space-time Quantum Mechanics • Useful when talking about microscopic things• Shows that electrons do not orbit a nucleus like a planet around the Sun• Gives probabilities for direction and location at any given time Imagine that you reach your hand out to touch a table: • On a microscopic level, what you feel as “solid” is actually the electrons in your hand repelling the electrons in the table• Theoretically, your hand could pass through the table if you could line up the electrons in your hand with the electrons in the table (quantum tunneling) The Big Bang • Some ancient pagans (like Aristotle) believed that the Universe always existed — called a “steady state” Universe• This view is attractive for modern atheists because it does not require a beginning to the Universe Kalam Cosmological Argument • John Philoponus of Alexandria (4th century) was a Christian philosopher who argued that the Universe had a beginning• Islamic philosophers preserved this argument in the Middle Ages• Jewish scholars brought this back to Europe at the end of the Middle Ages• Whatever begins to exist has a cause.• The Universe had a beginning.• Therefore, the Universe has a cause. Atheists are motivated to show the Universe did not have a beginning! The Big Bang • Alexander Friedmann used Einstein's theory of general relativity to propose an expanding Universe• Catholic priest and professional astronomer Georges Lemaitre proposed what would later be called “the Big Bang theory” in 1927 using Einstein's theory of general relativity and Friedmann's expanding model• This basic model is still being tested and tweaked today• In 1929, Edwin Hubble discovered that far-away stars are “red-shifting” in every direction• This only makes sense if the Universe is expanding• If we extrapolate backwards, we end up with a fixed point at the beginning of the Universe!• Atheists were quick to propose an alternative solution: what if the Universe was expanding, but matter is continuously created to keep the average density the same?• This is called the “steady state” hypothesis• This would allow for an infinitely old Universe• In the 1960s, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered the “cosmic microwave background radiation”• If you point a radio telescope at the space between stars, you will hear faint interference• This demonstrated that the Universe was formerly more dense than now, which refutes the steady state hypothesis In basic terms, what does the Big Bang theory say? • The Universe began approximately 13.7 billion years ago• Space and matter have been expanding and cooling since then What is the current state of the Big Bang? • We will never be able to travel back in time to observe the beginning• Physicists used high-energy collisions to test hypotheses related to the Big Bang• There is a physical restriction on understanding the first moment of the Big Bang Are there viable alternatives to the Big Bang? • Oscillating universe — Universes expand and contract until the right one pops out• Multiple Universes — Infinite number of Universes exist beyond our ability to observe them• Inflationary models• Hawking's theory William Lane Craig on Alternatives Oscillating Model: • Violates the laws of physics (a beginning singularity is inevitable according to general relativity)• Not enough density in the universe to contract the universe (pg. 114)• The universe is actually speeding up in its expansion• Some estimates say that only 100 universes could have existed before this one (does not resolve the problem for atheists) (pg. 115) Multiple universes (especially one with an eternal mother universe): • Cannot explain the beginning of the model (a quantum sea of energy is something, not nothing)• Eventually, all universes would collide together (pg. 117) Inflationary models: • One cyclic model is inconsistent with the string theory that it is based on• Another chaotic inflation model does not resolve the problem of a beginning (pgs. 116-117) Hawking's theory: • Uses imaginary numbers in the equations to describe the universe• Essentially an attempt to game the equations to remove the origin of the universe (pg. 120)

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463 Scripture & Science 5: Reading Genesis One, Part 3 (Will Barlow)

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Play Episode Listen Later Sep 30, 2022 39:07


Today we are going to cover gap theories and John Walton's temple idea. Will Barlow explains how gap theories work, including the classic idea that there's a gap of billions of years between Genesis 1.1 and 1.2 as well as the modified version. After explaining the pros and cons for these views, he briefly explains John Walton's theory that Genesis 1 solely focuses on function not physical creation. Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJvy6Vm6ToE&feature=emb_imp_woyt See below for notes. —— Links —— We are doing follow-up discussions to these episodes on YouTube. Check them out! See other episodes in this Scripture and Science Class Check out Barlow's previous podcast episodes Learn more about and support the church Barlow and his team are starting in Louisville, KY, called Compass Christian Church Find more articles and audios by Barlow on his website: Study Driven Faith Check out the early Christian quotes about the Hebrew version of the Gospel of Matthew here Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here —— Notes —— Gap Theory There are various versions of Gap Theory: • Standard - multiple options here • Modified (“Preparing the Garden”) Pros of Standard Gap Theory Here are some pros with the standard formulation of Gap Theory: • It takes the word “day” literally as a 24-hour period • It fits directly with scientific evidence for an old Earth • It looks to the text (both in Genesis 1 and remote texts) to reach conclusions Internal Evidence Genesis 1:2   The earth was [or became] without form and void, and darkness was over the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters. “Was” or “became”? • Generally, in Hebrew, the verb “was” is unnecessary when talking about simple existence Genesis 23:17   So the field of Ephron in Machpelah, which was to the east of Mamre, the field with the cave that was in it and all the trees that were in the field, throughout its whole area, was made over “Was” or “became”? • Some scholars suggest that the verb is needed for the past tense, but here is a counterexample: Genesis 41:12a   A young Hebrew was [not in Hebrew] there with us, a servant of the captain of the guard. • So, some scholars believe that when the verb “was” is there, it takes on a more specific meaning: “become” • In other words, the word “was” takes on a meaning denoting change, not simple existence How did God create? Genesis 1:2   The earth was without form and void, and darkness was over the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters. Compare with Jeremiah 4:23-26, Isaiah 34:11, Isaiah 45:18-19, among others Terms Used in Genesis • Genesis 1:5 “God called the light day” • Genesis 1:5 “God called the darkness night” • Genesis 1:8 “God called the expanse heaven” • Genesis 1:10 “God called the dry ground land” • Genesis 1:10 “God called the waters seas” Genesis 1:16   And God made the two great lights--the greater light to rule the day and the lesser light to rule the night--and the stars. The word “made” does not generally mean “create.” In this context, it can be understood as God working on His creation. Genesis 1:17   And God set them in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth, The word “set” can mean “appoint, designate, assign.” In this context, it can be understood as God providing a purpose for the stars, not the original creation. Is Gap Theory a recent invention? Detractors of Gap Theory say that it became popular after scientific evidence for an old Earth came in vogue around 200 years ago. • Jewish sources throughout time lend credence to the Gap interpretation • Ancient Christian sources, including Thomas Aquinas, mentioned the possibility of a gap Problems with Standard Gap Theory Here are some problems with the standard formulation of Gap Theory: • Gives Satan too much power • Grammatical concerns over “was” • There is no scientific evidence for a reconstituted heaven and Earth • Contextual concerns with Jeremiah 4 and Isaiah 34 • Genesis 1:28 says “fill,” not “replenish” Modified Gap Theory Modified Gap Theory holds that: • Genesis 1:1 refers to the beginning of creation • Genesis 1:2 focuses on God putting order into the wasteland, preparing the garden • Nothing in Genesis 1:2ff is talking about creation but rather about shaping the garden and the promised land Views Compatible with Either • The “God's Temple” interpretation — John Walton • Any non-literal interpretation that does not involve evolution Walton's “Temple” Interpretation Walton's view is based on 18 separate propositions. Proposition 1: Genesis 1 is ancient cosmology. “So if God aligned revelation with one particular science, it would have been unintelligible to people who lived prior to the time of that science, and it would be obsolete to those who live after that time…” “We gain nothing by bringing God's revelation into accordance with today's science. In contrast, it makes perfect sense that God communicated his revelation to his immediate audience in terms they understood.” (pg. 15) Giving an analogy from the ancient view of the liver, kidneys, and intestines: “Yet we must notice that when God wanted to talk to the Israelites about their intellect, emotions, and will, he did not revise their ideas of physiology and feel compelled to reveal the function of the brain. Instead, he adopted the language of the culture to communicate in terms they understood.” (pg. 16) Proposition 2: Ancient Cosmology is Function Oriented “Even staying in the realm of English usage we can see that we don't always use the verb create in material terms. When we create a committee, create a curriculum, create havoc or create a masterpiece, we are not involved in a material manufacturing process.” (pg. 23) “In this book I propose that people in the ancient world believed that something existed not by virtue of its material properties, but by virtue of its having a function in an ordered system.” (pg. 24) Walton believes that God's Temple is the heavens and the earth (Isaiah 66:1-2). Thus, the six-day creation account is not a scientific depiction of the creation of the Universe, but rather a description of God setting up his Temple and putting it in order. Parallels between Genesis 1 and other Temple accounts: • Seven day consecration of tabernacle in Exodus 39-40 • Seven-year construction of Solomon's Temple, followed by a seven-day dedication feast (1 Kings 6) • Description of Eden and the Temple have some similarities Bottom line: • Wants to interpret Genesis 1 in light of Ancient Near East culture and scientific understanding • Gives a context for the text that focuses on God's relationship with Israel, not with the creation of physical matter and space Problems with Walton's “Temple” View Here are some problems with the “Temple” view: • Atheists love to attack non-literal readings, since it shows that Jews and Christians can “pick and choose.” • There is no clear evidence that anyone has held this specific view at any point in Judeo-Christian history. • It leaves many questions unanswered, especially relating to science. How should we read Genesis 1? • Remember who the original audience was (coming out of slavery, coming out of idolatry) • Consider the text and the various options to interpret it • Consider the scientific evidence and how much weight you want to give it Resources • Young Earth Creationism (Answers in Genesis, Institute for Creation Research, The Genesis Flood by Morris and Whitcomb) • Day-Age (Hugh Ross, Gerald Schoeder) • Gap Theory (Arthur Custance, Jack Langford) • Temple (John Walton)

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462 Scripture & Science 4: Reading Genesis One, Part 2 (Will Barlow)

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Play Episode Listen Later Sep 23, 2022 44:39


We've been considering the various options for interpreting the creation account in Genesis. Last time we looked at two young earth theories and today we'll survey three old earth perspectives, including the day age theory, modified day-age theory, and a non-literal approach. For each Will Barlow explains the basics and offers a gentle critique. Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p2y2H1PrJ34&list=PLN9jFDsS3QV1Etu1jXO3jbUQ6CFI-2k6W&index=4&t=180s See below for notes. —— Links —— We are doing follow-up discussions to these episodes on YouTube. Check them out! See other episodes in this Scripture and Science Class Check out Barlow's previous podcast episodes Learn more about and support the church Barlow and his team are starting in Louisville, KY, called Compass Christian Church Find more articles and audios by Barlow on his website: Study Driven Faith Check out the early Christian quotes about the Hebrew version of the Gospel of Matthew here Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here —— Notes —— What have we seen so far? • Genesis was written to a group of ancient people coming out of slavery• The questions that they were asking of the text are different than the questions that we ask Many views of Genesis 1Perhaps the easiest way to divide them is: • Young-earth views• Old-earth views• Views compatible with either Old-Earth Views • “Day-Age” and modified “Day-Age”— Hugh Ross, Gerald Schroeder• “Theistic Evolution” — Francis Collins• Gap and modified gap — Scofield Bible• “Day-Age” and modified “Day-Age”— Hugh Ross, Gerald Schroeder• “Theistic Evolution” — Francis Collins• Gap and modified gap — Scofield Bible Day-AgeThere are various versions of Day-Age: • Standard• Earth-bound perspective (Hugh Ross) Pros of Standard Day-AgeHere are some pros with the standard formulation of Day-Age: • Generally, the sequence of events seems like it could be a plausible representation from an ancient person's perspective of the scientific order of events• In the Bible, “day” can mean more than one 24-hour period Examples of Longer “Days” Genesis 2:4   These are the generations of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens. Genesis 4:3   In the course of time [yom - day] Cain brought to the LORD an offering of the fruit of the ground, Genesis 44:32   For your servant became a pledge of safety for the boy to my father, saying, 'If I do not bring him back to you, then I shall bear the blame before my father all my life.' [literally - “all my days”] Problems with Standard Day-AgeHere are some problems with the standard formulation of Day-Age: • The word “day,” when paired with a specific number (and the description of evening and morning), seem to indicate a 24-hour period• The order in Genesis 1 is not perfect scientifically Scientific Order vs. Genesis 1 Earth Bound Perspective Day-Age“The observer's vantage point is clearly stated: ‘the surface of the deep… over the waters.' Yet the vast majority of Genesis commentaries mistakenly proceed as if it were still high in the heavens somewhere in the starry realm above Earth.” (pg. 23)“The problem glares from the page at anyone slightly aware of how nature works. If the storyteller's viewpoint lies in the starry realm above, plants (created on Day Three) appear before the sun even exists (Day Four).” (pg. 23) • The Earth Bound Perspective of Day-Age does significantly help the issue dealing with the order of scientific information in comparison with Genesis 1• However, it does not resolve the issue surrounding the word “day” Problems with Modified Day-AgeHere are some problems with the modified formulation of Day-Age: • It still does not solve the problem that the order in Genesis 1 is not perfect scientifically.• There is no indication in the text anywhere that there should be gaps between each day of creation. Relativistic Day-Age“Starting with Day One, the results are, approximately: 7; 3.5; 1.8; 0.9; 0.5; 0.2 billions of years compressed within each successive 24-hour biblical day. This is in close agreement with the NASA number of 13.7 billion years.” Schroeder on “Day”“Almost a millennium ago, the biblical commentator Nahmanides realized that there must be a deeper meaning to the words “evening” and “morning.” He taught that the root or implied meaning of the Hebrew word usually translated “evening,” erev, is “mixture,” “chaos.” As the sun sets, he reasoned, vision becomes blurry, mixed. The implied meaning of the word translated “morning,” boker, is just the opposite. As the sun rises, vision becomes clear, orderly. Individual objects and colors can be discerned. The implied meaning of boker has within it the concept of order. The flow in simple terms is from P.M. to A.M. But the deeper meaning, the far more significant truth, is that six times over, at the conclusion of each day of creation, there was remarkable flow contrary to what is normally observed in unguided nature. Normally, in all events, order degrades to disorder. That is why leaves decay on the ground and a cup of hot tea becomes cool as it remains on the table. But in this particular part of the universe, the opposite occurred, and the Torah emphasizes this six times over in the subtle language “And there was evening and there was morning.” (pgs. 40-41) Collins on Genesis 1Genesis 2 then begins with a description of God resting on the seventh day. After this appears a second description of the creation of humans, this time explicitly referring to Adam. The second creation description is not entirely compatible with the first; in Genesis 1 vegetation appears three days before humans were created, whereas in Genesis 2 it seems that God creates Adam from the dust of the earth before any shrub or plant had yet appeared. (pg. 150)If a literal description was intended, why then are there two stories that do not entirely mesh with each other?(pg. 151) Problems with Collins' Non-Literal ViewHere are some problems with the Non-Literal view: • It doesn't attempt to make sense of the text in context. In fact, it uses supposed deficiencies to make a case that we should not take Genesis literally.• Atheists love to attack this perspective, since it shows that Jews and Christians can “pick and choose.” outro:

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461 The Gospel and the Gospels (Simon Gathercole)

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Play Episode Listen Later Sep 16, 2022 50:13


Have you heard of the Gospel of Thomas? What about the Gospel of Philip or Judas? Although most Christians are only familiar with the four Gospels contained in the Bible, ancient Christians wrote quite a few other Gospels as well. How do we know which Gospels are to be trusted? My guest today is Dr. Simon Gathercole, professor of New Testament and early Christianity at the University of Cambridge. His new book, The Gospel and the Gospels, puts forward a commonsense historical methodology to determine which Gospels are most reliable. Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RsGhQVsPdvs —— Links —— Get your copy of The Gospel and the Gospels from Eerdmans or on Amazon More about Simon Gathercole here. See also my interview with Aaron Shelenberger: Episode 444 Resurrection Objection 1: Unreliable Gospels? More podcasts on apologetics here Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here —— Interview Questions —— Dr. Gathercole is professor of NT and early Christianity at the University of Cambridge. He's got degrees from Cambridge and Durham university, where he studied under James Dunn. Before we jump into the book, what was that like studying under Dunn?Well, today, we're talking about your book The Gospel in the Gospels. Writing this book must have been a monumental task. It's 576 pages, hundreds of footnotes, published by Eerdmans, how long were you working on this project? Share a little about the process.Many don't know there were other Gospels that didn't make it into the New Testament. Outside of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, what other Gospels are there? What are they like?How can someone access these other Gospels? Would you recommend the Lost Scriptures by Bart Ehrman or The Complete Gospels by Robert Miller? or your own volume?You've done a lot of work on non-canonical Gospels over the years. What drew you to them? What about them makes them worth studying?Some say the four canonical Gospels--Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John--are not special or authoritative, but merely the ones favored by one group of Christians who managed to seize power and suppress all others. How common is this belief in the academy today? What is the central thesis of your book?How have others made the case that the canonical Gospels are best? (1 early composition, 2 massive popularity, 3 literary type of ancient biography, 4 attractiveness of worldview)You focused on theological content. You talk a lot about the kerygma as the comparator (or measuring stick against which each of the Gospels should be evaluated). What is the kerygma?What are the elements of the kerygma? (1 Jesus as Christ, 2 vicarious death, 3 resurrection, 4 crucifixion and resurrection as fulfillment of scripture). Why not include Jesus healing people or other events like his Triumphal Entry into Jerusalem?Let's go through each of these briefly. What did you find with respect to Jesus as the Christ? When you compared the canonical vs. non-canonical gospels?Now, the other Gospels, the non-canonical ones, do not have all four of these components. Why do you think that is? What do you think motivated them to edit or silence these elements of the kerygma?Let's talk briefly about the charge sometimes leveled against John as untrustworthy because it's later or too theological or whatever. How does John fare in comparison to the synoptics?How has your work on this been received in the academy so far?What do you hope to see in the future?Thanks for taking the time to talk with me today. Where can people go to find out more about you and the book?

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460 Scripture & Science 3: Reading Genesis One, Part 1 (Will Barlow)

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Play Episode Listen Later Sep 9, 2022 34:42


Today we'll begin to consider interpretive options for the first chapter of Genesis. We'll see three main groupings of theories, including those that propose a young earth of only thousands of years, those that see the earth as old (billions of years), and those that are compatible with either. After introducing the main options, Will Barlow goes on to explore young-earth creationism. He presents the advantages and disadvantages of this approach. Lastly, he shows why the "appearance of age" hypothesis fails to convince him. Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_9xyFXqh5xw&feature=emb_imp_woyt See below for notes. —— Links —— We are doing follow-up discussions to these episodes on YouTube. Check them out! See other episodes in this Scripture and Science Class Check out Barlow's previous podcast episodes Learn more about and support the church Barlow and his team are starting in Louisville, KY, called Compass Christian Church Find more articles and audios by Barlow on his website: Study Driven Faith Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here —— Notes —— What have we seen so far? Genesis was written to a group of ancient people coming out of slavery The questions that they were asking of the text are different than the questions that we ask How can we read Genesis 1? Does Genesis 1 begin with a continuous narrative or is there an initial creation in verse 1 followed by a “re-creation” or “reconstitution”? “Gap” theory says the latter Most other views take the former How can we read Genesis 1? How do we read the word day? Is a day a literal 24-hour period of time? Or is it something else? YEC and “gap” theory view the word “day” as a literal 24 hour period Most other views either don't require a day to be a specific length of time or say it is a longer period of time How can we read Genesis 1? Is Genesis 1 meant to be a description of creation itself? Or is it meant to describe how God ascribed function to already existing systems? “Modified gap” theory and Walton's “Temple” theory both focus on Genesis 1 describing function, not creation Most other views take Genesis 1 to be describing creation How can we read Genesis 1? How importantly should we weigh the scientific evidence? Walton's “Temple” theory does not care about modern science The mainline YEC view has an alternate view of the scientific evidence All other views rely on the scientific evidence Many views of Genesis 1 Perhaps the easiest way to divide them is: Young-earth views Old-earth views Views compatible with either Young-Earth Views Mainline YEC view - Answers in Genesis, Ken Ham, Institute for Creation Research (ICR) The “Appearance of Age” view Old-Earth Views “Day-Age” and modified “Day-Age”— Hugh Ross, Gerald Schroeder “Theistic Evolution” — Francis Collins Gap and modified gap — Scofield Bible Views Compatible with Either The “God's Temple” interpretation — John Walton Any non-literal interpretation that does not involve evolution Young-Earth Creationism Genesis 1:1-3   In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. The earth was without form and void, and darkness was over the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters. And God said, "Let there be light," and there was light. Genesis 1:4-5   And God saw that the light was good. And God separated the light from the darkness. God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, the first day. Positives of Young-Earth Creationism You can read Genesis 1 without importing any other ideas as a complete narrative Then, using the genealogies from other parts of the Bible, you get roughly 6,000 years of history Nothing in the Bible absolutely contradicts it Negatives of Young-Earth Creationism Some of the strongest arguments against YEC come from science. However: AIG and ICR have answers to basically any scientific question Both do a great job of attacking science at the weakest spot — assumptions and counterexamples Young-Earth Creationism Biblical questions about YEC: Would the original audience have cared about the age of the Earth? Are we sure that the genealogies are without gaps? Is Genesis 1 about creation or function? Is there really enough time for Satan to rebel (if you hold this view)? Scientific challenges to YEC: Basically all scientists view the Universe as old and the Earth as old Faraway stars appear to age the Universe at 13 billion years There is no reason to believe that the speed of light has changed over time Appearance of Age View This view accepts the scientific evidence and says that “God made the Universe appear old to test us.” I believe that God gave us our heads to think with. God does test us, but He is not a deceiver.

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459 Scripture & Science 2: Background on Genesis 1 (Will Barlow)

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Play Episode Listen Later Sep 3, 2022 31:22


Who was the original audience for the book of Genesis? Although we might be tempted to think we are, Genesis was written a long time ago in a different language and culture. Thinking through who the audience was, will help us approach the first chapter of Genesis on its own terms. In this episode, Will Barlow labors to put Genesis in its own context. He reminds us of what Israel had just been through in Egypt as well as other creation accounts from the ancient Near East. His goal is simply to contextualize Genesis within it's own time and place in order to help us avoid anachronism. Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s6BJBuavTnE&feature=emb_imp_woyt See below for notes. —— Links —— We are doing follow-up discussions to these episodes on YouTube. Check them out! Check out Barlow's previous podcast episodes Learn more about and support the church Barlow and his team are starting in Louisville, KY, called Compass Christian Church Find more articles and audios by Barlow on his website: Study Driven Faith Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here —— Notes —— What is our assumption about the Bible? Background to Genesis Who wrote Genesis? Some say that it was a mixture of writers over a longer span of time I believe that Moses wrote Genesis (with the spirit of God guiding him) How does this affect our reading of Genesis? What was going on: Exodus 1:8-10   Now there arose a new king over Egypt, who did not know Joseph. And he said to his people, "Behold, the people of Israel are too many and too mighty for us. Come, let us deal shrewdly with them, lest they multiply, and, if war breaks out, they join our enemies and fight against us and escape from the land." Exodus 3:1-2   Now Moses was keeping the flock of his father-in-law, Jethro, the priest of Midian, and he led his flock to the west side of the wilderness and came to Horeb, the mountain of God. And the angel of the LORD appeared to him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush. He looked, and behold, the bush was burning, yet it was not consumed. Exodus 3:3-4   And Moses said, "I will turn aside to see this great sight, why the bush is not burned." When the LORD saw that he turned aside to see, God called to him out of the bush, "Moses, Moses!" And he said, "Here I am." Exodus 3:5-6   Then he said, "Do not come near; take your sandals off your feet, for the place on which you are standing is holy ground." And he said, "I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob." And Moses hid his face, for he was afraid to look at God. Exodus 3:7-8   Then the LORD said, "I have surely seen the affliction of my people who are in Egypt and have heard their cry because of their taskmasters. I know their sufferings, and I have come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians and to bring them up out of that land to a good and broad land, a land flowing with milk and honey, to the place of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites. Exodus 3:9-10   And now, behold, the cry of the people of Israel has come to me, and I have also seen the oppression with which the Egyptians oppress them. Come, I will send you to Pharaoh that you may bring my people, the children of Israel, out of Egypt." Exodus 3:11-12   But Moses said to God, "Who am I that I should go to Pharaoh and bring the children of Israel out of Egypt?" He said, "But I will be with you, and this shall be the sign for you, that I have sent you: when you have brought the people out of Egypt, you shall serve God on this mountain." Exodus 3:13-14   Then Moses said to God, "If I come to the people of Israel and say to them, 'The God of your fathers has sent me to you,' and they ask me, 'What is his name?' what shall I say to them?" God said to Moses, "I AM WHO I AM." And he said, "Say this to the people of Israel: 'I AM has sent me to you.'" Exodus 3:15-16   God also said to Moses, "Say this to the people of Israel: 'The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you.' This is my name forever, and thus I am to be remembered throughout all generations. Go and gather the elders of Israel together and say to them, 'The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, has appeared to me, saying, "I have observed you and what has been done to you in Egypt, Exodus 3:17   and I promise that I will bring you up out of the affliction of Egypt to the land of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites, a land flowing with milk and honey."' Exodus 17:3   But the people thirsted there for water, and the people grumbled against Moses and said, "Why did you bring us up out of Egypt, to kill us and our children and our livestock with thirst?" Numbers 21:5   And the people spoke against God and against Moses, "Why have you brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? For there is no food and no water, and we loathe this worthless food." Who was the original audience of Genesis? The very people who grumbled and complained to Moses People who had a slave mentality (after generations of slavery in Egypt) People who were around idols in Egypt for centuries Background on Genesis“Genesis was written to the Israelites after they had lived in a land that worshiped many gods to remind them of who the one true God was—not to explain the science and details of creation.” (pg. 166) Questions for Genesis to Answer Are we going to survive here in the desert? Are we safe here? Is there really only one God? What about all the Egyptian gods? Are they angry we left Egypt? Is this God who rescued us still here, or are we alone? What do we have to do to please this one God so we will have crops that won't fail and have food for our families? Should we worship the sun? Should we worship the moon like the Egyptians? Or worship like the Canaanites, who are now nearby? Is the Egyptian story of how the world was made the true one? (pg. 168) Contrasting Genesis 1Contrasting Genesis 1 with the other creation accounts: Single God Creates by Himself using a word Creates humans with love and care Views humans as more than servants Comparing Genesis 1Comparing Genesis 1 with the other creation accounts: Similar view of a “flat Earth” Similar view of waters above and below Similar views of a solid dome above the Earth When I say “Earth,” what comes to mind? The Hebrews thought of this: Questions we ask of Genesis 1In our modern society, here are some questions that we ask of Genesis 1: How old is the Universe? How old is the Earth? How did plants live without the Sun for a few days? Where did the light come from if the Sun wasn't there?

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458 Scripture & Science 1: What Is a Belief System? (Will Barlow)

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Play Episode Listen Later Aug 26, 2022 34:04


Today we're starting a new class called Scripture & Science. As a college student, studying engineering, I remember a particular day at the school library when I had the thought: "Well, I guess I'm going to have to look into scientific objections to the bible." I had been raised a Christian and believed the bible was God-inspired and infallible. However, I was now taking lots of science and engineering courses and it seemed like all my professors were atheists. (I learned later that the smartest physics professor was actually a devout Christian.) I was faced with a dilemma. Do I go with scripture or science? I began an investigation, purchasing and devouring several apologetics books designed to undercut evolution and the old age of the earth. I found the arguments convincing and moved on. That worked out fine for me, but plenty of others came to the opposite conclusion, choosing science over scripture. This is a crisis young college students face over and over in the West. They ask themselves, "Do I go with God and the bible or science and reason?" If this is your situation or if you know someone who is wrestling with questions like these, this class is for you! Our teacher is Will Barlow who double majored in Physics and Math at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, TN before going on to do graduate work. Later he pursued biblical studies and is now going into ministry full-time. His aim in this class is to survey the most common ways Christians have worked scripture and science together. His non-dogmatic approach will inform you so you can make up your own mind about what is best. In today's episode, Barlow explains the goals for this class and introduces a few belief systems and his general approach. Instead of seeing scripture and science as enemies locked in a battle, he thinks we should learn from both the book of the bible and the book of nature. Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5WwypAP39Hw&list=PLN9jFDsS3QV1Etu1jXO3jbUQ6CFI-2k6W&index=1&t=369s See below for notes. —— Links —— Check out Barlow's previous podcast episodes Learn more about and support the church Barlow and his team are starting in Louisville, KY, called Compass Christian Church Find more articles and audios by Barlow on his website: Study Driven Faith Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here —— Notes —— About Will Barlow:Interested in faith/science discourse since childhoodBachelor's degree in Physics/MathematicsMaster's degree in Secondary Education (STEM focus)Published God & Science book in late 2016Future head pastor of Compass Christian ChurchGoals for this class:Learn about different ways to interpret Genesis 1Learn about current views in physics, biochemistry, and geologyThink more about miracles, and how we define a miracleThink about multiple ways to reconcile the Bible and scienceBe prepared to tell those outside the faith that multiple options existWhy present multiple options?1 Peter 3:15 but in your hearts honor Christ the Lord as holy, always being prepared to make a defense to anyone who asks you for a reason for the hope that is in you; yet do it with gentleness and respectWhen are multiple options better than one?Churches of Christ motto:“In essentials, unity; in non-essentials, liberty; in all things, charity.”Scenario One:A current agnostic who thinks that all Christians are Youth-Earth creationists. This person believes in evolution. If all you know is Young- Earth creationism, and you don't know that some Christians believe in evolution, how can you overcome that objection?Scenario Two:A former Christian who grew up in a church but doesn't remember much about how to reconcile science and faith. This person has a vague feeling about how seriously we should take the text and is suspicious of “non-literal” interpretations. If you take a non-literal view of Genesis 1 and don't know about the other options, how can you effectively help this person?What is a belief system?According to Collins Dictionary, a belief system is “the set of beliefs that people have about what is right and wrong and what is true and false.”According to Oxford Dictionary, a worldview is “a particular philosophy of life or conception of the world.”Examples of Popular Belief SystemsScientific AtheismNOMA — science and religion simply don't mixTheism mixed with distrust of science“God of the gaps”What if there is a better way?Truth SeekingFrom my perspective, truth-seeking is a never-ending process.To be a truth-seeker, we must constantly challenge our beliefs, which means we also may be challenging our filters (our belief system, our worldview).How do we decide what the best worldview is? How do we decide what the best belief system is?My BiasI believe that God has revealed himself in several waysThrough the BibleThrough the lives of men and women throughout timeThrough nature“Two books” philosophy - Bible and natureHas God revealed himself through nature?Romans 1:20 For his invisible attributes, namely, his eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly perceived, ever since the creation of the world, in the things that have been made. So they are without excuse.Psalms 19:1-2 The heavens declare the glory of God, and the sky above proclaims his handiwork.Day to day pours out speech, and night to night reveals knowledge.Scripture vs. ScienceScripture:Eternal truthWisdomHistorical account of Hebrew people, Jesus, and early ChristiansHow to have a relationship with God, Christ, and othersScience:Pursuit of understanding of the world around usKnowledgeProcess-drivenHow to understand the mechanics of the world and universe around usFamous Christian Scientists:GalileoKeplerPascalNewton (Arian!)MaxwellMendelLemaitreHeisenberg von BraunKatherine JohnsonPolkinghorneWhat is our assumption about the Bible?

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457 From Oneness to One (J. Dan Gill)

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Play Episode Listen Later Aug 21, 2022 45:56


Have you heard of oneness theology? Also called "Jesus only," this is the idea that Jesus is all there is. Jesus is the Father; Jesus is the Holy Spirit. Jesus has manifested himself in many ways over the years, but there is only one individual or self who is God. Although not exclusive to the Pentecostal movement, most oneness believers belong to charismatic (or apostolic) groups today. This is a classic message given by Pastor J. Dan Gill in the early 2000s. I remember sitting there in the audience listening to him share about his community's journey of faith and thinking to myself, "Wow, he's my people!" Whether you currently hold oneness theology or not, take a listen to Brother Gill's testimony and see you what you think. Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts    —— Links —— Check out these other episodes on oneness, including an interview with J. Dan and Sharon Gill as well as the testimony of famed gospel singer, Joel Hemphill. Also you may want to watch his YouTube presentation: "Acts 2-Listen Pentecostals" See his website and see many more of his videos and articles at The 21st Century Reformation If you live near Nashville, TN, visit the Gills at Higher Ground Church in Whitehouse. Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here

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456 Why Christianity Is Awesome (Sean Finnegan)

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Play Episode Listen Later Aug 12, 2022 43:57


Why is Christianity awesome? Answering this question is a good exercise for us. So often we hear about why Christianity is terrible, especially in the eyes of the world. Many of these critiques are important and we should be humble enough to listen to problems, both real and perceived. However, my goal today is to focus on the positive. I'd like to spend some time just thinking about the goodness of our faith. I hope you will find it encouraging. Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts —— Notes —— Christianity makes sense of reality1. explains why anything exists2. explains why there is a beginning3. explains why creation is so good and beautiful4. explains why our world is so bad and ugly5. explains why laws of nature exist6. explains our desire for inclusiveness and fairness Christianity makes you a better person1. salvation from sin2. durable value3. ethical boundaries, duties, motives4. living hope Christianity makes society better1. salvation from sin2. durable value3. ethical boundaries, duties, motives4. living hope5. robust identity —— Links —— Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here

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455 Is God on the Throne in Your Heart? (Sean Finnegan)

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Play Episode Listen Later Aug 4, 2022 28:33


A couple of weeks ago I got to speak at the Church of God's annual youth camp at Manchester University in rural Indiana. The week focused on all the different passions that we too easily allow to take God's spot in our hearts. Timypaul Lupe gave the message before mine in which he urged the listeners to smash their idols, demonstrating this by taking out a sledge hammer and breaking a jar on stage. My goal for this sermon was to encourage the audience to put God on the throne in their hearts. This is not something done once, but each and every day. Although my message was brief, especially by Restitutio standards, I figured I'd share it here. Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts —— Links —— Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here

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454 Amazing Grace (Sean Finnegan)

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Play Episode Listen Later Jul 28, 2022 47:01


Last Sunday, I shared this message about God's amazing grace. Instead of focusing on how gracious, merciful, and forgiving God is, I labored to explain why we don't deserve God's grace. I've observed this not only in my own journey, but also with many others who grow up in the church. We hear a thousand times how much God loves us and forgives us, but we easily overlook his wrath and holiness. God's grace is not amazing at all but an entitlement if you don't know in your bones that you deserve his wrath. In what follows I draw upon the first chapter of Isaiah to see God's heart towards his people, especially when we are enmeshed in sinful behaviors. Although difficult to preach, I believe this message is an important wake up call. Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts —— Links —— Check out these other podcasts and posts about God's holiness as a call to revival Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here

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453 Dale Tuggy Comments on Debate with William Lane Craig

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Play Episode Listen Later Jul 21, 2022 40:10


Last week Dale Tuggy discussed William Lane Craig's theory about the Trinity for an hour. In one sense this was a momentous occasion when two heavy-hitting philosophers got into the ring to duke it out. In another sense, the limited constraint of one hour barely gave either much time to warm up or process the other's position, much less land any serious blows. Still, it was a worthwhile exchange and it has already received over 5,000 views in its first week on YouTube. In this followup interview, I ask Dr. Tuggy about his impression of the exchange, his further thoughts on Craig's somewhat controversial Trinity theory, and how he would reply if given more time to engage with the "deity of Christ" texts. If you haven't yet listened to the debate, you can get it on YouTube or if you prefer audio, listen to Tuggy's Trinities podcast, episode 349. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bj_WLXoL90I —— Links —— Here's the original debate between Dale Tuggy and William Lane Craig on YouTube, on the Trinities podcast Check out these other interviews with Dr. Tuggy More debates here Check out the One God Over All class, which provides you with an introduction to unitarian theology as well as explanations to commonly misunderstood texts. Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here

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452 What Is the Gospel We Preach? (Victor Gluckin)

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Play Episode Listen Later Jul 15, 2022 46:15


What is the gospel? No, I'm not talking about the biographies of Jesus or catchy music. I mean, what is the message of salvation that Jesus commissioned us to preach? Pastor Victor Gluckin of Living Faith Christian Church in Rhode Island masterfully explains what the gospel is and does. The gospel is not good advice but good news that something has changed, is changing, and will change. The gospel is that Christ died, Christ rose, and Christ is coming again. Although most gospel presentations today only focus on the first component, Gluckin is careful to present a full gospel with all three critical elements: the cross, resurrection, and kingdom. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xopajl5gn9c As Christians we need to spend the rest of our lives mastering this message. -Victor Gluckin —— Links —— Videos of Pastor Victor available at his church website and their YouTube channel. More Restitutio episodes with Gluckin Find out more about KingdomFest (September 23-25) Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here

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Wisdom Christology in Hebrews 1.10-12 (Jerry Wierwille)

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Play Episode Listen Later Jul 8, 2022 54:48


Whereas last time we examined 6 interpretations people hold for Hebrews 1.10-12, today we look at just one--the 7th. Jerry Wierwille is my guest again and in this episode he explains his take on Hebrews 1.10-12. He delves into wisdom christology to show how these verses speak of Jesus protologically as wisdom that created the heavens and the earth. Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts —— Recommended Reading —— "Intertextuality and Interpretation of Hebrews 1:10-12" by Jerry Wierwille Jesus the Sage by Ben Witherington III The New Testament Age, Vol 1 —— Links —— Check out these other episodes in this series on Hebrews 1 See more episodes with Jerry Wierwille More resources on Hebrews 1.10 Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here

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450 Seven Interpretive Options for Hebrews 1.10-12 (Jerry Wierwille)

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Play Episode Listen Later Jun 30, 2022 46:32


In our last episode, Dr. Jerry Wierwille led us through a contextual overview of Hebrews 1 and 2 in order to situate Hebrews 1.10-12. Today, we'll consider seven interpretations of Hebrews 1.10-12, including: Father as referent, doxology Jesus as creator of Genesis creation Jesus as creator of figurative heaven and earth (referring to people and political institutions) Jesus as creator of figurative heaven and earth (referring to Mosaic order) Jesus as creator of heaven and earth for millennial kingdom Jesus as creator of new creation Jesus as the embodiment of God's wisdom This survey should help shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of these views. We won't get into the seventh position much in this episode, but we will cover it in detail in the next one. Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts —— Links —— Check out these other episodes in this series on Hebrews 1 See more episodes with Jerry Wierwille More resources on Hebrews 1.10 Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here

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449 Intertextuality and Interpretation of Hebrews 1 (Jerry Wierwille)

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Play Episode Listen Later Jun 23, 2022 43:20


Hebrews 1.10-12 is a confusing passage for many of us. It seems to say that Jesus created the heavens and the earth in the beginning. Today we are beginning a three part series in which Dr. Jerry Wierwille will address this important passage in context. Our first part is Wierwille's presentation from last year's UCA conference. In this overview, he reviews the context, extending from chapter 1 all the way to 2.8. Next he presents lexical connections between Hebrews 1 and wisdom literature. He concludes that Hebrews 1.10-12 is a wisdom christology text, attributing to Jesus what wisdom had accomplished prior to his birth. Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C_F_T2o3WWo Here is the paper that accompanies this talk. —— Links —— Check out these other episodes in this series on Hebrews 1 See more episodes with Jerry Wierwille More resources on Hebrews 1.10 Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow us on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here

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448 What’s Wrong with Progressive Christianity? (Mike Winger)

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Play Episode Listen Later Jun 17, 2022 60:52


Today we are addressing Progressive Christianity. To be clear, we are not talking about politics, though they often go hand in hand. Progressive Christianity is an outgrowth of liberal Christianity, which accepted the modernist ethos of the Enlightenment and merged it with Christianity. Likewise Progressive Christianity brings the assumptions and moral commitments of postmodernism to Christianity. Thus, individual experiences and stories, especially from minorities, victims, and the disenfranchised have higher authority than scripture, history, or logic. As a result, Progressive Christians feel free to disagree with scripture if it seems to cause distress or difficulty for people. Our inner sense of goodness and personal purpose are the spiritual authorities that should guide us, not what Jesus said, not what the church says, not what the bible says. Today I'm playing out a teaching by Mike Winger of Bible Thinker. He had served as a youth pastor and worship leader at a Calvary Chapel church in California before YouTube ministry became his full time focus. His YouTube channel currently has nearly half a million subscribers and his focus is on thinking biblically about life. I thought he made some great points in this presentation that will sensitize you to the cultural creep that is slowly adjusting all of our moral compasses. Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nYuWlxnqa4o "Progressive Christianity is not a sustainable community, but it's a door out of Christianity" -Mike Winger"Can God tell you that your heart is mistaken? Even about your deepest longings and morality?" -Mike Winger —— Links —— Check out these other episodes related to compassion For outro comments, see Looking for the Historical Jesus between Evangelical and Liberal Scholarship Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow us on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here

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447 God Is Compassionate (Sean Finnegan)

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Play Episode Listen Later Jun 10, 2022 64:06


Power and kindness rarely go together. I don't know about you, but I'm so thankful the most powerful being in the universe is also exceedingly compassionate! In fact, when he revealed himself to Moses, compassion was the first attribute he declared about himself. We see the outworking of God's compassion in the laws he provided Israel in the Torah, especially the provisions he made for those who were vulnerable or suffering. These serve as examples for how we should think about those in difficult life circumstances. Scripture calls us to imitate our Father as dear children. Let's be a compassionate people who genuinely feel for those in dire straits and who seek to do our part to alleviate their suffering. Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts https://youtu.be/iMOptuZptDI —— Notes —— Exodus 34:6-7 Compassion/mercy is the first of God's attributes that He listed out when He revealed His glory to Moses. Exodus 22:21-27 God cares about the sojourners, widows, and orphans. He hears their prayers and takes up their cause because He is compassionate. Deuteronomy 24:10-22 God wanted His people never to forget that they were once slaves in Egypt. The benefit of that corporate memory was that they would have compassion on others in need like the poor, the sojourner, the orphan, and the widow. Deuteronomy 25:5-10 God installed an automatic system to ensure that widows would have the chance to get remarried quickly. Deuteronomy 26:12-13 The people's tithes went to provide for the Levites, sojourners, orphans, and widows. It was important to God that His people not forget these categories of people. Psalm 68:4-5 4 Sing to God, sing praises to his name; lift up a song to him who rides through the deserts; his name is the LORD; exult before him! 5 Father of the fatherless and protector of widows is God in his holy habitation. Zechariah 7:9-14 Sadly, God's people did not act in compassion to the vulnerable members of their society. They took advantage of the weak and closed their ears to hear their cry. Other than idolatry, their lack of compassion was the chief reason God exiled them from their land. Luke 6:30-36 Our Lord taught us that we too should be merciful just as God is. We too should be generous to the poor and kind to the undeserving. —— Links —— Check out these other episodes related to compassion For outro comments, see Looking for the Historical Jesus between Evangelical and Liberal Scholarship Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow us on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here.

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446 Resurrection Objection 3: Supernatural Inaccessible? (Aaron Shelenberger)

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Play Episode Listen Later Jun 3, 2022 64:22


Have you heard of historiography? Your historiography is the method you employ in doing history. This is especially relevant when the scholars who make the rules for doing history decide to exclude any supernatural events from their historiography. Today, my guest, Aaron Shelenberger, continues his rebuttal to Ehrman's three main objections to the historicity of the resurrection of Jesus. We discuss Ehrman's contentions that supernatural events are inaccessible to historians and the prevalence of methodological naturalism. Also, Shelenberger briefly reviews the recent debate between Mike Licona and Bart Ehrman. Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts https://youtu.be/2g45dHGGrHk —— Links —— For Shelenberger's thesis, see part 1: 444 Resurrection Objection 1: Unreliable Gospels? See also part 2: 445 Resurrection Objection 2: Improbable Miracles? Follow Aaron Shelenberger on his YouTube channel: Life and Beyond and on his blog: Abandoning the Trinity See Mike Licona's Why Are There Differences Between the Gospels? Check out Shelenberger's interview on the Trinities podcast (part 2 here) Other episodes referenced include 390 God Is Real (Why Christianity 3), 53 Does God Exist?, 54 Four More Reasons God Exists Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow us on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here.

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445 Resurrection Objection 2: Improbable Miracles? (Aaron Shelenberger)

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Play Episode Listen Later May 29, 2022 57:30


Today my guest, Aaron Shelenberger, and I are tackling a second scholarly objection of Bart Ehrman against the resurrection of Jesus. We're taking a deep dive into the historian's use of probability to establish whether a particular event happened. Are miracles by definition improbable? Does the rarity of miracles preclude the historian from talking about them? Like last week, Shelenberger will guide us through his master's thesis to deal with this issue. Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts https://youtu.be/swvCj4uVeJU —— Links —— For Shelenberger's thesis, see part 1: 444 Resurrection Objection 1: Unreliable Gospels? Follow Aaron Shelenberger on his YouTube channel: Life and Beyond and on his blog: Abandoning the Trinity See Mike Licona's Why Are There Differences Between the Gospels? Check out Shelenberger's interview on the Trinities podcast (part 2 here) Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow us on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here.

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444 Resurrection Objection 1: Unreliable Gospels? (Aaron Shelenberger)

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Play Episode Listen Later May 20, 2022 52:26


Aaron Shelenberger who studied under Mike Licona at Southern Evangelical Seminary in Charlotte, North Carolina, shares about his research on the historicity of the resurrection. In particular, his thesis tackled three main objections brought forth by popular author and anti-Christian Bart Ehrman. Now, I realize this episode and the next two that follow are a tad technical, so if that's not your jam, then you may want to skip them. However, what I've noticed in the past is that our most technical episodes tend to get lots of downloads. In our conversation today we discuss the importance of resurrection and how Ehrman's attack on the reliability of the Gospels fails to undermine the case for the resurrection. Also, I bring up Licona's somewhat controversial book, Why Are There Differences in the Gospels and get Shelenberger's take on it. Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fQ9xpP2c89E Here is Shelenberger's thesis for your consideration. —— Links —— Follow Aaron Shelenberger on his YouTube channel: Life and Beyond and on his blog: Abandoning the Trinity See Mike Licona's Why Are There Differences Between the Gospels? Check out Shelenberger's interview on the Trinities podcast (part 2 here) More information about Family Camp here. Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow us on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here.

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443 Generational Differences 2 (Daniel Calcagno)

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Play Episode Listen Later May 13, 2022 75:59


Last time Pastor Daniel Calcagno spoke to us about the older generations. Today we'll get into discussing Generation X, Millennials, and Generation Z. We explore pivotal events in each of these younger generations as well as how Christianity uniquely appeals to them. Hopefully this conversation will spur some thoughts for you, regardless of your age, and how you can reach people for Christ in your own world. Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PZHTrMvzYyY —— Links —— Listen to "Generational Differences, Part 1" Check out these other episodes with Daniel Calcagno, including “From Pentecostal to Messianic Unitarian“ Check out his church: Glad Tidings Church of God in Fonthill, Ontario Follow his YouTube channel and his website MessianicNiagra.com Support Restitutio by donating here Designate Restitutio as your charity of choice for Amazon purchases Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow us on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan?  Read his bio here.

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442 Generational Differences 1 (Daniel Calcagno)

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