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Virginia Water Radio
Episode 610 (1-3-22): Wading into the New Year, the New River, and Water Thermodynamics

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 3, 2022


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:20).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 12-31-21.TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of January 3, 2022.  This revised episode from January 2014 is part of a series this year of winter-related episodes. For this first week of 2022, we listen in on one Virginian's annual New Year's challenge to the laws of physics and chemistry—water-temperature physics and chemistry, that is.  Have a listen for about 35 seconds. SOUNDS AND VOICE - ~35 sec – “It's the New Year, on the shore of the New River. It's 22 degrees and perfect time for a swim. Happy New Year, everyone! Happy New Year! [Series of exclamations about the cold.] Ah, welcome to Antarctica.” You've been listening to Blacksburg resident Alan Moore during the 2014 version of his annual New Year's Day wade into the New River.  The watery welcome to that January 1st—unaided by a wet-suit—lasted only a few seconds, not as much because of the 22-degree air temperature as because of the 39-degree water temperature.  Water that cold can cause exhaustion or unconsciousness within 15 to 30 minutes, and even water at 60 or 70 degrees can be dangerously chilling over one to two hours, depending on a person's body size and other factors. Water's capacity to chill a human body is much greater than that of air at the same temperature, for two reasons.  First, liquids generally conduct heat more rapidly than gases, because liquids are denser (that is, the molecules are closer together).  And second, liquid water has chemical attractions between molecules that can absorb high amounts of energy, such as heat energy coming from a person's body.  These and other interactions among water, heat, and temperature are part of water's thermodynamics, and they exert a big influence on weather, aquatic environments, biology, and taking a plunge on New Year's or any other day. Thanks to Alan Moore for lending his voice and wade-in sounds to this episode.  We close this first episode of the New Year with about 45 seconds of music to give a hydrological hello to 2022. Here's “New Year's Water,” by Torrin Hallett, a graduate student at the Yale School of Music. MUSIC - ~46 sec – instrumental. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 195, 1-6-14. Thanks to Alan Moore for allowing Virginia Water Radio to record sounds during his annual New River wade-in on January 1, 2014.“New Year's Water” is copyright 2016 by Torrin Hallett, used with permission.  Thanks very much to Torrin for composing the piece especially for Virginia Water Radio.  Torrin is a 2018 graduate of Oberlin College and Conservatory in Oberlin, Ohio; a 2020 graduate in Horn Performance from Manhattan School of Music in New York; and a 2021 graduate of the Lamont School of Music at the University of Denver.  He is currently a graduate student at the Yale School of Music. More information about Torrin is available online at https://www.facebook.com/torrin.hallett.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio in Episode 349, 1-2-17.Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGES Two photos of the New River near the county line between Giles and Montgomery counties in Virginia, looking upstream: At dawn on January 1, 2014 (upper photo) and at 8:40 a.m. on January 1, 2022 (lower photo). EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT COLD WATER SAFETY The following is quoted from the National Weather Service, “Cold Water Hazards and Safety,” online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/coldwater. “Warm air doesn't always mean warm water in lakes, streams or oceans.  Fifty-five degree water may not sound very cold, but it can be deadly.  Plunging into cold water of any temperature becomes dangerous if you aren't prepared for what the sudden exposure can do to your body and brain.  Warm air temperatures can create a false sense of security for boaters and beach goers, so if you are planning to be on or near the water, arrive knowing the conditions and how to protect yourself.  Cold water drains body heat up to 4 times faster than cold air.  When your body hits cold water, “cold shock” can cause dramatic changes in breathing, heart rate and blood pressure.  The sudden gasp and rapid breathing alone creates a greater risk of drowning even for confident swimmers in calm waters. In rougher open water this danger increases.  Unplanned immersion in cold water can be life-threatening for anyone without protection from the temperatures or a lifejacket to help you stay afloat.  When Cold Shock and Hypothermia begin to impact your ability to think and act, life jackets and flotation can create extra time for help to arrive or for you to get out of danger.   Even the most experienced cold water surfers, swimmers or boaters know to prepare for the conditions.” SOURCES Used for Audio Encyclopedia Britannica, “Thermodynamics,” online at https://www.britannica.com/science/thermodynamics. J. J. Hidore and J. E. Oliver, Climatology—An Atmospheric Science, MacMillian, New York, 1993, pages 55-58. Linus Pauling, General Chemistry, Dover, New York, 1970, pages 343-350. On survival in cold water: National Weather Service, “Cold Water Safety,” online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/coldwater. University of Minnesota Sea Grant, “Hypothermia Prevention: Survival in Cold Water,” at http://www.seagrant.umn.edu/coastal_communities/hypothermia; see the site's “How Long Have I Got?” section for information on how long one can survive being immersed in cold water. For More Information about Cold Weather Safety, Hypothermia, and Frostbite National Weather Service, “Cold Weather Safety,” online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/cold. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Prevent Hypothermia & Frostbite,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/disasters/winter/staysafe/hypothermia.html. Virginia Department of Health, “Newsroom/Winter Weather Preparedness,” at https://www.vdh.virginia.gov/news/public-relations-contacts/winter-weather-preparedness/. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Science” and “Weather/Climate/Natural Disasters” subject categories. Following are links to other episodes that focus on an incoming New Year. Episode 296, 12-28-15 – Setting a Course for 2016 with ‘On a Ship' by Kat Mills.Episode 349, 1-2-17 – Water for a World of New Years, Featuring “New Year's Water” by Torrin Hallett.Episode 401, 1-1-18 – Diving into 2018 with “Driving Rain” by Chamomile and Whiskey.Episode 453, 12-31-18 – Water and the New Year of 2019.Episode 505, 12-30-19 – Eyes on the Water as the 2020s Arise. Following are links to several other winter-related episodes, including episodes on some birds that reside in Virginia typically only in winter (listed separately).  Please note that some of these episodes are being redone in late 2021 and early 2022; in those cases, the respective links below will have information on the updated episodes.Frost – Episode 597, 10-4-21.Freezing and ice – Episode 606, 12-6-21 (especially for grades K-3).Ice on ponds and lakes – Episode 404, 1-22-18 (especially for grades 4-8).Ice on rivers – Episode 406, 2-5-18 (especially for middle school grades).Polar Plunge® for Special Olympics – Episode 356, 2-20-17.Snow physics and chemistry – Episode 407, 2-12-18 (especially for high school grades). Snow, sleet, and freezing rain – Episode 461, 2-25-19.Snow terms – Episode 300, 1-25-16.Surviving freezing – Episode 556, 12-21-20.Winter precipitation and water supplies – Episode 567, 3-8-21.Winter weather preparedness – Episode 605, 11-29-21.Bird-related Episodes for Winter Audubon Society Christmas Bird Count – Episode 607, 12-13-21.American Avocet – Episode 543, 9-21-20.Brant (goose) – Episode 502, 12-9-19. Canvasback (duck) – Episode 604, 11-22-21.Common Goldeneye (duck) – Episode 303, 2/15/16.Green-winged Teal (duck) – Episode 398, 12-11-17.Grebes (Horned and Red-necked) – Episode 233, 9-29-14.Loons – Episode 445, 11-5-18.Fall migration – Episode 603, 11-15-21.Northern Harrier – Episode 561, 1-25-21.Snow Goose – Episode 507, 1/13/20. Tundra Swan – Episode 554, 12-7-20. Winter birds sampler from the Chesapeake Bay area – Episode 565, 2-22-21. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”2018 Science SOLs Grades K-3 plus 5: Force, Motion, and Energy 5.2 – Energy can take many forms. Grades K-3 plus 5: Matter 5.7 – Matter has properties and interactions. Grades K-5: Earth and Space Systems 4.4 – Weather conditions and climate have effects on ecosystems and can be predicted. Grade 6 6.4 – There are basic sources of energy and energy can be transformed. 6.6 – Water has unique physical properties and has a role in the natural and human-made environment. Physical Science PS.5 – Energy is conserved and transformed. Chemistry CH.7 – Thermodynamics explains the relationship between matter and energy. Virginia's SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/. Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels (* indicates episode listed above in the “Related Water Radio Episodes” section). Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade. Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.*Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.*Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.*Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school.Episode 524, 5-11-20 – on sounds by water-related animals, for elementary school through high school.Episode 531, 6-29-20 – on various ways that animals get water, for 3rd and 4th grade.Episode 539, 8-24-20 – on basic numbers and facts about Virginia's water resources, for 4th and 6th grade.*Episode 606, 12-6-21 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.

Virginia Water Radio
Episode 608 (12-20-21): Virginia's Coastal Resilience Planning Moves Forward in December 2021

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 21, 2021


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (5:18).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 12-17-21.TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of December 20, 2021. MUSIC – ~14 sec - - Lyrics: “When the rains come, when the rains come, is it gonna be a new day?” That's part of “Rains Come,” by the Harrisonburg and Rockingham County, Va.-based band The Steel Wheels, from their 2019 album “Over the Trees.”  It opens an update of a previous episode on the Virginia Coastal Resilience Master Plan—an effort to prepare for and adapt to sea-level rise, recurrent flooding, and impacts of climate change.  As in the earlier episode, we set the stage with part of “Cypress Canoe,” by Bob Gramann of Fredericksburg, Va., from his 2019 album “I Made It Just for You.”  The song's a commentary on the current and potential impacts of sea-level rise, and in the part you'll hear, the story-teller bemoans a lack of planning and action to avoid or reduce such impacts. Have a listen for about 20 seconds. MUSIC – ~18 sec – Lyrics: “Half of a city awash in the tides; when I think of what happened, it tears my insides. Oh, we could've been smarter, we could've have planned, but the world caught a fever, infected by man.” Facing current and predicted impacts to coastal areas from sea-level rise and recurrent flooding, Virginia has started planning.   On December 7, 2021, Virginia Gov. Ralph Northam announced completion of Phase One of the Coastal Resilience Master Plan.  Work on the plan started about four years ago accelerated after the November 2020 release of a planning framework identifying guiding principles and specific steps to complete the plan.  Since then, a technical study, the work of a technical advisory committee, and input from some 2000 stakeholders have helped form the plan. The 266-page plan covers the area of Virginia from the Fall Line to the Atlantic coastline, which includes about six million residents.  For those areas, the plan identifies vulnerabilities to, and impacts from, current and expected sea-level rise and increased flooding.  It focuses on ways the Commonwealth can increase resilience, which the plan defines as “the capability to anticipate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from hazards to minimize damage to social well-being, health, the economy, and the environment.”  A Coastal Resilience Database compiled for the plan includes over 500 examples of projects to adapt to changing conditions and of initiatives to build capacity in information, skills, and tools.  Funding for such efforts may come from various sources, but one key source is the Virginia Community Flood Preparedness Fund, created by the Virginia General Assembly in 2020 and using money accrued from the auction of carbon allowances. Implementation of the plan will be managed by the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation in cooperation with the Commonwealth's Chief Resilience Officer and the Special Assistant to the Governor for Coastal Adaptation and Protection.  Phase Two of the plan, with more data and project information, is to be completed by 2024, and updates to the whole plan are supposed to occur every five years. According to the plan's impact assessment, between now and 2080 Virginia is projected to face large increases in residents exposed to coastal flooding, in flood property damage, in roadway miles exposed to chronic flooding, and in losses of tidal wetlands, dunes, and beaches.  As Gov. Northam stated in a December 7 letter accompanying the plan's release, the plan provides a “clearer picture of the scope and scale” of these challenges, catalogs current resilience efforts, and identifies gaps in actions and in information.  Here's hoping Virginia puts its Coastal Resilience Master Plan to good use. Thanks to The Steel Wheels and to Bob Gramann for permission to use this week's music, and we close with about 10 more seconds of Mr. Gramann's “Cypress Canoe.” MUSIC – ~11 sec – instrumental. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this episode.   In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode is a follow-up to Episode 552, 11-23-20. “Cypress Canoe,” from the 2019 album “I Made It Just for You,” is copyright by Bob Gramann, used with permission.  More information about Bob Gramann is available online at https://www.bobgramann.com/folksinger.html.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 552, 11-23-20. “Rains Come,” from the 2019 album “Over the Trees,” is copyright by The Steel Wheels, used with permission.  A July 2019 review by Americana Highways of this album and track is available online at https://americanahighways.org/2019/07/09/review-the-steel-wheels-over-the-trees-is-primary-rhythms-and-organic-melodies/.  More information about The Steel Wheels is available online at https://www.thesteelwheels.com/ and in a July 2015 article at http://whurk.org/29/the-steel-wheels.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio in Episode 552, 11-23-20. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGES Map of the four master planning regions, with their respective and the planning district commissions (PDC) and regional commissions (RC), in the “Virginia Coastal Resilience Master Plan, Phase I,” December 2021. Map from the plan document, page 9, accessed online https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/crmp/plan. Chart of population and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the four master planning regions identified in the “Virginia Coastal Resilience Master Plan, Phase I,” December 2021. Image from the plan document, page 24, accessed online at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/crmp/plan. EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT THE VIRGINIA COASTAL RESILIENCE MASTER PLAN, PHASE I Following is an excerpt from the December 7, 2021, news release from Virginia Governor Ralph Northam's office, Governor Northam Releases Virginia's First Coastal Resilience Master Plan; Virginia takes monumental action to build a resilient coast, combating climate change and rising sea levels. “HAMPTON—Governor Ralph Northam today released the Virginia Coastal Resilience Master Plan, providing a foundational and fundamental step towards protecting Virginia's coast. “Virginia's coastal areas face significant impacts from rising sea levels and increased storm flooding.  The Commonwealth, regional and local entities have to take meaningful and continuous action to ensure the long-term sustainability of Virginia's coastal resources and communities. … “Earlier this year, the Commonwealth worked with 2,000 stakeholders to build the Coastal Resilience Master Plan.  This plan documents which land is exposed to coastal flooding hazards now and into the future, as well as the impacts of those future scenarios on coastal Virginia's community resources and manmade and natural infrastructure. “The Master Plan concluded that between 2020 and 2080: the number of residents living in homes exposed to extreme coastal flooding is projected to grow from approximately 360,000 to 943,000, an increase of 160%; the number of residential, public, and commercial buildings exposed to an extreme coastal flood is projected to increase by almost 150%, from 140,000 to 340,000, while annualized flood damages increase by 1,300% from $0.4 to $5.1 billion; the number of miles of roadways exposed to chronic coastal flooding is projected to increase from 1,000 to nearly 3,800 miles, an increase of nearly 280%; and an estimated 170,000 acres, or 89%, of existing tidal wetlands and 3,800 acres, or 38%, of existing dunes and beaches may be permanently inundated, effectively lost to open water. “The Coastal Resiliency Database and Web Explorer is a publicly available database that shows the impact of coastal flood hazards, current and proposed resilience projects, as well as funding sources.  This database will serve as a vital tool to support resilience efforts at the state, regional, and local levels. … “The Commonwealth intends to develop successive updates of the Master Plan on at least a five-year cycle, managed by the Department of Conservation and Recreation in consultation with the Chief Resilience Officer, the Special Assistant to the Governor for Coastal Adaptation and Protection, and the Technical Advisory Committee. “The next phase of the Master Plan is anticipated by 2024, will aim to address recommendations of the TAC to broaden the analysis of natural hazards by including rainfall-driven, riverine, and compound flooding, expand and improve the inventory of resilience projects, by continuing to add efforts and working with project owners to better understand the benefits of projects, and extend this critical work beyond the coastal region to encompass statewide resilience needs. …” SOURCESUsed for AudioVirginia Governor's Office News Release, Governor Northam Releases Virginia's First Coastal Resilience Master Plan; Virginia takes monumental action to build a resilient coast, combating climate change and rising sea levels, December 7, 2021. Virginia Governor Ralph Northam, December 7, 2021, letter accompanying release of the Virginia Coastal Resilience Master Plan, online (as a PDF) at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/crmp/document/CRMP-Gov-Letter.pdf. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, “Community Flood Preparedness Fund Grants and Loans,” online at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dam-safety-and-floodplains/dsfpm-cfpf. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, “Virginia Coastal Resilience Master Plan,” online at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/crmp/plan.  The full document and a two-page summary are available on the page.   “Resilience” is defined in the Master Plan “Introduction” on page 5; the areas covered by the plan are identified in the “Introduction” on page 9; who's coordinating the plan is identified in the “Introduction” on page 6. Virginia Legislative Information System (LIS), online at http://lis.virginia.gov/lis.htm. See particularly the following bills related to recurrent coastal flooding: 2014 HJ 16 and SJ 3, calling for formation of the Joint Subcommittee to Formulate Recommendations for the Development of a Comprehensive and Coordinated Planning Effort to Address Recurrent Flooding; 2016 HJ 84 and SJ 58, continuing the work of the joint subcommittee formed in 2014 and changing it to the Joint Subcommittee on Coastal Flooding;2016 SB 282, establishing the Virginia Shoreline Resiliency Fund;2020 HB 22 and SB 320, continuing the Shoreline Resiliency Fund as the Community Flood Preparedness Fund;2020 HB 981 and SB 1027, establishing a carbon allowances trading program for Virginia and providing that some of the revenue from the sale of carbon allowances go to the Community Flood Preparedness Fund. For More Information about Sea Level Rise, Coastal and Tidal Flooding, and Resilience John Boon et al., “Planning for Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding,” Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS), October 2008, online (as PDF) at https://www.vims.edu/research/units/legacy/icccr/_docs/coastal_sea_level.pdf. City of Alexandria, Va., “Flood Mitigation,” online at https://www.alexandriava.gov/special/waterfront/default.aspx?id=85880. City of Norfolk, Va., “Flood Awareness and Mitigation,” online at https://www.norfolk.gov/1055/Flooding-Awareness-Mitigation. City of Virginia Beach Department of Public Works, “Sea Level Wise,” online at https://www.vbgov.com/government/departments/public-works/comp-sea-level-rise/Pages/default.aspx. Coastal Resilience, online at https://coastalresilience.org/. Coastal Resilience/Virginia is online at https://coastalresilience.org/category/virginia/. Sandy Hausman, “Online Tool Helps Coastal Communities Plan for Climate Change,” WVTF FM-Roanoke, Va., 10/11/18, 2 min./34 sec. audio https://www.wvtf.org/post/online-tool-helps-coastal-communities-plan-climate-change#stream/0. This is a report about the Virginia Eastern Shore Coastal Resilience Mapping and Decision Support Tool. Joey Holleman, “Designing for Water—Strategies to Mitigate Flood Impacts,” Coastal Heritage, Winter 2019, South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, online at https://www.scseagrant.org/designing-for-water/. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), “Sixth Assessment Synthesis Report,” online at https://www.ipcc.ch/ar6-syr/.  Sea level rise is addressed in the “Physical Science Basis” section (by Working Group I), online at https://www.ipcc.ch/report/sixth-assessment-report-working-group-i/. The IPCC “Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate,” September 2019, is online at https://www.ipcc.ch/srocc/home/. Rita Abou Samra, “Alexandria is already often waterlogged. How will it adjust to climate change?” 9/13/18, for Greater Greater Washington, online at https://ggwash.org/view/69058/alexandria-is-already-often-waterlogged-how-will-it-adjust-to-climate-change. SeaLevelRise.org, “Virginia's Sea Level Is Rising—And It's Costing Over $4 Billion,” online at https://sealevelrise.org/states/virginia/. U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability Program (US CLIVAR), “Sea Level Hotspots from Florida to Maine—Drivers, Impacts, and Adaptation,” April 23-25, 2019, workshop in Norfolk, Va., online at https://usclivar.org/meetings/sea-level-hotspots-florida-maine. Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS), “U.S. Sea Level Report Cards,” online at https://www.vims.edu/research/products/slrc/index.php. Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS), “Recurrent Flooding Study for Tidewater Virginia,” 2013, available online (as a PDF) at http://ccrm.vims.edu/recurrent_flooding/Recurrent_Flooding_Study_web.pdf.  This study was significant in the Virginia General Assembly's formation in 2014 of the Joint Subcommittee to Formulate Recommendations for the Development of a Comprehensive and Coordinated Planning Effort to Address Recurrent Flooding. Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS)/Center for Coastal Resources Management, “Climate Change and Coastal Resilience,” online at https://www.vims.edu/ccrm/research/climate_change/index.php.  This site includes a 40-second video on sea level rise in Virginia and a 40-second video on nuisance flooding. Wetlands Watch, “Dutch Dialogues—Virginia: Life at Sea Level,” online at http://wetlandswatch.org/dutch-dialogues. William and Mary Law School/Virginia Coastal Policy Center, 7th Annual Conference: “The Three P's of Resilience: Planning, Partnerships, and Paying for It All,” November 15, 2019, Williamsburg, Va., online at this link. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Weather/Climate/Natural Disasters” subject category. Following are links to some previous episodes on climate change, sea-level rise, and coastal flooding in Virginia. Episode 231, 9-15-14 – Climate change impacts in Virginia National Park Service units, including Assateague Island National Seashore. Episode 441, 10-8-18 – on sea-level rise and citizen measurement of king tides. Episode 494, 10-14-19 – on sea-level rise and coastal flooding. Episode 511, 2-10-20 – on sea-level rise and the Saltmarsh Sparrow. Episode 552, 11-23-20 – on the Virginia Coastal Resilience Master Planning Framework. Episode 602, 11-8-21 – on photosynthesis, including its relationship to climate change. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-5: Earth and Space Systems 4.4 – Weather conditions and climate have effects on ecosystems and can be predicted. Grade 6 6.6 – Water has unique physical properties and has a role in the natural and human-made environment. 6.9 – Humans impact the environment and individuals can influence public policy decisions related to energy and the environment. Life Science LS.9 – Relationships exist between ecosystem dynamics and human activity. Earth Science ES.6 – Resource use is complex. ES.8 – Freshwater resources influence and are influenced by geologic processes and human activity. ES.10 – Oceans are complex, dynamic systems subject to long- and short-term variations. ES.11 – The atmosphere is a complex, dynamic system subject to long-and short-term variations. ES.12 – The Earth's weather and climate result from the interaction of the sun's energy with the atmosphere, oceans, and the land. Biology BIO.8 – Dynamic equilibria exist within populations, communities, and ecosystems. 2015 Social Studies SOLs Virginia Studies Course VS.10 – Knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia. United States History: 1865-to-Present Course USII.9 – Domestic and international issues during the second half of the 20th Century and the early 21st Century. Civics and Economics Course CE.7 – Government at the state level. CE.8 – Government at the local level. CE.10 – Public policy at local, state, and national levels. World Geography Course WG.2 – How selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth's surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it. WG.18 – Cooperation among political jurisdictions to solve problems and settle disputes. Virginia and United States History Course VUS.14 – Political and social conditions in the 21st Century. Government Course GOVT.8 – State and local government organization and powers. GOVT.9 – Public policy process at local, state, and national levels. GOVT.15 – Role of government in Va. and U.S. economies, including examining environmental issues and property rights. Virginia's SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/. Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels. Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade. Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade. Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten. Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade. Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade. Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade. Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school. Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school. Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school. Episode 524, 5-11-20 – on sounds by water-related animals, for elementary school through high school. Episode 531, 6-29-20 – on various ways that animals get water, for 3rd and 4th grade. Episode 539, 8-24-20 – on basic numbers and facts about Virginia's water resources, for 4th and 6th grade. Episode 606, 12-6-21 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.

work bay humans university agency music natural relationships earth political state audio college climate change map steel wheels tech water web index rain pond research climate ocean weather government education public recreation conservation loans trees development forward chesapeake snow sea resilience paying environment adaptation images designing cooperation norfolk governor va domestic funding pages sb planning commonwealth atlantic stream citizens williamsburg environmental dynamic phase one tac sj hj hb biology civics partnership grade resource rc public works bio facing chart billion implementation northam coastal scales govt watershed transcript earth sciences wg freshwater impacts virginia tech ls atlantic ocean sea level rise intergovernmental panel climate change ipcc natural resources comprehensive grades k virginia general assembly fredericksburg harrisonburg master plan phase two virginia governor sea level sections life sciences stormwater pdc special assistant policymakers mitigation bmp ralph northam ipcc special report email campaigns changing climate gross domestic product gdp rockingham county new standard acknowledgment virginia department cripple creek virginia institute cumberland gap technical advisory committee sols tmdl chief resilience officer greater greater washington united states history vus wetlands watch climate variability cryosphere virginia standards water center fall line coastal resilience assateague island national seashore space systems audio notes flood mitigation virginia gov
Space Strategy
27. Todd Harrison: Priority 1: Defending Our Space Systems

Space Strategy

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 8, 2021 48:56


In this episode, Senior Fellow in Defense Studies Peter Garretson interviews Todd Harrison, Director of Defense Budget Analysis, Director of the Aerospace Security Project, and Senior Fellow with the International Security Program at the Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS). They discuss the role of thinking tanks in helping policymakers ask the right questions, and what Todd sees as the most important question at present: How to improve protection of our critical space assets. Their talk focuses on the importance of space to our nation both militarily and economically. They cover the history and emergence of the Space Force and Todd's thoughts on a separate department and consolidation of the NRO. They discuss the changed orientation and priorities of the Biden administration and what major policy initiatives are left undone, including on norms, regulation and licensing. They assess the recent Chinese hypersonic and perhaps fractional orbital bombardment test, the contribution of a sensing layer to missile defense, the technical concerns with space-based missile defense. They close by speaking about Space Force Acquisition reform, and end with a discussion of a space agenda worthy of the nation. Todd: https://www.csis.org/people/todd-harrison https://www.linkedin.com/in/todd-harrison-7832461/ CSIS: https://www.csis.org/ CSIS Aerospace: https://aerospace.csis.org/ CSIS Space Threat Assessment 2021 https://www.csis.org/analysis/space-threat-assessment-2021

Main Engine Cut Off
T+203: Starlab with Marshall Smith, SVP of Space Systems at Nanoracks

Main Engine Cut Off

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 7, 2021 28:53


Marshall Smith, Senior Vice President of Space Systems of Nanoracks, joins me to talk about Starlab, their commercial space station which recently won a contract award from NASA as part of their Commercial LEO Destinations program.This episode of Main Engine Cut Off is brought to you by 40 executive producers—Brandon, Simon, Lauren, Kris, Pat, Matt, Jorge, Ryan, Donald, Lee, Chris, Warren, Bob, Russell, Moritz, Joel, Jan, David, Joonas, Robb, Tim Dodd (the Everyday Astronaut!), Frank, Julian and Lars from Agile Space, Tommy, Matt, The Astrogators at SEE, Chris, Aegis Trade Law, Fred, Hemant, Dawn Aerospace, and seven anonymous—and 706 other supporters.TopicsNanoracks - Your Portal to SpaceNanoracks Appoints Marshall Smith as Senior Vice President of Space SystemsStarlab - The first ever free-flying commercial space station - NanoracksNanoracks Space Outpost ProgramT+200: Orbital Reef, Starlab, and the ISS Conundrum - Main Engine Cut OffNanoracks and Lockheed Martin partner on commercial space station project - SpaceNewsNASA awards funding to three commercial space station concepts - SpaceNewsThe ShowLike the show? Support the show!Email your thoughts, comments, and questions to anthony@mainenginecutoff.comFollow @WeHaveMECOListen to MECO HeadlinesJoin the Off-Nominal DiscordSubscribe on Apple Podcasts, Overcast, Pocket Casts, Spotify, Google Play, Stitcher, TuneIn or elsewhereSubscribe to the Main Engine Cut Off NewsletterBuy shirts and Rocket Socks from the Main Engine Cut Off ShopMusic by Max JustusArtwork photo by NASA

Virginia Water Radio
Episode 606 (12-6-21): At the Freezing Point

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 6, 2021


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:36).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesA Question about Freezing Water and Animals Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 12-3-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of December 6, 2021.  This revised episode from January 2018 is part of a series this year of winter-relatedepisodes. SOUND – ~8 sec That's the sound of ice on Claytor Lake in Pulaski County, Va., during a January day in 2018.  The sounds set the stage for a freezing-water episode written for Virginia science students in early elementary school, that is, about kindergarten to third grade. You're about to hear two kinds of mystery sounds.  When you do, see if you can answer this riddle: How are the two kinds of sounds the same, but also different?  Here are the sounds. SOUNDS – ~10 sec If you guessed that both sounds were water being put into a glass, you're right!  But the first sound was water as a liquid, while the second was ice, or water frozen into a solid. Now here are two more kinds of mystery sounds.  Try again to guess what they are. SOUNDS – ~8 sec Those were sounds of liquid water flowing in a creek, followed by pieces of ice on the creek's edge breaking off and splashing into the flowing water.  Just like a freezer can turn liquid household water into ice cubes, winter weather can often stay below 32 degrees Fahrenheit long enough to freeze some of the water on land or in a pond, creek, river, or even the ocean.  And there are many words for different kinds of ice in those places, like anchor ice, flake ice, needle ice, pancake ice, and sea ice. Let's try one more pair of mystery sounds, this time about ice safety. SOUND – ~7 sec Any guesses about what you heard?  The first was small rocks bouncing on an ice-covered pond, but the second was that pond's ice breaking and sinking.  That's a reminder that thin ice can hold pebbles, but ice has to be solid and at least about four inches thick to hold people, and ice thickness can be different in different spots.  Ice is never 100-percent safe, according to natural resource experts from Minnesota, where they have plenty of experience with ice-covered water.  But even with thin ice, it's safe—and fun—to stand on the bank and see how far a pebble can bounce!SOUND – ~3 sec – Pebbles bouncing on ice-covered pond. We close with about 45 seconds of music for freezing water.  Here's “Ice Dance,” by Torrin Hallett, a student at the Yale School of Music.MUSIC – ~47 sec – instrumental. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 408, 1-15-18. The Claytor Lake ice sounds were recorded at the Sloan Creek inlet of the lake, near Draper in Pulaski County, Va., on January 6, 2018. The stream ice sounds were recorded at Toms Creek in Heritage Park in Blacksburg, Va., on January 11, 2015. The sounds of pebbles bouncing on an ice-covered pond and the sound of thin ice breaking were recorded at the Heritage Park pond in Blacksburg, Va., on December 28, 2012, and January 13, 2013.  Thanks to passer-by Sam for help in recording the sounds of rocks bouncing on ice. “Ice Dance” is copyright 2020 by Torrin Hallett, used with permission.  Torrin is a 2018 graduate of Oberlin College and Conservatory in Oberlin, Ohio; a 2020 graduate in Horn Performance from Manhattan School of Music in New York; and a 2021 graduate of the Lamont School of Music at the University of Denver.  He is currently a graduate student at the Yale School of Music.  More information about Torrin is available online at https://www.facebook.com/torrin.hallett.  Thanks very much to Torrin for composing the piece especially for Virginia Water Radio.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio in Episode 556, 12-21-20, on how organisms survive freezing temperatures. Following are other music pieces composed by Torrin Hallett for Virginia Water Radio, with episodes featuring the music.“A Little Fright Music” – used in Episode 548, 10-26-20, on water-related passages in fiction and non-fiction, for Halloween; and Episode 601, 10-31-21, connections among Halloween, water, and the human body.“Beetle Ballet” – used in Episode 525, 5-18-20, on aquatic beetles.“Chesapeake Bay Ballad” – used most recently in Episode 604, 11-22-21, on Canvasback ducks.“Corona Cue” – used in Episode 517, 3-23-20, on the coronavirus pandemic.“Flow Stopper” – used in Episode 599, 10-18-21, on “Imagine a Day Without Water.”“Geese Piece” – used most recently in Episode 440, 10-1-18, on E-bird.“Lizard Lied” – used in Episode 514, 3-2-20, on lizards. “New Year's Water” – used in Episode 349, 1-2-17, on the New Year. “Rain Refrain” – used most recently in Episode 559, 1-11-21, on record rainfall in 2020.“Runoff” – in Episode 585, 7-12-21 – on middle schoolers calling out stormwater-related water words.“Spider Strike” – used in Episode 523, 5-4-20, on fishing spiders. “Tropical Tantrum” – used most recently in Episode 580, 6-7-21, on the 2021 Atlantic tropical storm season preview.“Tundra Swan Song – used in Episode 554, 12-7-20, on Tundra Swans.“Turkey Tune” – used in Episode 343, 11-21-16, on the Wild Turkey.  Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGES Ice on Claytor Lake in Pulaski County, Va., January 6, 2018.Patterns in ice formed on a shallow drainage channel in Heritage Park, Blacksburg, Va., January 11, 2015Air pockets under ice on a drainage channel in Heritage Park, Blacksburg, Va., January 11, 2015. A QUESTION ABOUT FREEZING WATER AND ANIMALS All living things have water on their inside.  So, if a wild animal is exposed to freezing temperatures in winter, why doesn't the water inside its body freeze? Here are two possible answers.  For more information, please see references in the Sources section below. 1.  Some animals—birds and mammals—can generate their own heat, and they have fur, feathers, or other coverings to hold in the heat (like people have clothes).  Body fat also helps hold in heat. 2.  In many living things—for example, certain fish and frogs—the water-based fluids inside cells contain biochemicals that act as natural anti-freeze, preventing ice formation and damage to the cells. SOURCES American Museum of Natural History, ‘Three Phases of Water,” online at https://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/water-h2o-life/blue-planet/three-phases-of-water/. Margaret Waring Buck, Where They Go in Winter, Abingdon Press, Nashville, Tenn., 1968. Iowa State University, “How Woody Plants Survive Extreme Cold,” March 1, 1996, online at http://www.ipm.iastate.edu/ipm/hortnews/1996/3-1-1996/brr.html. Lake Superior-Duluth Streams.org, “Ice Terminology,” online at http://www.lakesuperiorstreams.org/understanding/iceterms.html. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, “Ice Safety,” online at http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/safety/ice/index.html; see particularly “General Ice Thickness Guidelines,” online at https://www.dnr.state.mn.us/safety/ice/thickness.html. Dan Tinker, “These Animals Don't Care That It's Freezing Outside,” December 14, 2013, National Wildlife Federation Blog, online at http://blog.nwf.org/2013/12/these-animals-dont-care-that-its-freezing-outside/. Phys.org, “Living organisms need antifreeze to survive in the cold,” February 18, 2013, online at https://phys.org/news/2013-02-antifreeze-survive-cold.html; and “Why fish don't freeze in the Arctic Ocean,” August 25, 2010, online at https://phys.org/news/2010-08-fish-dont-arctic-ocean.html. Brian Rohrig, “Chilling Out, Warming Up: How Animals Survive Temperature Extremes,” ChemMatters Online Oct.-Nov. 2013 (American Chemical Society), online at http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/resources/highschool/chemmatters/past-issues/archive-2013-2014/animal-survival-in-extreme-temperatures.html. VocabularySpellingCity.com:“Kindergarten Science Vocabulary,” online at https://www.spellingcity.com/kindergarten-science-vocabulary.html;“First Grade Science Vocabulary,” online at http://www.spellingcity.com/first-grade-science-vocabulary.html;“Second Grade Science Vocabulary,” online at https://www.spellingcity.com/second-grade-science-vocabulary.html;  and“Third Grade Science Vocabulary,” online at https://www.spellingcity.com/third-grade-science-vocabulary.html.The site also has vocabulary for other grade levels and other subjects. Sarah Zielinski, “Eight ways that animals survive the winter,” Science News (Society for Science & the Public), January 22, 2014, online at https://www.sciencenews.org/blog/wild-things/eight-ways-animals-survive-winter. For More Information about Ice Sounds NPR's Skunk Bear (science channel on YouTube), “The Star Wars Sound of Singing Ice,” 3 min./3 sec. video online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OC7_zpyqCrU. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Weather/Climate/Natural Disasters” subject categories. Following are links to several other winter-related episodes, including episodes on some birds that reside in Virginia typically only in winter (listed separately).  Please note that some of these episodes are being redone in late 2021 and early 2022; in those cases, the respective links below will have information on the updated episodes. Frost – Episode 597, 10-4-21. Ice on ponds and lakes – Episode 404, 1-22-18 (especially for grades 4-8).Ice on rivers – Episode 406, 2-5-18 (especially for middle school grades).Polar Plunge®for Special Olympics – Episode 356, 2-20-17.Snow physics and chemistry – Episode 407, 2-12-18 (especially for high school grades).Snow, sleet, and freezing rain – Episode 461, 2-25-19.Snow terms – Episode 300, 1-25-16.Surviving freezing – Episode 556, 12-21-20.Winter precipitation and water supplies – Episode 567, 3-8-21.Winter weather preparedness – Episode 605, 11-29-21.Water thermodynamics – Episode 195, 1-6-14. Bird-related Episodes for Winter Audubon Christmas Bird Count – Episode 294, 12-14-15.American Avocet – Episode 543, 9-21-20.Brant (goose) – Episode 502, 12-9-19.Canvasback (duck) – Episode 604, 11-22-21.Common Goldeneye (duck) – Episode 303, 2/15/16.Green-winged Teal (duck) – Episode 398, 12-11-17.Grebes (Horned and Red-necked) – Episode 233, 9-29-14.Loons – Episode 445, 11-5-18.Fall migration –

new york science society bay university agency music ice natural npr halloween earth state audio living college nashville frost surviving sound accent animals dark tech water web air index fall rain pond research ocean weather government education public chesapeake bay ohio chesapeake snow environment patterns body images green oberlin college va minnesota msonormal new year atlantic stream normal worddocument zoom donotshowrevisions citizens arial environmental times new roman calibri trackmoves trackformatting punctuationkerning saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent compatibility breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit latentstyles deflockedstate latentstylecount latentstyles style definitions msonormaltable table normal donotpromoteqf lidthemeother lidthemeasian x none snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules mathpr mathfont cambria math brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc centergroup wrapindent intlim subsup narylim undovr defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority lsdexception locked priority semihidden unhidewhenused qformat name normal name title name default paragraph font name subtitle name strong name emphasis name table grid name placeholder text name no spacing name light shading name light list name light grid name medium shading name medium list name medium grid name dark list name colorful shading name colorful list name colorful grid name light shading accent name light list accent name light grid accent name revision name list paragraph name quote name intense quote name dark list accent name colorful shading accent name colorful list accent name colorful grid accent name subtle emphasis name intense emphasis name subtle reference name intense reference name book title name bibliography name toc heading fahrenheit natural history conservatory teal special olympics oberlin colorful brant yale school signature wild turkey manhattan school scales freezing pebbles watershed transcript science news three phases virginia tech atlantic ocean natural resources american museum grades k american chemical society name normal indent name list name list bullet name list number name closing name signature name body text name body text indent name list continue name message header name salutation name date name body text first indent name note heading name block text name document map name plain text name e name normal web name normal table name no list name outline list name table simple name table classic name table colorful name table columns name table list name table 3d name table contemporary name table elegant name table professional name table subtle name table web name balloon text name table theme name plain table name grid table light name grid table light accent dark accent colorful accent name list table draper ar sa iowa state university blacksburg tenn msohyperlink runoff sections stormwater canvasback arctic ocean loons policymakers bmp heritage park new standard acknowledgment minnesota department virginia department cripple creek cumberland gap phys sols tmdl abingdon press polar plunge torrin virginia standards water center pulaski county space systems audio notes
Virginia Water Radio
Episode 605 (11-29-21): Preparing for the Season of Freezing Water

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 30, 2021


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (5:17).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 11-26-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of November 29, 2021.  This episode is part of a series this year of winter-related episodes. MUSIC – ~10 sec – instrumental. That excerpt of “Mid-winter Etude,” by Timothy Seaman of Williamsburg, Va., opens our annual episode on winter preparedness.  This coincides with Virginia Winter Weather Awareness Week, which is being observed this year from November 29 to December 3, according to the Wakefield, Va., National Weather Service office. In 2021, winter astronomically begins in Virginia on December 21 at 10:59 a.m.  That's the Eastern Standard time of the winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere, when that hemisphere is at its maximum annual tilt away from the sun. At its beginning, middle, or end, winter can bring cold temperatures, hazardous roads, power outages, and fire hazards.  To help you be prepared, here are 10 tips compiled from information provided by the Virginia Department of Emergency Management, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or CDC.1. Avoid traveling in winter-storm conditions if you can. If you must travel, get road conditions from the Virginia 511 telephone system, Web site, or app.   And have an emergency kit for your vehicle, including jumper cables, water, non-perishable food, blankets, a flashlight, and other items.2. Have battery-powered sources of lighting and information, particularly weather information, along with enough batteries to last through a power outage of several days.  Whenever possible, use flashlights and not candles during power outages.  If you do use candles, put them in safe holders away from anything combustible, and don't leave a burning candle unattended.3.  Make a family emergency plan that covers sheltering; evacuation from your area; escape from a home fire; emergency meeting places; communications; a supply of food, water, and medications; and other factors specific to your circumstances; and practice your plan. 4.  Get fireplaces, wood stoves, and chimneys inspected and cleaned.5.  Install a smoke detector in every bedroom and on every floor level, test them monthly, and replace the batteries at least annually. 6.  Install a carbon monoxide detector in your home and check or replace the battery every six months.7.  If you use space heaters, make sure they'll switch off automatically if the heater falls over; plug them into wall outlets, not extension cords; keep them at least three feet from combustible objects; don't leave heaters unattended; and check for cracked or damaged wires or plugs. 8.  Generators, camp stoves, and other devices that burn gasoline or charcoal should be used outdoors only.9.  Learn where to shut off water valves in case a pipe bursts. And 10.  Be careful of overexertion during snow shoveling. More information on preparing for winter weather, fires, and other emergencies is available online from the Virginia Department of Emergency Management, at vaemergency.gov.Next time the forecast calls for snow, freezing rain, or other wintry weather, here's hoping that you can stay warm, dry, and safe.Thanks to Timothy Seaman for permission to use this week's music, and we close with about 25 more seconds of “Mid-winter Etude.”  MUSIC – ~28 sec – instrumental. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS “Midwinter Etude,” from the 1996 album “Incarnation,” is copyright by Timothy Seaman and Pine Wind Music, used with permission.  More information about Mr. Seaman is available online at http://timothyseaman.com/en/.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio in Episode 561, 1-25-21. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.IMAGESSnow and ice on a seasonal pond at Heritage Park in Blacksburg, Va., December 26, 2020.Snow along Toms Creek at Heritage Park in Blacksburg, Va., December 26, 2020.Ice hanging from tree twigs at Heritage Park in Blacksburg, Va., February 20, 2021.EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT WINTER WEATHER PREPAREDNESS AND FIRE SAFETY On Winter Weather Preparedness The following information is quoted from the Virginia Department of Emergency Management (VDEM), “Winter Weather,” online at https://www.vaemergency.gov/winter-weather/, accessed 11/29/21.Winter storms can range from freezing rain or ice, to a few hours of moderate snowfall, to a blizzard that lasts for several days.  Many winter storms are accompanied by dangerously low temperatures, power outages and unpredictable road conditions.  Before, during, and after a winter storm, roads and walkways may become extremely dangerous or impassable.  Access to critical community services such as public transportation, child care, healthcare providers and schools may be limited.  Preparing your home, car and family before cold weather and a winter storm arrives is critical. Overview for Dealing with a Winter Storm*During a winter storm, stay off the roads as much as possible and only drive when absolutely necessary.  Always give snow plows the right of way. *Never use a generator, grill, camp stove or gasoline, propane, natural gas or charcoal burning device inside your home, garage, basement, crawlspace or any other partially enclosed area. *Snow shoveling is a known trigger for heart attacks!  Always avoid overexertion when shoveling. *When severe weather occurs, plan to check on elderly or disabled neighbors and relatives. *If you must travel, know road conditions before you leave home.  Visit 511Virginia.org or call 511 for road condition updates. *Protect yourself from frostbite!  Hands, feet and face are the most commonly affected areas so wear a hat, mittens (which are warmer than gloves) and cover your mouth with a scarf to reduce heat loss. *Keep dry!  Change out of wet clothing frequently to prevent a loss of body heat. *Wear several layers of loose-fitting, lightweight, warm clothing rather than one layer or heavy clothing.Prepare Your Home *Make sure your home is properly insulated. *Check the weather stripping around your windows and doors. *Learn how to shut off water valves in case a pipe bursts. *Have additional heat sources on hand in case of a power outages. *Keep a fire extinguisher accessible. *Replace the batteries in your carbon monoxide detector annually. Prepare Your Car *Batteries lose power as temperatures drop, be sure to have yours tested. *Check your car's antifreeze level. *Have your radiator system serviced. *Replace your car's windshield wiper fluid with a wintertime mix. *Proactively replace your car's worn tires and wiper blades. *To help with visibility, clean [snow or ice] off your car entirely, including your trunk, roof, windows and headlights. Did You Know?*Dehydration can make you more susceptible to hypothermia.*If it's too cold for you, it's too cold for your pet!  Don't leave pets outside for prolonged periods of time and have plenty of fresh, unfrozen water on hand.*Each year, snow, sleet, slush and/or ice on the road leads to approximately, 537,000 crashes, 136,000 injuries, and 1,800 deaths.*It can snow at temperatures well above freezing*Temperatures do not have to be below zero degrees to cause harmOn Fire SafetyThe following information is quoted from the Virginia Department of Emergency Management (VDEM), “Fires,” online at https://www.vaemergency.gov/fires/, accessed 11/29/21. In just two minutes, a fire can become life-threatening.  In just five minutes, a home can be engulfed in flames. Learn About Fires *Fire is FAST!  In less than 30 seconds a small flame can turn into a major fire. It only takes minutes for thick black smoke to fill a house or for it to be engulfed in flames.*Fire is HOT!  Heat is more threatening than flames. Room temperatures in a fire can be 100 degrees at floor level and rise to 600 degrees at eye level. Inhaling this super-hot air will scorch your lungs and melt clothes to your skin.*Fire is DARK!  Fire starts bright, but quickly produces black smoke and complete darkness.*Fire is DEADLY!  Smoke and toxic gases kill more people than flames do. Fire produces poisonous gases that make you disoriented and drowsy. Asphyxiation is the leading cause of fire deaths, exceeding burns by a three-to-one ratio. Create and Practice a Fire Escape Plan*In the event of a fire, remember that every second counts, so you and your family must always be prepared.  Escape plans help you get out of your home quickly.*Twice each year, practice your home fire escape plan.  Some tips to consider when preparing this plan include:*Find two ways to get out of each room in the event the primary way is blocked by fire or smoke.*A secondary route might be a window onto a neighboring roof or a collapsible ladder for escape from upper story windows.*Make sure that windows are not stuck, screens can be taken out quickly, and that security bars can be properly opened.*Practice feeling your way out of the house in the dark or with your eyes closed.*Teach children not to hide from firefighters.  Smoke Alarms*A working smoke alarm significantly increases your chances of surviving a deadly home fire.*Install both ionization AND photoelectric smoke alarms, OR dual sensor smoke alarms, which contain both ionization and photoelectric smoke sensors.*Test batteries monthly.*Replace batteries in battery-powered and hard-wired smoke alarms at least once a year (except non-replaceable 10-year lithium batteries).*Install smoke alarms on every level of your home, including the basement, both inside and outside of sleeping areas.*Replace the entire smoke alarm unit every 8-10 years or according to manufacturer's instructions.*Never disable a smoke alarm while cooking – it can be a deadly mistake. Smoke Alarm Safety for People with Access or Functional Needs*Audible alarms for visually impaired people should pause with a small window of silence between each successive cycle so that they can listen to instructions or voices of others.*Smoke alarms with a vibrating pad or flashing light are available for the hearing impaired. Contact your local fire department for information about obtaining a flashing or vibrating smoke alarm.*Smoke alarms with a strobe light outside the home to catch the attention of neighbors, and emergency call systems for summoning help, are also available. During a Fire*Crawl low under any smoke to your exit – heavy smoke and poisonous gases collect first along the ceiling.*Before opening a door, feel the doorknob and door. If either is hot, or if there is smoke coming around the door, leave the door closed and use your second way out.*If you open a door, open it slowly. Be ready to shut it quickly if heavy smoke or fire is present.*If you can't get to someone needing assistance, leave the home and call 9-1-1 or the fire department. Tell the emergency operator where the person is located.*If pets are trapped inside your home, tell firefighters right away.*If you can't get out, close the door and cover vents and cracks around doors with cloth or tape to keep smoke out.  Call 9-1-1 or your fire department. Say where you are and signal for help at the window with a light-colored cloth or a flashlight.*If your clothes catch fire, stop, drop, and roll – stop immediately, drop to the ground, and cover your face with your hands.  Roll over and over or back and forth until the fire is out.  If you or someone else cannot stop, drop, and roll, smother the flames with a blanket or towel.  Use cool water to treat the burn immediately for 3 to 5 minutes.  Cover with a clean, dry cloth.  Get medical help right away by calling 9-1-1 or the fire department. Fire Escape Planning for Older Adults and People with Access or Functional Needs*Live near an exit. You'll be safest on the ground floor if you live in an apartment building. If you live in a multi-story home, arrange to sleep on the ground floor, and near an exit.*If you use a walker or wheelchair, check all exits to be sure you get through the doorways.*Make any necessary accommodations, such as providing exit ramps and widening doorways, to facilitate an emergency escape.*Speak to your family members, building manager, or neighbors about your fire safety plan and practice it with them.*Contact your local fire department's non-emergency line and explain your special needs. Ask emergency providers to keep your special needs information on file.*Keep a phone near your bed and be ready to call 911 or your local emergency number if a fire occurs. After a Fire – The following checklist serves as a quick reference and guide for you to follow after a fire strikes.*Contact your local disaster relief service, such as The Red Cross, if you need temporary housing, food and medicines.*If you are insured, contact your insurance company for detailed instructions on protecting the property, conducting inventory and contacting fire damage restoration companies.  If you are not insured, try contacting private organizations for aid and assistance.*Check with the fire department to make sure your residence is safe to enter. Be watchful of any structural damage caused by the fire.  The fire department should see that utilities are either safe to use or are disconnected before they leave the site.  DO NOT attempt to reconnect utilities yourself.*Conduct an inventory of damaged property and items.  Do not throw away any damaged goods until after an inventory is made.  Try to locate valuable documents and records.*Begin saving receipts for any money you spend related to fire loss.  The receipts may be needed later by the insurance company and for verifying losses claimed on income tax.*Notify your mortgage company of the fire. Cooking*Stay in the kitchen when you are frying, grilling, or broiling food. If you leave the kitchen for even a short period of time, turn off the stove.*Wear short, close-fitting or tightly rolled sleeves when cooking.*Keep children away from cooking areas by enforcing a “kid-free zone” of 3 feet around the stove.*Position barbecue grills at least 10 feet away from siding and deck railings, and out from under eaves and overhanging branches. Smoking*Smoke outside and completely stub out butts in an ashtray or a can filled with sand.*Soak cigarette butts and ashes in water before throwing them away. Never toss hot cigarette butts or ashes in the trash can.*Never smoke in a home where oxygen is used, even if it is turned off. Oxygen can be explosive and makes fire burn hotter and faster.*Be alert – don't smoke in bed! If you are sleepy, have been drinking, or have taken medicine that makes you drowsy, put your cigarette out first. Electrical and Appliance Safety*Frayed wires can cause fires. Replace all worn, old or damaged appliance cords immediately and do not run

cooking health bay university agency escape music ice children audible natural earth fire state audio college live frost deadly change surviving protect energy accent dark steel wheels tech water heat web index fall rain pond research ocean weather government education transportation birds prevention teach chesapeake bay ohio chesapeake snow environment replace plan hands wakefield images wear green farmers equinox va eastern standard smoking drive msonormal preparing commonwealth northern hemisphere position stream normal worddocument zoom donotshowrevisions citizens practice williamsburg arial smoke environmental times new roman calibri trackmoves trackformatting punctuationkerning saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent compatibility breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit latentstyles deflockedstate latentstylecount latentstyles style definitions msonormaltable table normal donotpromoteqf lidthemeother lidthemeasian x none snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules mathpr mathfont cambria math brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc centergroup wrapindent intlim subsup narylim undovr defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority lsdexception locked priority semihidden unhidewhenused qformat name normal name title name default paragraph font name subtitle name strong name emphasis name table grid name placeholder text name no spacing name light shading name light list name light grid name medium shading name medium list name medium grid name dark list name colorful shading name colorful list name colorful grid name light shading accent name light list accent name light grid accent name revision name list paragraph name quote name intense quote name dark list accent name colorful shading accent name colorful list accent name colorful grid accent name subtle emphasis name intense emphasis name subtle reference name intense reference name book title name bibliography name toc heading shenandoah almanac cdc electrical fires teal oxygen grade special olympics crawl colorful batteries brant winter solstice signature portable speak mid incarnation national weather service dehydration freezing watershed transcript earth sciences etude soak inspect centers disease control red cross virginia tech atlantic ocean natural resources proactively winter storms grades k no strings attached name normal indent name list name list bullet name list number name closing name signature name body text name body text indent name list continue name message header name salutation name date name body text first indent name note heading name block text name document map name plain text name e name normal web name normal table name no list name outline list name table simple name table classic name table colorful name table columns name table list name table 3d name table contemporary name table elegant name table professional name table subtle name table web name balloon text name table theme name plain table name grid table light name grid table light accent dark accent colorful accent name list table proper use install conduct ar sa seaman cold winter away blacksburg asphyxiation power outage american red cross cosgrove new boots msohyperlink older adults snowstorms fireplaces did you know sections ben cosgrove stormwater canvasback national oceanic temperatures loons policymakers bmp generators heritage park notify federal emergency management agency atmospheric administration noaa car safety emergency management inhaling new standard john mccutcheon acknowledgment virginia department winter weather cumberland gap frayed sols cold world prepare your home tmdl polar plunge smoke alarms solstices timeanddate virginia standards water center space systems audio notes
The Orbital Mechanics Podcast
Episode 335: DOWNLINK--Matthew Kuhns, Masten Space Systems

The Orbital Mechanics Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 24, 2021 79:21


Spaceflight news— Astraaaaaa! (space.com) (spacenews.com) (en.wikipedia.org) — Astra issued an update after we recorded this episode (twitter.com/thesheetztweetz) (HT DeltaV: twitter.com/thesheetztweetz)Short & Sweet— Tyvak wins contract for very low-earth orbit mission (spacenews.com)— European startup tests aerospike engine (spacenews.com)— Satellite maneuvers to avoid near collision around Moon (cnet.com)Questions, comments, corrections— ThrustMe paper (nature.com)— From the intro: ASAT test (spaceflightnow.com) (youtube.com) (HT Andrew Z: airforcemag.com)Interview -- Matthew Kuhns, Head of R&D at Masten Space Systems— Masten in-Flight Alumina Spray Technique (masten.aero)— This study was a 2020 NIAC Phase I selection (nasa.gov) (researchgate.net)— Tests were run on a modified car lift (youtube.com)— The FAST concept is similar to the High Velocity Oxygen Fuel spray coating technique (sciencedirect.com)— Find more about Matthew and Masten: — linkedin.com — matthewkuhns.com — masten.aeroThis week in SF history— 26 Nov, 1965. Launch of Astérix, the first French satellite (pt deux?!) (en.wikipedia.org)— Next week (11/30 - 12/6) in 1990. The antihero.

Virginia Water Radio
Episode 604 (11-22-21): Canvasbacks Come Back to the Chesapeake as Winter Approaches

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 23, 2021


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:33).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 11-19-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of November 22, 2021.  This revised episode from January 2014 is part of a series this year of winter-related episodes. SOUND – ~5 sec That's the landing sound of a large, distinctive duck that can be found in winter on Virginia's coastal waters.  Have a listen for about 10 seconds to some more of this species' sounds, and see if you know this bird.  And here's a hint: the bird's name, and the male's beautiful color, may remind you of a painting.SOUND – ~12 secIf you guessed a Canvasback, you're right!  Canvasbacks breed on water bodies in the prairies of Canada and the northern United States, but they winter in large sections of the U.S. and Mexico, with one concentration in the Chesapeake Bay area.  According to the Chesapeake Bay Program, at one time almost half of North America's Canvasbacks wintered around the Chesapeake, but that number has decreased to about 20 percent because of reductions in Bay submerged aquatic vegetation, or Bay grasses, a valuable winter food for this species.  Canvasbacks are diving ducks, meaning they typically go completely underwater to obtain food and avoid predators.  In winter, Canvasbacks feed largely on plant roots and buds, while in summer they'll add to their plant diet a variety of aquatic insects and other animals.  Predators on adult and young Canvasbacks include mink, coyotes, foxes, owls and other birds, some reptiles and fish, and human hunters, while Canvasback eggs are eaten by various mammals and birds. The Canvasback is considered one of the most distinctive North American ducks.  The following quote from the Cornell Lab of Ornithology's “Birds of the World” Web site describes how the bird stands out.  Quote: “This exclusively North American species is considered the ‘aristocrat of ducks.'  The male's striking appearance—rich chestnut-red head and neck, black chest, white back, and long, sloping, blackish bill—along with its large size distinguish it in the field.”  Unquote. Thanks to Lang Elliott for permission to use the Canvasback sounds, from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs.  We close with about 50 seconds of music appropriate for the Canvasback's Chesapeake Bay connection.  Here's “Chesapeake Bay Ballad,” by Torrin Hallett, a graduate student at the Yale School of Music. MUSIC - ~51 sec – instrumental SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 197, 1-20-14, and the sounds segment of Episode 50, 1-24-11. Emily Whitesell helped write this original script for this episode during a Virginia Tech English Department internship in Spring 2011 with the Virginia Water Resources Research Center. The Canvasback sounds were from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs-Eastern Region CD set, by Lang Elliott with Donald and Lillian Stokes (Time Warner Audio Books, copyright 1997), used with permission of Lang Elliott.  Lang Elliot's work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/. “Chesapeake Bay Ballad” is copyright 2020 by Torrin Hallett, used with permission.  Torrin is a 2018 graduate of Oberlin College and Conservatory in Oberlin, Ohio; a 2020 graduate in Horn Performance from Manhattan School of Music in New York; and a 2021 graduate of the Lamont School of Music at the University of Denver.  He is currently a graduate student at the Yale School of Music.  More information about Torrin is available online at https://www.facebook.com/torrin.hallett.  Thanks very much to Torrin for composing the piece especially for Virginia Water Radio.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 565, 2-22-21. Following are other music pieces composed by Torrin Hallett for Virginia Water Radio, with episodes featuring the music.“A Little Fright Music” – used most recently in Episode 601, 10-31-21, on connections among Halloween, water, and the human body.“Beetle Ballet” – used in Episode 525, 5-18-20, on aquatic beetles.“Corona Cue” – used in Episode 517, 3-23-20, on the coronavirus pandemic. “Flow Stopper” – used in Episode 599, 10-18-21, on “Imagine a Day Without Water.”“Geese Piece” – used most recently in Episode 440, 10-1-18, on E-bird. “Ice Dance” – used in Episode 556, 12-21-20, on how organisms survive freezing temperatures.“Lizard Lied” – used in Episode 514, 3-2-20, on lizards. “New Year's Water” – used in Episode 349, 1-2-17, on the New Year. “Rain Refrain” – used most recently in Episode 559, 1-11-21, on record rainfall in 2020.“Runoff” – used in Episode 585, 7-12-21 – on middle schoolers calling out stormwater-related water words.“Spider Strike” – used in Episode 523, 5-4-20, on fishing spiders.“Tropical Tantrum” – used most recently in Episode 580, 6-7-21, on the 2021 Atlantic tropical storm season preview.“Tundra Swan Song – used in Episode 554, 12-7-20, on Tundra Swans.“Turkey Tune” – used in Episode 343, 11-21-16, on the Wild Turkey.  Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGESMale Canvasback (location and date not identified).  Photo by Lee Karney, made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov; specific URL for this photo was https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/1645/rec/2), as of 11/22/21.Female Canvasback in Anchorage Coastal Wildlife Refuge in Alaska in May 2005.  Photo by Donna A. Dewhurst, made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov; specific URL for this photo was https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/14/rec/9), as of 11/22/21.EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT CANVASBACK DUCKS The scientific name of the Canvasback is Aythya valisineria. Here are some points about Canvasbacks, excerpted from the Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “Fish and Wildlife Information Service/Canvasback,” online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040064&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18949.Physical Description “The adult male has a head that is rusty red, shading to almost black near the bill.  The breast is grayish-black and the sides and back are light gray to white.  The wings and speculum are gray, and the eye is red.  The bill is long and sloping, black, with decidedly long sloping profile that clearly distinguishes it from the redhead. …The adult female head is light brown.  The sides and breast are olive-brown to gray-brown, and the underparts are light gray. The back is gray, finely barred with darker gray, and the wings are grayish brown.  …They have short wings, and a rapid wingbeat.  This species has difficulty leaving the water.  It is one of the fastest flying ducks.  …It is one of the largest ducks.”Breeding “The breeding season is from May to June… This species breeds in Alaska, western Canada, northwest United States, western North America from the prairie provinces of Canada, south into the central and western states and occasionally as far east as Hudson Bay with a few as far north as Alaska.  Spring and early summer they are found in marshes with shallow waters [and in] flooded farmland.  In mid-summer they frequent large marshes and lakes, sloughs, and swampy areas.” Migration and Winter Habitat and Behavior “During migration, they fly in large ‘V' shaped flocks at high altitudes. … They are also associated with larger bodies of water.  …Late migration is in the fall, and early migration in the spring.  This species migrates cross country from the northwestern United States to the Atlantic Coast, principally the Chesapeake Bay.  The migration corridors shift annually, and they have a strong tendency to return to the same breeding ground.  … The heaviest flight is from the Canada pothole country to the Chesapeake Bay. … They arrive at Chesapeake Bay later than most other ducks.  The Chesapeake Bay fall migration is from October 15 to December 15, with a peak from November 15 to December 15.  The spring migration is from February 20 to May 1, with the peak from March 1 to March 30.  They occupy specific and traditional rivers, lakes, and marshes on migratory areas.  … This species winters to Mexico [and to the] Atlantic and Gulf Coast.  ...Virginia is one of best areas for canvasbacks.  …  They are found in lakes, salt bays and estuaries, brackish and alkaline waters near the coast, estuaries and shallow bays, [and] rarely on the open sea. … The optimum in Chesapeake Bay areas is in fresh and brackish estuarine bays with extensive beds of submerged plants or abundant invertebrates, primarily in brackish rather than salt or freshwater areas. … There has been a 53% decline in wintering populations in the United States.  There has also been a decrease in the Atlantic flyway.”  [Population decreases have been caused by several factors, including drainage of breeding marshland, food supplies being depleted by carp and swan, pollution of wintering areas, disappearance of submerged aquatic vegetation in the Chesapeake Bay, droughts on breeding grounds, oil spills, and illegal hunting and trapping.] Diet “This species dives and obtains food from the bottoms of ponds, lakes, large rivers, open marshes, and muddy bottoms.  Plants are uprooted and the roots are eaten.  This species dives to 20-30 feet. … Important foods include…aquatic plants…, molluscs, insects, caddisfly and midge larvae, dragonflies, [and] small fish.  Chesapeake Bay foods include wild celery, widgeon grass, eelgrass, pondweed, clams and mud crabs.  Juvenile foods include caddisfly larvae, midge larvae, and mayfly nymphs.” SOURCES Used for Audio Mike Burke, “The big, beautiful canvasback: What's not to love?”  Bay Journal, November 2021, available online at https://www.bayjournal.com/eedition/page-43/page_136f4325-b978-5e55-bcec-907f0a04b1fc.html. Chesapeake Bay Program, “Birds,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/all/birds/all; the Canvasback entry is online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/entry/canvasback. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “All About Birds,” online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/news/.  The Canvasback entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Canvasback/. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Birds of the World” online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/home(subscription may be required).  The Canvasback entry is online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/species/canvas/cur/introduction. Alice Jane Lippson and Robert L. Lippson, Life in the Chesapeake Bay-3rdEdition, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md., 2006. Chandler S. Robbins et al., A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, St. Martin's Press, New York, N.Y., 2001. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/; the Canvasback entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040064&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18949. For More Information about Birds in Virginia and Elsewhere Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin Photo ID.”  The application for mobile devices allows users to submit a bird photograph to get identification of the bird. Information is available online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and the Audubon Society, “eBird,” online at https://ebird.org/home.  Here you can find locations of species observations made by contributors, and you can sign up to contribute your own observations. Stan Tekiela, Birds of Virginia Field Guide, Adventure Publications, Inc., Cambridge, Minn., 2002. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, “Animal Diversity Web,” online at https://animaldiversity.org/. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “List of Native and Naturalized Fauna in Virginia, August 2020,” online (as a PDF) at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/virginia-native-naturalized-species.pdf. Virginia Society of Ornithology, online at http://www.virginiabirds.org/.  The Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth. Xeno-canto Foundation, online at http://www.xeno-canto.org/.  This site provides bird songs from around the world. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Birds” and “Weather/Climate/Natural Disas

new york canada society bay university agency mexico guide music ice photo natural halloween earth state audio living game college north america frost world change surviving sound accent animals cd dark north american tech water xeno web index fall land rain alaska united states pond press research ocean weather government education diet birds behavior plants foundation chesapeake bay native baltimore spring ohio fish chesapeake snow environment images green oberlin college cambridge dewhurst migration adaptations msonormal new year commonwealth atlantic important stream menu robbins normal allowpng worddocument zoom donotshowrevisions citizens arial predators environmental dynamic times new roman trackmoves trackformatting punctuationkerning saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent compatibility breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit latentstyles deflockedstate latentstylecount latentstyles style definitions msonormaltable table normal donotpromoteqf lidthemeother lidthemeasian x none snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules mathpr mathfont cambria math brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc centergroup wrapindent intlim subsup narylim undovr defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority lsdexception locked priority semihidden unhidewhenused qformat name normal name title name default paragraph font name subtitle name strong name emphasis name table grid name placeholder text name no spacing name light shading name light list name light grid name medium shading name medium list name medium grid name dark list name colorful shading name colorful list name colorful grid name light shading accent name light list accent name light grid accent name revision name list paragraph name quote name intense quote name dark list accent name colorful shading accent name colorful list accent name colorful grid accent name subtle emphasis name intense emphasis name subtle reference name intense reference name book title name bibliography name toc heading population biology gulf coast conservatory teal comeback grade special olympics oberlin colorful md brant yale school signature bio breeding wild turkey manhattan school scales freezing watershed transcript ornithology approaches virginia tech ls atlantic ocean natural resources wildlife service grades k name normal indent name list name list bullet name list number name closing name signature name body text name body text indent name list continue name message header name salutation name date name body text first indent name note heading name block text name document map name plain text name e name normal web name normal table name no list name outline list name table simple name table classic name table colorful name table columns name table list name table 3d name table contemporary name table elegant name table professional name table subtle name table web name balloon text name table theme name plain table name grid table light name grid table light accent dark accent colorful accent name list table processes zoology minn taxonomy msohyperlink juveniles wildlife resources relyonvml bay journal lang elliot runoff audubon society all about birds sections life sciences birdsongs stormwater canvasback hudson bay lang elliott loons policymakers bmp new standard acknowledgment atlantic coast virginia department michigan museum cornell lab robert l cripple creek johns hopkins university press cumberland gap sols unquote tmdl virginia society polar plunge torrin inland fisheries ebird living systems virginia standards water center space systems audio notes
NewSpace India
Setting up Space Systems Laboratory at IIIT Delhi

NewSpace India

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 19, 2021 46:31


More about Sanat - https://iiitd.ac.in/sanatWhite paper on Indian supplier landscape: “Driving innovation in the Indian space sector using digital technologies”Discover how Dassault Systèmes can help New Space companies achieve fast, sustainable innovation: The New Frontier of Satellite Technology 3D Perspective on New Space, new horizons Support the NewSpace India podcast by becoming a Patreon - https://www.patreon.com/newspaceindiaWant to keep in touch with the NewSpace India community? Do join us on Discordhttps://discord.gg/WRJ8Yagb8TFor comments/suggestions, write to curator@newspaceindia.com ★ Support this podcast on Patreon ★

Virginia Water Radio
Episode 603 (11-15-21): Last Bird Out

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 16, 2021


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:35).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments Images Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 11-12-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of November 15, 2021.  This revised episode from October 2013 is the first in a series this year of winter-related episodes. MUSIC – ~ 21 sec – Lyrics: “Summer's over, winter's coming.  Summer's gone, the days were long; now the moonlight froze the dawn.  Summer's over, winter's coming.” That's part of “Winter is Coming,” from the Harrisonburg and Rockingham County, Va.-based band, The Steel Wheels.  It sets the stage for exploring a characteristic feathered feature of the transition from fall to winter.  To start, we drop in on a chattering crowd of eager flyers, who then hear their long-distance flights being announced but no planes are taking off.  If this sounds like a huge airport headache instead of a water event, well, just have a listen for about 35 seconds.SOUNDS and VOICES - ~36 sec – Voice call-outs: “Sora.  Snowy Egret.  Green Heron.  Osprey.  Least Tern.  Piping Plover.  Broad-winged Hawk.”You've been listening to the names and sounds of seven kinds of birds that are known to spend summer in Virginia and then typically migrate out of the Commonwealth for winter.  Fall's arrival means the departure from the Commonwealth of many species of birds—including the first six you just heard—who may nest in spring and summer around Virginia's aquatic areas.  Fall also brings seasonal migrations of land-based birds—including the seventh species you heard, the forest-dwelling Broad-winged Hawk—that travel over watery areas of Virginia, particularly the Chesapeake Bay and the Delmarva Peninsula.  In fact, the concentration of hawks and other migrants along Virginia's Eastern Shore makes it an important and popular location for monitoring bird migration, and the Coastal Virginia Wildlife Observatory maintains a migrant-counting platform in Kiptopeke State Park in Northampton County.  Among various programs at the Observatory, Kiptopeke Hawkwatch has been conducted at that location since 1977.  In fall 2021, over 17,000 migrating hawks and other raptors had been recorded as of late October. Thanks to Lang Elliott for permission to use the other bird sounds, from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs, and to several Virginia Tech colleagues for calling out the bird names.  Thanks also to The Steel Wheels for permission to use this week's music, and we close with about 20 more seconds of “Winter is Coming.” MUSIC – ~23 sec – Lyrics: “Summer's gone, we're movin' on, can't regret that frozen dawn.  Summer's over, winter's coming.  Summer's over, winter's coming.” SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 183, 10-14-13. “Winter is Coming,” from the 2015 album “We've Got a Fire,” is copyright by The Steel Wheels, used with permission.  More information about The Steel Wheels is available online at http://www.thesteelwheels.com/.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio in Episode 292, 11-30-15. The sounds of Sora, Snowy Egret, Green Heron, Osprey, Least Tern, Piping Plover, and Broad-winged Hawk were taken from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs-Eastern Region CD set, by Lang Elliott with Donald and Lillian Stokes (Time Warner Audio Books, copyright 1997), used with permission of Lang Elliott, whose work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/.Thanks to Eli Heilker, Sarah Karpanty, Kevin McGuire, and Tony Timpano for recording bird names.  Thanks to Dr. Karpanty also for her help in developing the idea for this episode. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES An observation station for the Coastal Virginia Wildlife Observatory in Kiptopeke State Park, Northampton County, Virginia, October 7, 2007.  The chart listed the birds of prey that had been counted to date during that year's fall migration on Virginia's Eastern Shore. North American migratory bird flyways.  Map by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, accessed online at https://www.fws.gov/birds/management/flyways.php, 11/16/21. SOURCES Used for Audio Coastal Virginia Wildlife Observatory, online at http://www.cvwo.org/. Alice Jane Lippson and Robert L. Lippson, Life in the Chesapeake Bay-3rdEdition, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md., 2006. Chandler S. Robbins et al., A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, St. Martin's Press, New York, N.Y., 2001. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “All About Birds,” online at http://www.allaboutbirds.org. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Birds of the World,” online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/home (subscription required).U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Eastern Shore of Virginia National Wildlife Refuge, online at https://www.fws.gov/refuge/eastern_shore_of_virginia/. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries):Fish and Wildlife Information Service, online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/.  Entries for the species mentioned in this episode are located online as follows:Broad-winged Hawk: https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040089&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18943.Green Heron: https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040028&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18943.Least Tern: https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040186&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18943.Osprey: https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040095&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18943.Piping Plover: https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040120&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18943.Snowy Egret: https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040033&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18943.Sora: https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040108&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18943. For More Information about Birds in Virginia and Elsewhere Chesapeake Bay Program, “Birds,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/all/birds/all. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin Photo ID.”  The application for mobile devices allows users to submit a bird photograph to get identification of the bird. Information is available online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and the Audubon Society, “eBird,” online at https://ebird.org/home.  Here you can find locations of species observations made by contributors, and you can sign up to contribute your own observations. Stan Tekiela, Birds of Virginia Field Guide, Adventure Publications, Inc., Cambridge, Minn., 2002. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, “Animal Diversity Web,” online at https://animaldiversity.org/. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “List of Native and Naturalized Fauna in Virginia, August 2020,” online (as a PDF) at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/virginia-native-naturalized-species.pdf.Virginia Society of Ornithology, online at http://www.virginiabirds.org/.  The Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth.Xeno-canto Foundation, online at http://www.xeno-canto.org/.  This site provides bird songs from around the world. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Birds” and “Weather/Climate/Natural Disasters” subject categories. Following are links to several other winter-related episodes, including episodes on some birds that reside in Virginia typically only in winter (listed separately).  Please note that some of these episodes are being redone in late 2021 and early 2022; in those cases, the respective links below will have information on the updated episodes. Frost – Episode 597, 10-4-21.Freezing and ice – Episode 403, 1-15-18 (especially for grades K-3).Ice on ponds and lakes – Episode 404, 1-22-18 (especially for grades 4-8).Ice on rivers – Episode 406, 2-5-18 (especially for middle school grades).Polar Plunge®for Special Olympics – Episode 356, 2-20-17.Snow terms – Episode 300, 1-25-16.Snow physics and chemistry – Episode 407, 2-12-18 (especially for high school grades).Snow, sleet, and freezing rain – Episode 461, 2-25-19.Surviving freezing (by animals) – Episode 556, 12-21-20.Winter precipitation and water supplies – Episode 567, 3-8-21.Winter preparedness – Episode 553, 11-30-20.Water thermodynamics – Episode 195, 1-6-14. Bird-related Episodes Audubon Christmas Bird Count – Episode 294, 12-14-15.American Avocet – Episode 543, 9-21-20.Brant (goose) – Episode 502, 12-9-19.Canvasback (duck) – Episode 197, 1-20-14.Common Goldeneye (duck) – Episode 303, 2/15/16.Green-winged Teal (duck) – Episode 398, 12-11-17.Grebes (Horned and Red-necked) – Episode 233, 9-29-14.Loons – Episode 445, 11-5-18.Snow Goose – Episode 507, 1/13/20.Tundra Swan – Episode 554, 12-7-20.Winter birds sampler from the Chesapeake Bay area – Episode 565, 2-22-21. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-4: Living Systems and Processes1.5 – Animals, including humans, have basic life needs that allow them to survive.2.4 – Plants and animals undergo a series of orderly changes as they grow and develop, including life cycles.2.5 – Living things are part of a system.3.4 – Adaptations allow organisms to satisfy life needs and resp

new york society bay university agency guide music ice broad natural earth fire state audio living game college north america frost world change surviving map accent animals cd dark north american steel wheels tech water xeno web index fall sora land rain pond press research ocean weather government education birds plants foundation voice chesapeake bay native baltimore fish chesapeake snow environment images green va cambridge adaptations msonormal commonwealth stream menu robbins normal worddocument zoom donotshowrevisions citizens voices hawk environmental dynamic times new roman calibri trackmoves trackformatting punctuationkerning saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent compatibility breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit latentstyles deflockedstate latentstylecount latentstyles style definitions msonormaltable table normal donotpromoteqf lidthemeother lidthemeasian x none snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules mathpr mathfont cambria math brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc centergroup wrapindent intlim subsup narylim undovr defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority lsdexception locked priority semihidden unhidewhenused qformat name normal name title name default paragraph font name subtitle name strong name emphasis name table grid name placeholder text name no spacing name light shading name light list name light grid name medium shading name medium list name medium grid name dark list name colorful shading name colorful list name colorful grid name light shading accent name light list accent name light grid accent name revision name list paragraph name quote name intense quote name dark list accent name colorful shading accent name colorful list accent name colorful grid accent name subtle emphasis name intense emphasis name subtle reference name intense reference name book title name bibliography name toc heading shenandoah biology teal grade special olympics colorful md brant signature bio freezing watershed transcript ornithology virginia tech ls atlantic ocean natural resources wildlife service grades k observatory name normal indent name list name list bullet name list number name closing name signature name body text name body text indent name list continue name message header name salutation name date name body text first indent name note heading name block text name document map name plain text name e name normal web name normal table name no list name outline list name table simple name table classic name table colorful name table columns name table list name table 3d name table contemporary name table elegant name table professional name table subtle name table web name balloon text name table theme name plain table name grid table light name grid table light accent dark accent colorful accent name list table processes entries harrisonburg ar sa eastern shore zoology minn taxonomy cosgrove msohyperlink wildlife resources audubon society all about birds osprey sections life sciences ben cosgrove birdsongs stormwater canvasback delmarva peninsula lang elliott loons policymakers msobodytext bmp rockingham county acknowledgment virginia department michigan museum robert l johns hopkins university press cumberland gap sols kevin mcguire northampton county tmdl virginia society polar plunge inland fisheries ebird living systems virginia standards water center space systems audio notes
Virginia Water Radio
Episode 602 (11-8-21): Photosynthesis Fun, Fundamentals, and Confluence with Climate Change

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 8, 2021


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (5:26).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments Images Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 11-5-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of November 8, 2021. MUSIC – ~12 sec – instrumental. That's part of “Racing the Sun,” by The Faux Paws, on that group's 2021 self-titled album, from Great Bear Records.  It opens a revised episode from November 2013, where we explore a sun-driven process that's fundamental to life on earth: photosynthesis, the process where green plants and algae make food, using the energy in sunlight to store chemical energy in the form of glucose.  Photosynthesis is also… VOICES IN SKIT - ~1 min./57 sec. REPORTER: We break into this show to bring you exclusive audio from the Virginia Tech campus, where a shadowy team of scientists are tinkering with the process underlying all life on earth.  They haven't yet revealed their possibly nefarious plans, so let's listen in... SCIENTIST 1: With this terrarium, we have a model system to test our carbon dioxide-manipulation scheme, and soon we'll be ready to control earth's fundamental food-producing process... SCIENTISTS 1 and 2: Photosynthesis! SCIENTIST 2: Are all the components of the system ready?  Green plants with chlorophyll? SCIENTIST 1: Check! SCIENTIST 2: Soil with proper nutrients? SCIENTIST 1.  Check! SCIENTIST 2. Light? SCIENTIST 1.  Check! SCIENTIST 2.  Water? SCIENTIST 1.  Check! SCIENTIST 2.  Air with CO2? SCIENTIST 1.  CO2? SCIENTIST 2.  That's carbon dioxide! SCIENTIST 1.  Oh...right...I mean, check! SCIENTIST 2.  Let the photosynthesis start!  Engage monitoring device! SCIENTIST 1.  CO2 taken in from the air...water and nutrients being absorbed through roots...light falling on leaves.  All systems go!  Light energy is driving CO2 and water to combine and form glucose, the chemical-energy form, while releasing oxygen. SCIENTIST 2.  Apply the CO2 inhibitor! SCIENTIST 1.  Lid applied!  CO2 source blocked...system CO2 levels dropping rapidly...plants responding as expected, using up available CO2. SCIENTIST 2.  Reverse manipulation!  Apply the CO2 increaser! SCIENTIST 1. Lid removed!  CO2 added...plants responding.  Wait, they're responding too fast!  They're growing beyond the walls!  One has me...aieeeeeeee! SCIENTIST 2.  Now it's got me, too!  Noooooooo..... REPORTER: Well, this might be a good time for us to return to our regular show.  Back to you.... END VOICES IN SKIT Unlike this skit, with its far-fetched human-eating plants, there's nothing make-believe about Earth life's reliance on photosynthesis using sunlight, chlorophyll, nutrients, water, and carbon dioxide to make food.  Moreover, photosynthesis is a fundamental aspect of understanding and responding to climate change.  Photosynthesis millions of years ago created the hydrocarbon compounds that constitute today's fossil fuels, and photosynthesis now—absorbing and storing some of the carbon dioxide released in fossil fuel burning—has an important role in reducing Earth's carbon dioxide levels, warming, and other climate-change impacts.  For example, the capacity for photosynthesizing trees to take up atmospheric carbon dioxide was one aspect of the “Declaration on Forests and Land Use” at the 26th UN Climate Change Conference of the Parties, or COP26, in Glasgow, Scotland, from October 31 to November 12, 2021. Thanks to Eli Heilker and John Kidd for participating in this episode.  Thanks also to Andrew VanNorstrand for permission to use part of “Racing the Sun.”  We close with another musical selection appropriate for the climate challenges facing the COP26 meeting and all of us.  Here's about 25 seconds of “On a Ship,” by Blacksburg, Va., musician Kat Mills. MUSIC - ~ 24 sec – Lyrics: “We are riding on a ship,” then instrumental. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 186, 11-4-13. “Racing the Sun,” from the 2021 album “The Faux Paws,” is copyright by Great Bear Records, used with permission of Andrew VanNorstrand.  More information about The Faux Paws is available online at https://thefauxpawsmusic.com/.  More information about Great Bear Records is available online at https://www.greatbearmusic.com/. “On a Ship,” from the 2015 album “Silver,” is copyright by Kat Mills, used with permission.  Accompanists on the song are Ida Polys, vocals; Rachel Handman, violin; and Nicholas Polys, banjo.   More information about Kat Mills is available online at http://www.katmills.com/.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 517, 3-23-20. Virginia Water Radio thanks John Kidd, formerly of the Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation, and Eli Heilker, a graduate of Virginia Tech in English who served an internship in Fall 2013 with the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, for their participation in this episode.Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGES Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation demonstration of plant uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) during photosynthesis.  A terrarium (left) is attached via gas-transporting tubing to a CO2 monitor at right.  Photo taken in Blacksburg, Va., October 2013.  Diagram explaining carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake by trees and other woody plants during photosynthesis, resulting in carbon storage, or “carbon sequestration,” a key concept in the issue of climate change.  Diagram courtesy of John Seiler, Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation.Red Maple leaves in Blacksburg, Va., on October 30, 2013, in which green chlorophyll pigment was breaking down as photosynthesis and chlorophyll production in the leaves were stopping with the approach of winter.  The breakdown of chlorophyll in the fall allows pigments of other colors in the leaves to be revealed.  More information on fall leaf-color change is available in “The Miracle of Fall,” University of Illinois Extension, online at https://web.extension.illinois.edu/fallcolor/default.cfm. SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION Rick Groleau, “Illuminating Photosynthesis,” Public Broadcasting System (PBS) and WGBH-Boston, “NOVA” program, November 1, 2001, online at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/nature/photosynthesis.html. NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, “Global Climate Change” Website, online at https://climate.nasa.gov/.  Specific pages used were the following:“A breathing planet, off balance,” by Kate Ramsayer and Carol Rasmussen, November 11, 2015, online at https://climate.nasa.gov/news/2364/a-breathing-planet-off-balance/; and“Frequently Asked Questions,” online at https://climate.nasa.gov/faq/. John Seiler, John Groninger, and John Peterson, Forest Biology and Dendrology, Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Conservation, Blacksburg, Va., 2009.Smithsonian Institution, “Ocean—Find Your Blue/What Are Fossil Fuels?”; online at https://ocean.si.edu/conservation/gulf-oil-spill/what-are-fossil-fuels. 26th UN Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP26), October 31—November 12, 2021, online at https://ukcop26.org/.  [October 31-November 12, 2021]; for information on photosynthesizing forests serving as “sinks” for carbon dioxide and other “greenhouse gases,” see particularly “Glasgow Leaders' Declaration on Forests and Land Use,” November 2, 2021, online at https://ukcop26.org/glasgow-leaders-declaration-on-forests-and-land-use/. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Plants,” “Science,” and “Weather/Climate/Natural Disasters” subject categories. Following are links to some other episodes related to climate change. Episode 231, 9-15-14 – Exploring Climate Change Basics, with Examples from Assateague Island National Seashore and Shenandoah National Park.Episode 312, 4-18-16 – Student's Research Digs into Streamside Soils, Rainfall Rates, and Greenhouse Gases. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-4: Living Systems and ProcessesK.7 – Plants and animals have basic needs and life processes.1.4 – Plants have basic life needs (including water) and functional parts that allow them to survive.2.5 – Living things are part of a system.4.3 – Organisms, including humans, interact with one another and with the nonliving components in the ecosystem. Grades K-5: Earth and Space Systems3.6 – Soil is important in ecosystems.3.7 – There is a water cycle and water is important to life on Earth. Grades K-5: Earth Resources2.8 – Plants are important natural resources.3.8 – Natural events and humans influence ecosystems.4.8 – Virginia has important natural resources.5.9 – Conservation of energy resources is important. Grade 66.4 – There are basic sources of energy and that energy can be transformed.6.6 – Water has unique physical properties and has a role in the natural and human-made environment.6.7 – Air has properties and the Earth's atmosphere has structure and is dynamic.6.9 – Humans impact the environment and individuals can influence public policy decisions related to energy and the environment. Life ScienceLS.4 – There are chemical processes of energy transfer which are important for life.LS.5 – Biotic and abiotic factors affect an ecosystem.LS.6     – Populations in a biological community interact and are interdependent.LS.8 – Change occurs in ecosystems, communities, populations, and organisms over time.LS.9 – Relationships exist between ecosystem dynamics and human activity. Earth ScienceES.6 – Resource use is complex.ES.8 – Freshwater resources influence and are influenced by geologic processes and human activity.ES.10 – Oceans are complex, dynamic systems subject to long- and short-term variations.ES.11 – The atmosphere is a complex, dynamic system subject to long-and short-term variations.ES.12 – The Earth's weather and climate result from the interaction of the sun's energy with the atmosphere, oceans, and the land. BiologyBIO.2 – Chemical and biochemical processes are essential for life. BIO.8 – Dynamic equilibria exist within populations, communities, and ecosystems.  2015 Social Studies SOLs Grades K-3 Civics Theme3.12 – Importance of government in community, Virginia, and the United States, including government protecting rights and property of individuals. Virginia Studies CourseVS.10 – Knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia. United States History: 1865-to-Present CourseUSII.9 – Domestic and international issues during the second half of the 20th Century and the early 21st Century. Civics and Economics CourseCE.6 – Government at the national level.CE.7 – Government at th

science bay humans university agency music photo national natural parties relationships earth political state audio living college english climate change change accent dark tech water web air index fall rain united states pond research ocean technology government education public racing conservation plants ship scotland sun scientists chesapeake snow environment glasgow organisms images green engage cooperation va student reporter domestic silver msonormal stream lid normal worddocument zoom donotshowrevisions citizens confluence arial environmental soil dynamic times new roman trackmoves trackformatting punctuationkerning saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent compatibility breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit latentstyles deflockedstate latentstylecount latentstyles style definitions msonormaltable table normal donotpromoteqf lidthemeother lidthemeasian x none snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules mathpr mathfont cambria math brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc centergroup wrapindent intlim subsup narylim undovr defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority lsdexception locked priority semihidden unhidewhenused qformat name normal name title name default paragraph font name subtitle name strong name emphasis name table grid name placeholder text name no spacing name light shading name light list name light grid name medium shading name medium list name medium grid name dark list name colorful shading name colorful list name colorful grid name light shading accent name light list accent name light grid accent name revision name list paragraph name quote name intense quote name dark list accent name colorful shading accent name colorful list accent name colorful grid accent name subtle emphasis name intense emphasis name subtle reference name intense reference name book title name bibliography name toc heading biology chemical specific civics grade diagram colorful resource forest resources signature bio reverse forests co2 scales govt watershed transcript earth sciences wg illinois extension freshwater virginia tech ls atlantic ocean declaration greenhouse gases natural resources fundamentals smithsonian institution grades k populations frequently asked questions name normal indent name list name list bullet name list number name closing name signature name body text name body text indent name list continue name message header name salutation name date name body text first indent name note heading name block text name document map name plain text name e name normal web name normal table name no list name outline list name table simple name table classic name table colorful name table columns name table list name table 3d name table contemporary name table elegant name table professional name table subtle name table web name balloon text name table theme name plain table name grid table light name grid table light accent dark accent colorful accent name list table processes photosynthesis blacksburg noooooooo msohyperlink sections life sciences stormwater environmental conservation john peterson policymakers bmp new standard acknowledgment virginia department land use un climate change conference cripple creek cumberland gap sols tmdl shenandoah national park united states history vus dendrology biotic wgbh boston living systems virginia standards water center assateague island national seashore space systems audio notes
Virginia Water Radio
Episode 599 (10-18-21): A Day to Weigh Water's Worth

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 19, 2021


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (5:00).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments Images Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 10-15-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of October 18, 2021. SOUND – ~8 sec This week, those abrupt stops to the sounds of the Roanoke River, Gray Tree Frogs, and a household water faucet set the stage for an episode marking the observance of “Imagine a Day without Water,” to be held this year on October 21.  We start with some music designed to help you do such imagining.  Have a listen for about 40 seconds. MUSIC  - ~42 sec – instrumental You've been listening to “Flow Stopper,” by Torrin Hallett, a graduate student at the Yale School of Music.  Besides flowing rivers, calling frogs, and household faucets, almost any aspect of life could be affected by a lack of water, including the biological structures and functions that make life possible.  Increasing the awareness of water uses and needs is a goal of the “Imagine a Day Without Water” campaign.  According to the event's Web site, the effort is, quote, “a national education campaign that brings together diverse stakeholders to highlight how water is essential, invaluable, and in need of investment,” unquote.  The event is part of the “Value of Water Campaign,” focused on water infrastructure needs.  These campaigns are coordinated by the US Water Alliance, a non-profit organization made up of people from water utilities, government, business, other non-profits, communities, and research establishments. Worldwide, billions of people don't have to imagine lacking good water.  According to the United Nations, as of 2019 over 2 billion people lacked access to safely managed drinking water, and over 4 billion people lacked access to safely managed sanitation. In the United States, the American Society of Civil Engineers' water infrastructure “Report Card” for 2021 estimated over $1 trillion needed through 2029 for drinking water, wastewater, and stormwater, with $434 billion of that not yet funded. And in Virginia, the Department of Environmental Quality's 2020 “Water Resources Report” identified several water challenges, including maintaining groundwater availability over the next 50 years; coordinating water planning among localities; gauging the impact of unpermitted water withdrawals; understanding stream water quality and ecology; and investing in water-resources personnel, science, and education. Water is fundamental for energy, commerce, industry, agriculture, aquatic and terrestrial life, and human biology.  Imagining a day without water—and learning about where water's lacking—can help us envision and work toward well-watered future days. Thanks to Torrin Hallett for composing this week's music for Virginia Water Radio, and we close with another listen to the last 10 seconds of “Flow Stopper.” MUSIC  - 10 sec – instrumental SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The sounds at the beginning of this episode, all recorded by Virginia Water Radio, are as follows:Roanoke River on from the Roanoke River Greenway between Franklin Road and Smith Park in Roanoke, Va., December 6, 2020;Gray Tree Frogs at Heritage Park in Blacksburg, Va., July 8, 2016;Household water faucet in a Blacksburg, Va., residence, November 17, 2013. “Flow Stopper” is copyright 2021 by Torrin Hallett, used with permission.  Torrin is a 2018 graduate of Oberlin College and Conservatory in Oberlin, Ohio; a 2020 graduate in Horn Performance from Manhattan School of Music in New York; and a 2021 graduate of the Lamont School of Music at the University of Denver.  He is currently a graduate student at the Yale School of Music.  More information about Torrin is available online at https://www.facebook.com/torrin.hallett.  Thanks very much to Torrin for composing the piece especially for Virginia Water Radio.  Following are other music pieces composed by Torrin for Virginia Water Radio, with episodes featuring the music. “A Little Fright Music” – used in Episode 548, 10-26-20, on water-related passages in fiction and non-fiction, for Halloween.“Beetle Ballet” – used in Episode 525, 5-18-20, on aquatic beetles.“Chesapeake Bay Ballad” – used in Episode 537, 8-10-20, on conditions in the Chesapeake Bay.“Corona Cue” – used in Episode 517, 3-23-20, on the coronavirus pandemic.“Geese Piece” – used most recently in Episode 440, 10-1-18, on E-bird. “Ice Dance” – used in Episode 556, 12-21-20, on how organisms survive freezing temperatures.“Lizard Lied” – used in Episode 514, 3-2-20, on lizards.“New Year's Water” – used in Episode 349, 1-2-17, on the New Year. “Rain Refrain” – used most recently Episode 559, 1-11-21, on record rainfall in 2020.“Runoff” – in Episode 585, 7-12-21 – on middle-school students calling out stormwater-related water words.“Spider Strike” – used in Episode 523, 5-4-20, on fishing spiders.“Tropical Tantrum” – used most recently in Episode 580, 6-7-21, on the 2021 Atlantic tropical storm season preview.“Tundra Swan Song – used in Episode 554, 12-7-20, on Tundra Swans.“Turkey Tune” – used in Episode 343, 11-21-16, on the Wild Turkey.  Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES “Imagine a Day Without Water” campaign logo, accessed online at  https://imagineadaywithoutwater.org/resources. Roanoke River, looking upstream from the Roanoke River Greenway between Franklin Road and Smith Park in Roanoke, Va., December 6, 2020.  This is the location where the river sound heard in this Virginia Water Radio episode was recorded. SOURCES Used For Audio American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), “2021 Report Card for America's Infrastructure,” online at https://infrastructurereportcard.org/. United Nations, “Global Issues/Water,” online at https://www.un.org/en/global-issues/water. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), “Water Use Data for Virginia,” online at https://waterdata.usgs.gov/va/nwis/water_use/. US Water Alliance, online at http://uswateralliance.org/. Value of Water Campaign, online at http://thevalueofwater.org/. Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), “Status of Virginia's Water Resources: A Report on Virginia's Water Resources Management Activities,” October 2020, online (as a PDF) at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/home/showpublisheddocument/2119/637432838113030000.  The section on”Water Resource Challenges and Priorities” starts of page 27. Value of Water Campaign, “Imagine a Day Without Water,” online at https://imagineadaywithoutwater.org/; this site is the source of the quote used in this episode's audio. World Health Organization (WHO), “Drinking Water,” June 14, 2019, online at https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/drinking-water. For More Information on Current Water Infrastructure Needs and Funds PBS NewsHour, “How the infrastructure bill delivers on clean water—and how it falls short,” August 4, 2021 (7 min./2 sec. video, with online transcript). U.S. Department of Agriculture, “Biden-Harris Administration Invests $272 Million to Improve Rural Water Infrastructure for 270,000 People Living in Rural Communities Across the Country,” October 14, 2021, News Release. Virginia Governor's Office, “Governor Northam Announces Virginia to Reduce Water Pollution, Increase Access to Clean Water,” July 27, 2021, News Release. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Overall Importance of Water” and “Water Quality, Waste Management, and Water/Wastewater Treatment” subject categories. Following are links to some previous episodes with information on water uses or needs. Episode 122, 8-6-12 – on worldwide water needs.Episode 372, 6-12-17 – on water infrastructure needs, including information from the American Society of Civil Engineers' “Report Card for America's Infrastructure” for 2017.Episode 592, 6-15-20 – on Virginia's biennial water-quality assessment in 2020. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-3 plus 5: MatterK.4 – Water is important in our daily lives and has properties, Grades K-5: Earth and Space Systems3.7 – There is a water cycle and water is important to life on Earth.4.7 – The ocean environment. Grades K-5: Earth ResourcesK.11 – Humans use resources.1.8 – Natural resources can be used responsibly, including that most natural resources are limited; and that human actions can affect the availability of natural resources.3.8 – Natural events and humans influence ecosystems.4.8 – Virginia has important natural resources.5.9 – Conservation of energy resources is important. Grade 66.6 – Water has unique physical properties and has a role in the natural and human-made environment.6.8 – Land and water have roles in watershed systems.6.9 – Humans impact the environment and individuals can influence public policy decisions related to energy and the environment. Life ScienceLS.9 – Relationships exist between ecosystem dynamics and human activity. Earth ScienceES.6 – Resource use is complex.ES.8 – Freshwater resources influence and are influenced by geologic processes and human activity. BiologyBIO.2 – Chemical and biochemical processes are essential for life, including that water chemistry has an influence on life processes.BIO.8 – Dynamic equilibria exist within populations, communities, and ecosystems, including that natural events and human activities influence local and global ecosystems and may affect the flora and fauna of Virginia. 2015 Social Studies SOLs Grades K-3 Economics Theme2.8 – Natural, human, and capital resources.3.8 – Understanding of cultures and of how natural, human, and capital resources are used for goods and services. Civics and Economics CourseCE.6 – Government at the national level.CE.7 – Government at the state level.CE.8 – Government at the local level.CE.10 – Public policy at local, state, and national levels. World Geography CourseWG.2 – How selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth's surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.WG.4 – Types and significance of natural, human, and capital resources.WG.18 – Cooperation among political jurisdictions to solve problems and settle disputes. Government CourseGOVT.7 – National government organization and powers.GOVT.8 – State and local government organization and powers.GOVT.9 – Public policy process at local, state, and nati

new york office bay humans university agency america music national natural halloween relationships earth state audio college sound accent worldwide dark tech water web status index land rain united states pond research ocean government education public conservation chesapeake bay ohio chesapeake snow environment types images oberlin college cooperation agriculture united nations va msonormal new year atlantic stream normal worddocument zoom donotshowrevisions citizens arial environmental dynamic american society times new roman trackmoves trackformatting punctuationkerning saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent compatibility breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit latentstyles deflockedstate latentstylecount latentstyles style definitions msonormaltable table normal donotpromoteqf lidthemeother lidthemeasian x none snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules mathpr mathfont cambria math brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc centergroup wrapindent intlim subsup narylim undovr defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority lsdexception locked priority semihidden unhidewhenused qformat name normal name title name default paragraph font name subtitle name strong name emphasis name table grid name placeholder text name no spacing name light shading name light list name light grid name medium shading name medium list name medium grid name dark list name colorful shading name colorful list name colorful grid name light shading accent name light list accent name light grid accent name revision name list paragraph name quote name intense quote name dark list accent name colorful shading accent name colorful list accent name colorful grid accent name subtle emphasis name intense emphasis name subtle reference name intense reference name book title name bibliography name toc heading shenandoah water resources biology chemical conservatory civics grade oberlin colorful resource yale school signature bio priorities wild turkey manhattan school increasing govt watershed transcript infrastructure earth sciences waste management water quality household wg roanoke river freshwater virginia tech ls atlantic ocean natural resources weigh grades k roanoke drinking water imagining environmental quality name normal indent name list name list bullet name list number name closing name signature name body text name body text indent name list continue name message header name salutation name date name body text first indent name note heading name block text name document map name plain text name e name normal web name normal table name no list name outline list name table simple name table classic name table colorful name table columns name table list name table 3d name table contemporary name table elegant name table professional name table subtle name table web name balloon text name table theme name plain table name grid table light name grid table light accent dark accent colorful accent name list table clean water blacksburg virginia governor funds cosgrove pbs newshour msohyperlink world health organization who runoff sections life sciences ben cosgrove stormwater policymakers msobodytext bmp heritage park acknowledgment civil engineers virginia department cumberland gap news release sols people living tmdl report card torrin virginia standards water center space systems audio notes franklin road
Federal Insights
Space Systems Command delivering customer-centric capabilities better, faster

Federal Insights

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 13, 2021 28:10


Virginia Water Radio
Episode 598 (10-11-21): The Flu and Water

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 12, 2021


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (5:02).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 10-8-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of October 25, 2021.  This revised episode from November 2017 is part of a series this fall of episodes on water connections to the human body and human biology. We start with a public health mystery sound.  Have a listen for about 35 seconds, and see if you can guess what seasonal, precautionary procedure is taking place.  And here's a hint: thinking feverishlycould influence your answer. SOUNDS and VOICES - ~36 sec “Any problems with any vaccines before?”“No.”“Feeling OK today?  No fever or anything like that?”“No.”“And no allergies to foods or medications that you're aware of?”“No.”  …“So, you know, a little bit of arm soreness; that's probably the most of it.  Redness, irritation.   Might be kind of tired for a day or so, or even a low-grade fever or a headache is possible and normal.  If that were to happen, whatever you take for a headache is fine.  Any questions about anything?”“No.”“All right.” …“All right, leave that bandage on for about 10 minutes or so, and take it off anytime you remember after that.  And here's your copy for your records.  Thanks.”“Thank you.”“Have a good day.”If you guessed, a flu shot, you're right!  You heard an influenza vaccination being given in October 2017 at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg.  Flu season arrives every year with colder weather, bringing the potential to cause fever, body aches, and other symptoms, some quite serious or even fatal.  The flu affects millions of people in the United States each year, and health agencies like U.S. Centers for the Disease Control and Prevention and the Virginia Department of Health encourage vaccination for everyone older than six months, with some exceptions. But what does the flu have to do with water?  Consider these three connections. First, drinking plenty of fluids is a commonly prescribed treatment for flu sufferers in order to help prevent dehydration resulting from increased body temperature and other responses to the viral infection.  Infants, children, and the elderly are particularly at risk for dehydration. Second, the flu virus is transmitted between humans by respiratory droplets, and researchers have found that transmission is affected by air temperature and humidity. Specifically, transmission occurs more easily in cold, dry air, such as is typically found during fall and winter in temperate areas like Virginia. Third, waterfowl and shorebirds are among the various kinds of birds that harbor avian flu viruses, and water contaminated with aquatic birds' waste can potentially harbor avian flu for some time.  Understanding the factors related to the occurrence and transmission of avian viruses—including the role of contaminated water—is important in monitoring avian flu and its potential to spread to other birds, mammals, or humans. Flu season is upon us, and the CDC recommends getting a flu vaccine by the end of October.  So if you hear this… VOICE - ~3 sec – “Are you here for a flu shot?” …now you'll have not only a health connection for the flu, but some hydrological ones, too. Thanks to staff of Kroger Pharmacy and Hokie Wellness for lending their voices to this episode. We close with some music for, or rather, against the flu.  Here's about 30 seconds of “Shots,” written by Wilson Stern and performed in a 2014, flu-shot-promoting video by the University of Florida's Student Health Care Center. MUSIC - ~28 sec Lyrics:“Last year less than half the population got their flu shot.  Why you wanna be stuck at home with a fever when you could be making this party hot?”“I heard that shot made you ill.”“Naw, son, that news ain't for real.  It tells your body what the virus looks like, so it knows how to deal”“Why you tellin' me this?  I got my flu shot last year.”“This virus mutates constantly, we got new strains here.”“Shots, shots, shots, shots….” SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode replaces Episode 393, 11-6-17, which has been archived. The influenza vaccination heard in this episode was performed October 24, 2017, at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, by staff of Kroger Pharmacies, assisted by staff from Virginia Tech's Hokie Wellness program.  Virginia Water Radio thanks those staff people for their willingness to be recorded. The audio excerpt of “Shots,” copyright by Wilson Stern, was taken from the 2014 University of Florida Student Health Care Center video “Flu Shots,” copyright by the University of Florida; used with permission of Wilson Stern and the University of Florida's Division of Media Properties.  The 2 min./4 sec. video is available online at http://shcc.ufl.edu/services/primary-care/flu/flu-shots-music-video-lyrics/.   More information about Wilson Stern and the group Hail! Cassius Neptune is available online at https://www.reverbnation.com/hailcassiusneptune.Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGES Colorized, negative-stained transmission electron microscopic image of influenza virus particles, known as virions.   Public domain photo taken in 1973 by Dr. F. A. Murphy, accessed from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Image Library, online at https://phil.cdc.gov/Details.aspx?pid=10072.Illustration of influenza infection, from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Images of Influenza Viruses,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/resource-center/freeresources/graphics/images.htm.U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Protection weekly map of flu activity, as of 10/2/21.  Map accessed online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/usmap.htm, 10/11/21.U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention chart of work to develop the annual flu virus vaccine, with data for 2020-21.   Image accessed at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/resource-center/freeresources/graphics/infographics.htm. EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT TYPES AND NAMES OF INFLUENZA VIRUSESThe following information is quoted from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Protection (CDC), “Types of Influenza Viruses,” November 18, 2019, online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/viruses/types.htm.“There are four types of influenza viruses: A, B, C and D.   Human influenza A and B viruses cause seasonal epidemics of disease (known as the flu season) almost every winter in the United States.  Influenza A viruses are the only influenza viruses known to cause flu pandemics, i.e., global epidemics of flu disease.  A pandemic can occur when a new and very different influenza A virus emerges that both infects people and has the ability to spread efficiently between people.  Influenza type C infections generally cause mild illness and are not thought to cause human flu epidemics.  Influenza D viruses primarily affect cattle and are not known to infect or cause illness in people. ”Influenza A viruses are divided into subtypes based on two proteins on the surface of the virus: the hemagglutinin (H) and the neuraminidase (N).  There are 18 different hemagglutinin subtypes and 11 different neuraminidase subtypes (H1 through H18 and N1 through N11 respectively).  …Current sub-types of influenza A viruses that routinely circulate in people include: A (H1N1) and A (H3N2).  In the spring of 2009, a new influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged to cause illness in people. … “Currently circulating influenza A(H1N1) viruses are related to the pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus that emerged in the spring of 2009 and caused a flu pandemic ( see CDC 2009 H1N1 Flu website for more information).  This virus, scientifically called the ‘A(H1N1)pdm09 virus,' and more generally called ‘2009 H1N1,' has continued to circulate seasonally since then.  These H1N1 viruses have undergone relatively small genetic changes and changes to their antigenic properties (i.e., the properties of the virus that affect immunity) over time.“Of all the influenza viruses that routinely circulate and cause illness in people, influenza A(H3N2) viruses tend to change more rapidly, both genetically and antigenically. … “Influenza B viruses are not divided into subtypes, but instead are further classified into two lineages: B/Yamagata and B/Victoria. …Influenza B viruses generally change more slowly in terms of their genetic and antigenic properties than influenza A viruses, especially influenza A(H3N2) viruses.  Influenza surveillance data from recent years shows co-circulation of influenza B viruses from both lineages in the United States and around the world.  However, the proportion of influenza B viruses from each lineage that circulate can vary by geographic location.“CDC follows an internationally accepted naming convention for influenza viruses.  This convention was accepted by WHO [World Health Organization] in 1979 and published in February 1980 in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 58(4):585-591 (1980) (see A revision of the system of nomenclature for influenza viruses: a WHO Memorandum[854 KB, 7 pages]).  The approach uses the following components: *the antigenic type (e.g., A, B, C); *the host of origin (e.g., swine, equine, chicken, etc.; for human-origin viruses, no host of origin designation is given); *geographical origin (e.g., Denver, Taiwan, etc.); *strain number (e.g., 15, 7, etc.); *year of isolation (e.g., 57, 2009, etc.); *for influenza A viruses, the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase antigen description in parentheses (e.g., (H1N1). “One influenza A (H1N1), A (H3N2), and one or two influenza B viruses (depending on the vaccine) are included in each year's influenza vaccines.” SOURCES Used for Audio Antonia E. Dalziel et al., “Persistence of Low Pathogenic Influenza A Virus in Water: A Systematic Review and Quantitative Meta-Analysis,” PLOS One, 10/13/16, online at http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0161929.  Anice C. Lowen and John Steel, “Roles of Humidity and Temperature in Shaping Influenza Seasonality,” Journal of Virology, Vol. 88/No. 14, July 2014, pages 7692-7695; online at http://jvi.asm.org/content/88/14/7692.full (subscription may be required for access). Anice C. Lowen et al., “Influenza Virus Transmission Is Dependent on Relative Humidity and Temperature,” PLOS, 10/19/07, online at http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.0030151. Public Library of Science, “Higher indoor humidity inactivates flu virus particles,” posted by Science Daily, 2/27/13, online at https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130227183456.htm. David Robson, The Real Reason Germs Spread in Winter, BBC Future, 10/19/15. Jeffery K. Taugenberger and David M. Morens, “1918 Influenza: The Mother of All Pandemics,” Emerging Infectious Diseases (Center for Disease Control and Prevention), Vol. 12/No. 1, January 2006, online at https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/12/1/05-0979_article. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):“Chemical Disinfectants,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/infectioncontrol/guidelines/disinfection/disinfection-methods/chemical.html;“Flu Activity and Surveillance,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/fluactivitysurv.htm(includes a weekly nationwide map of flu activity);“The Flu: Caring for Someone Sick at Home,” online (as PDF) at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pdf/freeresources/general/influenza_flu_homecare_guide.pdf;“Flu Season,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/season/flu-season.htm;“How Flu Spreads,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/disease/spread.htm;“Influenza (Flu),” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/index.html;“Influenza in Animals,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/other_flu.htm (information on flu in bats, birds, dogs, swine, and other animals);“Information on Avian Influenza,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/;“National Influeza Vaccination Week,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/resource-center/nivw/index.htm;“Prevent Seasonal Flu,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/prevent/index.html;“Who Should and Who Should NOT Get a Flu Vaccination,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/prevent/whoshouldvax.htm. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Pandemic Influenza Fact Sheet for the Water Sector, 2009. Virginia Department of Health, “Epidemiology Fact Sheets/Influenza,” September 2018, online at http://www.vdh.virginia.gov/epidemiology/epidemiology-fact-sheets/influenza/. World Health Organization (WHO), “Influenza (Avian and other zoonotic),” November 13, 2018, online at https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/influenza-(avian-and-other-zoonotic). For More Information about Water an

time health science bay university agency music current national natural earth home state audio college map accent animals dark surveillance tech human water web index rain united states pond research ocean weather government taiwan education public prevention vol voice illustration chesapeake snow environment journal types organisms display images skeleton persistence msonormal virology stream normal worddocument zoom donotshowrevisions citizens flu bacteria voices arial environmental temperature times new roman trackmoves trackformatting punctuationkerning saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent compatibility breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit latentstyles deflockedstate latentstylecount latentstyles style definitions msonormaltable table normal donotpromoteqf lidthemeother lidthemeasian x none snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules mathpr mathfont cambria math brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc centergroup wrapindent intlim subsup narylim undovr defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority lsdexception locked priority semihidden unhidewhenused qformat name normal name title name default paragraph font name subtitle name strong name emphasis name table grid name placeholder text name no spacing name light shading name light list name light grid name medium shading name medium list name medium grid name dark list name colorful shading name colorful list name colorful grid name light shading accent name light list accent name light grid accent name revision name list paragraph name quote name intense quote name dark list accent name colorful shading accent name colorful list accent name colorful grid accent name subtle emphasis name intense emphasis name subtle reference name intense reference name book title name bibliography name toc heading hail world health organization shots biology cdc lyrics civics grade nutrients public library docs colorful signature bio query flu season scales txt roles govt human body watershed transcript humidity toc naw passwords centers disease control virginia tech neurological ls atlantic ocean infants natural resources david m influenza grades k avian influenza science daily name normal indent name list name list bullet name list number name closing name signature name body text name body text indent name list continue name message header name salutation name date name body text first indent name note heading name block text name document map name plain text name e name normal web name normal table name no list name outline list name table simple name table classic name table colorful name table columns name table list name table 3d name table contemporary name table elegant name table professional name table subtle name table web name balloon text name table theme name plain table name grid table light name grid table light accent dark accent colorful accent name list table processes h1n1 bulletin blacksburg prevention cdc kb msohyperlink world health organization who sections life sciences stormwater david robson policymakers n1 bmp environmental protection agency epa n11 new standard acknowledgment muscular flu shots virginia department lowen cripple creek cumberland gap 7c sols plos one tmdl feeling ok bbc future john steel geological survey mayo clinic health system h3n2 plos who world health organization circulatory emerging infectious diseases living systems dalziel virginia standards water center redness space systems colorized relative humidity audio notes
Main Engine Cut Off
T+198: Ryan McDevitt, CEO of Benchmark Space Systems

Main Engine Cut Off

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 7, 2021 39:05


Ryan McDevitt, CEO of Benchmark Space Systems joins me to talk all about what Benchmark has been up to lately, what mobility-as-a-service means for the industry, and their partnership with Orbit Fab.This episode of Main Engine Cut Off is brought to you by 41 executive producers—Brandon, Simon, Lauren, Melissa, Kris, Pat, Matt, Jorge, Ryan, Donald, Lee, Chris, Warren, Bob, Russell, Moritz, Joel, Jan, David, Joonas, Robb, Tim Dodd (the Everyday Astronaut!), Frank, Julian and Lars from Agile Space, Tommy, Matt, The Astrogators at SEE, Chris, Aegis Trade Law, Fred, Hemant, Dawn Aerospace, and seven anonymous—and 683 other supporters.TopicsBenchmark Space SystemsBenchmark Space Systems unveils in-space mobility-as-a-service business - SpaceNewsSatellite propulsion startup Benchmark eyes growth in military market - SpaceNewsOrbit FabOrbit Fab and Benchmark Space Systems to partner on in-space refueling technologies - SpaceNewsOrbit Fab to launch propellant tanker to fuel satellites in geostationary orbit - SpaceNewsThe ShowLike the show? Support the show!Email your thoughts, comments, and questions to anthony@mainenginecutoff.comFollow @WeHaveMECOListen to MECO HeadlinesJoin the Off-Nominal DiscordSubscribe on Apple Podcasts, Overcast, Pocket Casts, Spotify, Google Play, Stitcher, TuneIn or elsewhereSubscribe to the Main Engine Cut Off NewsletterBuy shirts and Rocket Socks from the Main Engine Cut Off ShopMusic by Max JustusArtwork photo by SpaceX

Virginia Water Radio
Episode 597 (10-4-21): Anticipating Frost as Fall Settles In

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 4, 2021


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:08).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments Images Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 10-1-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of October 4, 2021.  This week, we pause our series of episodes on water connections to the human body, to revisit an episode from fall 2017 that explores one of the hallmarks of the autumn season. MUSIC – ~ 11 sec – instrumental.Following the astronomical start of fall on September 22, this episode features a fiddle tune named for a water-related weather event that will mark a meteorological fall turning point when it occurs across the Commonwealth in October or November.  Have a listen to the music for about 25 more seconds. MUSIC - ~26 sec – instrumental. You've been listening to part of “Cold Frosty Morn',” performed here by the western Virginia band New Standard.  One of the consequences of fall's arrival is frost in the mornings and, eventually, a significant enough freeze to end of the growing season, when temperatures fall to about 28 degrees Fahrenheit or below.  That temperature typically occurs for the first time each fall in mid-to-late October in western Virginia, early-to-mid November east of the Blue Ridge, and mid-to-late November in some Virginia coastal areas.  Those predicted periods are based on historical records through 2010; the typical frost and freeze dates may be shifting as Virginia experiences climate change.Generally, frost forms when water vapor in the air contacts plants, windows, cars, or other solid surfaces that are at or below water's freezing point of 32 degrees Fahrenheit.  Some specific kinds of frost include radiationfrost, occurring when surface objects are cooled by radiating their heat; advection frost, occurring when surfaces are cooled by winds; and rime, a dense type of frost that forms when super-cooled liquid water in fog or clouds contacts solid surfaces, such as trees, radio towers, or ships on winter seas. Frost may seem far away on Virginia's often mild, early October days.   But to paraphrase a comment about truth from the poem “Birches,” by RobertFrost, frost-producing weather will soon break in with all of its matter-of-fact. Thanks to New Standard for permission to use this week's music, and we close with about 10 more seconds of “Cold Frosty Morn'.” MUSIC - ~12 sec – instrumental. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode repeats and replaces Episode 387, 9-25-17. The performance of “Cold Frosty Morn'” heard here is copyright by New Standard, from the 2016 album “Bluegrass,” used with permission. More information about New Standard is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 501, 12-2-19. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES Maps showing frost/freeze dates in the continental United States, based on data from 1980 to 2010.  Upper map: ranges of earliest dates of first 32°F freeze; middle map: range of median dates of first 32°F freeze; lower map: range of median dates of first 28°F freeze.  Images from the National Weather Service/Northern Indiana Forecast Office, “Frost and Freeze Information,” online at http://www.weather.gov/iwx/fallfrostinfo, accessed 10-4-21. SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION Deborah Byrd, “Equinox Sun is Over Earth's Equator on September 22,” EarthSky, Sept. 22, 2021. Robert Frost, The Poetry of Robert Frost, Edward Connery Lathem, ed., Holt, Rineheart and Winston, New York, 1969.  The quote to which this episode refers, from “Birches” on page 121, is the following: “But I was going to say when Truth broke inWith all her matter of fact about the ice storm….” Kenneth G. Libbrecht, “Guide to Frost,” online at http://www.its.caltech.edu/~atomic/snowcrystals/frost/frost.htm. National Weather Service, “Ice Storms,” online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/winter-ice-frost.National Geographic Society, “Frost,” online at https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/frost/. National Geographic Society, “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner,” online at https://www.nationalgeographic.org/media/rime-ancient-mariner/. National Weather Service, Baltimore/Washington Forecast Office, “Watch/Warning/Advisory Definitions,” online at https://www.weather.gov/lwx/WarningsDefined. Isaac W. Park et al., “Advancing frost dates have reduced frost risk among most North American angiosperms since 1980,” Global Change Biology 2021, 27: pages 165–176, accessed online at https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15380. Sarah Vogelsong, “Autumn's first frost is falling later. For farmers, the consequences are wide-ranging,” Virginia Mercury, Nov. 3, 2020. WeatherOnline, “Rime,” online at http://www.weatheronline.co.uk/reports/wxfacts/Rime.htm. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html). See particularly the “Science” and “Weather” subject categories. Following are links to some other episodes on frozen or freezing precipitation.Freezing rain, sleet, and snow – Episode 461, 2-25-19.Hail – Episode 362, 4-3-17.Ice – Episode 403, 1-15-18;  Episode 404, 1-22-18; Episode 406, 2-5-18; Episode 556, 12-21-20.Snow – Episode 300, 1-25-16; Episode 407, 2-12-18. Following are links to some other episodes related to fall. Fall migratory birds – Episode 183, 10-14-13; Episode 281, 9-14-15; Episode 335, 9-26-16.Tree colors and changes in fall – Episode 285, 10/9/15. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-3 plus 5: MatterK.4 – Water is important in our daily lives and has properties.2.3 – Matter can exist in different phases. Grades K-5: Earth and Space SystemsK.9 – There are patterns in nature.1.7 – There are weather and seasonal changes; including that changes in temperature, light, and precipitation affect plants and animals, including humans.2.6 – There are different types of weather on Earth.2.7 – Weather patterns and seasonal changes affect plants, animals, and their surroundings.4.4 – Weather conditions and climate effects on ecosystems and can be predicted. Grade 66.3 – There is a relationship between the sun, Earth, and the moon. Key ideas include6.6 – Water has unique physical properties and has a role in the natural and human-made environment.6.7 – Air has properties and the Earth's atmosphere has structure and is dynamic. Life ScienceLS.8 – Change in ecosystems, communities, populations, and organisms over time. Earth ScienceES.11 – The atmosphere is a complex, dynamic system subject to long-and short-term variations.ES.12 – The Earth's weather and climate result from the interaction of the sun's energy with the atmosphere, oceans, and the land. 2015 Social Studies SOLs Grades K-3 Geography Theme1.6 – Virginia climate, seasons, and landforms. Virginia's SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/. Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels. Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rdgrade.Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4ththrough 8th grade.Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school.Episode 524, 5-11-20 – on sounds by water-related animals, for elementary school through high school.Episode 531, 6-29-20 – on various ways that animals get water, for 3rd and 4th grade.Episode 539, 8-24-20 – on basic numbers and facts about Virginia's water resources, for 4th and 6th grade.

new york science bay university agency truth guide music ice robert frost natural earth state poetry audio college frost change accent dark north american tech water web air index fall rain united states pond research maps ocean weather government education park tree chesapeake snow environment images rime ancient mariner msonormal commonwealth generally stream normal worddocument zoom donotshowrevisions citizens arial environmental times new roman trackmoves trackformatting punctuationkerning saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent compatibility breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit latentstyles deflockedstate latentstylecount latentstyles style definitions msonormaltable table normal donotpromoteqf lidthemeother lidthemeasian x none snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules mathpr mathfont cambria math brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc centergroup wrapindent intlim subsup narylim undovr defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority lsdexception locked priority semihidden unhidewhenused qformat name normal name title name default paragraph font name subtitle name strong name emphasis name table grid name placeholder text name no spacing name light shading name light list name light grid name medium shading name medium list name medium grid name dark list name colorful shading name colorful list name colorful grid name light shading accent name light list accent name light grid accent name revision name list paragraph name quote name intense quote name dark list accent name colorful shading accent name colorful list accent name colorful grid accent name subtle emphasis name intense emphasis name subtle reference name intense reference name book title name bibliography name toc heading hail fahrenheit shenandoah bluegrass upper holt grade colorful signature national weather service blue ridge freezing watershed transcript earth sciences virginia tech ls anticipating atlantic ocean natural resources equator grades k national geographic society name normal indent name list name list bullet name list number name closing name signature name body text name body text indent name list continue name message header name salutation name date name body text first indent name note heading name block text name document map name plain text name e name normal web name normal table name no list name outline list name table simple name table classic name table colorful name table columns name table list name table 3d name table contemporary name table elegant name table professional name table subtle name table web name balloon text name table theme name plain table name grid table light name grid table light accent dark accent colorful accent name list table cosgrove msohyperlink advancing birches earthsky sections life sciences ben cosgrove stormwater policymakers msobodytext bmp new standard acknowledgment virginia department cumberland gap sols tmdl virginia standards settles water center kenneth g space systems audio notes
Space Explr
Space Systems Engineering, Human Lander and Commercial Crew Programs - GEORGE SALAZAR | EP.124

Space Explr

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 3, 2021 65:33


Mr. George Salazar received his Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering from the University of Houston and his Masters of Science in Systems Engineering from Southern Methodist University. He has over 38 years of experience in telemetry, communications, speech control, command and data handling, audio, displays and controls, intelligent lighting, project management, and systems engineering. He has been involved with the design of advanced telemetry, speech recognition, and intelligent systems of which he has received various patents. He is currently serving at NASA's Johnson Space Center as the Human-Computer Interface Technical Discipline Lead to develop advanced human interfaces as well as serving as the Displays and Controls Subsystem Manager for the Commercial Crew Program. He is a registered professional engineer in the state of Texas. Also, he has Expert Systems Engineer Professional certification through the International Council on Systems Engineering. He is also the co-founder of the NASA/JSC Human Systems Integration (HSI) Employee Resource Group with the key goal of infusing HSI into the NASA development process. He enjoys reading, scuba diving, woodworking, leatherworking, and speaking to students about his journey to NASA and real-world engineering. --- This episode is sponsored by · Anchor: The easiest way to make a podcast. https://anchor.fm/app Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/spaceexplr/support

Virginia Water Radio
Episode 593 (9-6-21): Water's at the Heart of Blood

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 6, 2021


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:19).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments Images Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 9-3-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of September 6, 2021.  This revised episode from October 2017 is part of a series this fall of episodes on water connections to the human body and human biology. SOUND - ~3 secHow is a human heartbeat part of a water story?  Have a listen for about 25 seconds to the following mystery sounds, and see if you can guess the heart-and-water connections they represent.  And here's a hint: if you have the energy, you could follow many branches to this solution.SOUNDS - ~21 secYou've been listening to sounds from a platelets donation at the American Red Cross' New River Valley Donor Center in Blacksburg, Virginia.  The sounds—a blood-pressure measurement, a needle stick into an arm vein, and the machine separating blood components and recirculating fluid to the patient—illustrate three connections between the human circulatory system and water.First, the heart provides a force—measured by blood pressure—to keep blood circulating around the body, like the sun's energy powers evaporation and winds that help keep water circulating around the earth.  Second, arm veins are part of an intricately branched system of arteries, veins, and capillaries, resembling a watershed's branching pattern as one travels uphill from ocean to river to headwater streams.   Humans have an estimated 60,000 to 100,000 miles of blood vessels, compared to Virginia's approximately 100,000 miles of rivers and streams.  Finally, blood's components are mostly water: blood plasma is a solution of water and many biochemicals, mixed with water-based red and white blood cells and with platelets.  As a result, blood in the human system has water's physical and chemical properties for transporting materials and regulating heat.Cells and transported substances make blood “thicker” than water, just as the saying goes.  But the water we borrow temporarily from the global water cycle is at the chemical and physical heart of blood and the circulatory system's vital functions.Thanks to staff at the New River Valley Donor Center for participating in this episode, and thanks to Soundbible.com for the heartbeat sound. We close with some music inspired by the action of the human heart.  Here's about 20 seconds of “Heartbeat,” by the Harrisonburg and Rockingham County, Va.-based band, The Steel Wheels. MUSIC - ~23 sec –Lyrics - “Feel my heartbeat comin' in next to you; heartbeat, yes you do.” SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 392, 10-30-17, and Episode 236, 10-20-14. The human heartbeat sound was recorded by Mike Koenig and made available (9/14/09 upload) online at the Soundbible.com Web site, http://soundbible.com/1001-Heartbeat.html, for public use under the Creative Commons license “Attribution 3.0”; for more information on Creative Commons licenses, please see https://creativecommons.org/licenses/; information on the Attribution License specifically is online at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/. Other sounds heard in this episode were recorded at the American Red Cross New River Donor Center in Blacksburg, Virginia, during an October 19, 2014, platelet donation by Virginia Water Radio host Alan Raflo.  Thanks to the staff at the Donor Center for their help and for allowing the sound recording.  For information about blood and platelet donations, please visit the American Red Cross' “Donating Blood” Web site at http://www.redcrossblood.org/donating-blood.

science bay humans university agency music photo natural earth heartbeat state audio college sound england accent dark shape steel wheels tech water web cells index nature rain dracula pond research ocean government education medicine prevention philadelphia chesapeake snow penn westport environment images skeleton heart va cambridge msonormal blood stream gilbert normal worddocument zoom donotshowrevisions citizens environmental structure american society times new roman calibri trackmoves trackformatting punctuationkerning saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent compatibility breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit latentstyles deflockedstate latentstylecount latentstyles style definitions msonormaltable table normal donotpromoteqf lidthemeother lidthemeasian x none snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules mathpr mathfont cambria math brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc centergroup wrapindent intlim subsup narylim undovr defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority lsdexception locked priority semihidden unhidewhenused qformat name normal name title name default paragraph font name subtitle name strong name emphasis name table grid name placeholder text name no spacing name light shading name light list name light grid name medium shading name medium list name medium grid name dark list name colorful shading name colorful list name colorful grid name light shading accent name light list accent name light grid accent name revision name list paragraph name quote name intense quote name dark list accent name colorful shading accent name colorful list accent name colorful grid accent name subtle emphasis name intense emphasis name subtle reference name intense reference name book title name bibliography name toc heading shenandoah biology engineering chemical grade colorful national institutes signature bio watershed mike koenig soundbible transcript centers disease control conn virginia tech neurological atlantic ocean natural resources attribution grades k environmental quality name normal indent name list name list bullet name list number name closing name signature name body text name body text indent name list continue name message header name salutation name date name body text first indent name note heading name block text name document map name plain text name e name normal web name normal table name no list name outline list name table simple name table classic name table colorful name table columns name table list name table 3d name table contemporary name table elegant name table professional name table subtle name table web name balloon text name table theme name plain table name grid table light name grid table light accent dark accent colorful accent name list table circulation harrisonburg ar sa blacksburg american red cross cambridge university press franklin institute memorial sloan kettering cancer center cosgrove msohyperlink hematology sections ben cosgrove stormwater cleveland clinic policymakers msobodytext blood vessels bmp rockingham county acknowledgment virginia department cumberland gap sols tmdl greenwood press circulatory blood cells virginia standards circulatory system water center space systems audio notes covid-19
SSPI
Better Satellite World - Summer Fun Series feat: Derek Edinger the Head of Brewery Operations & Co-founder of Ardennes Brewing LLC and Co-founder and Advisor of Ursa Space Systems

SSPI

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 8, 2021 14:22


Virginia Water Radio
Episode 589 (8-9-21): A Musical Tour of Rivers and Watersheds

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 3, 2021


CLICK HERE to  listen to episode audio (5:22).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments Image and Extra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 8-3-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of August 9, 2021.  This revised episode from February 2015 is the last in a series of eight episodes this summer related to watersheds and river basins. MUSIC – ~12 sec – Lyrics: “Take me down to the riverside.” This week, that excerpt of “Riverside,” by the Rockingham County- and Harrisonburg, Va.-based band, The Steel Wheels, opens an episode giving musical tour of some of Virginia's major river watersheds.  Have a listen for about 90 seconds to parts of six other songs, and see if you can guess the six Virginia watersheds being represented.  Three may be obvious, but the other three may challenge your musical and hydrological knowledge. MUSIC – ~ 94 sec “Shenandoah” by Timothy Seaman – ~18 sec – instrumental. “Sandy Boys” by Sara Grey – ~11 sec – Lyrics: “Do come along, Sandy boys, waitin' for the bug-eye-boo.” “Banks of New River” by Whitetop Mt. Band – ~13 sec – Lyrics: “I'm sitting here on the banks of New River.” “Clinch Mountain Quickstep” by Timothy Seaman – ~14 sec – instrumental. “Rappahannock Running Free” by Bob Gramann – ~10 sec – Lyrics: “I love the Rappahannock and its waters running free; the rapids of this river, that's where I want to be.” “James River Blues” by Old Crow Medicine Show – ~10 sec – Lyrics: “James River blues.” “All Quiet on the Potomac” – ~18 sec – instrumental. You heard parts of “Shenandoah,” performed by Timothy Seaman; “Sandy Boys,” by Sara Grey, referring to the Big Sandy River; “On the Banks of New River,” by Whitetop Mountain Band; “Clinch Mountain Quickstep,” also by Timothy Seaman, selected here for its connection to the Clinch River; “Rappahannock Running Free,” by Bob Gramann; “James River Blues,” by Old Crow Medicine Show; and “All Quiet Along the Potomac Tonight,” by Chloe Benner and Stewart Scales. The watersheds of these rivers are part of 14 major watersheds in Virginia, as identified by the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation.  Wherever you are in the Commonwealth, you're in one of the those watersheds, as well as being—in turn—in one of the larger watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay, Albemarle Sound in North Carolina, the Atlantic Ocean, or the Gulf of Mexico.  They all deserve to have songs written about them, because they're part of Virginia's varied, complex, and historic system of waterways and landscapes.Thanks to all of the artists mentioned for permission to use this week's music. We close this episode, and Water Radio's summer 2021 series on watersheds and rivers, with about 30 more seconds of The Steel Wheels' “Riverside.” MUSIC – ~29 sec – instrumental. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 251, 2-2-15. “Riverside,” by The Steel Wheels, is from the album “Live at Goose Creek,” recorded October 10, 2014, at Franklin Park Performing Arts Center, Purcellville, Va., and produced by Goose Creek Productions; used with permission of The Steel Wheels.  More information about The Steel Wheels is available online at http://www.thesteelwheels.com/. More information about Goose Creek Productions is available online at http://www.goosecreekmusic.com/.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 295, 12-21-15.The “Shenandoah” version in this episode's musical tour is by Timothy Seaman and Paulette Murphy, from the start of “Shenandoah/Hazel River” on the 1997 album “Here on this Ridge,” copyright Timothy Seaman and Pine Wind Music, used with permission.  More information about Timothy Seaman is available online at https://timothyseaman.com/en/.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 447, 11-19-18. “Sandy Boys,” by Sara Grey, is from the 2009 album “Sandy Boys,” copyright by Sara Grey and Fellside Records, used with permission.  More information about Sara Grey is available online at http://www.saragrey.net/.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 436, 9-3-18. “On the Banks of New River,” by Whitetop Mountain Band, is from the 2008 album, “Bull Plus 10%,” copyright Whitetop Mountain Band and Arhoolie Records, used with permission.  More information about Whitetop Mountain Band is available online at http://whitetopmountainband.tripod.com/index.html.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 546, 10-12-20. “Clinch Mountain Quickstep,” from the 2002 album “Sycamore Rapids,” is copyright by Timothy Seaman and Pine Wind Music, used with permission.  More information about Timothy Seaman is available online at http://timothyseaman.com/en/. This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 435, 8-27-18.“Rappahannock Running Free,” by Bob Gramann, is from the 2008 album, “Mostly Live,” copyright by Bob Gramann, used with permission.  More information about Bob Gramann is available online at http://www.bobgramann.com/.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 304, 2-22-16.“James River Blues,” by Old Crow Medicine Show, is from the 2006 album “Big Iron World,” copyright Nettwork Records, used with permission.  More information about Old Crow Medicine Show is available online at http://www.crowmedicine.com/.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 373, 6-19-17. The version of “All Quiet Along the Potomac Tonight” heard here was performed by Chloe Benner and Stewart Scales, used with permission.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 318, 5-30-16. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGE AND EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT VIRGINIA'S MAJOR WATERSHEDS Map showing Virginia's major watersheds.  Map from the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, “Virginia's Major Watersheds,” online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/stormwater_management/wsheds.shtml. Four large watersheds containing, collectively, all of Virginia's lands are the Chesapeake Bay, Albemarle Sound in North Carolina, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Gulf of Mexico.  The watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay and Albemarle Sound are also contained within the Atlantic Ocean watershed.The following table of information about Virginia's 14 major watersheds is from the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, “Virginia's Major Watersheds,” online at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/soil-and-water/wsheds.  (This table was also included in the show notes for Virginia Water Radio Episode 581, 6-14-21.)  WATERSHED AREA IN SQUARE MILES MAJOR TRIBUTARIES Albemarle Sound Coastal 577 Dismal Swamp, North Landing River, Back Bay Atlantic Ocean Coastal 580 Chincoteague Bay, Hog Island Bay Chesapeake Bay Coastal 2,577 Chesapeake Bay, Piankatank River Chowan 3,675 Nottaway River, Meherrin River, Blackwater River James 10,236 James River, Appomattox River, Maury River, Jackson River, Rivanna River New 3,068 New River, Little River, Walker Creek Potomac - Shenandoah 5,702 Potomac River, S. Fork Shenandoah River, N. Fork Shenandoah River Rappahannock 2,714 Rappahannock River, Rapidan River, Hazel River

time bay university agency mexico music natural earth state audio college live north america map accent dark steel wheels tech water web status index land band rain musical pond research ocean government education gulf recreation conservation banks maine north carolina chesapeake bay tour chesapeake snow environment types va yarmouth msonormal commonwealth figures stream normal worddocument zoom donotshowrevisions citizens confluence arial environmental times new roman trackmoves trackformatting punctuationkerning saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent compatibility breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit latentstyles deflockedstate latentstylecount latentstyles style definitions msonormaltable table normal donotpromoteqf lidthemeother lidthemeasian x none snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules mathpr mathfont cambria math brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc centergroup wrapindent intlim subsup narylim undovr defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority lsdexception locked priority semihidden unhidewhenused qformat name normal name title name default paragraph font name subtitle name strong name emphasis name table grid name placeholder text name no spacing name light shading name light list name light grid name medium shading name medium list name medium grid name dark list name colorful shading name colorful list name colorful grid name light shading accent name light list accent name light grid accent name revision name list paragraph name quote name intense quote name dark list accent name colorful shading accent name colorful list accent name colorful grid accent name subtle emphasis name intense emphasis name subtle reference name intense reference name book title name bibliography name toc heading divide riverside shenandoah water resources rivers grade colorful madison county signature geology continental blue ridge watershed transcript earth sciences wg roanoke river freshwater streams ohio river virginia tech back bay atlantic ocean potomac natural resources grades k roanoke environmental quality watersheds name normal indent name list name list bullet name list number name closing name signature name body text name body text indent name list continue name message header name salutation name date name body text first indent name note heading name block text name document map name plain text name e name normal web name normal table name no list name outline list name table simple name table classic name table colorful name table columns name table list name table 3d name table contemporary name table elegant name table professional name table subtle name table web name balloon text name table theme name plain table name grid table light name grid table light accent dark accent colorful accent name list table clinch rappahannock harrisonburg james river all quiet cosgrove msohyperlink sara grey smith river sections bluffs potomac river ben cosgrove stormwater old crow medicine show headwater new river policymakers msobodytext bmp environmental protection agency epa rockingham county powell river acknowledgment virginia department goose creek cumberland gap sols tennessee river big sandy tmdl geological survey little river yadkin dan river purcellville virginia standards water center space systems rappahannock river audio notes dismal swamp
Virginia Water Radio
Episode 588 (8-2-21): A Singing Paddler's Take on Time and Changes in the Upper Rappahannock River

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 29, 2021


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:22). Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 7-29-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of August 2, 2021.  This revised episode from September 2018 is part of a series this year of episodes related to watersheds and river basins. MUSIC – ~10 sec – instrumental This week, we feature a Virginia singer/songwriter's music about time and changes along one of the Commonwealth's major rivers.  Have a listen for about 30 more seconds. MUSIC – ~ 30 sec – Lyrics: “Roads and boards, mills and mines used to line this stream--all reclaimed by floods and vines, foundations sprouting gums and pines. River flows on, so does time.  Canoe splits Rappahannock water; dip my paddle, let it glide.” You've been listening to part of “Solitude,” by Bob Gramann of Fredericksburg, on the 2000 album, “That Squirrel Song.”  This and other river-themed songs by Mr. Gramann come in large part from his years of paddling the upper Rappahannock River and its tributaries, in the area between the Blue Ridge and the Fall Line at Fredericksburg.  The part of “Solitude” you heard describes some of the changes along the Rappahannock wrought by time and the effects of water, weather, humans, and other organisms.  Observers of other Virginia rivers and their watersheds might tell similar stories of change. Some riverside changes—such as flood impacts—happen relatively quickly.  Others move at a slower pace, as with trees growing in an abandoned building foundation.  Whatever the pace, changes seen in and along a river reflect events happening not only in the river channel but also upstream in the river's watershed.  Flooding, for example, is affected by upstream land uses and tributary patterns.  In turn, water flows affect stream and river shapes and materials, determining what habitats are available for living things.  And throughout a watershed, humans have land and water uses that affect downstream water quantity and quality.Virginia's rivers are continually being changed by unrelenting time and unceasing forces, and those rivers continue to provide services like water supply, irrigation, power generation, and others.  With all that going on, it's challenging and worthwhile to ensure that the Commonwealth's rivers retain places offering solitude and fostering creativity, such as in this week's music.  Thanks to Bob Gramann for permission to use the music, and we close with about 35 more seconds of “Solitude.” MUSIC – ~ 33 sec – Lyrics: “Rain and sleet, wind or heat, it's all the same to me.  Weather—you can never choose; each day that's mine, that day I'll use, to flee from time in my canoe, its bow splits Rappahannock water.  Dip my paddle, let it fly.” SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 437, 9-10-18. “Solitude,” from the 2000 album “That Squirrel Song,” is copyright by Bob Gramann, used with permission.  More information about Bob Gramann is available online at https://www.bobgramann.com/folksinger.html. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGES The following photos along the Rappahannock River in Virginia were taken by Bob Gramann (except as noted) and used with his permission. Rappahannock River at the confluence with the Rapidan River (at the juncture of the Virginia counties of Culpeper, Spotsylvania, and Stafford), April 2004.Rappahannock River at low water (view toward Stafford County, Va.), August 2011.Rappahannock River in winter (view toward Stafford County, Va.), February 2006.Bob Gramann, composer of the music heard in the Virginia Water Radio episode, canoeing in the Rappahannock River's “First Drop” at Fredericksburg, Va., April 1, 2018.  Photo by Lou Gramann.EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT THE UPPER RAPPAHANNOCK RIVER AND ITS WATERSHED The following information is quoted from the Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources, “Rappahannock River-Upper," online at https://dwr.virginia.gov/waterbody/rappahannock-river-upper/. “The Rappahannock River flows from its origin at Chester Gap in Rappahannock County approximately 184 miles to the Chesapeake Bay.  The first 62 miles, from the headwaters to Mayfield Bridge (Fredericksburg), are designated State Scenic River.  The river has a watershed of approximately 2,715 mi2, and average annual discharge near Fredericksburg is typically about 1,639 cubic feet per second (cfs). “During Colonial days, the Rappahannock River was a major shipping artery for transporting tobacco, salted fish, iron ore, and grains.  The watershed supports a variety of land uses; largely agricultural in the upper watershed, with manufacturing, light industrial, and retail applications throughout.  Soil erosion is a problem in the upper watershed.  Runoff from the major tributaries (Rapidan and Hazel Rivers) leaves the Rappahannock muddy after even minor storm events. “Access to the Rappahannock system (defined here as the Rapidan and Rappahannock Rivers) is fairly limited and primitive. Established access points on the Rappahannock (traveling downstream) are at Kelly's Ford (Route 672 off Route 651) in Culpeper County and Motts Landing (Route 618) in Spotsylvania County.  About 25 miles separates these canoe/Jon boat slides, and an overnight camp stop is nearly mandatory for those that float fish this reach. Another access point is located on the Rapidan River at Elys Ford (Route 610) in Spotsylvania County about 14 miles upstream of Motts Landing. Access may also be gained via several non-established points.  These consist of VDOT right-of-ways along bridges (e.g., Route 522 on the Rapidan). … “The Rappahannock River's character changes abruptly in Fredericksburg at the fall line (the limit of tidal influence).  Above the fall line, the river is usually clear, swift, and dominant substrates are bedrock, boulder and cobble providing perfect habitat for smallmouth bass and related species.  However, below Route 1 the river is tidal, and the substrate is finer, dominated by sand; and the water is frequently murky.  Species composition shifts with habitat, and largemouth bass, catfish and anadromous species are more common in and below Fredericksburg.  Boaters and anglers can now navigate from upstream access points such as Motts Landing across the old Embrey Dam site and into the tidal waters adjacent to Fredericksburg.” SOURCES Used for Audio U.S. Geological Survey, “Water Use in the United States,” online at https://www.usgs.gov/mission-areas/water-resources/science/water-use-united-states?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects. Virginia Department of Environmental Quality:“Commonwealth of Virginia State Water Resources Plan,” April 2015, available online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/water/water-quantity/water-supply-planning/virginia-water-resources-plan;“Final 2020 305(b)/303(d) Water Quality Assessment Integrated Report,” online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/water/water-quality/assessments/integrated-report;“Status of Virginia's Water Resources,” October 2020, online (as a PDF) at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/home/showpublisheddocument/2119/637432838113030000;“Water Quantity,” online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/water/water-quantity. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources:“Rappahannock River-Upper," online at https://dwr.virginia.gov/waterbody/rappahannock-river-upper/; “Rappahannock River-Tidal,” online at https://dwr.virginia.gov/waterbody/rappahannock-river-tidal/.For More Information about the Rappahannock River City of Fredericksburg, Va., “Rappahannock River,” online at https://www.fredericksburgva.gov/210/Rappahannock-River. Friends of the Rappahannock (non-profit organization), online at http://www.riverfriends.org/. Rappahannock-Rapidan Regional Commission, “Local TMDLs,” online at https://www.rrregion.org/program_areas/environmental/local_tmdls.php.  Located at this site are Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) reports on the Upper Rappahannock River, the Hazel River, and other Rappahannock River basin waterways. RappFLOW (Rappahannock Friends and Lovers of Our Watersheds; non-profit organization), online at https://rappflow.org/.For More Information about Watersheds and River Basins Richard B. Alexander et al., “The Role of Headwater Streams in Downstream Water Quality,” Journal of the American Water Resources Association, Vol. 43, No. 1, February 2007, pages 41-59; available online at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3307624/(subscription may be required). Radford University, “Virginia's Rivers, online at http://www.radford.edu/jtso/GeologyofVirginia/VirginiasRivers/Drainage-1.html. Craig Snyder, et al., “Significance of Headwater Streams and Perennial Springs in Ecological Monitoring in Shenandoah National Park,” 2013, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2013–1178; available online (as a PDF) at https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1178/pdf/ofr2013-1178.pdf. U.S. Department of Agriculture/Natural Resources Conservation Service/Virginia, “2020 Virginia Water Resources Progress Report,” online at https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/va/programs/planning/.  This report has descriptions of projects in many Virginia watersheds.  The 2017 report is online at https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/va/programs/planning/wo/. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “How's My Waterway,” online at https://www.epa.gov/waterdata/hows-my-waterway. U.S. Geological Survey, “Water Science School/Watersheds and Drainage Basins,” online at https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/watersheds-and-drainage-basins?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, “Hydrologic Unit Geography,” online at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/soil-and-water/hu; and “Virginia's Major Watersheds,” online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/soil-and-water/wsheds. Virginia Places, “The Continental (and Other) Divides,” online at http://www.virginiaplaces.org/watersheds/divides.html. Virginia Places, “Rivers and Watersheds of Virginia,” online at http://www.virginiaplaces.org/watersheds/index.html. Virginia Water Resources Research Center, Virginia Water Central Newsletter, February 2000, “Divide and Confluence,” by Alan Raflo (pages 8-11); available online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/49316. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the Rivers, Streams, and Other Surface Water” subject category. Following are links to some previous episodes on the Rappahannock River or its watershed.Hazel River introduction (Rappahannock River watershed) – Episode 339, 10-24-16.Madison County flooding in 1995 (on Rapidan River, in Rappahannock River watershed) – Episode 272, 6-29-15.Rappahannock River introduction – Episode 89, 11-21-11.Following are links to some other episodes on watersheds and Virginia rivers. Big Otter River introduction (Roanoke River watershed) – Episode 419, 5-7-18.Big Sandy River watershed introduction – Episode 419, 5-7-18.Blue Ridge origin of river watersheds – Episode 583, 6-28-21.Bluffs on rivers and other waters – Episode 587, 7-26-21.Bullpasture and Cowpasture rivers introduction (James River watershed) – Episode 469, 4-22-19.Headwater streams – Episode 582, 6-21-21.Jackson River introduction (James River watershed) – Episode 428, 7-9-19.Musical tour of rivers and watersheds - Episode 251, 2-2-15.New River introduction – Episode 109, 5-7-12.Ohio River basin introduction – Episode 421, 5-21-18.Ohio River basin connections through watersheds and history – Episode 422, 5-28-18.Passage Creek and Fort Valley introduction (Shenandoah River watershed) – Episode 331 – 8/29/16.Shenandoah River introduction –

bay humans university agency music photo natural relationships earth state audio friends college change accent dark tech water web status index land rain musical united states pond research ocean weather government education recreation conservation vol chesapeake bay route chesapeake snow environment journal types images va singing significance msonormal commonwealth stream normal worddocument zoom donotshowrevisions citizens confluence arial species environmental soil dynamic established times new roman trackmoves trackformatting punctuationkerning saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent compatibility breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit latentstyles deflockedstate latentstylecount latentstyles style definitions msonormaltable table normal donotpromoteqf lidthemeother lidthemeasian x none snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules mathpr mathfont cambria math brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc centergroup wrapindent intlim subsup narylim undovr defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority lsdexception locked priority semihidden unhidewhenused qformat name normal name title name default paragraph font name subtitle name strong name emphasis name table grid name placeholder text name no spacing name light shading name light list name light grid name medium shading name medium list name medium grid name dark list name colorful shading name colorful list name colorful grid name light shading accent name light list accent name light grid accent name revision name list paragraph name quote name intense quote name dark list accent name colorful shading accent name colorful list accent name colorful grid accent name subtle emphasis name intense emphasis name subtle reference name intense reference name book title name bibliography name toc heading divide canoe located water resources biology upper rivers lovers grade dip colorful resource solitude madison county signature flooding bio continental stafford scales blue ridge watershed transcript earth sciences wg roanoke river freshwater streams ohio river virginia tech ls atlantic ocean natural resources observers stafford county grades k environmental quality watersheds name normal indent name list name list bullet name list number name closing name signature name body text name body text indent name list continue name message header name salutation name date name body text first indent name note heading name block text name document map name plain text name e name normal web name normal table name no list name outline list name table simple name table classic name table colorful name table columns name table list name table 3d name table contemporary name table elegant name table professional name table subtle name table web name balloon text name table theme name plain table name grid table light name grid table light accent dark accent colorful accent name list table fredericksburg rappahannock james river msohyperlink wildlife resources runoff smith river sections bluffs richard b life sciences stormwater headwater radford university new river policymakers bmp environmental protection agency epa water use new standard acknowledgment virginia department cripple creek cumberland gap sols tennessee river tmdl spotsylvania boaters geological survey shenandoah national park culpeper county culpeper vdot biotic virginia standards water center first drop fall line total maximum daily load tmdl space systems rappahannock river audio notes
Virginia Water Radio
Episode 587 (7-26-21): On the Bluffs of Rivers and Other Waters

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 28, 2021


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:00). Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 7-23-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of July 26, 2021.  This revised episode from August 2013 is part of a series this year of episodes related to watersheds and river basins. MUSIC - ~16 sec – instrumental This week, an instrumental selection by a Williamsburg, Virginia, musician sets the stage for exploring a kind of river feature that can be especially prominent geographically and historically.  Have a listen to the music for about 35 more seconds.MUSIC - ~32 sec – instrumentalYou've been listening to part of “James and York Bluffs,” by Timothy Seaman on his 1998 album “Celebration of Centuries.”  This tune honors York River State Park, located a few miles north of Williamsburg in James City County, and having—according to the album's liner notes—“a paradise of bluffs.”  River bluffs—also called cliffs, palisades, and other terms—are high, steep, broad banks overlooking a river.    They're found along many Virginia waterways, from Cedar Bluff on the Clinch River in Tazewell County, to Ball's Bluff on the Potomac River in Loudoun County, to Drewry's Bluff on the James River in Chesterfield County.  Bluffs can also form in coastal beach areas, such as along the Chesapeake Bay at Kiptopeke State Park in Northampton County.  Wherever they're found, bluffs are products of complicated land and water factors acting at the point of the bluff as well as upstream in a watershed.  In addition, bluffs are history treasures.  They reveal geologic history in layers of ancient sediments; they've been important in the humanhistory of many Virginia settlements and events; and they offer dramatic views of the natural history and heritage of the Commonwealth's waters. Thanks to Timothy Seaman for permission to use this week's music, and we close with about 15 more seconds of “James and York Bluffs.” MUSIC - ~ 16 sec – instrumentalSHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 173, 8-5-13. “James and York Bluffs,” from the 1998 album “Celebration of Centuries,” copyright by Timothy Seaman and Pine Wind Music, used with permission.  More information about Timothy Seaman is available online at http://www.timothyseaman.com/.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 320, 6-13-16. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES View of a bluff at York River State Park, March 29, 2011.  Photo courtesy of Timothy Seaman.View from a bluff at York River State Park, November 19, 2010.  Photo courtesy of Timothy Seaman.EXTRA INFORMATION ON RIVER BLUFF-RELATED LOCATIONS IN VIRGINIA Following are some Virginia locations with names related to river bluffs. Ball's Bluff, Potomac River, Loudoun County.Bluff City, New River, Giles County.Bluff Point (part of Colonial Beach), Potomac River, Westmoreland County.Bremo Bluff, James River, Fluvanna County.Cedar Bluff, Clinch River, Tazewell County.Colonial Heights, Appomattox River, Chesterfield County.Drewry's Bluff, James River, Chesterfield County.Madison Heights, James River, Amherst County. SOURCES Used for Audio College of William and Mary, “Geology of Virginia/Cliffs of Westmoreland,” by Chuck Bailey, Aug. 1, 2016, online at http://geology.blogs.wm.edu/2016/08/01/cliffs-of-westmoreland/. County of Northampton, Virginia, “Beaches/Kiptopeke State Park,” online at http://northampton.hosted.civiclive.com/visitors/tourism/free_things_to_see_and_do/free_recreation/water_recreation/beaches. DeLorme Company of Yarmouth, Maine, Virginia Atlas & Gazetteer, 2000.  National Geographic, “Bluff,” online at https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/bluff/. National Park Service/Richmond National Battlefield Park, “Drewry's Bluff,” online at https://www.nps.gov/rich/learn/historyculture/drewrys-bluff.htm. Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority, “Ball's Bluff Battlefield Regional Park,” online at https://www.novaparks.com/parks/balls-bluff-battlefield-regional-park. OntoRichmond.com, “Civil War in Richmond—Drewry's Bluff,” video (1 min./8 sec.) online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4IMITTR_wC8. Oxford Dictionary and Thesaurus-American Edition, Oxford University Press, 1996.U.S. Department of Agriculture/Natural Resource Conservation Service, “Glossary of Landform and Geologic Terms,” online (as a PDF) at https://directives.sc.egov.usda.gov/OpenNonWebContent.aspx?content=41992.wba. For More Information about Watersheds and River Basins College of William and Mary Department of Geology, “The Geology of Virginia—Hydrology,” online at http://geology.blogs.wm.edu/hydrology/. Radford University, “Virginia's Rivers, online at http://www.radford.edu/jtso/GeologyofVirginia/VirginiasRivers/Drainage-1.html. U.S. Department of Agriculture/Natural Resources Conservation Service/Virginia, “2020 Virginia Water Resources Progress Report,” online at https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/va/programs/planning/.  This report has descriptions of projects in many Virginia watersheds.  The 2017 report is online at https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/va/programs/planning/wo/. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):“How's My Waterway,” online at https://www.epa.gov/waterdata/hows-my-waterway;“NPDES Stormwater Program,” online at https://www.epa.gov/npdes/npdes-stormwater-program. U.S. Geological Survey, “Water Science School/Watersheds and Drainage Basins,” online at https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/watersheds-and-drainage-basins?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation:“Hydrologic Unit Geography,” online at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/soil-and-water/hu;“Virginia's Major Watersheds,” online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/soil-and-water/wsheds. Virginia Department of Environmental Quality:“Commonwealth of Virginia State Water Resources Plan,” April 2015, available online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/water/water-quantity/water-supply-planning/virginia-water-resources-plan;“Status of Virginia's Water Resources,” October 2020, online (as a PDF) at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/home/showpublisheddocument/2119/637432838113030000;“Water Quantity,” online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/water/water-quantity. Virginia Places:“The Continental (and Other) Divides,” online at http://www.virginiaplaces.org/watersheds/divides.html;“Rivers and Watersheds of Virginia,” online at http://www.virginiaplaces.org/watersheds/index.html. Virginia Water Resources Research Center, “Divide and Confluence,” by Alan Raflo (pages 8-11); available online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/49316. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the Rivers, Streams, and Other Surface Water” subject category. Following are links to some other episodes on watersheds and Virginia rivers.  Please note that some of these episodes are being redone in summer 2021; in those cases, the respective links below will have information on the updated episodes. Big Otter River introduction (Roanoke River watershed) – Episode 419, 5-7-18. Big Sandy River watershed introduction – Episode 419, 5-7-18. Blue Ridge origin of river watersheds – Episode 583, 6-28-21 Bullpasture and Cowpasture rivers introduction (James River watershed) – Episode 469, 4-22-19. Hazel River introduction (Rappahannock River watershed) – Episode 339, 10-24-16. Headwater streams – Episode 582, 6-21-21. Jackson River introduction (James River watershed) – Episode 428, 7-9-19. Madison County flooding in 1995 (on Rapidan River, in Rappahannock River watershed) – Episode 272, 6-29-15 New River introduction – Episode 109, 5-7-12. Ohio River basin introduction – Episode 421, 5-21-18. Ohio River basin connections through watersheds and history – Episode 422, 5-28-18; Passage Creek and Fort Valley introduction (Shenandoah River watershed) – Episode 331 – 8/29/16. Rappahannock River introduction – Episode 89, 11-21-11. Shenandoah River introduction – Episode 130 – 10/1/12. Smith River and Philpott Reservoir introduction (Roanoke River watershed) – Episode 360, 3-20-17. South Fork Holston River introduction (Clinch-Powell/Upper Tennessee River watershed) – Episode 425, 6-18-18. Staunton River introduction (part of the Roanoke River) – Episode 374, 6-26-17. Virginia rivers quiz – Episode 586, 7-19-21. Virginia surface water numbers – Episode 539, 8-24-20. Virginia's Tennessee River tributaries – Episode 420, 5-14-18. Water cycle introduction – Episode 191, 12-9-13; and water cycle diagrams reconsidered – Episode 480, 7-8-19. Watershed and water cycle terms related to stormwater – Episode 585, 7-12-21. Watersheds introduction – Episode 581, 6-14-21. Water quantity information sources – Episode 546, 10-12-20. Werowocomoco native people's civilization history, centered in the York River watershed – Episode 364, 12-12-16. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-5: Earth and Space Systems3.7 – There is a water cycle and water is important to life on Earth.5.8 – Earth constantly changes. Grades K-5: Earth Resources3.8 – Natural events and humans influence ecosystems.4.8 – Virginia has important natural resources. Grade 66.8 – Land and water have roles in watershed systems. Earth ScienceES.8 – Freshwater resources influence and are influenced by geologic processes and human activity. BiologyBIO.8 – Dynamic equilibria exist within populations, communities, and ecosystems.

oxford dictionary bay university agency music photo natural earth state audio college north america civil war impact accent dark tech water web status index land rain pond research ocean government education recreation conservation maine chesapeake bay chesapeake snow environment images yarmouth msonormal commonwealth celebration stream normal worddocument zoom donotshowrevisions citizens confluence williamsburg arial environmental dynamic national geographic times new roman trackmoves trackformatting punctuationkerning saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent compatibility breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit latentstyles deflockedstate latentstylecount latentstyles style definitions msonormaltable table normal donotpromoteqf lidthemeother lidthemeasian x none snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules mathpr mathfont cambria math brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc centergroup wrapindent intlim subsup narylim undovr defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority lsdexception locked priority semihidden unhidewhenused qformat name normal name title name default paragraph font name subtitle name strong name emphasis name table grid name placeholder text name no spacing name light shading name light list name light grid name medium shading name medium list name medium grid name dark list name colorful shading name colorful list name colorful grid name light shading accent name light list accent name light grid accent name revision name list paragraph name quote name intense quote name dark list accent name colorful shading accent name colorful list accent name colorful grid accent name subtle emphasis name intense emphasis name subtle reference name intense reference name book title name bibliography name toc heading divide waters shenandoah water resources biology northampton rivers grade colorful madison county signature bio drewry geology continental blue ridge watershed transcript earth sciences wg roanoke river freshwater streams ohio river virginia tech bluff city atlantic ocean westmoreland bluff glossary natural resources grades k oxford university press environmental quality watersheds name normal indent name list name list bullet name list number name closing name signature name body text name body text indent name list continue name message header name salutation name date name body text first indent name note heading name block text name document map name plain text name e name normal web name normal table name no list name outline list name table simple name table classic name table colorful name table columns name table list name table 3d name table contemporary name table elegant name table professional name table subtle name table web name balloon text name table theme name plain table name grid table light name grid table light accent dark accent colorful accent name list table centuries james river cosgrove msohyperlink loudoun county smith river usi sections bluffs potomac river ben cosgrove stormwater headwater radford university new river policymakers msobodytext bmp madison heights environmental protection agency epa acknowledgment virginia department cumberland gap sols tennessee river giles county northampton county tmdl westmoreland county geological survey united states history chesterfield county virginia standards water center space systems rappahannock river audio notes
Clear Skies Ahead: Conversations about Careers in Meteorology and Beyond
Kelsey Doerksen, Space Systems Engineer and Satellite Operator at Planet in San Francisco, California

Clear Skies Ahead: Conversations about Careers in Meteorology and Beyond

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 27, 2021 36:54


We talk to Kelsey Doerksen, Space Systems Engineer and Satellite Operator at Planet, about building a Mars Rover with her college classmates, how to keep a fleet of satellites healthy, safe, and productive with the help of automation, and her ultimate goal of becoming an astronaut. Episode transcript Hosted by Rex Horner and Kelly SavoieProduced by Brandon M. CroseEdited by Peter TrepkeTheme music composed and performed by Steve Savoie Visit AMS Career Resources on the web! Contact us at skypodcast@ametsoc.org with any feedback or if you'd like to become a future guest.Copyright © 2021 American Meteorological Society.

EXOPOLITICS TODAY with Dr. Michael Salla
Reusable Rockets mark the launch of Two-Tiered space systems

EXOPOLITICS TODAY with Dr. Michael Salla

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 23, 2021 15:52


On July 20, Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos was one of the astronauts launched by a reusable Blue Origin rocket above the Von Karman line—the official start of space (100 km). Reusable booster rockets are now being used by multiple companies thanks to SpaceX pioneering efforts. This will lead to cheap space travel, space tourism, space mining, bases on Moon, colonization of Mars, etc. A major shift has recently happened in exopolitical (extraterrestrial) affairs making it possible for civilian space programs to participate in the colonization of space. Multiple sources claim agreements have been reached between national space programs and extraterrestrial associations for humanity to take charge of our solar system. Unfortunately, the development of reusable rockets marks the launch of a two tiered space system. The civilian space industry will be dependent on reusable rockets for space programs due to their affordability. In contrast, the world's militaries, intelligence services and major aerospace companies will instead use exotic propulsion systems such as antigravity, antimatter and torsion fields, and will resist efforts to release these into the public arena for national security reasons.

The Irish Tech News Podcast
Space Robots and Space Debris with Tom McCarthy of Motiv Space Systems

The Irish Tech News Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 22, 2021 28:46


In todays podcast I chat with Tom McCarthy who gives us a birds eye view of the issue of space junk/debris that has until quite recently managed to stay under the public radar. As a space robotics expert Tom McCarthy reminds us about how the unpredictable reentry of the Chinese Long March booster rocket that brought the problem of space junk to the forefront, and how advanced near-space robotics will play a crucial role in solving this problem? Motiv Space Systems was founded in 2014 by three experienced robotics engineers, Chris Thayer, Brett Lindenfeld and Tom McCarthy. The company's founders believed that they could develop and build space-based robotic systems more efficiently and with a higher level of quality and capability than their competitors in the market. They were quickly proved right, earning and successfully executing NASA contracts for a range of missions, including most recently the robotic arm on the Mars 2020 Perseverance Rover. In 2020, Motiv launched their groundbreaking xLink Robotic Arm System, a space-rated modular robotic arm that sets a new standard for capability and affordability, and brings robotic arm capabilities in reach of a whole new class of missions. Mr. McCarthy is VP of Development at Motiv Space Systems; the firm designs robotics and advanced components for space exploration, most recently the arm and camera on the Perseverance rover. Twitter

Virginia Water Radio
Episode 585 (7-12-21): Middle Schoolers Make the Call on the Water Cycle, Watersheds, and Stormwater

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 9, 2021


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:46). Sections below are the following:Transcript of AudioAudio Notes and AcknowledgmentsImagesExtra InformationSourcesRelated Water Radio EpisodesFor Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 7-9-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of July 12, 2021.  This revised episode from April 2017 is part of a series this year of episodes related to watersheds and river basins. SOUND – ~4 sec This week, we drop in on a group of Virginia middle-school students giving citizens a vocabulary lesson on watersheds, the water cycle, and a challenging nationwide water issue.  Sound unbelievable?  Well, just have a listen for about 35 seconds. GUEST VOICES - ~36 sec – “Water cycle; watersheds; evaporation; transpiration; condensation; precipitation; rainfall intensity; infiltration; runoff; groundwater; surface water; impervious surface; divides; drainage areas; tributaries; river basins; the ocean. You've been listening to Christiansburg Middle School students who attended Stormwater Education Day on April 12, 2017.  The vocabulary list you heard included processes of the water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle; along with geographic features of watersheds, a term that people often interchange with drainage areas, drainage basins, or river basins.  Water cycle processes and watershed features are key elements in stormwater, affecting when, where, and how much of it occurs.  Stormwater results when rainfall or other precipitation can't seep—or infiltrate—into the ground, particularly when the precipitation lands on pavement or other impervious surfaces.  Stormwater runs off over the land surface into water bodies or into drains and pipes that eventually lead to water bodies.  During that runoff, stormwater can pick up various water pollutants, and high-volume stormwater can cause flooding and erosion.  Such impacts, and the laws and regulations implemented in response, have made stormwater-management a far-reaching water issue, affecting local governments, homeowners, and businesses all over Virginia and the nation. Back in Christiansburg, students learning now about the water cycle, watersheds, potential contaminants, and the filtering potential of different materials will be the future idea-generators and decision-makers who'll deal with this widespread and complicated issue. Thanks to Christiansburg Middle School students, teachers, and volunteers for lending their voices to this episode.  We close with some appropriate sounds and music for stormwater.  Here's some rain and thunder, followed by about 30 seconds of “Runoff,” composed for Virginia Water Radio by Torrin Hallett, a 2021 graduate of Lamont School of Music in Denver.SOUND - ~8 sec – rain and thunder MUSIC - ~ 28 sec – instrumental SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 365, 4-24-17. The voices of sixth-grade students (and some adults) from Christiansburg Middle School in Christiansburg, Va., were recorded April 12, 2017, during Stormwater Education Day, held on the grounds of the Christiansburg/Montgomery County, Va., chapter of the Izaak Walton League.  Thanks to Patricia Colatosti of the Town of Christiansburg and to Patricia Gaudreau of the Montgomery County School Division for organizing the event and for allowing Virginia Water Radio to participate. Learning stations at the April 2017 Stormwater Education Day were the following:Montgomery County – groundwater model;Skyline Soil and Water Conservation District, Christiansburg, Va. – runoff boxes;Town of Christiansburg/Town of Blacksburg/Virginia Tech Department of Biological Systems Engineering – stream table;Virginia Cooperative Extension/Montgomery County Unit – pet waste and streams;Virginia Cooperative Extension/Virginia Tech Department of Biological Systems Engineering – groundwater models;Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation/Karst Program – karst, springs, and groundwater;Virginia Tech Facilities – watershed model;Virginia Tech Forestry Graduate Student Association – sand filters and stormwater;Virginia Tech Learning Enhanced Watershed Assessment System (LEWAS) lab – runoff boxes;Virginia Tech Museum of Geosciences Outreach – watershed model;Virginia Water Resources Research Center/Virginia Water Radio – recording terms related to stormwater.The thunderstorm sounds were recorded by Virginia Water Radio in Blacksburg, Va., on September 28, 2016. “Runoff” is copyright 2021 by Torrin Hallett, used with permission.  Torrin is a 2018 graduate of Oberlin College and Conservatory in Oberlin, Ohio, a 2020 graduate in Horn Performance from Manhattan School of Music in New York, and a 2021 graduate of the Lamont School of Music at the University of Denver.  More information about Torrin is available online at https://www.facebook.com/torrin.hallett.  Thanks very much to Torrin for composing the piece especially for Virginia Water Radio.  To hear the complete piece (50 seconds), please click here. Following are other music pieces composed by Torrin Hallett for Virginia Water Radio, with episodes featuring the music. “A Little Fright Music” – used in Episode 548, 10-26-20, on water-related passages in fiction and non-fiction, for Halloween.“Beetle Ballet” – used in Episode 525, 5-18-20, on aquatic beetles.“Chesapeake Bay Ballad” – used in Episode 537, 8-10-20, on conditions in the Chesapeake Bay.“Corona Cue” – used in Episode 517, 3-23-20, on the coronavirus pandemic. “Geese Piece” – used most recently in Episode 440, 10-1-18, on E-bird. “Ice Dance” – used in Episode 556, 12-21-20, on how organisms survive freezing temperatures.“Lizard Lied” – used in Episode 514, 3-2-20, on lizards.“New Year's Water” – used in Episode 349, 1-2-17, on the New Year. “Rain Refrain” – used most recently Episode 559, 1-11-21, on record rainfall in 2020.“Spider Strike” – used in Episode 523, 5-4-20, on fishing spiders.“Tropical Tantrum” – used most recently in Episode 580, 6-7-21, on the 2021 Atlantic tropical storm season preview.“Tundra Swan Song – used in Episode 554, 12-7-20, on Tundra Swans.“Turkey Tune” – used in Episode 343, 11-21-16, on the Wild Turkey. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGES Some of the learning stations on April 12, 2017, for Christiansburg Middle School's Stormwater Education Day, at the grounds of the Christiansburg/Montgomery County, Va., chapter of the Izaak Walton League.Diagram of the water (or hydrologic) cycle. Diagram from the U.S. Geological Survey, “Water Science School/Water Cycle,” online at https://water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycle.html.Virginia's major watersheds (river basins). Map by the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, accessed online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/soil_and_water/wsheds.shtml. EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT STORMWATER MANAGEMENT IN VIRGINIA The following information is quoted from the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), “Stormwater,” online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/water/stormwater.“DEQ is the lead agency for developing and implementing the Commonwealth's statewide program to protect water quality and quantity from stormwater runoff.  Under the Virginia Stormwater Management Program (VSMP), the agency issues permits, certifies land disturbers and offers compliance assistance.  “Stormwater occurs after precipitation and consists of runoff from streets, lawns, parking lots, construction sites, industrial facilities and other impervious surfaces.  Stormwater may enter surface waters directly or through natural and constructed channel systems.  Pollution, such as automobile oil, grease, metals, sediment, bacteria from animal waste, fertilizers and pesticides, even deposits from airborne pollutants can contaminate the runoff.“Unmanaged stormwater can cause erosion and flooding.  It can also carry excess nutrients, sediment, and other contaminants into rivers and streams.  Properly managed stormwater can recharge groundwater and protect land and streams from erosion, flooding, and pollutants. “DEQ regulates stormwater as a ‘point source' of pollution, which means its source can be located.  This includes stormwater discharges from [the following]: Municipal separate storm sewer systems (MS4s);Construction activities;Industrial discharges. “MS4s are publicly owned systems, such as storm drains, pipes, ditches or swales that collect or move water to surface waters.  They must obtain permit coverage and develop a stormwater-management program. “Coverage under a state permit may be required to discharge stormwater from construction activities.  In addition, local governments may manage their own stormwater-management permit programs, which are separate from the state permit program and from local land-disturbance permits. “During construction, a separate permit may be required for erosion and sediment control.  These land-disturbance permits are issued by localities as part of their erosion and sediment control programs, which DEQ periodically reviews.  The agency offers training for both erosion control and stormwater plan reviewers and land disturbers.  “Industrial discharges are covered under industrial stormwater permits and require management practices and monitoring to protect the quality of the waters receiving the stormwater discharges.“ Stormwater runoff that is not confined to a single point source is considered nonpoint source pollution, which is mainly controlled through erosion and sediment control.“Local governments are key partners in the VSMP program, administrating erosion and sediment control programs as well as some stormwater discharges.” SOURCES Used for Audio Code of Virginia, “Virginia Stormwater Management Act,” online via the Virginia Legislative Information System at https://law.lis.virginia.gov/vacodefull/title62.1/chapter3.1/article2.3/. King County, Washington, “Stormwater glossary of terms and abbreviations,” online at http://www.kingcounty.gov/services/environment/water-and-land/stormwater/glossary.aspx. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “NPDES Stormwater Program,” online at https://www.epa.gov/npdes/npdes-stormwater-program; and “National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System General Permit Remand Rule,” published in The Federal Register on Dec. 9, 2016, online (as a PDF) at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2016-12-09/pdf/2016-28426.pdf. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), “Water Science School/The Water Cycle,” online at https://water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycle.html; and “The Water Cycle for Schools and Kids,” online at https://water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycle-kids.html. Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, “Stormwater,” online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/water/stormwater. Virginia Water Resources Research Center, Virginia Water Central Newsletter, February 2000, “An Introduction to Urban Stormwater,” by Rich Wagner (pages 1-7), available online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/49316. Virginia Water Resources Research Center, Virginia Water Central Newsletter, August 2010, “Wherever You Are, Stormwater's On Your Street” and “Stormwater Information Sources,” by Danielle Guerin (pages 3-7), available online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/49363. For More Information about Watersheds and River Basins Natural Resources Conservation Service/Virginia, “2020 Virginia Water Resources Progress Report,” online at https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/va/programs/planning/.  This report has descriptions of projects in many Virginia watersheds.  The 2017 report is online at https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/va/programs/planning/wo/. Radford University, “Virginia's Rivers, online at http://www.radford.edu/jtso/GeologyofVirginia/VirginiasRivers/Drainage-1.html. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “How's My Waterway,” online at https://www.epa.gov/waterdata/hows-my-waterway. U.S. Geological Survey, “Water Science School/Watersheds and Drainage Basins,” online at https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/watersheds-and-drainage-basins?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, “Hydrologic Unit Geography,” online at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/soil-and-water/hu; and “Virginia's Major Watersheds,” online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/stormwater_management/wsheds.shtml. Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, “Commonwealth of Virginia State Water Resources Plan,” April 2015, available online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/water/water-quantity/water-supply-planning/virginia-water-resources-plan; “Status of Virginia's Water Resources,” October 2020, online (as a PDF) at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/home/showpublisheddocument/2119/637432838113030000; and “Water Quantity,” online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/water/water-quantity. Virginia Places, “The Continental (and Other) Divides,” online at http://www.virginiaplaces.org/watersheds/divides.html. Virginia Places, “Rivers and Watersheds of Virginia,” online at http://www.virginiaplaces.org/watersheds/index.html. Virginia Water Resources Research Center, Virginia Water Central Newsletter, February 2000, “Divide and Confluence,” by Alan Raflo (pages 8-11), available online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/49316. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).

kids new york bay humans learning university agency music local national natural halloween relationships earth state audio college sound map properly accent dark tech water web status index land rain musical pond research ocean washington government education construction public recreation conservation chesapeake bay ohio chesapeake snow environment code images oberlin college montgomery county schools va msonormal new year commonwealth atlantic stream normal worddocument zoom donotshowrevisions citizens confluence arial environmental dynamic times new roman trackmoves trackformatting punctuationkerning saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent compatibility breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit latentstyles deflockedstate latentstylecount latentstyles style definitions msonormaltable table normal donotpromoteqf lidthemeother lidthemeasian x none snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules mathpr mathfont cambria math brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc centergroup wrapindent intlim subsup narylim undovr defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority lsdexception locked priority semihidden unhidewhenused qformat name normal name title name default paragraph font name subtitle name strong name emphasis name table grid name placeholder text name no spacing name light shading name light list name light grid name medium shading name medium list name medium grid name dark list name colorful shading name colorful list name colorful grid name light shading accent name light list accent name light grid accent name revision name list paragraph name quote name intense quote name dark list accent name colorful shading accent name colorful list accent name colorful grid accent name subtle emphasis name intense emphasis name subtle reference name intense reference name book title name bibliography name toc heading divide shenandoah water resources water conservation district biology municipal pollution conservatory civics rivers grade industrial diagram oberlin colorful resource madison county signature bio continental wild turkey manhattan school coverage scales blue ridge guest voices govt watershed transcript earth sciences wg roanoke river freshwater streams ohio river virginia tech ls atlantic ocean natural resources grades k environmental quality watersheds name normal indent name list name list bullet name list number name closing name signature name body text name body text indent name list continue name message header name salutation name date name body text first indent name note heading name block text name document map name plain text name e name normal web name normal table name no list name outline list name table simple name table classic name table colorful name table columns name table list name table 3d name table contemporary name table elegant name table professional name table subtle name table web name balloon text name table theme name plain table name grid table light name grid table light accent dark accent colorful accent name list table blacksburg james river msohyperlink wherever you are runoff smith river sections life sciences ben cosgrove stormwater rainfall headwater radford university new river policymakers msobodytext federal register king county bmp environmental protection agency epa new standard acknowledgment virginia department middle schoolers cripple creek cumberland gap sols deq rich wagner tennessee river tmdl geological survey torrin water cycle unmanaged christiansburg virginia standards water center space systems rappahannock river audio notes
Space Explr
Human Spaceflight, Architecture and Protective Use of Regolith - YULIA AKISHEVA | EP.117

Space Explr

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 9, 2021 57:15


Yulia Akisheva is an aerospace engineer by training currently pursuing a Ph.D. in Protective Use of Regolith for Planetary and Lunar Exploration or PURPLE in short. This Ph.D. is supported by the European Space Agency (ESA), TRAD Tests & Radiations, and ISAE-SUPAERO under the ESA OSIP collaboration platform. Yulia has a continually growing passion for human spaceflight. Since over a decade ago, she knew she wanted to work on putting that first human boot on Mars so she invested in her academic background. Yulia has three Master's degrees from top European universities, KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden and ISAE-SUPAERO in France. She specialized in Aerospace Structures and Materials, Design and Operation of Space Systems, and Sciences of the Mechanics of Materials and Structures. Besides Mars exploration, Yulia is strongly interested in fostering international cooperation and outreach about space. She contributes to building a more diverse and inclusive aerospace sector as a volunteer at Space Generation Advisory Council, and you can find Yulia's TEDx called “To Mars together: 5 reasons to explore the Red Planet” on youtube. --- This episode is sponsored by · Anchor: The easiest way to make a podcast. https://anchor.fm/app Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/spaceexplr/support

Virginia Water Radio
Episode 583 (6-28-21): One Blue Ridge Helps Start Many Virginia Rivers

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 29, 2021


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:41). Sections below are the following:Transcript of AudioAudio Notes and AcknowledgmentsImagesSourcesRelated Water Radio EpisodesFor Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 6-25-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of June 28, 2021.  This revised episode from April 2014 is part of a series this year of episodes related to watersheds and river basins. MUSIC – ~ 10 sec – instrumental - “Big Run Thrives.” This week, musical selections highlight the connections between one famous Virginia ridge and the watersheds of six rivers.  Have a listen for about 45 seconds.MUSIC – ~46 sec – instrumentals – “Big Run Thrives,” ~18 sec; then “Hazel River,” ~28 sec.You've been listening, first, to part of “Big Run Thrives,” and second, to part of “Hazel River,” both by Timothy Seaman of Williamsburg, Va., from the 1997 album “Here on This Ridge,” a celebration of Virginia's Shenandoah National Park.  Both tunes were inspired by streams flowing off of Virginia's Blue Ridge.  The part of the Blue Ridge that runs through the middle of the national park from Front Royal south to Waynesboro divides the watersheds of three Virginia rivers.  Throughout the park, mountain streams on the ridge's western slopes—like Big Run in Rockingham County—lead to the Shenandoah River watershed.  On the Blue Ridge's eastern side, streams in the northern part of the park—like Hazel River in Rappahannock County—flow to the Rappahannock River; in the southern part of the park, east-flowing streams are in the James River watershed. Outside of the national park, to the north the Blue Ridge separates the Potomac River watershed from the Shenandoah, a Potomac River tributary.  To the south of the national park, the Blue Ridge is part of the watershed divide between the James River and Roanoke River, and then between the Roanoke and New rivers. Countless other ridges in Virginia aren't as famous as the Blue Ridge, but whether high and obvious or low and indistinct, they all add to the landscape's pattern of waterways flowing through watersheds. Thanks to Timothy Seaman for permission to use parts of “Big Run Thrives” and “Hazel River.”  We close with another musical selection for mountain ridges and rivers, from the Rockingham County and Harrisonburg, Va.-based band The Steel Wheels.  Here's about 35 seconds of “Find Your Mountain.”MUSIC – ~35 sec – Lyrics: “Find your mountain.  Find your river.  Find your mountain.”  Then instrumental. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 209, 4-14-14. “Big Run Thrives” and “Hazel River,” from the 1997 album “Here on this Ridge,” are copyright Timothy Seaman and Pine Wind Music, used with permission.   More information about Mr. Seaman is available online at http://www.timothyseaman.com/.  Information about the making of that album is available online at https://timothyseaman.com/en/timothys-blog/entry/the-making-of-our-album-here-on-this-ridge.  “Big Run Thrives” was used previously by Virginia Water Radio in in Episode 473. 5-20-19; “Hazel River was used previously in Episode 339, 10-24-16. “Find Your Mountain,” from the 2015 album “Leave Some Things Behind,” is copyright by The Steel Wheels, used with permission.  More information about The Steel Wheels is available online at http://www.thesteelwheels.com/. This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio in Episode 425, 6-18-18, Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES South Fork Shenandoah River at the U.S. Rt. 211 bridge in Page County, Va., July 22, 2012.  Traveling east on 211 from this point takes you into Shenandoah National Park, across the Blue Ridge, and into the Rappahannock River watershed.The Rappahannock River, looking upstream from U.S. Route 29 at Remington, Va. (Fauquier County), December 27, 2009.  The Hazel River flows into the Rappahannock just a few river miles above this point.View of Floyd County, Va., from the Blue Ridge Parkway, June 1, 2014.  The photo shows the New River watershed; behind the photographer (on the other side of the Parkway) is Patrick County and the Roanoke River watershed. SOURCES Used for Audio College of William and Mary Department of Geology, “The Geology of Virginia—Hydrology,” online at http://geology.blogs.wm.edu/hydrology/. DeLorme Company of Yarmouth, Maine, Virginia Atlas & Gazetteer, 2000. National Park Service, “Shenandoah National Park,” online at http://www.nps.gov/shen/index.htm.Rappahannock-Rapidan Regional Commission, “Local TMDLs,” online at https://www.rrregion.org/program_areas/environmental/local_tmdls.php.  Located at this site are Total Maximum Daily Load on the Upper Rappahannock River, the Hazel River, and other Rappahannock River basin waterways. For More Information about Watersheds and River Basins Natural Resources Conservation Service/Virginia, “2020 Virginia Water Resources Progress Report,” online at https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/va/programs/planning/.  This report has descriptions of projects in many Virginia watersheds.  The 2017 report is online at https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/va/programs/planning/wo/. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “How's My Waterway,” online at https://www.epa.gov/waterdata/hows-my-waterway. U.S. Geological Survey, “Water Science School/Watersheds and Drainage Basins,” online at https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/watersheds-and-drainage-basins?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, “Hydrologic Unit Geography,” online at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/soil-and-water/hu; and “Virginia's Major Watersheds,” online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/stormwater_management/wsheds.shtml. Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, “Commonwealth of Virginia State Water Resources Plan,” April 2015, available online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/water/water-quantity/water-supply-planning/virginia-water-resources-plan; “Status of Virginia's Water Resources,” October 2020, online (as a PDF) at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/home/showpublisheddocument/2119/637432838113030000; and “Water Quantity,” online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/water/water-quantity. Virginia Places, “The Continental (and Other) Divides,” online at http://www.virginiaplaces.org/watersheds/divides.html. Virginia Places, “Rivers and Watersheds of Virginia,” online at http://www.virginiaplaces.org/watersheds/index.html. Virginia Water Resources Research Center, “Divide and Confluence,” by Alan Raflo, pages 8-11 in Virginia Water Central Newsletter, February 2000, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/49316. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  Please see particularly the “Rivers, Streams, and Other Surface Water” subject category. Following are links to some other episodes on watersheds and Virginia rivers.  Please note that some of these episodes are being redone in summer 2021; in those cases, the respective links below will have information on the updated episodes. Big Otter River introduction (Roanoke River watershed) – Episode 419, 5-7-18. Big Sandy River watershed introduction – Episode 419, 5-7-18. Bullpasture and Cowpasture rivers introduction (James River watershed) – Episode 469, 4-22-19. Hazel River introduction (Rappahannock River watershed) – Episode 339, 10-24-16. Headwater streams – Episode 582, 6-21-21. Jackson River introduction (James River watershed) – Episode 428, 7-9-19. Madison County flooding in 1995 (on Rapidan River, in Rappahannock County watershed) – Episode 272, 6-29-15 Musical tour of rivers and watersheds - Episode 251, 2-2-15. New River introduction – Episode 109, 5-7-12. Ohio River basin introduction – Episode 421, 5-21-18. Ohio River basin connections through watersheds and history – Episode 422, 5-28-18; Passage Creek and Fort Valley introduction (Shenandoah River watershed) – Episode 331 – 8/29/16. River bluffs – Episode 173, 8-5-13. Rappahannock River introduction – Episode 89, 11-21-11. Shenandoah River introduction – Episode 130 – 10/1/12. Smith River and Philpott Reservoir introduction (Roanoke River watershed) – Episode 360, 3-20-17. South Fork Holston River introduction (Clinch-Powell/Upper Tennessee River watershed) – Episode 425, 6-18-18. Staunton River introduction (part of the Roanoke River) – Episode 374, 6-26-17. Virginia rivers quiz – Episode 334, 9-19-16. Virginia surface water numbers – Episode 539, 8-24-20. Virginia's Tennessee River tributaries – Episode 420, 5-14-18. Watershed and water cycle terms related to stormwater – Episode 365, 4-24-17. Watersheds introduction – Episode 581, 6-14-21. Water quantity information sources – Episode 546, 10-12-20. Werowocomoco native people's civilization history, centered in the York River watershed – Episode 364, 12-12-16. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post.  Virginia's SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-5: Earth and Space Systems 3.7 – There is a water cycle and water is important to life on Earth. Grades K-5: Earth Resources 3.8 – Natural events and humans influence ecosystems. 4.8 – Virginia has important natural resources. Grade 6 6.6 – Water has unique physical properties and has a role in the natural and human-made environment. 6.8 – Land and water have roles in watershed systems. Earth Science ES.8 – Freshwater resources influence and are influenced by geologic processes and human activity.

canada bay university agency music natural earth state audio college north america impact accent dark steel wheels tech water web status index land rain musical united states pond research ocean government education recreation conservation maine route chesapeake snow helps traveling environment images va yarmouth msonormal commonwealth stream normal allowpng worddocument zoom donotshowrevisions citizens confluence williamsburg arial environmental national park service times new roman trackmoves trackformatting punctuationkerning saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent compatibility breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit latentstyles deflockedstate latentstylecount latentstyles style definitions msonormaltable table normal donotpromoteqf lidthemeother lidthemeasian x none snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules mathpr mathfont cambria math brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc centergroup wrapindent intlim subsup narylim undovr defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority lsdexception locked priority semihidden unhidewhenused qformat name normal name title name default paragraph font name subtitle name strong name emphasis name table grid name placeholder text name no spacing name light shading name light list name light grid name medium shading name medium list name medium grid name dark list name colorful shading name colorful list name colorful grid name light shading accent name light list accent name light grid accent name revision name list paragraph name quote name intense quote name dark list accent name colorful shading accent name colorful list accent name colorful grid accent name subtle emphasis name intense emphasis name subtle reference name intense reference name book title name bibliography name toc heading divide located shenandoah water resources rivers grade colorful rt madison county signature geology continental blue ridge watershed transcript earth sciences wg roanoke river freshwater streams ohio river virginia tech atlantic ocean natural resources grades k parkway roanoke environmental quality watersheds name normal indent name list name list bullet name list number name closing name signature name body text name body text indent name list continue name message header name salutation name date name body text first indent name note heading name block text name document map name plain text name e name normal web name normal table name no list name outline list name table simple name table classic name table colorful name table columns name table list name table 3d name table contemporary name table elegant name table professional name table subtle name table web name balloon text name table theme name plain table name grid table light name grid table light accent dark accent colorful accent name list table front royal rappahannock waynesboro harrisonburg countless seaman james river regions cosgrove msohyperlink fauquier county relyonvml smith river usi blue ridge parkway sections potomac river ben cosgrove stormwater headwater new river policymakers bmp environmental protection agency epa rockingham county acknowledgment virginia department floyd county cumberland gap leave some things behind sols tennessee river tmdl geological survey shenandoah national park united states history total maximum daily load virginia standards water center space systems rappahannock river audio notes
Your Space Journey
SPACE ROBOTS: Interview with Rogue Space Systems CEO Jeromy Grimmett

Your Space Journey

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 22, 2021 22:15


In this episode we explore speak with Jeromy Grimmett, the founder & CEO of Rogue Space Systems. Rogue is a new space startup company that is creating orbital robots, or “Orbots”, that will repair and service satellites using Artificial Intelligence. Their new service will increase satellite lifespans, reducing the need to replace expensive space assets;...

Virginia Water Radio
Episode 582 (6-21-21): Where Headwaters Flow, Rivers Begin

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 21, 2021


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (5:09). Sections below are the following:Transcript of AudioAudio Notes and AcknowledgmentsImagesSourcesRelated Water Radio EpisodesFor Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 6-18-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of June 21, 2021.  This revised episode from December 2017 is part of a series this year of episodes related to watersheds and river basins. MUSIC – ~12 – instrumentalThat's part of “Highland,” by the group Wake Up Robin, with musicians from North Carolina, New York, California, and Washington State.  It opens an episode about waterways in the highest and most upstream part of watersheds, where water starts following a channel and flowing overland towards rivers.  Have a listen for about 10 seconds to two Virginia examples, and see if you can guess the name for these upper watershed features.  And here's a hint: get this right and you'll stream to the head of water class.SOUND - ~ 11 sec If you guessed headwater streams, you're right!  Headwater streams are the first flowing waters in the upper part of a river's watershed.  These relatively small streams have a big range of functions, including as habitat for certain organisms or life stages, and as a source of water, materials, and organisms for downstream waters. Understanding the location and length of headwater streams in the Appalachian Mountains, particularly in response to storms, was the research goal of Carrie Jensen, a graduate student from 2014 to 2018 in Virginia Tech's Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation.   In November 2017, Ms. Jensen described her research and its significance in just 90 seconds during the “Nutshell Games,” held by Virginia Tech's Center for Communicating Science.  Here's Ms. Jensen's presentation. GUEST VOICE - ~84 sec – “Hi, everyone.  My name is Carrie, and I study changes in stream length in Appalachian headwaters, which are the small streams where our rivers start on the landscape.  So I literally walk upstream with a GPS unit until I find where a stream begins in the mountains.  And these headwaters can expand and contract in length through time, getting longer when it's wet after it rains, and getting shorter during dry periods.  And I wanted to know if this expansion and contraction behavior is the same everywhere.  So I matched changes in stream length across the Appalachian Mountains and actually found some pretty big differences.  At some of my sites, stream length is really stable and hardly changes across a huge range of flows, but at other sites there's a lot of expansion and contraction: stream length varies from tens of feet to a couple of miles.  And this work is relevant for pretty much any application that requires knowing where streams are and when they have water.  So where to build stuff; how to build stuff; where you need riparian buffers of trees to protect water quality.  And normally we rely on maps for this information.  But the blue lines representing streams on maps don't tell us if the stream has water all the time, or 75 percent of the time, or maybe only once every couple of years.  So research describing and predicting these changes in stream length can help us better manage and protect our water resources.  Thank you.”As Ms. Jensen's work shows, there's much to know about headwaters, and such information can help us better understand quantity and quality patterns far downstream. Thanks to Carrie Jensen for permission to use the audio from her Nutshell Games talk.  Thanks also to Andrew VanNorstand for permission to use this week's music, and we close with about 15 more seconds of “Highland.”MUSIC - ~17 sec – instrumental SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 397, 12-4-17. The Nutshell Games are organized by the Virginia Tech Center for Communicating Science to give graduate students a forum for describing their research in a short presentation designed for non-scientists.  More information about the Center for Communicating Science is available online at https://communicatingscience.isce.vt.edu/.  Nutshell Games videos are available online at https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC01cz4Mal3-AOZeODCauLHw.  Two news articles about the Nutshell Games are New center focuses on the art of communicating science effectively, Virginia Tech News, 2/28/17; and Understandable communication aim of first 'Nutshell Games', Roanoke Times, 3/3/17.“Highland,” from the 2018 album “Wake Up Robin,” on Great Bear Records, by the group of the same name, is used with permission of Andrew VanNorstrand.  More information about the album and band is available online at https://wakeuprobin.bandcamp.com.The sounds of headwater streams heard in this episode were recorded in Blacksburg, Va.'s Heritage Park on July 27, 2016, and in Blacksburg on Brush Mountain on January 31, 2010 (the latter stream is shown in the photos below). Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGES Two views of a headwaters stream tributary to Toms Creek (New River basin) on Brush Mountain in Blacksburg, Va.: upper photo December 25, 2013; lower photo December 2, 2017. SOURCES Used for Audio Richard B. Alexander et al., “The Role of Headwater Streams in Downstream Water Quality,” Journal of the American Water Resources Association, Vol. 43, No. 1, February 2007, pages 41-59; available online at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3307624/(subscription may be required). Carrie Jensen, “Project Report, 2016 VWRRC Student Grant: Sensors reveal the timing and pattern of stream flow in headwaters after storms,” July 10, 2017, Virginia Water Resources Research Center, Blacksburg. Sacramento [Calif.] River Watershed Program, “Importance of the Headwaters,” by Todd Sloat, 9/21/14, online at https://sacriver.org/watershed-blog/importance-of-the-headwaters/. Craig Snyder, et al., “Significance of Headwater Streams and Perennial Springs in Ecological Monitoring in Shenandoah National Park,” 2013, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2013–1178; available online (as a PDF) at https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1178/pdf/ofr2013-1178.pdf. U.S. Geological Survey, “Water Resources of the United States/Water Basics Glossary/Headwaters,” online at https://water.usgs.gov/water-basics_glossary.html#H. U.S. Geological Survey, “Water Science School/Glossary/Headwater,” online at https://water.usgs.gov/edu/dictionary.html#H. Virginia Tech Center for Communicating Science, online at https://communicatingscience.isce.vt.edu/. West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, “The Importance of Headwater Streams,” online at https://dep.wv.gov/WWE/getinvolved/sos/Pages/Headwaters.aspx. For More Information about Watersheds and River Basins Natural Resources Conservation Service/Virginia, “2020 Virginia Water Resources Progress Report,” online at https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/va/programs/planning/.  This report has descriptions of projects in many Virginia watersheds.  The 2017 report is online at https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/va/programs/planning/wo/ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “How's My Waterway,” online at https://www.epa.gov/waterdata/hows-my-waterway. U.S. Geological Survey, “Water Science School/Watersheds and Drainage Basins,” online at https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/watersheds-and-drainage-basins?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, “Hydrologic Unit Geography,” online at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/soil-and-water/hu; and “Virginia's Major Watersheds,” online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/stormwater_management/wsheds.shtml.  Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, “Commonwealth of Virginia State Water Resources Plan,” April 2015, available online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/water/water-quantity/water-supply-planning/virginia-water-resources-plan; “Status of Virginia's Water Resources,” October 2020, online (as a PDF) at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/home/showpublisheddocument/2119/637432838113030000; and “Water Quantity,” online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/water/water-quantity.  Virginia Places, “The Continental (and Other) Divides,” online at http://www.virginiaplaces.org/watersheds/divides.html. Virginia Places, “Rivers and Watersheds of Virginia,” online at http://www.virginiaplaces.org/watersheds/index.html. Virginia Water Resources Research Center, “Divide and Confluence,” by Alan Raflo, pages 8-11 in Virginia Water Central Newsletter, February 2000, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/49316. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html). Following are links to some other episodes on watersheds and Virginia river basins.  Please note that some of these episodes are being redone in summer 2021, so the episode number, date, and link may change. Big Otter River introduction (Roanoke River watershed) – Episode 419, 5-7-18. Big Sandy River watershed introduction – Episode 419, 5-7-18. Blue Ridge and three watersheds - Episode 209, 4-14-14. Bullpasture and Cowpasture rivers introduction (James River watershed) – Episode 469, 4-22-19. Hazel River introduction (Rappahannock River watershed) – Episode 339, 10-24-16. Jackson River introduction (James River watershed) – Episode 428, 7-9-19. Madison County flooding in 1995 (on Rapidan River, in Rappahannock County watershed) – Episode 272, 6-29-15 Musical tour of rivers and watersheds - Episode 251, 2-2-15. New River introduction – Episode 109, 5-7-12. Ohio River basin introduction – Episode 421, 5-21-18. Ohio River basin connections through watersheds and history – Episode 422, 5-28-18; Passage Creek and Fort Valley introduction (Shenandoah River watershed) – Episode 331 – 8/29/16. River bluffs – Episode 173, 8-5-13. Rappahannock River introduction – Episode 89, 11-21-11. Shenandoah River introduction – Episode 130 – 10/1/12. Smith River and Philpott Reservoir introduction (Roanoke River watershed) – Episode 360, 3-20-17. South Fork Holston River introduction (Clinch-Powell/Upper Tennessee River watershed) – Episode 425, 6-18-18. Staunton River introduction (part of the Roanoke River) – Episode 374, 6-26-17. Virginia rivers quiz – Episode 334, 9-19-16. Virginia surface water numbers – Episode 539, 8-24-20. Virginia's Tennessee River tributaries – Episode 420, 5-14-18. Watershed and water cycle terms related to stormwater – EP365 – 4/24/17. Watersheds introduction – Episode 581, 6-14-21. Water quantity information sources – Episode 546, 10-12-20. Werowocomoco native people's civilization history, centered in the York River watershed – Episode 364, 12-12-16.Following are links to other episodes with information from presentations at the Nutshell Games, produced by the Virginia Tech Center for Communicating Sciences.Episode

new york bay university agency california music natural earth state audio college change sound accent dark tech water web status index land rain musical pond research ocean weather government education recreation conservation vol north carolina appalachian chesapeake snow gps environment wwe journal types organisms images ms va significance msonormal commonwealth stream highland normal worddocument zoom donotshowrevisions citizens confluence arial environmental dynamic times new roman trackmoves trackformatting punctuationkerning saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent compatibility breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit latentstyles deflockedstate latentstylecount latentstyles style definitions msonormaltable table normal donotpromoteqf lidthemeother lidthemeasian x none snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules mathpr mathfont cambria math brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc centergroup wrapindent intlim subsup narylim undovr defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority lsdexception locked priority semihidden unhidewhenused qformat name normal name title name default paragraph font name subtitle name strong name emphasis name table grid name placeholder text name no spacing name light shading name light list name light grid name medium shading name medium list name medium grid name dark list name colorful shading name colorful list name colorful grid name light shading accent name light list accent name light grid accent name revision name list paragraph name quote name intense quote name dark list accent name colorful shading accent name colorful list accent name colorful grid accent name subtle emphasis name intense emphasis name subtle reference name intense reference name book title name bibliography name toc heading divide water resources biology rivers grade colorful forest resources washington state madison county signature bio continental scales blue ridge guest voice watershed transcript earth sciences wg roanoke river freshwater ohio river environmental protection virginia tech ls aquatic atlantic ocean natural resources grades k environmental quality watersheds name normal indent name list name list bullet name list number name closing name signature name body text name body text indent name list continue name message header name salutation name date name body text first indent name note heading name block text name document map name plain text name e name normal web name normal table name no list name outline list name table simple name table classic name table colorful name table columns name table list name table 3d name table contemporary name table elegant name table professional name table subtle name table web name balloon text name table theme name plain table name grid table light name grid table light accent dark accent colorful accent name list table processes communicating science blacksburg james river msohyperlink appalachian mountains smith river sections richard b life sciences stormwater headwaters headwater new river environmental conservation policymakers bmp environmental protection agency epa heritage park new standard acknowledgment virginia department cripple creek cumberland gap emerald ash borer sols understandable tennessee river tmdl geological survey shenandoah national park west virginia department biotic living systems roanoke times virginia standards water center space systems rappahannock river audio notes
Virginia Water Radio
Episode 581 (6-14-21): Introducing Watersheds with “Mountain Stream” by Bob Gramann

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 15, 2021


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:31). Sections below are the following:Transcript of AudioAudio Notes and AcknowledgmentsImagesExtra InformationSourcesRelated Water Radio EpisodesFor Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 6-11-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of June 14, 2021.  This revised episode from April 2013 is part of a series this year of episodes related to watersheds and river basins. MUSIC – ~ 8 sec – instrumental This week, we feature a tune about stream paddling to introduce the key water resources concept of a watershed.  Have a listen to the music for about 40 more seconds. MUSIC – ~40 sec – Lyrics: “As I paddle down the mountain stream, the unsuspecting beaver slaps his tail and swims to flee the brightly colored threat, the drinking deer sniffs the air and bounds into thicket, while blue heron wing in front of me then fly back overhead.  And I love to ride the back of a rushing mountain stream, to thread between the eddies amidst the banks of April green.  The icy water warms my blood, waves splash over me; in the river I am young, I am free.” You've been listening to part of “Mountain Stream,” by Bob Gramann of Fredericksburg, Va., with Laura Lengnick on fiddle, from the 2001 album “See Further in the Darkness.”  Streams flowing down mountain slopes are starting points for several of Virginia's major rivers, such as the James, Rappahannock, and Shenandoah, because those streams are in the highest parts of those rivers' watersheds.  A watershed is the land area from which surface water drains into a specific water body; accordingly a synonym for watershed is drainage area.  While water flowing downhill is a basic part of any watershed, different watersheds have distinctive features because of particular landscapes, geology, wildlife, vegetation, climate, and human land uses. Watersheds also vary greatly in size: as the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Science School has stated, “watersheds can be as small as a footprint or large enough to encompass all the land that drains water into…[the] Chesapeake Bay….”  The term “catchment” is sometimes used for smaller watersheds, while the term “basin” is often used for the watersheds of large rivers, coastal estuaries, and the seas and oceans. Virginia over 100,000 miles of streams, according to the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality.  All of those stream miles are part of 14 major watersheds, including those of Virginia's biggest rivers and the coastal areas that drain into the Chesapeake, Albemarle Sound, or the Atlantic Ocean.  On the largest scale, all of Virginia's surface waters drain into one of two basins: the Atlantic Ocean, or the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River basin.  In parts of western Virginia—including Blacksburg, where this show originates—you can stand on the Eastern Continental Divide and have one foot in each of the Commonwealth's largest watersheds. Thanks to Bob Gramann for permission to use this week's music, and we close with about 20 more seconds of “Mountain Stream.” MUSIC – ~17 sec -  Lyrics: “To rise before the mist is clear, to chase the rainfall down the hillside.” SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 156, 4-8-13. “Mountain Stream” and “See Further in the Darkness” are copyright by Bob Gramann, used with permission.  Laura Lengnick accompanied on fiddle.  More information about Bob Gramann is available online at http://www.bobgramann.com.  This music was used previously by Water Radio most recently in Episode 546, 10-12-20. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES  Thornton River, Shenandoah National Park, Rappahannock County, June 19, 2006.   Map showing Virginia's major watersheds.  Map from the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, “Virginia's Major Watersheds,” online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/stormwater_management/wsheds.shtml. Map showing North America's major watersheds.  Map from the U.S. Geological Survey, “Water Science School/Watersheds and Drainage Basins,” online at https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/watersheds-and-drainage-basins?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects. EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT MAJOR VIRGINIA WATERSHEDS The following table of information about Virginia's 14 major watersheds is from the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Virginia's Major Watersheds,” online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/stormwater_management/wsheds.shtml. WATERSHED AREA IN SQUARE MILES MAJOR TRIBUTARIES Albemarle Sound Coastal 577 Dismal Swamp, North Landing River, Back Bay Atlantic Ocean Coastal 580 Chincoteague Bay, Hog Island Bay Chesapeake Bay Coastal 2,577 Chesapeake Bay, Piankatank River Chowan 3,675 Nottaway River, Meherrin River, Blackwater River James 10,236 James River, Appomattox River, Maury River, Jackson River, Rivanna River New 3,068 New River, Little River, Walker Creek Potomac - Shenandoah 5,702 Potomac River, S. Fork Shenandoah River, N. Fork Shenandoah River Rappahannock 2,714 Rappahannock River, Rapidan River, Hazel River Roanoke 6,274 Roanoke River, Dan River, Banister River, Kerr Reservoir Yadkin 118 Ararat River York 2,669 York River, Pamunkey River, Mattaponi River Holston (Upper Tennessee) 1,322 N. Fork Holston River, Middle Fork Holston River, S. Fork Holston River Clinch - Powell 1,811 Clinch River, Powell River, Guest River Big Sandy 999 Levisa Fork, Russel Fork, Tug Fork SOURCES Used for Audio U.S. Geological Survey, “Water Science School/Watersheds and Drainage Basins,” online at https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/watersheds-and-drainage-basins?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, “Hydrologic Unit Geography,” online at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/soil-and-water/hu; and “Virginia's Major Watersheds,” online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/stormwater_management/wsheds.shtml. Virginia Places, “The Continental (and Other) Divides,” online at http://www.virginiaplaces.org/watersheds/divides.html. Virginia Water Resources Research Center, “Divide and Confluence,” by Alan Raflo, pages 8-11 in Virginia Water Central Newsletter, February 2000, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/49316. For More Information about Watersheds and River Basins Natural Resources Conservation Service/Virginia, “2020 Virginia Water Resources Progress Report,” online at https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/va/programs/planning/.  This report has descriptions of projects in many Virginia watersheds.  The 2017 report is online at https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/va/programs/planning/wo/. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “How's My Waterway,” online at https://www.epa.gov/waterdata/hows-my-waterway. Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, “Commonwealth of Virginia State Water Resources Plan,” April 2015, available online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/water/water-quantity/water-supply-planning/virginia-water-resources-plan. Virginia Places, “Rivers and Watersheds of Virginia,” online at http://www.virginiaplaces.org/watersheds/index.html. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Rivers, Streams, and Other Surf

bay university agency mexico music natural earth state audio college north america map accent dark tech water darkness web index land rain musical pond research ocean government education gulf recreation conservation mountain chesapeake bay mississippi river chesapeake snow environment types images va msonormal commonwealth stream normal worddocument zoom donotshowrevisions citizens confluence arial environmental times new roman trackmoves trackformatting punctuationkerning saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent compatibility breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit latentstyles deflockedstate latentstylecount latentstyles style definitions msonormaltable table normal donotpromoteqf lidthemeother lidthemeasian x none snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules mathpr mathfont cambria math brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc centergroup wrapindent intlim subsup narylim undovr defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority lsdexception locked priority semihidden unhidewhenused qformat name normal name title name default paragraph font name subtitle name strong name emphasis name table grid name placeholder text name no spacing name light shading name light list name light grid name medium shading name medium list name medium grid name dark list name colorful shading name colorful list name colorful grid name light shading accent name light list accent name light grid accent name revision name list paragraph name quote name intense quote name dark list accent name colorful shading accent name colorful list accent name colorful grid accent name subtle emphasis name intense emphasis name subtle reference name intense reference name book title name bibliography name toc heading divide shenandoah lyrics rivers grade colorful resource madison county signature continental blue ridge watershed transcript earth sciences wg roanoke river freshwater streams ohio river virginia tech back bay atlantic ocean natural resources grades k roanoke environmental quality watersheds name normal indent name list name list bullet name list number name closing name signature name body text name body text indent name list continue name message header name salutation name date name body text first indent name note heading name block text name document map name plain text name e name normal web name normal table name no list name outline list name table simple name table classic name table colorful name table columns name table list name table 3d name table contemporary name table elegant name table professional name table subtle name table web name balloon text name table theme name plain table name grid table light name grid table light accent dark accent colorful accent name list table fredericksburg rappahannock blacksburg james river cosgrove msohyperlink smith river sections potomac river ben cosgrove stormwater headwater new river policymakers bmp environmental protection agency epa powell river acknowledgment virginia department cumberland gap sols tennessee river big sandy tmdl geological survey shenandoah national park little river yadkin dan river virginia standards water center space systems rappahannock river audio notes dismal swamp
Virginia Water Radio
Episode 580 (6-7-21): Ana's May Arrival Opens the 2021 Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Season

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Jun 8, 2021


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (5:05). Sections below are the following:Transcript of AudioAudio Notes and AcknowledgmentsImagesExtra InformationSourcesRelated Water Radio EpisodesFor Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 6-4-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of June 7, 2021. MUSIC – ~10 seconds - instrumentalThat's part of “Tropical Tantrum,” composed for Virginia Water Radio in 2017 by Torrin Hallett, a recent graduate of Lamont School of Music at the University of Denver.  The music sets the stage for our annual preview of the Atlantic basin tropical cyclone season.  We start with some guest voices, calling out names that, if we're lucky, will not become infamous this summer or fall.   Have a listen for about 30 seconds, and see if you can guess who—or rather, what—is being named. GUEST VOICES - ~30 sec – “Ana.  Bill.  Claudette.  Danny.  Elsa.  Fred.  Grace.  Henri.  Ida.  Julian.  Kate.  Larry.  Mindy.  Nicholas.  Odette.  Peter.  Rose.  Sam.  Teresa.  Victor.  Wanda.” If you guessed the names planned for storms that may occur during this year's Atlantic tropical cyclone season, you're right!  The Atlantic basin includes the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic tropical cyclone season runs officially from June 1 through November 30.  Most Atlantic tropical cyclones occur within this period, but not all of them.  For the past six years in the Atlantic basin, named storms have formed before June 1, including Alex in January 2016, and this year, Ana, which strengthened into a tropical storm on May 23. [Editor's note, not in the audio: Other recent pre-June named Atlantic storms include Arlene in April 2017, Alberto in May 2018, Andrea in May 2019, and Arthur in May 2020.]Tropical storms and hurricanes are two categories of tropical cyclones, which are rotating storm systems that start in tropical or sub-tropical latitudes.  A tropical cyclone is called a tropical storm—and gets a name—when sustained wind speeds reach 39 miles per hour; at 74 miles per hour, a tropical cyclone is considered a hurricane.  Tropical depressions—with wind speeds below 39 miles per hour—don't get named if they never reach tropical storm wind speed,* but they can still bring damaging rainfall and flooding.  Hurricane-force storms are called typhoons in northwestern areas of the Pacific Ocean.[Editor's note, not in the audio: A tropical system that never gets above the tropical depression wind-speed level won't be given a name.  But a lingering tropical depression that previously was at the wind speed of a tropical storm or hurricane will have a name associated with it.]Before a tropical system of any speed or name barges into the Old Dominion, here are some important preparedness steps recommended by the National Weather Service. Know your zone – that is, find out if you live in a hurricane evacuation area by checking the Virginia Department of Emergency Management's “Know Your Zone” Web site, or contacting your local emergency management office. Assemble an emergency kit of food, water, medicines, and supplies. Have a family emergency plan, including plans for evacuating and for getting in touch with one another in an emergency. Review your insurance policiesto ensure that you have adequate coverage for your home and personal property. And establish ways to stay informed, especially if the power goes out, and be sure you understand the meaning of Weather Service forecast terms. Detailed safety tips for hurricanes and other severe weather are available from the “Safety” link at the National Weather Service Web site, www.weather.gov. Thanks to several Blacksburg, Va., friends for lending their voices to this episode.  Thanks also to Torrin Hallett for this week's music, and we close with the last 15 seconds of “Tropical Tantrum.” MUSIC – ~15 seconds - instrumental SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS “Tropical Tantrum” is copyright 2017 by Torrin Hallett, used with permission.  Torrin is a 2018 graduate of Oberlin College and Conservatory in Oberlin, Ohio, a 2020 graduate in Horn Performance from Manhattan School of Music in New York, and a 2021 candidate of the Lamont School of Music at the University of Denver.  More information about Torrin is available online at https://www.facebook.com/torrin.hallett.  Thanks very much to Torrin for composing the piece especially for Virginia Water Radio.  This music was used previously in several episodes, most recently in Episode 526, 5-25-20, the 2020 Atlantic tropical storm season preview.  Click here to hear the full piece (28 seconds). Thanks very much to Blacksburg friends who recorded the planned tropical cyclone names.Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGES Predictions for the 2021 Atlantic tropical storm season.  Graphic from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, “NOAA Predicts Another Active Atlantic Hurricane Season,” 5/20/21, online at https://www.noaa.gov/media-release/noaa-predicts-another-active-atlantic-hurricane-season.Map showing the names, dates, and tracks of named Atlantic basin tropical cyclones (tropical storms and hurricanes) in 2020. Map from the National Hurricane Center, “2020 Atlantic Hurricane Season,” online at https://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/index.php?season=2020&basin=atl.One of several “5 Things to Know About…” posters related to hurricane safety, provided by the National Weather Service, “What to Do Before the Tropical Storm or Hurricane,” online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/hurricane-plan.  The other posters in the series cover evacuation planning, strengthening one's home, getting information, and updating insurance. EXTRA INFORMATION ON TROPICAL CYCLONE PREPAREDNESS The following information is quoted from the National Weather Service, ‘Hurricane Safety,” online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/hurricane. Plan for a Hurricane: What to Do Before the Tropical Storm or Hurricane(online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/hurricane-plan)“The best time to prepare for a hurricane is before hurricane season begins on June 1.  It is vital to understand your home's vulnerability to storm surge, flooding, and wind.  Here is your checklist of things to do BEFORE hurricane seasons begins.Know your zone: Do you live near the Gulf or Atlantic Coasts?  Find out if you live in a hurricane evacuation area by contacting your local government/emergency management office or, in Virginia, by visiting https://www.vaemergency.gov/hurricane-evacuation-zone-lookup/. Put Together an Emergency Kit: Put together a basic emergency kit; information to do so is online at https://www.ready.gov/kit.  Check emergency equipment, such as flashlights, generators, and storm shutters.Write or review your Family Emergency Plan: Before an emergency happens, sit down with your family or close friends and decide how you will get in contact with each other, where you will go, and what you will do in an emergency.  Keep a copy of this plan in your emergency supplies kit or another safe place where you can access it in the event of a disaster.  Information to help with emergency plan preparation is online at https://www.ready.gov/plan. Review Your Insurance Policies: Review your insurance policies to ensure that you have adequate coverage for your home and personal property.Understand NWS forecast products, especially the meaning of NWS watches and warnings.Preparation tips for your home are available from the Federal Alliance for Safe Homes, online at https://www.flash.org/. Preparation tips for those with chronic illnesses are available from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, online at https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/infographic/emergency.htm.Actions to Take When a Tropical Storm or Hurricane Threatens(online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/hurricane-action) “When a hurricane threatens your community, be prepared to evacuate if you live in a storm surge risk area.  Allow enough time to pack and inform friends and family if you need to leave your home. Secure your home: Cover all of your home's windows.  Permanent storm shutters offer the best protection for windows.  A second option is to board up windows with 5/8 inch exterior grade or marine plywood, built to fit, and ready to install.  Buy supplies before the hurricane season rather than waiting for the pre-storm rush. Stayed tuned in: Check the websites of your local National Weather Service office (online at https://www.weather.gov/) and local government/emergency management office.  Find out what type of emergencies could occur and how you should respond. Listen to NOAA Weather Radio or other radio or TV stations for the latest storm news. Follow instructions issued by local officials. Leave immediately if ordered! If NOT ordered to evacuate: *Take refuge in a small interior room, closet, or hallway on the lowest level during the storm.  Put as many walls between you and the outside as you can. *Stay away from windows, skylights, and glass doors. *If the eye of the storm passes over your area, there will be a short period of calm, but at the other side of the eye, the wind speed rapidly increases to hurricane force winds coming from the opposite direction.” After a Hurricane(online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/hurricane-after) Continue listening to a NOAA Weather Radio or the local news for the latest updates. If you evacuated, return home only when officials say it is safe. Once home, drive only if necessary and avoid flooded roads and washed-out bridges.  If you must go out, watch for fallen objects in the road, downed electrical wires, and weakened walls, bridges, roads, and sidewalks that might collapse. Walk carefully around the outside of your home to check for loose power lines, gas leaks, and structural damage. Stay out of any building if you smell gas, if floodwaters remain around the building, if the building or home was damaged by fire, or if the authorities have not declared it safe. Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the leading causes of death after storms in areas dealing with power outages.  Never use a portable generator inside your home or garage. Use battery-powered flashlights.  Do NOT use candles.  Turn on your flashlight before entering a vacated building.  The battery could produce a spark that could ignite leaking gas, if present.” EXTRA INFORMATION ON TROPICAL CYCLONE NAMES The following information is quoted from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, “Tropical Cyclone Names,” online at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/aboutnames.shtml, as of 6-8-21.“Since 1953, Atlantic tropical storms had been named from lists originated by the National Hurricane Center.  They are now maintained and updated through a strict procedure by an international committee of the World Meteorological Organization [online at http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/tcp/]. “[Six lists] are used in rotation and re-cycled every six years, i.e., the 2019 list will be used again in 2025.  The only time that there is a change in the list is if a storm is so deadly or costly that the future use of its name on a different storm would be inappropriate for reasons of sensitivity.  If that occurs, then at an annual meeting by the WMO committee (called primarily to discuss many other issues) the offending name is stricken from the list and another name is selected to replace it.  Several names have been retired since the lists were created.  [More information on the hi

tv new york office bay university agency graphic mexico music national natural halloween earth state audio opens college map accent greek dark tech water web air index rain arrival pond research ocean weather government education gulf transportation skills tropical prevention chesapeake bay ohio chesapeake snow write environment plan images oberlin college va msonormal new year safety atlantic stream walk secure actions normal worddocument zoom donotshowrevisions citizens hurricane irma arial environmental times new roman calibri trackmoves trackformatting punctuationkerning saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent compatibility breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit latentstyles deflockedstate latentstylecount latentstyles style definitions msonormaltable table normal donotpromoteqf lidthemeother lidthemeasian x none snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules mathpr mathfont cambria math brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc centergroup wrapindent intlim subsup narylim undovr defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority lsdexception locked priority semihidden unhidewhenused qformat name normal name title name default paragraph font name subtitle name strong name emphasis name table grid name placeholder text name no spacing name light shading name light list name light grid name medium shading name medium list name medium grid name dark list name colorful shading name colorful list name colorful grid name light shading accent name light list accent name light grid accent name revision name list paragraph name quote name intense quote name dark list accent name colorful shading accent name colorful list accent name colorful grid accent name subtle emphasis name intense emphasis name subtle reference name intense reference name book title name bibliography name toc heading hurricane matthew predictions carbon hurricanes conservatory civics preparation grade assemble oberlin detailed colorful signature national weather service wild turkey manhattan school scales guest voices govt cyclone watershed transcript earth sciences wg permanent centers disease control virginia tech atlantic ocean glossary natural resources hurricane sandy grades k stayed name normal indent name list name list bullet name list number name closing name signature name body text name body text indent name list continue name message header name salutation name date name body text first indent name note heading name block text name document map name plain text name e name normal web name normal table name no list name outline list name table simple name table classic name table colorful name table columns name table list name table 3d name table contemporary name table elegant name table professional name table subtle name table web name balloon text name table theme name plain table name grid table light name grid table light accent dark accent colorful accent name list table henri emergency response pacific ocean ar sa blacksburg virginia governor american red cross msohyperlink sections hurricane season old dominion stormwater national oceanic caribbean sea policymakers bmp tropical storms atmospheric administration emergency preparedness atmospheric administration noaa emergency management nws new standard acknowledgment virginia department safe homes cripple creek cumberland gap news release sols prepare now tmdl put together atlantic hurricane season wmo do before national hurricane center emergency kit weather service vdot torrin world meteorological organization virginia standards water center national ocean service space systems audio notes
Virginia Water Radio
Episode 579 (5-31-21): Water from Wells, Springs, and Cisterns Gets a Check-up through the Virginia Household Water Quality Program

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later May 28, 2021


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:56). Sections below are the following:Transcript of AudioAudio Notes and AcknowledgmentsImagesSourcesRelated Water Radio EpisodesFor Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 5-28-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of May 31, 2021.  This revised episode from March 2017 is part of a series this year of groundwater-related episodes. SOUND – ~5 sec – running water faucet This week, we drop in on an event where people line up to talk and learn about their household water faucets.  Sound plumb unbelievable?  Well, just have a listen for about 50 seconds. VOICES - ~51 sec – Excerpts from March 20, 2017, recording at Virginia Tech. “You’ve already paid with a credit card for two samples?”“That’s exactly right, yep.” …“All the instructions are on there.  Have you participated before?”“No.”“Ok…so the sample instructions are in there…There’s a survey you’ll want to fill out, as well.  The big thing is -- one of the big things is -- to let the water sit in the pipes overnight, [from say] 10 o’clock…And then the first thing in the morning, [at] the tap you’re going to collect from, collect that bottle with the X first, and then you can collect the other bottles in whatever order you want to.  OK?” …“If we have questions, is there somewhere to send them to by chance?”“There’s a link on the Web site that’s in there….”“Ok.” …“Have you participated with us before?”“I have.  And if there’s basic instructions in there, I’m good to go with those.” …“And the drop-off’s Wednesday morning.”“Good deal.”“All right?”“Thank you.”“Thank you, and you all have a good one.”“Thank you.” You’ve been listening to citizen participants and Virginia Tech faculty at a Virginia Household Water Quality Program clinic kick-offin Montgomery County on March 20, 2017.  The program offers drinking-water clinics in which people who rely on private wells, springs, or cisterns can get their water tested inexpensively and receive a report interpreting the results.  Citizens pick up a sampling kit and instructions, collect water from a household faucet (or in some cases, directly from a spring or other water source), and return the samples two days later.  Tech laboratories analyze the samples for bacteria, lead, arsenic, nitrate, iron, sulfate, and several other constituents.  After about four weeks, program faculty hold a meeting to give participants their confidential results, offer interpretation of the analyses, and provide other information on managing water systems.  The clinics in 2021 began in February and run into late November, serving over 60 Virginia localities.  In operation since 1989, the program has covered the Commonwealth several times, with the results providing valuable information to specific homeowners and offering broader snapshots of groundwater conditions within localities. In a companion program—the Virginia Well Owner Network—trained Virginia Cooperative Extension agents assist Virginians with water-well questions and problems.  Both programs are administered by Virginia Tech’s Department of Biological Systems Engineering, through Cooperative Extension. For more information about these programs, search online for the Virginia Household Water Quality Program; phone (540) 231-9058; or contact your local Cooperative Extension office. We close with some music, named for the weather every well-owner—in fact, every water user—needs regularly.  Here’s about 25 seconds of “Driving Rain,” by the Nelson County, Va., band, Chamomile and Whiskey. MUSIC - ~24 sec – instrumental SHIP’S BELLVirginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode updates and replaces Episode 361, 3-27-17. Thanks to Kelli Scott of Virginia Cooperative Extension, and to Brian Benham and Erin Ling of the Virginia Tech Department of Biological Systems Engineering, for their help with the 2017 version of this episode, and again to Erin Ling for her help with the 2021 update. “Driving Rain,” from the 2012 album “The Barn Sessions,” is copyright by Chamomile and Whiskey and by County Wide Records, used with permission.  More information about Chamomile and Whiskey is available online at http://www.chamomileandwhiskey.com/, and information about Charlottesville-based County Wide records is available online at http://countywidemusic.worldsecuresystems.com/.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 531, 6-29-20. Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES Kits containing sampling bottles and instructions await pickup by participants at the Virginia Household Water Quality Program kickoff for Montgomery County on March 20, 2017, at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg.Sample bottles and instruction sheets included in participant kits in the Virginia Household Water Quality Program, March 20, 2017. SOURCES Used for Audio Robby Korth, Virginia Tech researchers: Flint-like problems also present in Virginia wells, Roanoke Times, 4/10/16. Virginia Tech Department of Biological Systems Engineering/Virginia Household Water Quality Program and Virginia Well Owner Network, “Clinic Description,” online at http://www.wellwater.bse.vt.edu; “Upcoming Events,” online at http://www.wellwater.bse.vt.edu/events.php.  For more information about these programs, contact Erin Ling, phone (540) 231-9058; e-mail: wellwater@vt.edu. Virginia Cooperative Extension, “Home Water Quality” publications page, online at http://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/tags.resource.html/pubs_ext_vt_edu:home-water-quality.  This site includes locality reports from the Household Water Quality Program, along with other information on managing household water systems. For More Information about Groundwater in Virginia or Elsewhere Charles W. Carlston, “Notes on the early history of water-well drilling in the United States,” Economic Geology (Vol. 38, pages 119-136, 1943); available online at https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/segweb/economicgeology/article/38/2/119/15747/Notes-on-the-early-history-of-water-well-drilling(subscription may be required for access). Marshall Fishwick, Springlore in Virginia, Bowling Green State University Popular Press, Bowling Green, Ky., 1978. Henrico County, Va., “Well Water FAQ” (undated), online at https://henrico.us/health/environmental-health/groundwater-and-wells/. Philip LaMoreaux and Judy Tanner, eds., Springs and Bottled Waters of the World:  Ancient History, Source, Occurrence, Quality, and Use, Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg Germany, 2001; information available online at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321613235_Springs_and_Bottled_Waters_of_the_World_Ancient_History_Source_Occurence_Quality_and_Use(subscription may be required). National Ground Water Association, online at http://www.ngwa.org/Pages/default.aspx. National Speleological Society, online at http://www.caves.org/. “Pulse of the Planet” (Web site: http://www.pulseplanet.com/) segments with Virginia well-driller Eric Rorrer and with Erin Ling, the coordinator of the Virginia Household Water Quality Program and Virginia Well Owner Network.  The three segments are as follows:March 10, 2014: Water-Drilling;March 11, 2014: Water - Surface and Ground;March 12, 2014: Water-Well Maintenance. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) “Ground Water and Drinking Water,” online at https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water. U.S. Geological Survey, “Groundwater Wells,” online at https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/groundwater-wells?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects.  U.S. Geological Survey, “Karst Topography - Teacher's Guide and Paper Model,” online at http://geomaps.wr.usgs.gov/parks/cave/karst.html. U.S. Geological Survey, “USGS Water Science School,” online at http://water.usgs.gov/edu/. George Veni et al., “Living with Karst,” American Geological Institute Environmental Awareness Series, 2001; available online at http://www.agiweb.org/environment/publications/karst.pdf. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, “Virginia Natural Heritage Karst Program,” online at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural-heritage/karsthome; see particularly “Introduction to Virginia’s Karst,” online (as a PDF) at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural-heritage/document/introvakarst.pdf. Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, “Commonwealth of Virginia State Water Resources Plan,” April 2015, available online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/water/water-quantity/water-supply-planning/virginia-water-resources-plan. Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, “Groundwater Basics,” at http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Water/WaterSupplyWaterQuantity/GroundwaterProtectionSteeringCommittee/FrequentlyAskedQuestions.aspx. Virginia Legislative Information System, “Private Well Regulations,” Virginia Administrative Code, Sec. 12 VAC 5-630, online at https://law.lis.virginia.gov/admincode/title12/agency5/chapter630/section30/.  “Design and Construction Criteria” are in Part III, starting at Section 12 VAC 5-630-350, online at https://law.lis.virginia.gov/admincode/title12/agency5/chapter630/section350/. Virginia Places, “Caves and Springs in Virginia,” online at http://www.virginiaplaces.org/cave/. Virginia Places, “Thermal Springs in Virginia,” online at http://www.virginiaplaces.org/watersheds/hotsprings.html; Virginia Water Resources Research Center groundwater-related publications from the 1980s to the 2000s are listed and linked online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/23964/discover?rpp=10&etal=0&query=groundwater&group_by=none&page=3.  Here are some key publications:*Author unidentified, A Guide to Private Wells, 1995, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/55265.*J.A. Poff, A Guide to Virginia’s Groundwater, 1997, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/55247.*J.A. Poff, A Homeowner’s Guide to the Development, Maintenance, and Protection of Springs as a Drinking Water Source, Virginia Water Resources Research Center, Blacksburg, 1999, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/55268. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html). Following are links to other groundwater-related episodes.   Caves, caverns, and other karst features – Episode 527, 6-1-20.Eastern Virginia groundwater and the SWIFT project – Episode 534, 7-20-20.Groundwater introduction – Episode 575, 5-3-21.Information sources on Virginia’s water resources generally, including groundwater – Episode 546, 10-12-20.Springs – Episode 576, 5-10-21.Virginia’s Western Highlands and thermal springs – Episode 577. 5-17-21.Well construction – Episode 578, 5-24-21.Winter precipitation and water supplies, including the role of groundwater replenishment – Episode 567, 3-8-21. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode’s audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-5: Earth and Space Systems3.7 – There is a water cycle and water is important to life on Earth. Grades K-5: Earth ResourcesK.11 – Humans use resources.1.8 – Natural resources can be used responsibly.3.8 – Natural events and humans influence ecosystems.4.8 – Virginia has important natural resources. <

bay humans university design agency guide music berlin natural flint relationships earth state audio living college swift world sound accent pop dark tech water web index land rain united states pond research ocean ground government education public recreation conservation development vol checkup springs chesapeake snow caves environment types pulse images montgomery county va pages msonormal maintenance commonwealth stream ky normal allowpng worddocument zoom donotshowrevisions citizens voices arial environmental dynamic times new roman calibri trackmoves trackformatting punctuationkerning saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent compatibility breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit latentstyles deflockedstate latentstylecount latentstyles style definitions msonormaltable table normal donotpromoteqf lidthemeother lidthemeasian x none snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules mathpr mathfont cambria math brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc centergroup wrapindent intlim subsup narylim undovr defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority lsdexception locked priority semihidden unhidewhenused qformat name normal name title name default paragraph font name subtitle name strong name emphasis name table grid name placeholder text name no spacing name light shading name light list name light grid name medium shading name medium list name medium grid name dark list name colorful shading name colorful list name colorful grid name light shading accent name light list accent name light grid accent name revision name list paragraph name quote name intense quote name dark list accent name colorful shading accent name colorful list accent name colorful grid accent name subtle emphasis name intense emphasis name subtle reference name intense reference name book title name bibliography name toc heading shenandoah biology whiskey civics grade kits ancient history colorful resource signature bio charlottesville sec karst excerpts govt watershed transcript earth sciences vac water quality household wg freshwater epa virginia tech bowling green ls atlantic ocean groundwater natural resources grades k drinking water environmental quality name normal indent name list name list bullet name list number name closing name signature name body text name body text indent name list continue name message header name salutation name date name body text first indent name note heading name block text name document map name plain text name e name normal web name normal table name no list name outline list name table simple name table classic name table colorful name table columns name table list name table 3d name table contemporary name table elegant name table professional name table subtle name table web name balloon text name table theme name plain table name grid table light name grid table light accent dark accent colorful accent name list table nelson county virginians heidelberg germany upcoming events poff ar sa homeowners blacksburg environmental protection agency chamomile cosgrove msohyperlink occurrence cooperative extension relyonvml sections life sciences ben cosgrove stormwater policymakers msobodytext bmp acknowledgment virginia department cumberland gap sols driving rain tmdl springer verlag cisterns geological survey countywide henrico county brian benham roanoke times virginia standards water center space systems audio notes
Virginia Water Radio
Episode 578 (5-24-21): Water Well Construction is an Ancient and Modern Human Practice

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later May 24, 2021


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:51). Sections below are the following:Transcript of AudioAudio Notes and AcknowledgmentsImagesSourcesRelated Water Radio EpisodesFor Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 5-21-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of May 24, 2021.  This revised episode from June 2014 is part of a series this year of groundwater-related episodes. SOUND – ~5 sec That rattling and humming sound opens an episode on an ancient human practice related to groundwater.  Have a listen for about 10 more seconds, and see if you can guess what’s making the sound.  And here’s a hint: think deep into human civilization, and you’ll guess well enough. SOUND  - ~9 sec If you guessed, drilling a water well, you’re right!  That was the sound of a well-drilling rig in June 2014, working through 100 to 200 feet of limestone bedrock to reach groundwater for a residence in Montgomery County, Virginia.  For thousands of years, humans have been developing ways to dig below the earth’s surface to reach groundwater aquifers.  Digging with hands and tools was the first method, of course.  Today dug wells, as well as bored or driven wells, remain in use in areas of the United States and in other parts of the world. But drillingallows deeper and narrower wells.  In the United States, water-well drilling dates back to the early 1800s.  Since then, many different drilling methods and machines have been developed to adapt to the various geological conditions drillers encounter and to make drilling more efficient.  Modern well drillers also must follow regulations intended to prevent groundwater pollution that could threaten public health or the environment.  In Virginia, thattradition dates back at least to 1610, when the Colony of Virginia’s first sanitation law required that, quote, “no man or woman...make cleane, any kettle, pot, or pan, or such like vessell within twenty foote of the olde well.” Thanks to Blacksburg well-driller Wayne Fenton for permission to record this week’s sounds. We close with some music from the era of that 1610 well-protection law in the Virginia colony.  Here’s about 20 seconds of “Sir John Smith His Almayne,” composed by John Dowland, a popular English musician during the early 1600s, and performed here by Timothy Seaman of Williamsburg, Va. MUSIC - ~24 sec – instrumentalSHIP’S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 219, 6-23-14.The sounds in this episode were recorded on June 20, 2014, at a residential well-drilling site in Montgomery County, Va.  Thanks to Wayne Fenton, owner at that time of Fenton Well Drilling and Pump Service in Blacksburg, Va., for permission to record his work that day and for providing information in for this original (2014) version of this episode.  More information about Fenton Well Drilling and Pump Service is available online at https://fentonwellandpumpservice.com/. “Sir John Smith, His Almayne,” from the 2006 album “Jamestown: On the Edge of a Vast Continent,” is copyright by Timothy Seaman and Pine Wind Music, used with permission.  More information about Timothy Seaman is available online at http://timothyseaman.com/en/.   According to Timothy Dickey (“John Dowland—Sir John Smith, his Almain, for Lute, P47,” AllMusic Web site, online at http://www.allmusic.com/composition/sir-john-smith-his-almain-for-lute-p-47-mc0002373007), an almayne, or almain, is a dance typically considered to be of German origin, or a tune for such a dance; and John Dowland (ca. 1563-1626), composed this piece for some Englishman with that fairly common name (but not, evidently, for the Captain John Smith of Jamestown Colony fame).  More information from Timothy Dickey on John Dowland is available online at https://www.allmusic.com/artist/john-dowland-mn0000770105/biography.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio in Episode 350, 1-9-17. Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGES Top: Well-drilling rig.  Bottom: Rotary drilling and the mixture of soil, rock, and water being brought to the surface.  Both photos taken at a Montgomery County, Va., residential well-drilling project by Fenton Well Drilling and Pump Service of Blacksburg, Va., June 20, 2014. SOURCES Used for Audio Charles W. Carlston, “Notes on the early history of water-well drilling in the United States,” Economic Geology (Vol. 38, pages 119-136, 1943); available online at https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/segweb/economicgeology/article/38/2/119/15747/Notes-on-the-early-history-of-water-well-drilling(subscription may be required for access). Thomas V. Cech, Principles of Water Resources: History, Development, Management, and Policy, Third Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, N.J., 2010, pages 1-4.Fletcher G. Driscoll, Groundwater and Wells, Second Edition, Johnson Screen, St. Paul, Minn., 1986. Henrico County, Va., “Well Water FAQ” (undated), online at https://henrico.us/health/environmental-health/groundwater-and-wells/. as of 5/21/21. Bruce Misstear et al., Water Wells and Boreholes, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England, 2006, pages 1-6. U.S. Geological Survey, “Groundwater Wells,” online at https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/groundwater-wells?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects.U.S. Peace Corps, “Wells Construction: Hand Dug and Hand Drilled (M0009),” April 13, 2017, online at https://pclive.peacecorps.gov/pclive/index.php/environment/item/1198-wells-construction-hand-dug-and-hand-drilled-m0009. Virginia Department of Health, “About Us (Old)” online at https://www.vdh.virginia.gov/drinking-water/about-us/ (information on Virginia’s 1610 sanitation law). Virginia Humanities, Encyclopedia Virginia, “Lawes Divine, Morall and Martiall,” online at https://encyclopediavirginia.org/entries/lawes-divine-morall-and-martiall/ (information on Virginia’s 1610 sanitation law). Virginia Legislative Information System, “Private Well Regulations,” Virginia Administrative Code, Sec. 12 VAC 5-630, online at https://law.lis.virginia.gov/admincode/title12/agency5/chapter630/section30/.  “Design and Construction Criteria” are in Part III, starting at Section 12 VAC 5-630-350, online at https://law.lis.virginia.gov/admincode/title12/agency5/chapter630/section350/. Virginia Places, “Waste Management,” online at http://www.virginiaplaces.org/waste/ (information on Virginia’s 1610 sanitation law). WaterAid, “Technology Resources,” online at https://washmatters.wateraid.org/publications/technology-resources. For More Information about Groundwater in Virginia or Elsewhere Stan Cohen, The Homestead and Warm Springs Valley, Virginia: A Pictorial Heritage, Pictorial Histories Publishing Company, Charleston, W. Va., 1984. Marshall Fishwick, Springlore in Virginia, Bowling Green State University Popular Press, Bowling Green, Ky., 1978. Philip LaMoreaux and Judy Tanner, eds., Springs and Bottled Waters of the World:  Ancient History, Source, Occurrence, Quality, and Use, Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg Germany, 2001; information available online at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321613235_Springs_and_Bottled_Waters_of_the_World_Ancient_History_Source_Occurence_Quality_and_Use(subscription may be required). National Speleological Society, online at http://www.caves.org/. “Pulse of the Planet” (Web site: http://www.pulseplanet.com/) segments with Virginia well-driller Eric Rorrer and with Erin Ling, the coordinator of the Virginia Household Water Quality Program and Virginia Well-owner Network (in the Virginia Tech Department of Biological Systems Engineering).  The three segments are as follows:March 10, 2014: Water-Drilling;March 11, 2014: Water - Surface and Ground;March 12, 2014: Water-Well Maintenance. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) “Ground Water and Drinking Water,” online at https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water. George Veni et al., “Living with Karst,” American Geological Institute Environmental Awareness Series, 2001; available online at http://www.agiweb.org/environment/publications/karst.pdf. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, “Virginia Natural Heritage Karst Program,” online at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural-heritage/karsthome; see particularly “Introduction to Virginia’s Karst,” online (as a PDF) at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural-heritage/document/introvakarst.pdf. Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, “Commonwealth of Virginia State Water Resources Plan,” April 2015, available online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/water/water-quantity/water-supply-planning/virginia-water-resources-plan. Virginia Museum of History and Culture, “The Regions of Virginia,” online at https://virginiahistory.org/learn/regions-virginia. Virginia Places, “Caves and Springs in Virginia,” online at http://www.virginiaplaces.org/cave/. Virginia Places, “Thermal Springs in Virginia,” online at http://www.virginiaplaces.org/watersheds/hotsprings.html. Virginia Water Resources Research Center groundwater-related publications from the 1980s to the 2000s are listed and linked online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/23964/discover?rpp=10&etal=0&query=groundwater&group_by=none&page=3.  Here are some key publications:*Author unidentified, A Guide to Private Wells, 1995, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/55265.*J.A. Poff, A Guide to Virginia’s Groundwater, 1997, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/55247. *J.A. Poff, A Homeowner’s Guide to the Development, Maintenance, and Protection of Springs as a Drinking Water Source, Virginia Water Resources Research Center, Blacksburg, 1999, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/55268 RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html). Following are links to other groundwater-related episodes.  Note that some of these episodes are being re-done in May-June 2021, following posting of this episode.  If that has occurred at the time you are viewing this post, the links below will redirect you to the updated episodes. Caves, caverns, and other karst features – Episode 527, 6-1-20.Eastern Virginia groundwater and the SWIFT project – Episode 534, 7-20-20.Groundwater introduction – Episode 575, 5-3-21.Information sources on Virginia’s water resources generally, including groundwater) – Episode 546, 10-12-20.Springs – Episode 576, 5-10-21.Testing water from wells and other household water sources – Episode 361, 3-27-17.Virginia’s Western Highlands and thermal springs – Episode 577. 5-17-21.Winter precipitation and water supplies, including the role of groundwater replenishment – Episode 567, 3-8-21. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode’s audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-5: Earth and Space Systems3.7 – There is a water cycle and water is important to life on Earth. Grades K-5: Earth ResourcesK.11 – Humans use resources.1.8 – Natural resources can be used responsibly.3.8 – Natural events and humans influence ecosystems.4.8 – Virginia has important natural resources. G

health culture bay humans management university design agency german guide music berlin principles natural earth state audio living college english swift history world sound modern england accent pop dark network testing tech water web index land rain united states pond digging research ocean ground government education construction recreation conservation development vol charleston springs chesapeake snow caves environment pulse images policy montgomery county va englishman msonormal maintenance commonwealth hoboken stream ky normal worddocument zoom donotshowrevisions citizens practice sons williamsburg arial environmental dynamic ancient times new roman trackmoves trackformatting punctuationkerning saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent compatibility breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit latentstyles deflockedstate latentstylecount latentstyles style definitions msonormaltable table normal donotpromoteqf lidthemeother lidthemeasian x none snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules mathpr mathfont cambria math brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc centergroup wrapindent intlim subsup narylim undovr defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority lsdexception locked priority semihidden unhidewhenused qformat name normal name title name default paragraph font name subtitle name strong name emphasis name table grid name placeholder text name no spacing name light shading name light list name light grid name medium shading name medium list name medium grid name dark list name colorful shading name colorful list name colorful grid name light shading accent name light list accent name light grid accent name revision name list paragraph name quote name intense quote name dark list accent name colorful shading accent name colorful list accent name colorful grid accent name subtle emphasis name intense emphasis name subtle reference name intense reference name book title name bibliography name toc heading biology civics grade peace corps ancient history colorful resource chichester signature bio sec colony karst scales govt watershed transcript earth sciences vac waste management homestead wg freshwater epa virginia tech bowling green atlantic ocean groundwater natural resources john dowland wateraid grades k drinking water environmental quality name normal indent name list name list bullet name list number name closing name signature name body text name body text indent name list continue name message header name salutation name date name body text first indent name note heading name block text name document map name plain text name e name normal web name normal table name no list name outline list name table simple name table classic name table colorful name table columns name table list name table 3d name table contemporary name table elegant name table professional name table subtle name table web name balloon text name table theme name plain table name grid table light name grid table light accent dark accent colorful accent name list table virginia humanities in virginia heidelberg germany poff driscoll homeowners blacksburg minn virginia museum regions environmental protection agency lute msohyperlink occurrence sections john wiley second edition stormwater policymakers msobodytext thomas v bmp third edition new standard acknowledgment virginia department cech cripple creek cumberland gap sols tmdl springer verlag geological survey jamestown colony captain john smith henrico county virginia standards water center space systems audio notes
Virginia Water Radio
Episode 577 (5-17-21): Water's at the Heart of Virginia's Western Highlands

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later May 18, 2021


 CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:53). Sections below are the following:Transcript of AudioAudio Notes and AcknowledgmentsImagesSourcesRelated Water Radio EpisodesFor Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 5-14-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

western merriam webster culture bay humans university agency america guide music highlands berlin natural relationships earth state audio living college swift history north america world abraham lincoln sound accent dark testing tech water web index land rain pond research tourism ocean government education recreation conservation development maine west virginia route charleston hot springs springs falls chesapeake snow caves environment images richmond va bath yarmouth msonormal maintenance commonwealth figures stream ky highland normal worddocument zoom donotshowrevisions citizens confluence arial environmental spine times new roman calibri trackmoves trackformatting punctuationkerning saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent compatibility breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit latentstyles deflockedstate latentstylecount latentstyles style definitions msonormaltable table normal donotpromoteqf lidthemeother lidthemeasian x none snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules mathpr mathfont cambria math brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc centergroup wrapindent intlim subsup narylim undovr defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority lsdexception locked priority semihidden unhidewhenused qformat name normal name title name default paragraph font name subtitle name strong name emphasis name table grid name placeholder text name no spacing name light shading name light list name light grid name medium shading name medium list name medium grid name dark list name colorful shading name colorful list name colorful grid name light shading accent name light list accent name light grid accent name revision name list paragraph name quote name intense quote name dark list accent name colorful shading accent name colorful list accent name colorful grid accent name subtle emphasis name intense emphasis name subtle reference name intense reference name book title name bibliography name toc heading morton shenandoah commerce grade ancient history colorful signature nonesuch resort karst watershed transcript earth sciences see what i have done homestead wg freshwater epa virginia tech bowling green ls atlantic ocean groundwater natural resources grades k drinking water environmental quality name normal indent name list name list bullet name list number name closing name signature name body text name body text indent name list continue name message header name salutation name date name body text first indent name note heading name block text name document map name plain text name e name normal web name normal table name no list name outline list name table simple name table classic name table colorful name table columns name table list name table 3d name table contemporary name table elegant name table professional name table subtle name table web name balloon text name table theme name plain table name grid table light name grid table light accent dark accent colorful accent name list table harrisonburg heidelberg germany poff ar sa homeowners blacksburg virginia museum warm springs james river regions environmental protection agency cosgrove msohyperlink occurrence usi sections life sciences ben cosgrove stormwater annals policymakers bmp acknowledgment virginia department cumberland gap michael martz sols tmdl springer verlag united states history biotic alleghany county virginia standards water center space systems audio notes
Virginia Water Radio
Episode 576 (5-10-21): An Introduction to Springs

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later May 11, 2021


Click to listen to episode (3:56)Sections below are the following:Transcript of AudioAudio Notes and AcknowledgmentsImagesExtra InformationSourcesRelated Water Radio EpisodesFor Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.) Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 5-7-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO  From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of May 10, 2021.  This revised episode from August 2011 is part of a series this year of groundwater-relatedepisodes. MUSIC – ~ 12 sec – instrumental This week, that music opens an episode about a natural resource marking water’s transition from underground to the land’s surface.  We start with a series of guest voices and mystery names.  Have a listen for about 25 seconds, and see if you can guess what kind of water resource connects this series of names and, by the way, is in the title of this week’s opening music.  And here’s a hint: settlements around the world have SPRUNG up around this resource. FLOWING WATER SOUND and VOICES - ~25 sec – “Yellow Sulphur, Laurel, Augusta, Iron Hill, Lacy, Willow, Highland, Glade, Virginia Mineral, Barren, Warm, Bloomer.”If you guessed springs, you’re right!  The opening music is titled “John Ashe’s Spring,” by the western Virginia-based band New Standard, referring to a spring in Ivy, Virginia.  The guest voices called out some of the many Virginia places named for nearby springs.  Some places, such as Yellow Sulphur Springs in Montgomery County, developed as recreational or health-promoting attractions for bathers and spa-goers.  But many towns and other settlements grew up near springs because the springs provided access to convenient, reliable drinking water; in fact, many Virginia public water systems still use springs as a water source.But what, exactly, is a spring?  Simply put, it’s a place where groundwater becomes surface water.  Springs appear where groundwater moves from underground storage areas to the land surface, particularly in low-lying areas and along hillsides or slopes.  Springs are found throughout Virginia, but most commonly in the western part of the Commonwealth among the Ridge and Valley region’s karst landscapes, which are also noted for caves, caverns, sinkholes, and sinking creeks.Thanks to Quinn Hull for creating this episode and to citizens in downtown Blacksburg for lending their voices.  Thanks also to New Standard for permission to use this week’s music, and we close with about 20 more seconds of “John Ashe’s Spring.” MUSIC – ~ 23 sec – instrumental SHIP’S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode replaces Episode 75, 8-15-11.  The original episode was created by Quinn Hull, who recorded the guest voices in Blacksburg, Va., in August 2011. “John Ashe’s Spring,” from the 2016 album “Bluegrass,” is copyright by New Standard, used with permission.  The title refers to a spring near Ivy, Virginia (Albemarle County).  More information about New Standard is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGES Big Spring north of Leesburg, Va. (Loudoun County), December 10, 2006.Piped spring along the Appalachian Trail in Washington County, Va., December 14, 2008.Spring locations in a Virginia Department of Environmental Quality database, as of 2016.  Map accessed at http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Water/WaterSupplyWaterQuantity/GroundwaterCharacterization/SpringDatabase.aspx, on July 28, 2017; the map was no longer available at that URL as of May 11, 2021. EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT SPRINGS IN VIRGINIA The following information was taken from J.A. Poff, A Homeowner’s Guide to the Development, Maintenance, and Protection of Springs as a Drinking Water Source, Virginia Water Resources Research Center, Blacksburg, 1999, available online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/55268. (from pages 11-12): “In 1928, a team of geologists…explored Virginia’s fields and forest in search of springs.  They located over 500 springs in the Valley and Ridge Province.  Most of the springs were concentrated in the Shenandoah Valley and the counties of August, Rockbridge, Rockingham, Shenandoah, Bath, and Highland.  This is an area of karst topography, where water-soluble limestone is perforated by channels, caves, sinkholes, and underground caverns, and has an abundance of springs.  Researchers from the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences at Virginia Tech continued this survey some 50 years later.  The research team located more than 1,600 additional springs.  Most of the springs were on private lands west of the Blue Ridge.” (from pages 15-16): “Both cold-water and thermal (warm or hot water) springs are found in Virginia.  The Virginia Tech researchers located more than 1500 cold-water springs and 100 thermal springs.  The water temperature of cold-water springs averages between 52 and 58 degrees Fahrenheit (F), about the same as the mean air temperature.  Thermal springs with waters heated deep within the earth flow at temperatures of 100 to 600 F year-round. Warm springs have a mean water temperature greater than average air temperature but less than 98 F; hot springs have mean water temperatures above 98 F.”   SOURCES Used for Audio Cultural Landscape Foundation, “Yellow Sulphur Springs (Christiansburg, Virginia),” online at https://tclf.org/landscapes/yellow-sulphur-springs. DeLorme Company of Yarmouth, Maine, Virginia Atlas & Gazetteer, 2000. Philip LaMoreaux and Judy Tanner, eds., Springs and Bottled Waters of the World:  Ancient History, Source, Occurrence, Quality, and Use, Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg Germany, 2001; information available online at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321613235_Springs_and_Bottled_Waters_of_the_World_Ancient_History_Source_Occurence_Quality_and_Use(subscription may be required). J.A. Poff, A Homeowner’s Guide to the Development, Maintenance, and Protection of Springs as a Drinking Water Source (Blacksburg: Virginia Water Resources Research Center, 1999), available online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/55268. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, “Virginia Natural Heritage Karst Program,” online at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural-heritage/karsthome; see particularly “Introduction to Virginia’s Karst,” online (as a PDF) at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural-heritage/document/introvakarst.pdf. Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, “Commonwealth of Virginia State Water Resources Plan,” April 2015, available online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/water/water-quantity/water-supply-planning/virginia-water-resources-plan. Virginia Museum of History and Culture, “The Regions of Virginia,” online at https://virginiahistory.org/learn/regions-virginia. For More Information about Groundwater Charles W. Carlston, “Notes on the early history of water-well drilling in the United States,” Economic Geology (Vol. 38, pages 119-136, 1943); available online at https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/segweb/economicgeology/article/38/2/119/15747/Notes-on-the-early-history-of-water-well-drilling(subscription may be required for access). Bruce Misstear et al., Water Wells and Boreholes, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England, 2006. National Speleological Society, online at http://www.caves.org/. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) “Ground Water and Drinking Water,” online at https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water. George Veni et al., “Living with Karst,” American Geological Institute Environmental Awareness Series, 2001; available online at http://www.agiweb.org/environment/publications/karst.pdf. Virginia Administrative Code, “Private Well Regulations,” Section 12 VAC 5-630, online at https://law.lis.virginia.gov/admincode/title12/agency5/chapter630, [“Design and Construction Criteria” are in Part III, starting at Section 12 VAC 5-630-350.] Virginia Water Resources Research Center groundwater-related publications from the 1980s to the 2000s are listed and linked online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/23964/discover?rpp=10&etal=0&query=groundwater&group_by=none&page=3.  Here are two key publications:*Author unidentified, A Guide to Private Wells, 1995, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/55265.*J.A. Poff, A Guide to Virginia’s Groundwater, 1997, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/55247. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html). Following are links to other groundwater-related episodes.  Note that some of these episodes are being re-done in May-June 2021, following posting of this episode.  If that has occurred at the time you are viewing this post, the links below will redirect you to the updated episodes.Caves, caverns, and other karst features – Episode 527, 6-1-20 (featuring Luray Caverns’ Great Stalacpipe Organ).Eastern Virginia groundwater and the SWIFT project – Episode 534, 7-20-20.Groundwater introduction – Episode 575, 5-3-21 (re-do of EP306 – 3/7/16).Information sources on Virginia’s water resources generally, including groundwater) – Episode 546, 10-12-20.Testing water from wells and other household sources – Episode 361, 3-27-17.Virginia’s Western Highlands and thermal springs – Episode 379, 7-31-17.Well construction – Episode 219, 6-23-14.Winter precipitation and water supplies, including the role of groundwater replenishment – Episode 567, 3-8-21. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode’s audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-5: Earth and Space Systems3.7 – There is a water cycle and water is important to life on Earth. Grades K-5: Earth Resources3.8 – Natural events and humans influence ecosystems.4.8 – Virginia has important natural resources. Grade 66.6 – Water has unique physical properties and has a role in the natural and human-made environment.6.8 – Land and water have roles in watershed systems.6.9 – Humans impact the environment and individuals can influence public policy decisions related to energy and the environment. Earth ScienceES.6 – Resource use is complex.ES.8 – Freshwater resources influence and are influenced by geologic processes and human activity. 2015 Social Studies SOLs Grades K-3 History Theme1.2 – Virginia history and life in present-day Virginia. Grades K-3 Geography Theme1.6 – Virginia climate, seasons, and landforms. Grades K-3 Economics Theme

culture bay humans university design agency america guide music berlin natural earth state audio living college swift history valley world map england accent dark testing tech water web index land rain united states pond research ocean government education recreation conservation development vol maine spring springs chesapeake snow caves environment images montgomery county va bath yarmouth msonormal maintenance commonwealth stream highland normal worddocument zoom donotshowrevisions citizens voices sons arial environmental times new roman trackmoves trackformatting punctuationkerning saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent compatibility breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit latentstyles deflockedstate latentstylecount latentstyles style definitions msonormaltable table normal donotpromoteqf lidthemeother lidthemeasian x none snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules mathpr mathfont cambria math brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc centergroup wrapindent intlim subsup narylim undovr defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority lsdexception locked priority semihidden unhidewhenused qformat name normal name title name default paragraph font name subtitle name strong name emphasis name table grid name placeholder text name no spacing name light shading name light list name light grid name medium shading name medium list name medium grid name dark list name colorful shading name colorful list name colorful grid name light shading accent name light list accent name light grid accent name revision name list paragraph name quote name intense quote name dark list accent name colorful shading accent name colorful list accent name colorful grid accent name subtle emphasis name intense emphasis name subtle reference name intense reference name book title name bibliography name toc heading shenandoah shenandoah valley bluegrass grade ancient history colorful resource chichester signature piped warm iron hill karst scales blue ridge washington county appalachian trail watershed transcript earth sciences vac researchers wg freshwater epa virginia tech sprung atlantic ocean groundwater natural resources thermal grades k glade drinking water fisheries environmental quality name normal indent name list name list bullet name list number name closing name signature name body text name body text indent name list continue name message header name salutation name date name body text first indent name note heading name block text name document map name plain text name e name normal web name normal table name no list name outline list name table simple name table classic name table colorful name table columns name table list name table 3d name table contemporary name table elegant name table professional name table subtle name table web name balloon text name table theme name plain table name grid table light name grid table light accent dark accent colorful accent name list table heidelberg germany poff homeowners blacksburg virginia museum regions environmental protection agency barren msohyperlink occurrence loudoun county usi sections john wiley stormwater policymakers bmp rockingham new standard acknowledgment bloomer virginia department leesburg cripple creek big spring cumberland gap sols tmdl springer verlag united states history virginia standards water center usic space systems audio notes
Outspoken with Shana Cosgrove
At The Table : Space Systems, Women in Engineering, and Habits

Outspoken with Shana Cosgrove

Play Episode Listen Later May 11, 2021 47:27


In this episode of The Outspoken Podcast, host Shana Cosgrove talks to Chris Petty, Senior Manager at BLUE ORIGIN. Chris talks about her love for systems engineering and her experiences in the field as a biracial female. She also goes into her working with astronauts, her passion for space systems, and her newfound excitement of managing people.  QUOTES "You know, I’ve just naturally been interested in engineering. I’ve always been kind of an engineering nerd, science and math nerd, STEM." - Chris Petty [12:48] "In this modern day and age, we’re working on incredibly complex systems and trying to deliver them on timelines that are ridiculously short. That’s just the speed of business today. You know, the speed of financing those programs. And so, trust becomes a major factor in how fast you can actually execute." - Chris Petty [42:19] “Look at yourself and are you really listening to people or are you just waiting for the chance so you can talk? You know, you’re never going to have trust with somebody unless they can trust that you’re listening to them.” -Chris Petty [43:58] TIMESTAMPS [00:04] Intro [01:02] Meet Christina  [03:00] Sierra Nevada [04:47] Contracts [06:42] Systems Engineering [08:18] BLUE ORIGIN and Managing [11:21] Growing Up [13:20] Working With Astronauts [14:22] Habits and Moving [16:05] Nyla Technology Solutions [16:40] High School [19:29] Internship at Orbital [21:18] College [26:08] First Job After College [28:26] Northrop Grumman [34:28] Career Experience as a Biracial Female [40:19] Wrap-Up Questions [47:06] Outro RESOURCES https://www.sncorp.com/ (Sierra Nevada Corporation) https://www.sncorp.com/what-we-do/dream-chaser-space-vehicle/ (Dream Chaser®) https://www.nasa.gov/ (NASA) https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/structure/launch/overview.html (NASA’s Commercial Resupply Services) https://www.spacex.com/ (SpaceX) https://www.blueorigin.com/ (BLUE ORIGIN) https://www.blueorigin.com/new-shepard/ (New Shepard) https://www.goarmy.com/ (U.S. Army®) https://www.amazon.com/Atomic-Habits-Proven-Build-Break/dp/0735211299/ref=sr_1_1?crid=3R7MHMGX7T9G5&dchild=1&keywords=atomic+habits&qid=1620228813&sprefix=atom%2Caps%2C180&sr=8-1 (Atomic Habits) by James Clear James Clear’s https://www.amazon.com/Clear-Habit-Journal-Flagship-Size/dp/B07X3XV7J7/ref=sr_1_3?crid=CJP60P9GVTHK&dchild=1&keywords=james+clear+habit+journal&qid=1620228875&sprefix=james+clear+%2Caps%2C165&sr=8-3 (Habit Journal) https://www.misfitsmarket.com/ (Misfits Market) https://tjhsst.fcps.edu/ (Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology) https://gar-fieldhs.pwcs.edu/ (Gar-Field High School) https://collegereadiness.collegeboard.org/sat (The SAT) https://news.northropgrumman.com/news/releases/company-profile-for-orbital-sciences-corporation-6698282 (Orbital Sciences) https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/microsoft-365/access (Microsoft Access) https://www.hmc.edu/ (Harvey Mudd College) https://www.mit.edu/ (MIT) https://www.zontec-spc.com/ (Zontec Systems) https://www.northropgrumman.com/ (Northrop Grumman) https://www.xprize.org/ (XPRIZE Foundation) https://www.incose.org/systems-engineering-certification/Certification-Levels (CSEP) https://www.jhu.edu/ (John’s Hopkins) http://www.brookeowensfellowship.org/ (Brooke Owens Fellowship) https://www.amazon.com/Habits-Highly-Effective-People-Powerful/dp/0743269519 (The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People) by Stephen R. Covey https://www.amazon.com/Leading-Change-New-Preface-Author/dp/1422186431/ref=sr_1_3?crid=1D16XKDMQ6LP9&dchild=1&keywords=leading+change&qid=1620232160&s=books&sprefix=leading+chan%2Cstripbooks%2C155&sr=1-3 (Leading Change) by John P. Kotter RELEVANT LINKS https://nylatechnologysolutions.com/ (Nyla Technology Solutions) https://www.linkedin.com/in/chris-petty-39b73b2/ (Chris Petty on LinkedIn)

Virginia Water Radio
Episode 575 (5-3-21): Making Connections to Groundwater

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later May 4, 2021


Click to listen to episode (4:52)Sections below are the following:Transcript of AudioAudio Notes and AcknowledgmentsImagesSourcesRelated Water Radio EpisodesFor Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.) Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 4-30-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of May 3, 2021.  This revised episode from March 2015 is part of a series this spring of episodes on a widespread, widely used, but mostly unseen water resource: groundwater.  Have a listen for about 35 seconds to some mystery sounds and music, and see if you can guess three connections to groundwater.  And here’s a hint: get pumped and the answer will spring right up, especially if you’ve been deep in a cave somewhere.SOUNDS and MUSIC (instrumental) ~ 34 secIf you guessed pumps, springs, and caves or caverns, you’re right!  You heard two hand-driven wellwater pumps; groundwater coming to the land surface in a Giles County spring; and part of “In the Cave,” by the group Pepe Deluxé on the Great Stalacpipe Organ in Page County’s Luray Caverns. The slow but steady work of groundwater created the stalactites used by the organ, but you don’t have to go into underground caverns to see the role and value of groundwater.  Groundwater wells supply many Virginia localities, citizens, and industries, providing about 11 percent of total water withdrawals in Virginia in 2019, excluding water for power generation.  Also, groundwater contributes to surface water bodies, as seen in springs and in streams that continue to flow even in times of low rainfall.  In turn, groundwater is recharged from surface waters and rainfall, a process that takes days for shallow or porous aquifers, but centuries or longer for deep, hard-to-reach aquifers. Location, movement, surface connections, and uses – all of these factors contribute to making groundwater a challenging, vital, and vulnerable resource.  And they make it important for citizens to be aware of groundwater. Spring’s a good time to do so.  National Groundwater Awareness Week, sponsored by the National Ground Water Association, is held each March; 2021 has been designated as the International Year of Caves and Karst, and May 8 is the date for the Virginia Cave Board’s program in observance of the event; and the 2021 version of Virginia Cave Week, organized by the Cave Board, is June 6-12. All year round, Virginians can get groundwater information from various agencies and organizations.  Here are some key ones: the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality; the U.S. Geological Survey’s Water Science Center in Richmond; and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program and Well-owner Network, both operated by Virginia Tech’s Biological Systems Engineering Department.  More information about the Virginia Tech programs is available from your local Virginia Cooperative Extension office.Thanks to Pepe Deluxé for permission to use parts of “In the Cave,” and we close with another short excerpt of that music with a Virginia groundwater connection.MUSIC - ~ 14 sec – instrumental SHIP’S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This episode updates and replaces Episode 306, 3-7-16. Virginia Water Radio thanks Shana Moore, Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, for her suggestions in 2016 on the previous version of this episode. The groundwater-pump sounds were recorded by Virginia Water Radio along the C&O Canal Towpath in West Virginia, on July 9, 2010; and at New River Trail State Park in Pulaski, Virginia, on August 31, 2013. The spring water sound was recorded by Virginia Water Radio on Angels Rest trail in Giles County on September 30, 2018.“In the Cave,” from the 2012 album “Queen of the Wave,” is copyright by Pepe Deluxé and Catskills Records, used with permission. More information about Pepe Deluxé is available at their Web site, http://www.pepedeluxe.com/; click on the “Album Companions” link on that page to access an article on the Great Stalacpipe Organ and the making of “In the Cave.” A music video of “In the Cave” is available on You Tube at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rkvvcN6rt-I.  “In the Cave” was previously used by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 527, 6-1-20.Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES Diagram showing pathways and estimated travel times between groundwater aquifers and surface features. Diagram from the U.S. Geological Survey’s “Water Science School” Web site, at http://water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclegwdischarge.html, accessed 5-3-21.Hand-driven pump (one of the two pumps heard in this Virginia Water Radio episode) in New River Trail State Park in Pulaski, Virginia (Pulaski County), August 31, 2013.Old Spring House in Winchester, Va., March 24, 2008. SOURCES Used for Audio Friends of the Virginia Cave Board, “Virginia Cave Week,” online at https://www.vacaveweek.com/. International Year of Caves and Karst, online at http://iyck2021.org/. Luray Caverns (home of the Great Stalacpipe Organ), online at http://luraycaverns.com/discover/caverns.  A 4 min./2 sec. video on the Great Stalacpipe Organ is online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=crxmaFK31Fk. National Ground Water Association, “National Groundwater Awareness Week,” online at https://www.ngwa.org/get-involved/groundwater-awareness-week/groundwater-awareness-week-2021.  Also see the “About Groundwater” link at https://www.ngwa.org/what-is-groundwater/About-groundwater, and a 2 minute/46 second video on groundwater protection at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pPm-3Y8GOoo. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), “USGS Water Science School/Groundwater,” online at https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/groundwater. U.S. Geological Survey/Virginia and West Virginia Water Science Center, online at https://www.usgs.gov/centers/va-wv-water. Virginia Cave Board, online at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural-heritage/cavehome. Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, “Ground Water,” online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/permits-regulations/permits/water/water-withdrawal/ground-water. Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, “Status of Virginia’s Water Resources-October 2020,” online (as a PDF) at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/home/showpublisheddocument?id=2119.  For water withdrawal information cited in this episodes, see the Executive Summary, page vii. Virginia Tech Department of Biological Systems Engineering, “Virginia Household Water Quality Program and Virginia Well Owner Network,” online at http://www.wellwater.bse.vt.edu/index.php.  The contact for both programs is Erin Ling, 1230 Washington Street SW, Room 302, Virginia Tech (0554), Blacksburg, VA 24060; phone (540 231-9058; e-mail: wellwater@vt.edu. For More Information about Groundwater Charles W. Carlston, “Notes on the early history of water-well drilling in the United States,” Economic Geology (Vol. 38, pages 119-136, 1943); available online at https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/segweb/economicgeology/article/38/2/119/15747/Notes-on-the-early-history-of-water-well-drilling(subscription may be required for access).Bruce Misstear et al., Water Wells and Boreholes, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England, 2006. National Speleological Society, online at http://www.caves.org/. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) “Ground Water and Drinking Water,” online at https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water. George Veni et al., “Living with Karst,” American Geological Institute Environmental Awareness Series, 2001; available online at http://www.agiweb.org/environment/publications/karst.pdf. Virginia Administrative Code, “Private Well Regulations,” Section 12 VAC 5-630, online at https://law.lis.virginia.gov/admincode/title12/agency5/chapter630, [“Design and Construction Criteria” are in Part III, starting at Section 12 VAC 5-630-350.] Virginia Water Resources Research Center groundwater-related publications from the 1980s to the 2000s are listed and linked online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/23964/discover?rpp=10&etal=0&query=groundwater&group_by=none&page=3.  Here are three key publications:*Author unidentified, A Guide to Private Wells, 1995, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/55265.*J.A. Poff, A Guide to Virginia’s Groundwater, 1997, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/55247.*J.A. Poff, A Homeowner’s Guide to the Development, Maintenance, and Protection of Springs as a Drinking Water Source, 1999, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/55268. WaterAid, “Hand-dug Wells,” January 2013, online (as a PDF) at file:///C:/Users/araflo/AppData/Local/Temp/technical-brief-hand-dug-wells.pdf. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html). Following are links to other groundwater-related episodes.  Note that some of these episodes are being re-done in May-June 2021; in those cases, the links below will redirect you to the updated episodes.Caves, caverns, and other karst features – Episode 527, 6-1-20.Eastern Virginia groundwater and the SWIFT project – Episode 534, 7-20-20.Information sources on Virginia’s water resources generally, including groundwater) – Episode 546, 10-12-20.Springs – Episode 75, 8-15-11.Testing water from wells and other household sources – Episode 361, 3-27-17.Virginia’s Western Highlands and thermal springs – Episode 379, 7-31-17.Well construction – Episode 219, 6-23-14.Winter precipitation and water supplies, including the role of groundwater replenishment – Episode 567, 3-8-21. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode’s audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-3 plus 5: MatterK.4 – Water is important in our daily lives and has properties.3.3 – Materials interact with water. Grades K-5: Earth and Space Systems3.7 – There is a water cycle and water is important to life on Earth.5.8 – Earth constantly changes. Grades K-5: Earth ResourcesK.11 – Humans use resources.1.8 – Natural resources can be used responsibly, including that most natural resources are limited.3.8 – Natural events and humans influence ecosystems.4.8 – Virginia has important natural resources. Grade 66.6 – Water has unique physical properties and has a role in the natural and human-made environment.6.8 – Land and water have roles in watershed systems.6.9 – Humans impact the environment and individuals can influence public policy decisions related to energy and the environment.

bay humans university design agency guide music natural relationships earth state audio friends living college swift materials england accent dark network testing tech water web status index land rain united states pond research ocean government education development vol west virginia spring springs chesapeake snow caves environment location images wave richmond va msonormal maintenance stream normal worddocument zoom donotshowrevisions citizens sons arial environmental times new roman calibri trackmoves trackformatting punctuationkerning saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent compatibility breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit latentstyles deflockedstate latentstylecount latentstyles style definitions msonormaltable table normal donotpromoteqf lidthemeother lidthemeasian x none snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules mathpr mathfont cambria math brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc centergroup wrapindent intlim subsup narylim undovr defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority lsdexception locked priority semihidden unhidewhenused qformat name normal name title name default paragraph font name subtitle name strong name emphasis name table grid name placeholder text name no spacing name light shading name light list name light grid name medium shading name medium list name medium grid name dark list name colorful shading name colorful list name colorful grid name light shading accent name light list accent name light grid accent name revision name list paragraph name quote name intense quote name dark list accent name colorful shading accent name colorful list accent name colorful grid accent name subtle emphasis name intense emphasis name subtle reference name intense reference name book title name bibliography name toc heading winchester shenandoah civics grade diagram colorful resource chichester signature karst govt watershed transcript earth sciences vac wg executive summary international year freshwater epa virginia tech ls atlantic ocean groundwater natural resources wateraid grades k drinking water environmental quality name normal indent name list name list bullet name list number name closing name signature name body text name body text indent name list continue name message header name salutation name date name body text first indent name note heading name block text name document map name plain text name e name normal web name normal table name no list name outline list name table simple name table classic name table colorful name table columns name table list name table 3d name table contemporary name table elegant name table professional name table subtle name table web name balloon text name table theme name plain table name grid table light name grid table light accent dark accent colorful accent name list table tca pulaski virginians poff ar sa homeowners blacksburg environmental protection agency cosgrove msohyperlink sections life sciences john wiley ben cosgrove stormwater policymakers msobodytext making connections bmp c users acknowledgment virginia department cumberland gap sols giles county tmdl geological survey biotic virginia standards water center space systems audio notes
Frontier Space
Interplanetary Space Highways - Ep 18

Frontier Space

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 30, 2021 28:10


A dialogue on the research developments of Space manifolds and interplanetary highways and the significance for life, spacecraft, and mission design. Our guest Aaron Rosengren, Assistant Professor, Space Systems at University of California, San Diego dives into stable manifolds, Influence of bodies and Lagrange points, Planetary manifold dynamics, near Earth asteroids, and weak stability boundaries Aaron J. Rosengren received his Ph.D. in Aerospace Engineering Sciences from the University of Colorado, Boulder in 2014. He served as a Marie Curie Postdoctoral Fellow for the European Union Asteroid and Space Debris Network, Stardust, from 2014 to 2016, at the Institute of Applied Physics Nello Carrara of the Italian National Research Council. In 2017, Dr. Rosengren worked at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in Greece in the Department of Physics, as part of the EU H2020 Project ReDSHIFT. He was an Assistant Professor at the University of Arizona (2017-2020) prior to his appointment at UC San Diego in July 2020. He received the "COSPAR Outstanding Paper Award for Young Scientists" on three separate occasions and has held invited visiting researcher positions in Australia, Israel, Italy, and Serbia. https://www.linkedin.com/in/aaron-rosengren-558205a/ Research Paper: The arches of chaos in the Solar System. Science Advances 25 Nov 2020: Vol. 6, no. 48, eabd1313. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abd1313 https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/48/eabd1313 --- This episode is sponsored by · Anchor: The easiest way to make a podcast. https://anchor.fm/app Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/frontierspace/support

Virginia Water Radio
Episode 574 (4-26-21): Rhododendrons Span Virginia from Ridges to Swamps

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 27, 2021


Click to listen to episode (4:36)Sections below are the following:Transcript of AudioAudio Notes and AcknowledgmentsImagesExtra InformationSourcesRelated Water Radio EpisodesFor Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.) Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 4-23-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of April 26, 2021.  This revised episode from June 2014 is part of a series this year of spring-related episodes. MUSIC – ~17 sec – Lyrics: “I can’t explain away the reasons, I can’t wish away the seasons.  When springtime comes again, it’ll sure by my winter’s end.” This week, that music opens an episode about a group of plants with species found across Virginia and whose blooming times collectively span a period from early spring well into summer.  Have a listen for about 50 more seconds to the song and its celebration of some members of this plant group found high up in southwestern Virginia.MUSIC – ~48 sec – Lyrics: “Well I was high up in the fields, there above the rhododendron ridge.  My time up there was real, not like some other time I’ve spent.  And when the flowers bloom in June, it’s like something you’ve never seen—shades of purple, white, and blue, as far as you can see.” You’ve been listening to part of “Rhododendron Ridge,” by the Roanoke, Va., band The Floorboards, on their 2012 self-titled album.  The song was written about the area around Mt. Rogers—Virginia’s highest peak, located in Grayson and Smyth counties.  Mt. Rogers is noted for its populations of Catawba Rhododendronand its flower displays in June.  Catawba is one of Virginia’s nine native species in the scientific genus of Rhododendron, some of which are commonly called azaleas.  As a group, their habitats range from rocky mountainous areas, to Piedmont streams, to Coastal Plains wetlands.  Their blooming times range from March to August, depending on the species. These perennial spring and summer flower shows happen in places where the plants’ roots and leaves get their preferred combination of sun or shade, temperature, moisture, nutrients, and acidity levels in the soil and soil water.  Virginia’s rhododendron species typically prefer higher acidity, and they share that preference with other members of the heath family of plants, including blueberries and Mountain Laurel. While you can’t see the water chemistry going on around rhododendron roots, at the right time and place you can see a remarkable flower display, which might be for you—as for this week’s songwriter—like something you’ve never seen.  Thanks to the Floorboards for permission to use this week’s music, and close with about 25 more seconds of “Rhododendron Ridge.” MUSIC – ~28 sec – Lyrics: “Springtime’s comin’ now, oh it won’t be long—you and I we’re gonna sing, gonna sing our summer song.” SHIP’S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode replaces Episode 216, 6-2-14. “Rhododendron Ridge” is copyright 2012 by The Floorboards, used with permission.  More information about The Floorboards is available online at https://thefloorboardsmusic.com/.Thanks to the following people for providing information in 2014 for the original version of this episode: Susan Day, John Peterson, and John Seiler, all in the Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation; and the staff and volunteers working at the Blue Ridge Parkway’s Rocky Knob Visitor Center (mile post 169) on June 1, 2014. Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGES Great Rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum, right), Flame Azalea (Rhododendron calendulaceum), orange flowers, left) and Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia, foreground) along the Blue Ridge Parkway in Floyd County, Va., June 1, 2014.Side-by-side Flame Azaleas (Rhododendron calendulaceum) showing color variation, along the Blue Ridge Parkway in Floyd County, Va., June 1, 2014.Swamp Azalea (Rhododendron viscosum), photographed at Sandy Bottom Nature Park in Hampton, Va., June 14, 2009.  Photo by Debbie Blanton, made available on iNaturalist, online at https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/35506117(as of 4-26-21), for use under Creative Commons license “Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0.”  Information about this Creative Commons license is available online at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/. EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT RHODODENDRONS IN VIRGINIA The following information about nine native species of Rhododendron found in Virginia is from pages 540-543 in A.S. Weakley, J.C. Ludwig, and J.F. Townsend, Flora of Virginia, Bland Crowder, ed.; copyright by the Foundation of the Flora of Virginia Project, Inc., Richmond; published by Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Fort Worth, 2012.  The species are listed in alphabetical order according to their scientific name (shown in italics). Sweet Azalea (also called Smooth Azalea), Rhododendron arborescens – Found rarely in Virginia’s mountains and Piedmont; in rocky forests and rocky areas along streams; blooms May to July. Dwarf Azalea, Rhododendron atlanticum – Found commonly in Virginia’s southern Coastal Plain; in woodlands and clearings that are dry to moist, sandy, and acidic; blooms April to May. Flame Azalea, Rhododendron calendulaceum – Found commonly in Virginia’s southern mountains; in forests that are dry to mesic (moderately moist), particularly in acidic oak forests; blooms May to June. Catawba Rhododendron (also called Pink Laurel and Mountain Rosebay), Rhododendron catawbiense – Found commonly in Virginia’s southern and rarely in the Piedmont; in dry forests on sheltered slopes or rocky ridges, as well as on balds, in bogs, and in acidic cove forests, and (in the Piedmont) along river bluffs; blooms April to June. Cumberland Azalea, Rhododendron cumberlandense – Found infrequently in Virginia’s far southwestern mountains; in mountainous forests and woodlands; blooms June to July. Great Rhododendron (also called Great Laurel and White Rosebay), Rhododendron maxiumum – Found commonly is Virginia’s southwestern mountains and Piedmont, less frequently in northern mountains, and rarely in other parts of the Piedmont or in the Coastal Plain; in acidic cove forests in the mountains, and in forests, wetlands, bluffs, and stream bottoms in other regions; blooms June to August. Wild Azalea (also called Pinxterflower and Pinxterbloom Azalea), Rhododendron periclymenoides– Found commonly throughout Virginia; in dry or mesic acidic forests, in certain wetlands, and along streams; blooms March to May. Early Azalea (also called Rose Azalea and Roseshell Azalea), Rhododendron prinophyllum – Found frequently or commonly in Virginia’s mountains, except in far southwestern Virginia, and rarely in the northern Piedmont; in dry or mesic forests, most abundantly in oak forests, and more often in less acidic soils than are other Rhododendron species; blooms May to June. Swamp Azalea (also called Clammy Azalea), Rhododendron viscosum – Found frequently in Virginia’s Coastal Plain, infrequently in the mountains, and rarely in the Piedmont; in acidic swamps, bogs, and other wetlands, and in wet woods; blooms May to July. SOURCES Used for Audio Blue Ridge Parkway Association, “Craggy Gardens, MP 364,” online at http://www.blueridgeparkway.org/v.php?pg=112.Oscar W. Gupton and Fred C. Swope, Trees and Shrubs of Virginia, University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville, 1981. W. Henry McNab, Ecological Subregions of the United States, U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C., 1994; available online at http://www.fs.fed.us/land/pubs/ecoregions/ch18.html.  See particularly Chapter 18, “Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest – Meadow.”U.S. Forest Service, “Mt. Rogers National Recreation Area,” online at http://www.fs.usda.gov/detail/gwj/specialplaces/?cid=stelprdb5302337.U.S. National Park Service, “Blue Ridge Parkway/Plants/Blooming Shrubs,” online at https://www.nps.gov/blri/learn/nature/showy-blooms.htm.Virginia Botanical Associates, “Digital Atlas of the Virginia Flora/Rhododendron,” online at http://www.vaplantatlas.org/index.php?s=rhododendron&c=&do=search%3Aadvanced&search=Search.Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Conservation, “Virginia Tech Dendrology,” online at http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/index.html. A.S. Weakley, J.C. Ludwig, and J.F. Townsend, Flora of Virginia, Bland Crowder, ed.  Copyright by the Foundation of the Flora of Virginia Project, Inc., Richmond.  Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Fort Worth, 2012.  This is the first comprehensive manual of Virginia plants published since the 1700s.  The Flora of Virginia Project is nline at http://www.floraofvirginia.org/.For More Information about Plants in Virginia and Elsewhere Chesapeake Bay Program, “Field Guide: Plants and Trees,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/all/plants_trees/all. Oscar W. Gupton and Fred C. Swope, series of wildflower guides: Fall Wildflowers of the Blue Ridge and Great Smoky Mountains, University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, 1987; Wild Orchids of the Middle Atlantic States University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, 1986); Wildflowers of Tidewater Virginia (University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, 1982; and Wildflowers of the Shenandoah Valley and Blue Ridge Mountains, University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, 1979. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)/Natural Resources Conservation Service Plants Database, online at https://plants.usda.gov. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation/Natural Heritage Division, online at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural-heritage/. Virginia Native Plant Society, online at http://vnps.org/. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Plants” subject category. Following are links to other spring-themed episodes. Eastern Phoebe – Episode 416, 4-16-18.Frog and Toad Medley – Episode 408, 2-19-18.Spring arrival episode – Episode 569, 3-22-21.Spring forest wildflowers – Episode 573, 4-19-21.Spring Peepers – Episode 570, 3-29-21.Spring reminder about tornado awareness – Episode 568, 3-15-21.Spring signals for fish – Episode 571, 4-5-21.Spring sounds serenades – Episode 206, 3-14-14 and Episode 516, 3-16-20.Virginia Bluebells – Episode 521, 4-20-20.Warblers and spring bird migration – Episode 572, 4-12-21. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode’s audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-4: Living Systems and Processes1.4 – Plants have basic life needs (including water) and functional parts that allow them to survive; including that plants can be classified based on a variety of characteristics.2.4 – Plants and animals undergo a series of orderly changes as they grow and develop.2.5 – Living things are part of a system.3.4 – Adaptations allow organisms to satisfy life needs and respond to the environment.3.5 – Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems support a diversity of organisms.4.2 – Plants and animals have structures that distinguish them from one another and play vital roles in their ability to survive.4.3 – Organisms, including humans, interact with one another and with the nonliving components in the ecosystem. Grades K-5: Earth and Space Systems1.7 – There are weather and seasonal changes.2.7 – Weather patterns and seasonal changes affect plants, animals, and their surroundings.3.6 – Soil is important in ecosystems. Grades K-5: Earth Resources2.8 – Plants are important natural resources.3.8 – Natural events and humans influence ecosystems.4.8. – Virginia has important natural resources.   Grade 66.6 – Water has unique physical properties and has a role in the natural and human-made environment. Life ScienceLS.3 – There are levels of structural organization in living things.LS.5 – Biotic and abiotic factors affect an ecosystem. BiologyBIO.2 – Chemical and biochemical processes are essential for life.BIO.6 – Modern classification systems can be used as organizational tools for scientists in the study of organisms. BIO.8 – Dynamic equilibria exist within populations, communities, and ecosystems. Following are links to Water Radio

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Virginia Water Radio
Episode 573 (4-19-21): Springtime Flowers of the Forest, Musically and Biologically

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 22, 2021


Click to listen to episode (3:50)Sections below are the following:Transcript of AudioAudio Notes and AcknowledgmentsImagesSourcesRelated Water Radio EpisodesFor Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.) Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 4-16-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of April 19, 2021.  This revised episode from May 2014 is part of a series this year of spring-related episodes. MUSIC – ~12 sec – instrumental This week, we feature a Virginia musical group’s version of a traditional Finnish waltz tune, named for a plant community that, like good music, depends on the right timing.  Have a listen for about 35 more seconds. MUSIC – ~36 sec – instrumental You’ve been listening to part of “Flowers of the Forest,” by No Strings Attached, on their 2003 album, “Old Friend’s Waltz,” from Enessay Music.  Just as in a well-done waltz, timing is crucial for low-growing, spring-blooming forest plants.  Such plants live under trees whose leaf canopy will close by late spring, blocking much of the sunlight and rainfall from reaching the forest floor.  As a result, many non-woody forest plants are adapted to take advantage of early spring’s interaction of warming soil and air temperature, available moisture, increasing light, and the activity of emerging insect pollinators to reproduce and to store enough energy underground to survive the coming year.  Bloodroot, Spring Beauty, Trillium, and many other Virginia woodland plants follow this strategy: show up early, use colorful flowers to show off for foraging insects, and then produce fruits and seeds before the summer’s shade. Thanks for No Strings Attached for permission to use this week’s music, and we close with about 25 more seconds of “Flowers of the Forest.”MUSIC – ~27 sec – instrumental SHIP’S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 212, 5-5-14. “Flowers of the Forest” and “Old Friend’s Waltz” are copyright by No Strings Attached and Enessay Music, used with permission.  More information about the now-retired, Blacksburg/Roanoke-based group No Strings Attached is available online at https://www.enessay.com/index.html.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 521, 4-20-20, on Virginia Bluebells, another spring-blooming wildflower.  Information on “Metsäkukkia,” the original Finnish tune on which the No Strings Attached selection was based, is available from Andrew Kuntz, “The Fiddler’s Companion,” online at http://www.ibiblio.org/fiddlers/MER_MIC.htm; and from Jeremy Keith, “The Session,” online at http://thesession.org/tunes/4585. Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES  Shooting Star beside a stream in Blacksburg, Va., May 3, 2014.  Trillium at the base of a Tulip-poplar in Blacksburg, Va., May 3, 2014.Trout Lily at Falls Ridge Nature Preserve in Montgomery County, Va., April 20, 2019.Jack-in-the-pulpit at Falls Ridge Nature Preserve in Montgomery County, Va., April 20, 2019.Spring Beauty in Blacksburg, Va., April 15, 2021.Wild Geranium at Falls Ridge Nature Preserve in Montgomery County, Va., April 16, 2021. SOURCES Used for Audio Marion Lobstein, “Spring Wildflowers: Ecological Factors,” by (undated), Botanical Society of Washington [D.C.], online at www.botsoc.org/SpringWildflowerBackground.doc‎.  Marion Lobstein, a retired biology professor at Northern Virginia Community College-Manassas, is the Botany Chair for the Prince William Wildflower Socieyt (Prince William County, Va.); other articles by her are available online at https://vnps.org/princewilliamwildflowersociety/botanizing-with-marion/.Alexander F. Motten, “Pollination Ecology of the Spring Wildflower Community of a Temperate Deciduous Forest,” Ecological Monographs (Vol. 56, No. 1), March 1986, pp. 21-42. For More Information about Plants in Virginia or Elsewhere A.S. Weakley, J.C. Ludwig, and J.F. Townsend, Flora of Virginia, Bland Crowder, ed.  Copyright by the Foundation of the Flora of Virginia Project, Inc., Richmond.  Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Fort Worth, 2012.  This is the first comprehensive manual of Virginia plants published since the 1700s.Flora of Virginia Project, online at http://www.floraofvirginia.org/. Oscar W. Gupton and Fred C. Swope, series of wildflower guides: Fall Wildflowers of the Blue Ridge and Great Smoky Mountains, University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, 1987; Wild Orchids of the Middle Atlantic States University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, 1986); Wildflowers of Tidewater Virginia (University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, 1982; and Wildflowers of the Shenandoah Valley and Blue Ridge Mountains, University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, 1979. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)/Natural Resources Conservation Service Plants Database, online at https://plants.usda.gov.Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation/Natural Heritage Division, online at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural-heritage/. Virginia Native Plant Society, online at http://vnps.org/. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Plants” subject category. Following are links to other spring-themed episodes.Eastern Phoebe – Episode 416, 4-16-18.Frog and Toad Medley – Episode 408, 2-19-18.Rhododendrons – Episode 216, 6-2-14.Spring arrival episode – Episode 569, 3-22-21.Spring Peepers – Episode 570, 3-29-21.Spring reminder about tornado awareness – Episode 568, 3-15-21.Spring signals for fish – Episode 571, 4-5-21.Spring sounds serenades – Episode 206, 3-14-14 and Episode 516, 3-16-20.Virginia Bluebells – Episode 521, 4-20-20.Warblers and spring bird migration – Episode 572, 4-12-21. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode’s audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relat