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Ben Cosgrove

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Virginia Water Radio
Episode 627 (5-9-22): A Trio of Songbirds with Tree Nests Near Water

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later May 9, 2022


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (5:05).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 5-6-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the weeks of May 9 and May 16, 2022.   This episode from is part of a series this year of episodes related to trees and shrubs. MUSIC – ~14 sec – instrumental. That's part of “New Spring Waltz,” by the late Madeline MacNeil, who was a well-known and highly regarded musician based in Virginia's Shenandoah Valley. Each new spring brings a chance to focus on the life cycles of wildlife.  This mid-spring episode of Water Radio explores some connections among nesting birds, trees, and water.  Have a listen for about 30 seconds to three mystery sounds, and see if you know these three bird species who nest in trees near water, either always or at least sometimes.  And here's a hint: you'll be singing a melodious trill, if you hit this mystery out of the park. SOUNDS  - 29 sec. If you guessed two warblers and an oriole, you're right!  And you get bodacious bird bragging rights if you recognized, first, the Prothonotary Warbler; second, the Northern Parula, also a kind of warbler; and third, the bird for which Baltimore's baseball team is named, the Baltimore Oriole.  All three of these songbirds are found in Virginia in the spring and summer breeding season.  During that period, the Prothonotary Warbler is common in Virginia's central and southern Coastal Plain and can occasionally be found in some other parts of the Commonwealth; the Baltimore Oriole is common outside of the Coastal Plain; and the Northern Parula is common statewide.  The three species show a range of attachment to water-side trees as their nesting habitat.  The Prothonotary Warbler is particularly known for nesting in cavities in trees around water; in fact, the bird is sometimes called the “Swamp Warbler” in the southeastern United States.  The Northern Parula typically nests in trees along rivers and wetlands, especially in areas where it can find the materials it prefers for making its hanging nests: Spanish Moss or a kind of stringy lichen; this bird is also known to make nests out of debris left in trees after floods.  The Baltimore Oriole is the least water-attached of these three species, being found nesting high in trees in many areas outside of deep woods, including parks and yards; however, streamsides are among the species preferred areas for the bird's fibrous, hanging nests. If you're near streams, rivers, or wetlands and you see or hear any of these three birds, look to nearby trees for cavities or hanging materials that may be harboring the birds' next generation. Thanks to Lang Elliott for permission to use the bird sounds, from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs.  Thanks also to Janita Baker of Blue Lion Dulcimers and Guitars for permission to use Madeline MacNeil's music, and we close with about 25 more seconds of “New Spring Waltz.” MUSIC – ~26 sec – instrumental. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS “New Spring Waltz” is from Madeline MacNeil's 2002 album “Songs of Earth & Sea”; copyright held by Janita Baker, used with permission.  More information about Madeline MacNeil is available from Ms. Baker's “Blue Lion Dulcimers & Guitars” Web site, online at https://www.bluelioninstruments.com/Maddie.html. The sounds of the Baltimore Oriole, Northern Parula, and Prothonotary Warbler were from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs-Eastern Region CD set, by Lang Elliott with Donald and Lillian Stokes (Time Warner Audio Books, copyright 1997), used with permission of Lang Elliott.  Lang Elliot's work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES Baltimore Oriole at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife's National Conservation Training Center in Shepherdstown, W. Va., August 2015.  Photo by Michelle Smith, made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov; the specific URL for the photograph washttps://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/17342/rec/2, as of 5-9-22.Northern Parula at Kennebago Lake in Maine, July 2011.  Photo by Bill Thompson, made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov; the specific URL for the photograph was https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/12961/rec/1, as of 5-9-22.Prothonotary Warbler bringing food to its nest in South Carolina, March 2012.  Photo by Mark Musselman, made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov; the specific URL for the photograph was https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/14152/rec/3, as of 5-9-22. EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT THE BIRDS IN THIS EPISODE The scientific names of the birds in this episode are as follows: Baltimore Oriole – Icterus galbula;Northern Parula – Setophaga Americana (formerly Parula americana);Prothonotary Warbler – Protonotaria citrea. SOURCES Used for Audio Chesapeake Bay Program, “Birds,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/all/birds/all.  The Baltimore Oriole entry is online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/entry/baltimore_oriole. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “All About Birds,” online at http://www.allaboutbirds.org.The Baltimore Oriole entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Baltimore_Oriole;the Northern Parula entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Northern_Parula/;the Prothonotary Warbler entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Prothonotary_Warbler. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Birds of the World,” online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/home (subscription required). The Baltimore Oriole entry is online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/species/balori/cur/introduction; the Northern Parula entry is online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/species/norpar/cur/introduction; the Prothonotary Warbler entry is online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/species/prowar/cur/introduction. Merriam-Webster, “Warble,” online at https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/warble. Chandler S. Robbins et al. A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, St. Martin's Press, New York, N.Y., 2001. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries):“Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/.The Baltimore Oriole entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040348&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19117;the Northern Parula entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040312&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19117;the Prothonotary Warbler entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040303&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19117. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “List of Native and Naturalized Fauna in Virginia, August 2020,” online (as a PDF) at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/virginia-native-naturalized-species.pdf. For More Information about Birds in Virginia and Elsewhere Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin Photo ID.”  The application for mobile devices allows users to submit a bird photograph to get identification of the bird. Information is available online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and the Audubon Society, “eBird,” online at https://ebird.org/home.  Here you can find locations of species observations made by contributors, and you can sign up to contribute your own observations. Stan Tekiela, Birds of Virginia Field Guide, Adventure Publications, Inc., Cambridge, Minn., 2002. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, “Animal Diversity Web,” online at https://animaldiversity.org/. Virginia Society of Ornithology, online at http://www.virginiabirds.org/.  The Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth. Xeno-canto Foundation, online at http://www.xeno-canto.org/.  This site provides bird songs from around the world.  For More Information about Trees and Shrubs in Virginia and Elsewhere Center for Watershed Protection, “Trees and Stormwater Runoff,” online at https://www.cwp.org/reducing-stormwater-runoff/. Chesapeake Bay Program, “Field Guide: Plants and Trees,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/all/plants_trees/all. eFloras.org, “Flora of North America,” online at http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1. Sanglin Lee and Alan Raflo, “Trees and Water,” Virginia Water Resources Research Center, Virginia Water Central Newsletter, pages 13-18, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/49367.   (A Virginia Cooperative Extension version of this article—“Trees and Water,” by Sanglin Lee, Alan Raflo, and Jennifer Gagnon, 2018—with some slight differences in the text is available online at https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/content/pubs_ext_vt_edu/en/ANR/ANR-18/ANR-18NP.html.) Texas A&M University AgriLife Extension, “How Trees Grow,” online at https://agrilife.org/treecarekit/introduction-to-tree-care/how-trees-grow/. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Forests of Virginia, 2018, Resource Update FS-264, Asheville, N.C., 2020; available online at https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/59963. U.S. Department of Agriculture/U.S. Forest Service, “State and Private Forestry Fact Sheet—Virginia 2022,” online (as a PDF) at https://apps.fs.usda.gov/nicportal/temppdf/sfs/naweb/VA_std.pdf. U.S. Department of Agriculture/Forest Service/Climate Change Resource Center, “Forest Tree Diseases and Climate Change,” online at https://www.fs.usda.gov/ccrc/topics/forest-disease. U.S. Department of Agriculture/Forest Service/Northern Research Station (Newtown Square, Penn.), “Forest Disturbance Processes/Invasive Species,” online at https://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/disturbance/invasive_species/.” U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)/Natural Resources Conservation Service, “PLANTS Database,” online at https://plants.usda.gov. Virginia Botanical Associates, “Digital Atlas of the Virginia Flora,” online at http://www.vaplantatlas.org/index.php?do=start&search=Search. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation/Natural Heritage Division, online at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural-heritage/. Virginia Department of Forestry, “Virginia's Forests,” online at https://dof.virginia.gov/.  Some of the useful pages at that site are the following:“Benefits of Trees,”

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Virginia Water Radio
Episode 625 (4-18-22): Ash Trees, Insect Impacts, and Water Consequences

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 20, 2022


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:38).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 4-15-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of April 18, 2022.  This update of an episode from July 2017 is part of a series this year of episodes related to trees and shrubs. MUSIC – ~14 sec That's part of “The Ash Grove,” a traditional Welsh tune performed by Madeline MacNeil, on her 2002 album, “Songs of Earth & Sea.”  Born in Norfolk and raised in Richmond, Ms. MacNeil was a well-known and highly regarded musician based in Virginia's Shenandoah Valley until her passing in 2020. The music opens an episode where we revisit the status of North American ash trees and explore the water impacts of pest damage to trees generally. As noted in the July 2017 episode on ashes, North America is home to 16 native ash species, with six of those occurring naturally in Virginia.  The two most common ash species in Virginia are White Ash, which tends toward upland habitats, and Green Ash, which is often found along streams and rivers.  In those areas, Green Ash can be a significant portion of the vegetation and help create habitats, improve water quality, and stabilize flows.  Both species provide food for a variety of animals and both have been widely planted in cities and towns. Since the early 2000s, ash tree populations have been devastated by the spread of the Emerald Ash Borer, a beetle native to Asia.  As of April 2022, the insect had been found in at least 35 states and the District of Columbia, and in nearly all of Virginia.  In an affected tree, the insect's larvae create a network of tunnels that impair the tree's transport of water and nutrients, eventually killing the tree.  Once an area's invaded, ashes are unlikely to survive for more than a few years without expensive chemical treatment of individual trees.  At the scale of whole forests, researchers and managers are exploring the use of parasitoid wasps as a biological control method. The Emerald Ash Borer is only one of many pest species threatening different trees in Virginia and elsewhere.  Several of these pests have been the subject of research on their water-related, or hydrologic, impacts.  Researchers are interested in how loss of tree leaves or death of trees can affect evaporation, soil moisture, water-table levels, streamflows, water chemistry, and snowpack.  Those water-cycle processes are in turn connected to ecosystem pathways of carbon, nutrients, and energy, all being affected by climate changes.  From all of these connections, little ash-boring beetles become part of a biosphere-sized story. Thanks to Janita Baker of Blue Lion Dulcimers and Guitars for permission to use Madeline MacNeil's music,” and we close with about 25 more seconds of “The Ash Grove.” MUSIC – ~24 sec – instrumental. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode builds upon and updates information in Episode 376, 7-10-17. “The Ash Grove/O Spirit Sweet of Summertime” is from Madeline MacNeil's 2002 album “Songs of Earth & Sea”; copyright held by Janita Baker, used with permission.  More information about Madeline MacNeil is available from Ms. Baker's “Blue Lion Dulcimers & Guitars” Web site, online at https://www.bluelioninstruments.com/Maddie.html. Virginia Water Radio thanks Daniel McLaughlin, of the Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation and the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, for his help with this episode. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES Emerald Ash Borer-infected White Ash tree that cracked and fell in a Blacksburg, Va., neighborhood in 2021.  Photo taken April 19, 2022.Nationwide range maps for ash tree species and the Emerald Ash Borer, as of January 2021.  Map from the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, “Emerald Ash Borer,” online at https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/planthealth/plant-pest-and-disease-programs/pests-and-diseases/emerald-ash-borer/emerald-ash-borer.Adult Emerald Ash Borer.  Photo from the the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, “Emerald Ash Borer,” online at https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/planthealth/plant-pest-and-disease-programs/pests-and-diseases/emerald-ash-borer/emerald-ash-borer. EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT THE EMERALD ASH BORER The following information is quoted from the Virginia Department of Forestry, “Emerald Ash Borer in Virginia—An Introduction,” online at https://vdof.maps.arcgis.com/apps/MapSeries/index.html?appid=e2660c30d9cd46cc988cc72415101590. From Background Tab: “After only 1-5 years of infestation, the larvae create extensive tunnels under the bark that disrupt the tree's ability to transport water and nutrients, which eventually girdles and kills the tree. The length of this process depends on tree age, health, and EAB density in the area but no ash tree is safe - 99% of infested ash will die.” From Distribution Tab: “In the U.S., EAB targets 16 species of native ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) and white fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus).  In Virginia, white ash (Fraxinus americana) and green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) are the most commonly found, though there are four other species that have limited ranges (pumpkin, black, blue, and Carolina ash). In the wild, ash often prefers wetter environments and are dominant species along rivers and streambanks.  Ash decline and death may have a negative impact on streambank stabilization and waterways in these rural areas.  Though only a small percentage of Virginia's forests are composed of ash (2-3%), urban areas can have tree inventories tallying up to 13% ash.  This is where dead ash poses the most risk!” From Biological Control Tab: “Biological control (or “biocontrol”) is a management strategy that involves releasing natural enemies from the pest's native range to control the pest at a given location.  Researchers identified wasps in the early 2000s from Eastern Asia that had co-evolved with emerald ash borers as a parasite to control its populations.  They then conducted extensive research in quarantined U.S. labs to study their life cycle, environmental parameters, and host species.  After nearly a decade of trials, only four wasp species passed the strict requirements set by the USDA-APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) and were approved for release.  APHIS now rears these wasps in large quantities then collaborates with federal, state, and local governments, as well as land owners to release them at approved sites.  These tiny stingless wasps lay eggs in EAB eggs or larvae, effectively killing the EAB host, and are commonly called “parasitoids.” ...These wasps do not harm humans in any way, they only target emerald ash borer as a host. The use of these biocontrol agents in suppressing EAB has shown promising results, but it will take years of controlled releases and research before we see successful parasitism and a reduction of the EAB population.” SOURCES Used for Audio Samuel H. Austin, Riparian Forest Handbook 1: Appreciating and Evaluating Stream Side Forests, Virginia Department of Forestry, Charlottesville, 2000. J. A. Biederman et al., “Multiscale observations of snow accumulation and peak snowpack following widespread, insect-induced lodgepole pine mortality,” Ecohydrology, Vol. 7 (2014), pages 150-162. J. A. Biederman et al., Increased evaporation following widespread tree mortality limits streamflow response,” Water Resources Research, Vol. 50 (2014), pages 5295-5409. S. T. Brantley et al., “Changes to southern Appalachian water yield and stormflow after loss of a foundation species,” Ecohydrology, Vol. 8 (2015), pages 518-528. T. R. Cianciolo et al., “Hydrologic variability in black ash wetlands: Implications for vulnerability to emerald ash borer,” Hydrological Processes, Vol. 35 (2021), e14014. D. W. Clow et al., “Responses of soil and water chemistry to mountain pine beetle induced tree mortality in Grand County, Colorado, USA,” Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 26 (2011), pages 174-178. Anthony D'Amato et al., “Ecological and hydrological impacts of the emerald ash borer on black ash forests,” Northeast Climate Science Center, online at https://necsc.umass.edu/projects/ecological-and-hydrological-impacts-emerald-ash-borer-black-ash-forests. M. J. Daley et al., “Water use by eastern hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis) and black birch (Betula lenta): implications of effects of the hemlock wooly adelgid,” Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 37 (2007), pages 2031-2040. J. S. Diamond et al., “Forested versus herbaceous wetlands: Can management mitigate ecohydrologic regime shifts from invasive emerald ash borer?”  Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 222 (2018), pages 436-446. Emerald Ash Borer Information Network, online at http://www.emeraldashborer.info/index.php.  Virginia information is online at http://www.emeraldashborer.info/state/virginia.php.  Information by county for each state is available in the table online at http://www.emeraldashborer.info/state-dectection-table.php. Gary M. Lovett et al., “Forest Ecosystem Responses to Exotic Pests and Pathogens in Eastern North America,” Bioscience Vol. 56, No. 5 (May 2006), pages 395-405. Steven G. Pallardy, Physiology of Woody Plants, Third Edition, Elsevier/Academic Press, Burlington, Mass., 2008. D. E. Reed et al., “Bark beetle-induced tree mortality alters stand energy budgets due to water budget changes,” “Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol., 131 (2018), pages 153-165. W. M. Robertson et al., “Soil moisture response to white ash mortality following emerald ash borer invasion,” Environmental Earth Sciences, Vol. 77 (2018). Anita K. Rose and James S. Meadows, “Status and Trends of Bottomland Hardwood Forests in the Mid‑Atlantic Region,” USDA/Forest Service Southern Research Station, Asheville, N.C., November 2016; available online at https://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/53238. Scott Salom and Eric Day and Scott Salomn, “Hemlock Wooly Adelgid,” Virginia Cooperative Extension (Publication 3006-1451/ENTO-228NP), Blacksburg, Va., 2016, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/75419. U.S. Department of Agriculture/Forest Service/Northern Research Station [Newtown Square, Penn.], “Forest Disturbance Processes/Invasive Species,” online at https://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/disturbance/invasive_species/.” U.S. Department of Agriculture/Natural Resources Conservation Service, “Plants Data Base,” online at https://plants.usda.gov/java/nameSearch. U.S. Department of Agriculture/Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS):“Asian Longhorned Beetle,” online at https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/resources/pests-diseases/asian-longhorned-beetle;“Emerald Ash Borer,” online at https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/planthealth/plant-pest-and-disease-programs/pests-and-diseases/emerald-ash-borer;“Gypsy Moth,” online at https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/planthealth/plant-pest-and-disease-programs/pests-and-diseases/gypsy-moth. Virginia Departme

united states music relationships university texas earth education college water state change zoom land living tech research colorado ms government foundation search public national songs north america environment dark normal web natural journal tree va rain humans disease sea climate change ocean snow mass consequences citizens status columbia trees agency stream wings diamond priority researchers richmond impacts plants biology vol north american guitar environmental bay images implications ash dynamic grade soil bio conservation copyright welsh increased summertime charlottesville index responses map processes penn mid robertson pond arial signature fort worth ludwig virginia tech biological asheville gothic nationwide physiology norfolk appreciating appalachian accent atlantic ocean life sciences bark townsend govt burlington forests maple natural resources adaptations msonormal compatibility colorful forestry insect ecological times new roman populations ls sections daley poison ivy civics organisms watershed theoretical pathogens bioscience freshwater wg chesapeake policymakers forest service photosynthesis earth sciences shenandoah shrubs blacksburg acknowledgment cosgrove cambria math style definitions environmental management worddocument saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent shenandoah valley third edition punctuationkerning breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit macneil trackmoves msonormaltable trackformatting lidthemeother snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules stormwater lidthemeasian x none mathpr latentstyles deflockedstate centergroup latentstylecount donotpromoteqf subsup undovr brkbin brkbinsub mathfont smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc wrapindent allowpng intlim narylim virginia department defunhidewhenused defpriority defsemihidden defqformat lsdexception locked qformat latentstyles semihidden unhidewhenused table normal sols bmp name title canadian journal name normal name strong name emphasis name dark list accent name light list name colorful shading accent name light grid name colorful list accent name medium shading name medium list name colorful grid accent name medium grid name subtle emphasis name dark list name intense emphasis name colorful shading name subtle reference name colorful list name intense reference name colorful grid name book title name default paragraph font name light shading accent name bibliography name subtitle name light list accent name toc heading name light grid accent name revision name table grid name list paragraph name placeholder text name quote name no spacing name intense quote name light shading forest management in virginia environmental conservation clow emerald ash borer living systems grades k name e biotic light accent dark accent colorful accent name list name date rhododendrons name plain text eab name outline list name grid table name signature name table simple name body text name table classic name body text indent name table colorful name list continue name table columns name list table name message header name table list name salutation name table 3d cumberland gap name body text first indent name table contemporary name note heading name table elegant name block text name table professional name document map name table subtle name table web name normal indent name balloon text name normal web name table theme name list bullet name normal table name plain table name list number name no list name grid table light name closing eastern asia multiscale eastern north america aphis relyonvml white ash grand county atlantic region betula forest resources ben cosgrove audio notes eric day msobodytext tmdl 20image stormwater runoff ecohydrology water center donotshowrevisions virginia standards
Virginia Water Radio
Episode 623 (4-4-22): Exploring Forest Lands and Labors with Music of “Piney Mountains”

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 8, 2022


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:39).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 4-1-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of April 4, 2022.  This revised episode from May 2013 is part of a series this year of episodes related to trees and shrubs. MUSIC – ~ 16 sec – Lyrics: “Lost my fingers in the Galax mill, Buddy sing a sad old song; And my heart got broke in the yew pine hills, Lordy my time ain't long.” This week, we feature music about some historical aspects of a natural-resource industry that's been important to Virginia's economy for hundreds of years and also plays an important role in managing the Commonwealth's water.  Have a listen for about 30 more seconds.MUSIC – ~31 sec – Lyrics: “I started out to loggin' when I was in my prime, Woman don't you weep for me; Hitchin' up the spruce to the big drag lines, You damned old piney mountain; Where the skidders start a-buckin' as the years come down, Buddy sing a sad old song; Makin' God's own thunder on the new-cut ground, Lordy my time ain't long.” You've been listening to part of “Piney Mountains,” by Bruce Molsky on his 2013 album, “If It Ain't Here When I Get Back,” from Tree Frog Music.  The song was written by Craig Johnson, a highly-regarded string-band musician who died in North Carolina in 2009.  Focusing on one logger-turned-millworker's tragic accident in a Galax, Virginia, mill, the song weaves in several aspects of the history of the forest industry in the southeastern states: hard work and rough leisure by loggers, opportunities and risks of working in sawmills and furniture factories, economic ups and downs of resource-based industries, changes to landscapes after land uses change, and a rich heritage of traditional music. With a complex history, forest use and management in Virginia remains of vital economic and ecological importance, including for water resources.  As the Virginia Department of Forestry has stated, quote, “In addition to lumber, paper, and a host of other products, forests provide benefits called ‘ecosystem services,'” unquote.  Those services include air quality, water quality, soil conservation, outdoor recreation, wildlife habitat, carbon storage, and scenic beauty. As of 2017, over 16 million acres in Virginia—about 62 percent of the state—were covered by forests, and those forests provided an estimated $30 billion annually in economic benefits, considering both forest products and ecosystem services.  At the same time, forest-related work can still be hazardous, as it was for the narrator in this week's music.  Logging, for example, typically has higher workplace injury and fatality rates than other occupations. With connections and impacts like these, piney mountains and other wooded landscapes will continue to influence Virginia's economy, culture, wildlife, air, and water. Thanks to Bruce Molsky for permission to use this week's music, and we close with about 15 more seconds of “Piney Mountains.” MUSIC – ~ 16 sec – instrumental. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 160, 5-6-13. “Piney Mountains,” from the 2013 album “If It Ain't Here When I Get Back,” is copyright 2013 by Bruce Molsky and Tree Frog Music, used with permission.  More information about Bruce Molsky is available online at http://www.brucemolsky.com. Information on Craig Johnson was taken from his December 2009 obituary online at http://www.cremnc.com/sitemaker/sites/Cremat2/obit.cgi?user=151400Johnson; and “Most Done Traveling: A Tribute to Craig Johnson,” by Dave Shombert in the Dec. 2009-Jan. 2010 issue of The Old Time Herald (Durham, N.C.), online at https://www.oldtimeherald.org/issues/volume-12-number-2/(subscription required for access) [Used this source in 2013]. Virginia Water Radio thanks Jennifer Gagnon, Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Conservation, for her help with the original version of this episode, done in 2013. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES Percentage of forest land in Virginia counties as of 2016.  Map taken from the Virginia Department of Forestry, “Virginia Statewide Assessment of Forest Resources,” November 2020, page 40.  The report is available online (as a PDF) at https://www.stateforesters.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/2020-VA-Statewide-Assessment.pdf.  The original source is Thomas J. Brandeis et al., “Virginia's Forests, 2016,”  Resource Bulletin SRS–223, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, N.C., 2018. Forests made up much of the watershed surrounding a Bedford County, Virginia, reservoir (center of photo) in this April 21, 2011, photo from Peaks of Otter. EXTRA INFORMATION ON THE STATUS OF FORESTS IN VIRGINIA The following information on trends and threats for Virginia's forest lands is from the Virginia Department of Forestry, “Virginia Statewide Assessment of Forest Resources,” November 2020, page 10.  The report is available online (as a PDF) at https://www.stateforesters.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/2020-VA-Statewide-Assessment.pdf. Virginia's Forest Trends, Conditions, and Threats SummarySeveral important changes, trends, and threats in Virginia are likely to significantly impact the health,quality, and extent of Virginia's forests in the foreseeable future. TrendsPopulation growth and expanding metropolitan areas;Changes in forest ownership;Rising forest volumes;Positive growth/drain ratio for hardwood and softwood forests;Consistent timber harvest numbers and application of water quality Best Management Practices. ThreatsWildland fire and growing wildland urban interface;Declining diminished tree species;Declining hardwood resource;Forestland fragmentation and conversion;Forest health issues;Changing forest industry;Climate change;Funding of conservation work and programs. These trends and threats will increase the need for: innovative and proactive wildfire prevention andsuppression; water quality protection; forest stewardship; forest health management; and urbanforestry efforts in all areas of the Commonwealth. SOURCES Used for Audio University of Washington/Pacific Northwest Agricultural Safety and Health Center, “Logging,” online at https://deohs.washington.edu/pnash/logging. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “The facts of the faller: Occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities to loggers, 2006–2015,” by Jill Jonacha and Caleb Hopler, Beyond the Numbers, April 2018, online at https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-7/the-facts-of-the-faller-occupational-injuries-illnesses-and-fatalities-to-loggers-2006-2015.htm. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “State Occupational Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities,” online at https://www.bls.gov/iif/oshstate.htm#VA. U.S. Department of Agriculture/U.S. Forest Service, “State and Private Forestry Fact Sheet—Virginia 2022,” online (as a PDF) at https://apps.fs.usda.gov/nicportal/temppdf/sfs/naweb/VA_std.pdf. Virginia Department of Forestry:“Virginia's Forests,” online at https://dof.virginia.gov/;“Benefits of Trees,” online at https://dof.virginia.gov/education-and-recreation/learn-about-education-recreation/benefits-of-tree/(this is the source of the quote used in the audio);“Virginia's Forest History,” online at https://dof.virginia.gov/forest-markets-sustainability/learn-about-forest-markets-sustainability/virginias-forest-history/; and“Virginia Statewide Assessment of Forest Resources,” November 2020, online (as a PDF) at https://www.stateforesters.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/2020-VA-Statewide-Assessment.pdf(see page 19 for statistics on forested land; p. 21 for economic benefits; and p. 23 for water quality benefits). For More Information about Trees and Shrubs in Virginia and Elsewhere Center for Watershed Protection, “Trees and Stormwater Runoff,” online at https://www.cwp.org/reducing-stormwater-runoff/. Chesapeake Bay Program, “Field Guide: Plants and Trees,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/all/plants_trees/all. Oscar W. Gupton and Fred C. Swope, Trees and Shrubs of Virginia, University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville, 1981. Sanglin Lee and Alan Raflo, “Trees and Water,” Viriginia Water Resources Research Center, Virginia Water Central Newsletter, pages 13-18, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/49367.   (A Virginia Cooperative Extension version of this article—“Trees and Water,” by Sanglin Lee, Alan Raflo, and Jennifer Gagnon, 2018—with some slight differences in the text is available online at https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/content/pubs_ext_vt_edu/en/ANR/ANR-18/ANR-18NP.html.) Texas A&M University AgriLife Extension, “How Trees Grow,” online at https://agrilife.org/treecarekit/introduction-to-tree-care/how-trees-grow/. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Forests of Virginia, 2018, Resource Update FS-264, Asheville, N.C., 2020; available online at https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/59963. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)/Natural Resources Conservation Service Plants Database, online at https://plants.usda.gov. Virginia Botanical Associates, “Digital Atlas of the Virginia Flora,” online at http://www.vaplantatlas.org/index.php?do=start&search=Search. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation/Natural Heritage Division, online at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural-heritage/. Virginia Forest Landowner Education Program, Virginia Cooperative Extension and Virginia Tech College of Natural Resources and Environment, online at https://forestupdate.frec.vt.edu/. Virginia Forest Products Association, online at https://www.vfpa.net/. Virginia Native Plant Society, online at http://vnps.org/. A.S. Weakley, J.C. Ludwig, and J.F. Townsend, Flora of Virginia, Bland Crowder, ed.  Copyright by the Foundation of the Flora of Virginia Project, Inc., Richmond.  Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Fort Worth, 2012.  This is the first comprehensive manual of Virginia plants published since the 1700s.  The Flora of Virginia Project is online at https://floraofvirginia.org/. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Plants” subject category.Following are links to other episodes on trees and shrubs. Introduction to trees and water – Episode 621, 3-21-22.American Sycamore – Episode 176, 8-26-13.American Witch Hazel – Episode 238, 10-31-14.Ash trees – Episode 376, 7-10-17. Early spring wildflowers in woodlands – Episode 573, 4-19-21.Maple trees – Episode 503, 12-16-19. Photosynthesis – Episode 602, 11-8-21. Poison Ivy and related plants, including the shrub Poison Sumac – Episode 535, 7-27-20. Rhododendrons – Episode 574, 4-26-21. Tree buds – Episode 622, 3-28-22. Tree colors and changes in fall, including to water movement – Episode 285, 10-9-15. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grade 6 6.6 – Water has unique physical properties and has a role in the natural and human-made environment. 6.8 – Land and water have roles in watershed systems. 6.9 – Humans impact the environment and individuals can influence public policy decisions related to energy and the environment. Life Science LS.9 – Relationships exist between ecosystem dynamics and human activity. Earth Science ES.6 – Resource use is complex. ES.8 – Freshwater resources influence and are influenced by g

god america music relationships university texas earth education college woman water state zoom land tech research government benefits foundation search positive north carolina numbers environment dark normal web natural tree rising va rain humans impact ocean snow focusing climate types threats citizens trees agency stream funding priority richmond plants biology mountains environmental bay buddy images conditions ash consistent dynamic grade bio conservation copyright resource bureau factors durham population charlottesville index map commonwealth lands pond signature fort worth ludwig virginia tech asheville accent atlantic ocean life sciences townsend peaks forests maple natural resources makin declining otter msonormal compatibility colorful forestry times new roman ls logging sections poison ivy percentage watershed occupational illnesses freshwater wg chesapeake labor statistics policymakers forest service photosynthesis earth sciences wildlands shenandoah fatalities shrubs labors health centers acknowledgment cosgrove cambria math style definitions worddocument craig johnson saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent punctuationkerning breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit trackmoves msonormaltable trackformatting lidthemeother snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules lidthemeasian x none stormwater mathpr latentstyles deflockedstate centergroup donotpromoteqf subsup undovr latentstylecount usi mathfont brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc wrapindent intlim narylim virginia department defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority qformat lsdexception locked latentstyles semihidden unhidewhenused table normal lordy sols bmp name title united states history name normal name strong name emphasis name medium shading name colorful list accent name medium list name colorful grid accent name medium grid name subtle emphasis name dark list name intense emphasis name colorful shading name subtle reference name colorful list name intense reference name default paragraph font name colorful grid name book title name subtitle name light shading accent name bibliography name light list accent name toc heading name light grid accent name table grid name revision name placeholder text name list paragraph name no spacing name quote name light shading name intense quote name light list name dark list accent name light grid name colorful shading accent piney hitchin galax virginia press name e light accent dark accent colorful accent name list rhododendrons name plain text name date name body text first indent name table contemporary name note heading name table elegant name block text name table professional name document map name table subtle name normal indent name table web name balloon text cumberland gap name list bullet name normal web name table theme name list number name normal table name plain table name closing name no list name grid table light name signature name outline list name grid table name body text name table simple name body text indent name table classic name list continue name table colorful name list table name message header name table columns name salutation name table list name table 3d bedford county best management practices forest resources bruce molsky ben cosgrove audio notes tmdl 20image stormwater runoff water center donotshowrevisions virginia standards
Virginia Water Radio
Episode 621 (3-21-22: An Introduction to Trees and Water

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Mar 23, 2022


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:02).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments Images Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 3-18-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of March 21, 2022.  This revised episode from March 2013 is the first in a series of episodes this year on trees and shrubs. MUSIC – ~7 sec – instrumental. This week, we feature a musical selection about one of Virginia's most common natural resources and one of the most important for the Commonwealth's waters.  Have a listen to the music for about 45 more seconds.  MUSIC  - ~43 sec – Lyrics: “When you plant trees, it's not for tomorrow; no shade tomorrow from them itty bitty seeds.  It's your children's children who'll look up and feel the wonder; it's like lovin' some person you might never chance to meet.  You could say it with flowers, you could shout it from the rooftop, you could beg from your knees; you could say I'm sorry, or darlin' I love you—Grandad planted trees.” You've been listening to part of “Grandad Planted Trees,” by Bob Gramann of Fredericksburg, Virginia.  Fortunately for all of us, lots of people these days are like the grandad in the song and recognize the value of planting trees for many reasons, including water benefits.  Here are four examples: volunteers in many watersheds plant trees along streams to help improve water quality and habitat; cities encourage tree-planting to help reduce stormwater runoff and the pollutants it can carry to waterways; Chesapeake Bay states are working to increase forest coverage to improve Bay water quality, such as in the Virginia Department of Forestry's Virginia Trees for Clean Water Program; and 141 countries at the U.N. Climate Change Conference in 2021 affirmed the critical role of trees in addressing climate change through trees' absorption of carbon dioxide during photosynthesis.  In these and other ways, trees are recognized as part of the solution for an array of water-resources issues. Virginia has a rich diversity of trees: deciduous and evergreen; flowering and cone-bearing; shrubby and towering.  These trees' interactions with water are key factors in the health of water, land, air, and wildlife.  And, of course, trees are great for shade, beauty, and birdsong. Thanks to Bob Gramann for permission to use this week's music, and we close with about 20 more seconds of “Grandad Planted Trees.” MUSIC – ~18 sec – Lyrics: “You could say I'm sorry, or darlin' I love you—Grandad planted trees.” SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 153, 3-18-13. “Grandad Planted Trees,” from the 2004 album of the same name, is copyright by Bob Gramann, used with permission.  More information about Bob Gramann is available online at http://www.bobgramann.com/.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio in Episode 376, 7-10-17. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.IMAGESTrees framing Little River near Radford, Virginia, September 22, 2009. Tree-planting project along the Holtan Branch tributary to Stroubles Creek in Blacksburg, Va., March 21, 2022. Tree-planting project along the Docks Branch tributary of of Stroubles Creek in Blacksburg, Va., November 17, 2021. Sycamore along Stroubles Creek in Blacksburg, Va., March 21, 2022. Cherry trees blooming beside the Virginia Tech Duck Pond in Blacksburg, Va., March 21 2022. SOURCES Used for Audio Center for Watershed Protection, “Trees and Stormwater Runoff,” online at https://www.cwp.org/reducing-stormwater-runoff/. Chesapeake Bay Program, “Chesapeake Bay Watershed Agreement 2014” (updated in 2020), online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/what/what_guides_us/watershed_agreement. Sanglin Lee and Alan Raflo, “Trees and Water,” Viriginia Water Resources Research Center, Virginia Water Central Newsletter, pages 13-18, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/49367.   (A Virginia Cooperative Extension version of this article—“Trees and Water,” by Sanglin Lee, Alan Raflo, and Jennifer Gagnon, 2018—with some slight differences in the text is available online at https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/content/pubs_ext_vt_edu/en/ANR/ANR-18/ANR-18NP.html.) 26th United Nations (UN) Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP26), October 31—November 12, 2021, online at https://ukcop26.org/. Virginia Department of Forestry, “Virginia Trees for Clean Water Program,” online at https://dof.virginia.gov/urban-community-forestry/urban-forestry-community-assistance/virginia-trees-for-clean-water-grant-program/. Virginia Secretary of Natural Resources, “Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay,” online at https://www.naturalresources.virginia.gov/initiatives/chesapeake-bay/. For More Information about Trees in Virginia and Elsewhere Chesapeake Bay Program, “Field Guide: Plants and Trees,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/all/plants_trees/all. Oscar W. Gupton and Fred C. Swope, Trees and Shrubs of Virginia, University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville, 1981. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)/Natural Resources Conservation Service Plants Database, online at https://plants.usda.gov. Virginia Botanical Associates, “Digital Atlas of the Virginia Flora,” online at http://www.vaplantatlas.org/index.php?do=start&search=Search. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation/Natural Heritage Division, online at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural-heritage/. Virginia Department of Forestry, Common Native Trees of Virginia,” 2020 edition, online (as a PDF) at https://dof.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/Common-Native-Trees-ID_pub.pdf. Virginia Department of Forestry, “Tree Identification,” online at https://dof.virginia.gov/education-and-recreation/learn-about-education-recreation/tree-identification/.Virginia Native Plant Society, online at http://vnps.org/. Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Conservation, “Virginia Tech Dendrology/Fact Sheets,” online at http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/factsheets.cfm.  At this site, one can search for trees by common or scientific name. A.S. Weakley, J.C. Ludwig, and J.F. Townsend, Flora of Virginia, Bland Crowder, ed.  Copyright by the Foundation of the Flora of Virginia Project, Inc., Richmond.  Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Fort Worth, 2012.  This is the first comprehensive manual of Virginia plants published since the 1700s.  The Flora of Virginia Project is online at http://www.floraofvirginia.org/. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Plants” subject category. Following are links to other episodes on trees and shrubs. Introduction to trees and water – Episode 621, 3-21-22.American Sycamore – Episode 176, 8-26-13.American Witch Hazel – Episode 238, 10-31-14.Ash trees – Episode 376, 7-10-17.Early spring wildfowers in woodlands – Episode 573, 4-19-21.Forestry as work and as an industry in Virginia – Episode 160, 5-6-13.Maple trees – Episode 503, 12-16-19.Photosynthesis – Episode 602, 11-8-21.Poison Ivy and related plants, including the shrub Poison Sumac – Episode 535, 7-27-20.Rhododendrons – Episode 574, 4-26-21.Tree colors and changes in fall, including to water movement – Episode 285, 10-9-15.|Tree buds – Episode 449, 12-3-18.

music relationships university texas earth education college water state zoom land living tech research government foundation search public environment dark normal web natural tree va rain humans ocean snow citizens trees agency stream priority richmond plants biology environmental bay images ash dynamic grade bio conservation copyright resource charlottesville index lyrics commonwealth processes pond chemical arial signature fort worth ludwig virginia tech accent atlantic ocean life sciences townsend govt maple natural resources msonormal compatibility colorful forestry times new roman populations ls sections aquatic poison ivy civics organisms watershed freshwater wg calibri chesapeake sycamore radford chesapeake bay policymakers fredericksburg photosynthesis earth sciences shenandoah shrubs grandad blacksburg acknowledgment cosgrove cambria math style definitions worddocument ignoremixedcontent saveifxmlinvalid punctuationkerning breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit trackmoves msonormaltable trackformatting lidthemeother useasianbreakrules snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct mathpr stormwater lidthemeasian x none latentstyles deflockedstate centergroup undovr latentstylecount donotpromoteqf subsup mathfont brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin rmargin defjc wrapindent intlim narylim virginia department defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority ar sa lsdexception locked qformat latentstyles semihidden unhidewhenused table normal sols bmp name title name normal name strong name emphasis name table grid name revision name placeholder text name list paragraph name no spacing name quote name light shading name intense quote name light list name dark list accent name light grid name colorful shading accent name medium shading name colorful list accent name medium list name colorful grid accent name medium grid name subtle emphasis name dark list name intense emphasis name colorful shading name subtle reference name colorful list name intense reference name default paragraph font name colorful grid name book title name subtitle name light shading accent name bibliography name light list accent