Deity in ancient Greek religion and myth
Party Week rolls on with the Theatre Dept's Costume Party, and the Criminology Club's Murder Mystery! Will anyone understand Artemis' costume? Did the maid actually do it? Will the Cutie be safe? And most important of all...who will win at beer pong?? Featured Music: "Once Again" by Handheld and "almost beautifu"l by suffer fools Dungeon Punks is recorded and produced by Kirk Hamilton. Super U is being played on Masks: A New Generation. ——— Support the show on Patreon: patreon.com/dungeonpunks Leave us a review on Apple Podcasts or Spotify! Follow us on Twitter: @DungeonPunksPod or Instagram/Threads @DungeonPunks Come hang out on our Discord channel Find the Songs From Bands We Like on our Spotify and YouTube Music playlists. SEASON 3 CAST: Stu Popp as The GM aka Everyone's Podcast Dad(TM) Fil Cieplak as Jason Evans aka Thrasher Leigh Eldridge as Artemis Archer aka The Bandit Mel Shim as Barbara “Babe” Lacey aka Terra Firma Taylor Ramone as Jackie Hyde aka Cambion AND Kirk Hamilton as Kevin Dance aka Cadence
In this episode I channeled the goddess Artemis to discuss the divine feminine, retelling the ancient stories of the goddess, and fears of connecting to the goddess realm. Artemis was the Greek goddess of the hunt, the wilderness, wild animals, nature, vegetation, and of chastity and childbirth. She was identified by the Romans with Diana. Artemis was the daughter of Zeus and Leto and the twin sister of Apollo. She was a skilled archer and a fierce protector of her forest domain. Artemis was one of the most popular goddesses in Greek mythology. She was often depicted as a beautiful young woman with a bow and arrow, accompanied by a pack of hunting dogs. She was known for her independence, her strength, and her love of the wild. Here are some of the things Artemis was known for: Her skill as a hunter: Artemis was a skilled archer and huntress. She was able to kill any animal with a single arrow. Her love of the wild: Artemis loved the wilderness and spent most of her time in the forest. She was known to protect wild animals from harm. Her independence: Artemis was a fiercely independent goddess. She did not want to marry or have children. She preferred to remain a virgin and devote herself to her hunting and other pursuits. Her protection of women and girls: Artemis was a protector of women and girls. She was often invoked for help in times of danger or distress. Her role in childbirth: Artemis was also associated with childbirth. She was sometimes called upon to assist women in labor. Artemis was a complex and multifaceted goddess who was revered by many. She was a symbol of strength, independence, and the beauty of the natural world. She continues to be a popular figure in mythology and art today. In this episode Hermes as Hermes Trismegistus dropped in for a quick discussion. Hermes Trismegistus, also known as "Hermes the Thrice-Great," was a legendary figure of Hellenistic Egypt who was considered to be the founder of alchemy, astrology, and other occult sciences. He was syncretized with the Egyptian god Thoth and the Greek god Hermes, combining their attributes and symbolism. Hermes Trismegistus was said to have lived during the time of Moses and was believed to be a great sage, philosopher, and priest-king. He was credited with writing a vast corpus of works on various subjects, including philosophy, theology, alchemy, and astrology. These works, known as the Hermetica, were highly influential in the development of Western mysticism and occult traditions. The true identity of Hermes Trismegistus is unknown, and there is no historical evidence to support his existence as a real person. However, he remains a significant figure in the history of esoteric thought, and his teachings continue to inspire practitioners of mysticism and alchemy. As always, thank you for listening.
In this conversation, the team celebrates 4:20 and discusses legalizing marijuana (cannabis), the personal meaning of the term disability, the same foods, tarot, and wisdom from growing old.Artemis and Daniel the catsArtemis - WikipediaDear Daniel | Hello Kitty Wiki | Fandom Link between gut and autismAutism spectrum disorder and digestive symptoms - Mayo ClinicAutism levels Understanding the Three Levels of AutismThe social model of disabilitySocial model of disability - WikipediaArtist in residenceArt Demystified: How Do Artist Residencies Work?Processing delayUnderstanding, Diagnosing, and Coping with Slow Processing Speed - Davidson InstituteCold readingCold reading - WikipediaMicro facial expressionsMicroexpression - WikipediaTarot cardsGuide to Tarot: Cards, Spreads, Readings, and MoreSexual assault or misreading sexual cues due to being autisticGirls With Autism Face Three Times the Risk of Sexual Assault | Psychology TodayForced adaptationForced adaptation: plant proteins to fight climate change - PMCMaskingWhat is autistic masking? - Autism AwarenessA Clockwork OrangeA Clockwork Orange (film) - WikipediaCBD vs THCCBD vs. THC: What's the Difference?Legalized marijuanaLegality of cannabis by U.S. jurisdiction - WikipediaStrong marijuana strains2022's strongest THC indica, sativa, and hybrid weed strains | LeaflyWhen The War Was Over - Robert's playWhen the War is OverWisdom of growing oldGrowing Old – A View From the Inside | Psychology TodayInfo dumping
Koskaan aikaisemmin ei kiinnostus Kuuta kohtaan ole ollut näin korkealla. Kuuhun on lähetetty viime vuosina peräti kymmenen luotainta ja laskeutujaa, yksi on parhaillaan matkalla ja tekeillä on yli 30 uutta lentoa Kuun luokse tai sen pinnalle. Ihmiset ovat käyneet Kuussa vain kuusi kertaa, eikä kukaan ole käynyt sen lähelläkään sitten joulukuun 1972. Mistä vuosikymmenien hiljaiselo on oikein johtunut? Nyt Yhdysvaltain vetämä kansainväinen Artemis-hanke on kuitenkin viemässä ihmisiäkin takaisin Kuun pinnalle. Ensimmäinen miehitetty lento on lähdössä joulukuussa 2024. Pienessä aluksessa Kuuta kiertämään lähtevät yhdysvaltalaiset Reid Wiseman, Victor Glover ja Christina Koch sekä kanadalainen Jeremy Hansen.He kertovat tässä Tiedeykkösessä tulevasta lennostaan ja valmistautumisesta siihen. Mukana ohjelmassa on myös saksalaisastronautti Alexander Gerst, joka saattaa hyvinkin olla ensimmäinen eurooppalainen kuulentäjä. Nasan kuualuksesta vastaava johtaja Howard Hu puolestaan kertoo miten viime vuonna tehty koelento sujui ja miten Orion-nimistä kapselia varustetaan tulevia ihmislentoja varten. Ohjelman toimittaa Jari Mäkinen.
1 Corinthians 16:8-9 “In the meantime, I will be staying here at Ephesus until the Festival of Pentecost. There is a wide-open door for a great work here, although many oppose me.” (NLT) “But I will stay on at Ephesus until Pentecost, because a great door for effective work has opened to me, and there are many who oppose me.” (NIV) “But I will tarry in Ephesus until Pentecost. For a great and effective door has opened to me, and there are many adversaries.” (NKJV) “For the present, I'm staying right here in Ephesus. A huge door of opportunity for good work has opened up here. (There is also mushrooming opposition.)” (The Message) We can all get behind a wide-open door of opportunity. It makes me think of an offensive line in a football game creating a huge hole for the running back to go through. A TV commentator might say something like, “Man, you could have driven a semi-truck through there!” There are some doors in life that God opens to us that are just too obvious not to walk through. We want to hang around where God's hand is obviously at work, especially if we can play an active role in it with things like our call to write. But what about the opposition and adversary part? “And what value was there in fighting wild beasts—those people of Ephesus—if there will be no resurrection from the dead?” – 1 Corinthians 15:32a You can read about a key story regarding that opposition Paul is referring to in Acts 19:23-41. A silversmith named Demetrius stirred up a riot by accusing Paul and his companions of trying to make their god Artemis irrelevant and diminish its influence. At the root of this was the threat of losing business and livelihood. But why would Paul want to hang around a place like this? 1.) Paul considered it a privilege to suffer for Christ (Philippians 1:29) 2.) Opposition is a sign that the work (writing) we do is being effective. I would even argue that the more fruitful and effective our work for the Lord, the fiercer the opposition. Paul is such a good model for us as Kingdom Writers. We need not be discouraged when we face opposition from an enemy and a world opposed to our Kingdom message. Perhaps we can form a muscle memory response of considering it a privilege and blessing when opposition arises. As priestly pens in the hands of the Author of Life, let's continue being on the lookout for those wide-open doors of opportunity! The Power of Having a Weekly Business Meeting with God Learn the simple steps you can take to implement a weekly business meeting with God. This is one of the most important actions you can take as a Christian writer to ask God for the strategies to write, publish, and market your books successfully. Get access to the video and PDF download now here.
Auregnis swallows a moon. Xainan learns to shoot. Lumièra faces off against the Drifter. Seir entreats Artemis. And Sing chooses her Fate. This episode contains heavy subject matter about the loss of a loved one and grief. Content warnings: fantasy violence, fire, immolation, apocalypse, romance, complex and complicated relationships, monstrosity, death and killing, guns as weaponry, grief, trauma, death of loved ones & family, and death of a major NPC. These final two episodes of Arc One represent months of planning, intention, and resonant storytelling. These episodes are also very heavy. The Chaos Protocol is a story about revolution and vengeance, but it is first and foremost a story about grief. This episode is our first step into the core exploration of those themes and the loss that will resonate with us in the years yet to come. Please remember that we do what we do in service of a story about hope, healing, growth, love, and community. There is pain here; there is also love. I hope you feel it in the work we've made together. Grief is not an absence of care; it is an indication of it. You are not alone, and there is comfort and power in the act of creation. THE CHAOS PROTOCOL is Transplanar RPG's brand-new main campaign that stars Valiant Dorian, Samm Star, and Cai K. as the players with Sea Thomas as the producer and Connie Chang as the Game Master. This podcast episode is edited by Connie Chang. Our original intro music is by Jonathan Charles. For Arc One, we are playing The Wildsea by Mythworks! The Wildsea is a narrative, fiction-first, action-packed RPG that uses a d6 dice pool system where players embody wildsailors traversing an ocean of verdant greenery. Use TRANSPLANAR for 15% off a hard copy or PDF of the game. Transplanar RPG is sponsored by ExplainTrade, a negotiation skills training consultancy that wants you to pledge to Transplanar's Patreon for a patron-only aftershow, early podcast episodes, GM notes, and even the chance for your OC to cameo in our show. Finally, special thanks to our Hands of Fate and Precepts: Azra, Summer Rose Folta, @brownestnerd, Isabel, Seth, Finn, Kevin O., Faebelle, AshRex, Gavin, Nate Rose, Taylor, Jade, Sunny, Charles, Cora Eckert, chillacres, Lex Slater, Scruffasus, Hat, Alex, Mark J., Lyle and Peanut, Spencer, Brooke in Seattle, Derryk Davidson, Phil, Jordan, Cassidy, Rose, and Eliza Fuller.
In this episode of "Astronomy Daily," hosts Steve Dunkley and his AI sidekick Hallie delve into the latest astronomical news and discoveries. The episode kicks off with a light-hearted exchange between Steve and Hallie, followed by updates from the Astronomy Daily newsletter.Key highlights include:1. SpaceX's latest achievements in lighting up the sky, showcasing their advancements in space exploration.2. The Australian Space Agency's moon rover naming competition, reflecting Australia's enthusiasm for space and public participation.3. The conjunction of Mars, an astronomical event causing several spacecraft to temporarily lose communication with Earth, highlighting the challenges in space missions.4. A groundbreaking Russian experiment, Sirius, involving six participants in a simulated space voyage for a year, aiming to understand the effects of long-term space travel on humans.5. A significant discovery by astronomers using a network of radio telescopes: capturing detailed views of a plasma jet from a supermassive black hole in a distant galaxy. This finding challenges existing theories about the formation and evolution of such jets.6. The Starship Test launch by SpaceX, which ended in an unexpected disintegration, underscoring the complexities and ongoing challenges in space technology development.7. The Australian Space Agency's shortlist of names for the country's first moon rover, with a public vote to decide the final name.The episode also features a special video on the SpaceNuts podcast group Facebook page, showcasing the journey of Artemis One's launch and Orion's moon orbit. Additionally, Steve shares insights into the latest SpaceX Starship test launch and its implications for future space missions.Listeners are encouraged to participate in the moon rover naming vote and to join the SpaceNuts podcast group on Facebook for more engaging space-related content. The episode concludes with a reminder to check out previous episodes of Astronomy Daily and to subscribe to the newsletter for regular updates on astronomical events and discoveries.#astronomy #space #news #podcast #astronomydaily #science #spacexThis show is part of the Spreaker Prime Network, if you are interested in advertising on this podcast, contact us at https://www.spreaker.com/show/5648921/advertisement
Acts 19–21 Acts 19–21 (Listen) Paul in Ephesus 19 And it happened that while Apollos was at Corinth, Paul passed through the inland1 country and came to Ephesus. There he found some disciples. 2 And he said to them, “Did you receive the Holy Spirit when you believed?” And they said, “No, we have not even heard that there is a Holy Spirit.” 3 And he said, “Into what then were you baptized?” They said, “Into John's baptism.” 4 And Paul said, “John baptized with the baptism of repentance, telling the people to believe in the one who was to come after him, that is, Jesus.” 5 On hearing this, they were baptized in2 the name of the Lord Jesus. 6 And when Paul had laid his hands on them, the Holy Spirit came on them, and they began speaking in tongues and prophesying. 7 There were about twelve men in all. 8 And he entered the synagogue and for three months spoke boldly, reasoning and persuading them about the kingdom of God. 9 But when some became stubborn and continued in unbelief, speaking evil of the Way before the congregation, he withdrew from them and took the disciples with him, reasoning daily in the hall of Tyrannus.3 10 This continued for two years, so that all the residents of Asia heard the word of the Lord, both Jews and Greeks. The Sons of Sceva 11 And God was doing extraordinary miracles by the hands of Paul, 12 so that even handkerchiefs or aprons that had touched his skin were carried away to the sick, and their diseases left them and the evil spirits came out of them. 13 Then some of the itinerant Jewish exorcists undertook to invoke the name of the Lord Jesus over those who had evil spirits, saying, “I adjure you by the Jesus whom Paul proclaims.” 14 Seven sons of a Jewish high priest named Sceva were doing this. 15 But the evil spirit answered them, “Jesus I know, and Paul I recognize, but who are you?” 16 And the man in whom was the evil spirit leaped on them, mastered all4 of them and overpowered them, so that they fled out of that house naked and wounded. 17 And this became known to all the residents of Ephesus, both Jews and Greeks. And fear fell upon them all, and the name of the Lord Jesus was extolled. 18 Also many of those who were now believers came, confessing and divulging their practices. 19 And a number of those who had practiced magic arts brought their books together and burned them in the sight of all. And they counted the value of them and found it came to fifty thousand pieces of silver. 20 So the word of the Lord continued to increase and prevail mightily. A Riot at Ephesus 21 Now after these events Paul resolved in the Spirit to pass through Macedonia and Achaia and go to Jerusalem, saying, “After I have been there, I must also see Rome.” 22 And having sent into Macedonia two of his helpers, Timothy and Erastus, he himself stayed in Asia for a while. 23 About that time there arose no little disturbance concerning the Way. 24 For a man named Demetrius, a silversmith, who made silver shrines of Artemis, brought no little business to the craftsmen. 25 These he gathered together, with the workmen in similar trades, and said, “Men, you know that from this business we have our wealth. 26 And you see and hear that not only in Ephesus but in almost all of Asia this Paul has persuaded and turned away a great many people, saying that gods made with hands are not gods. 27 And there is danger not only that this trade of ours may come into disrepute but also that the temple of the great goddess Artemis may be counted as nothing, and that she may even be deposed from her magnificence, she whom all Asia and the world worship.” 28 When they heard this they were enraged and were crying out, “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!” 29 So the city was filled with the confusion, and they rushed together into the theater, dragging with them Gaius and Aristarchus, Macedonians who were Paul's companions in travel. 30 But when Paul wished to go in among the crowd, the disciples would not let him. 31 And even some of the Asiarchs,5 who were friends of his, sent to him and were urging him not to venture into the theater. 32 Now some cried out one thing, some another, for the assembly was in confusion, and most of them did not know why they had come together. 33 Some of the crowd prompted Alexander, whom the Jews had put forward. And Alexander, motioning with his hand, wanted to make a defense to the crowd. 34 But when they recognized that he was a Jew, for about two hours they all cried out with one voice, “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!” 35 And when the town clerk had quieted the crowd, he said, “Men of Ephesus, who is there who does not know that the city of the Ephesians is temple keeper of the great Artemis, and of the sacred stone that fell from the sky?6 36 Seeing then that these things cannot be denied, you ought to be quiet and do nothing rash. 37 For you have brought these men here who are neither sacrilegious nor blasphemers of our goddess. 38 If therefore Demetrius and the craftsmen with him have a complaint against anyone, the courts are open, and there are proconsuls. Let them bring charges against one another. 39 But if you seek anything further,7 it shall be settled in the regular assembly. 40 For we really are in danger of being charged with rioting today, since there is no cause that we can give to justify this commotion.” 41 And when he had said these things, he dismissed the assembly. Paul in Macedonia and Greece 20 After the uproar ceased, Paul sent for the disciples, and after encouraging them, he said farewell and departed for Macedonia. 2 When he had gone through those regions and had given them much encouragement, he came to Greece. 3 There he spent three months, and when a plot was made against him by the Jews8 as he was about to set sail for Syria, he decided to return through Macedonia. 4 Sopater the Berean, son of Pyrrhus, accompanied him; and of the Thessalonians, Aristarchus and Secundus; and Gaius of Derbe, and Timothy; and the Asians, Tychicus and Trophimus. 5 These went on ahead and were waiting for us at Troas, 6 but we sailed away from Philippi after the days of Unleavened Bread, and in five days we came to them at Troas, where we stayed for seven days. Eutychus Raised from the Dead 7 On the first day of the week, when we were gathered together to break bread, Paul talked with them, intending to depart on the next day, and he prolonged his speech until midnight. 8 There were many lamps in the upper room where we were gathered. 9 And a young man named Eutychus, sitting at the window, sank into a deep sleep as Paul talked still longer. And being overcome by sleep, he fell down from the third story and was taken up dead. 10 But Paul went down and bent over him, and taking him in his arms, said, “Do not be alarmed, for his life is in him.” 11 And when Paul had gone up and had broken bread and eaten, he conversed with them a long while, until daybreak, and so departed. 12 And they took the youth away alive, and were not a little comforted. 13 But going ahead to the ship, we set sail for Assos, intending to take Paul aboard there, for so he had arranged, intending himself to go by land. 14 And when he met us at Assos, we took him on board and went to Mitylene. 15 And sailing from there we came the following day opposite Chios; the next day we touched at Samos; and9 the day after that we went to Miletus. 16 For Paul had decided to sail past Ephesus, so that he might not have to spend time in Asia, for he was hastening to be at Jerusalem, if possible, on the day of Pentecost. Paul Speaks to the Ephesian Elders 17 Now from Miletus he sent to Ephesus and called the elders of the church to come to him. 18 And when they came to him, he said to them: “You yourselves know how I lived among you the whole time from the first day that I set foot in Asia, 19 serving the Lord with all humility and with tears and with trials that happened to me through the plots of the Jews; 20 how I did not shrink from declaring to you anything that was profitable, and teaching you in public and from house to house, 21 testifying both to Jews and to Greeks of repentance toward God and of faith in our Lord Jesus Christ.10 22 And now, behold, I am going to Jerusalem, constrained by11 the Spirit, not knowing what will happen to me there, 23 except that the Holy Spirit testifies to me in every city that imprisonment and afflictions await me. 24 But I do not account my life of any value nor as precious to myself, if only I may finish my course and the ministry that I received from the Lord Jesus, to testify to the gospel of the grace of God. 25 And now, behold, I know that none of you among whom I have gone about proclaiming the kingdom will see my face again. 26 Therefore I testify to you this day that I am innocent of the blood of all, 27 for I did not shrink from declaring to you the whole counsel of God. 28 Pay careful attention to yourselves and to all the flock, in which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to care for the church of God,12 which he obtained with his own blood.13 29 I know that after my departure fierce wolves will come in among you, not sparing the flock; 30 and from among your own selves will arise men speaking twisted things, to draw away the disciples after them. 31 Therefore be alert, remembering that for three years I did not cease night or day to admonish every one with tears. 32 And now I commend you to God and to the word of his grace, which is able to build you up and to give you the inheritance among all those who are sanctified. 33 I coveted no one's silver or gold or apparel. 34 You yourselves know that these hands ministered to my necessities and to those who were with me. 35 In all things I have shown you that by working hard in this way we must help the weak and remember the words of the Lord Jesus, how he himself said, ‘It is more blessed to give than to receive.'” 36 And when he had said these things, he knelt down and prayed with them all. 37 And there was much weeping on the part of all; they embraced Paul and kissed him, 38 being sorrowful most of all because of the word he had spoken, that they would not see his face again. And they accompanied him to the ship. Paul Goes to Jerusalem 21 And when we had parted from them and set sail, we came by a straight course to Cos, and the next day to Rhodes, and from there to Patara.14 2 And having found a ship crossing to Phoenicia, we went aboard and set sail. 3 When we had come in sight of Cyprus, leaving it on the left we sailed to Syria and landed at Tyre, for there the ship was to unload its cargo. 4 And having sought out the disciples, we stayed there for seven days. And through the Spirit they were telling Paul not to go on to Jerusalem. 5 When our days there were ended, we departed and went on our journey, and they all, with wives and children, accompanied us until we were outside the city. And kneeling down on the beach, we prayed 6 and said farewell to one another. Then we went on board the ship, and they returned home. 7 When we had finished the voyage from Tyre, we arrived at Ptolemais, and we greeted the brothers15 and stayed with them for one day. 8 On the next day we departed and came to Caesarea, and we entered the house of Philip the evangelist, who was one of the seven, and stayed with him. 9 He had four unmarried daughters, who prophesied. 10 While we were staying for many days, a prophet named Agabus came down from Judea. 11 And coming to us, he took Paul's belt and bound his own feet and hands and said, “Thus says the Holy Spirit, ‘This is how the Jews16 at Jerusalem will bind the man who owns this belt and deliver him into the hands of the Gentiles.'” 12 When we heard this, we and the people there urged him not to go up to Jerusalem. 13 Then Paul answered, “What are you doing, weeping and breaking my heart? For I am ready not only to be imprisoned but even to die in Jerusalem for the name of the Lord Jesus.” 14 And since he would not be persuaded, we ceased and said, “Let the will of the Lord be done.” 15 After these days we got ready and went up to Jerusalem. 16 And some of the disciples from Caesarea went with us, bringing us to the house of Mnason of Cyprus, an early disciple, with whom we should lodge. Paul Visits James 17 When we had come to Jerusalem, the brothers received us gladly. 18 On the following day Paul went in with us to James, and all the elders were present. 19 After greeting them, he related one by one the things that God had done among the Gentiles through his ministry. 20 And when they heard it, they glorified God. And they said to him, “You see, brother, how many thousands there are among the Jews of those who have believed. They are all zealous for the law, 21 and they have been told about you that you teach all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children or walk according to our customs. 22 What then is to be done? They will certainly hear that you have come. 23 Do therefore what we tell you. We have four men who are under a vow; 24 take these men and purify yourself along with them and pay their expenses, so that they may shave their heads. Thus all will know that there is nothing in what they have been told about you, but that you yourself also live in observance of the law. 25 But as for the Gentiles who have believed, we have sent a letter with our judgment that they should abstain from what has been sacrificed to idols, and from blood, and from what has been strangled,17 and from sexual immorality.” 26 Then Paul took the men, and the next day he purified himself along with them and went into the temple, giving notice when the days of purification would be fulfilled and the offering presented for each one of them. Paul Arrested in the Temple 27 When the seven days were almost completed, the Jews from Asia, seeing him in the temple, stirred up the whole crowd and laid hands on him, 28 crying out, “Men of Israel, help! This is the man who is teaching everyone everywhere against the people and the law and this place. Moreover, he even brought Greeks into the temple and has defiled this holy place.” 29 For they had previously seen Trophimus the Ephesian with him in the city, and they supposed that Paul had brought him into the temple. 30 Then all the city was stirred up, and the people ran together. They seized Paul and dragged him out of the temple, and at once the gates were shut. 31 And as they were seeking to kill him, word came to the tribune of the cohort that all Jerusalem was in confusion. 32 He at once took soldiers and centurions and ran down to them. And when they saw the tribune and the soldiers, they stopped beating Paul. 33 Then the tribune came up and arrested him and ordered him to be bound with two chains. He inquired who he was and what he had done. 34 Some in the crowd were shouting one thing, some another. And as he could not learn the facts because of the uproar, he ordered him to be brought into the barracks. 35 And when he came to the steps, he was actually carried by the soldiers because of the violence of the crowd, 36 for the mob of the people followed, crying out, “Away with him!” Paul Speaks to the People 37 As Paul was about to be brought into the barracks, he said to the tribune, “May I say something to you?” And he said, “Do you know Greek? 38 Are you not the Egyptian, then, who recently stirred up a revolt and led the four thousand men of the Assassins out into the wilderness?” 39 Paul replied, “I am a Jew, from Tarsus in Cilicia, a citizen of no obscure city. I beg you, permit me to speak to the people.” 40 And when he had given him permission, Paul, standing on the steps, motioned with his hand to the people. And when there was a great hush, he addressed them in the Hebrew language,18 saying: Footnotes  19:1 Greek upper (that is, highland)  19:5 Or into  19:9 Some manuscripts add from the fifth hour to the tenth (that is, from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m.)  19:16 Or both  19:31 That is, high-ranking officers of the province of Asia  19:35 The meaning of the Greek is uncertain  19:39 Some manuscripts seek about other matters  20:3 Greek Ioudaioi probably refers here to Jewish religious leaders, and others under their influence, in that time; also verse 19  20:15 Some manuscripts add after remaining at Trogyllium  20:21 Some manuscripts omit Christ  20:22 Or bound in  20:28 Some manuscripts of the Lord  20:28 Or with the blood of his Own  21:1 Some manuscripts add and Myra  21:7 Or brothers and sisters; also verse 17  21:11 Greek Ioudaioi probably refers here to Jewish religious leaders, and others under their influence, in that time  21:25 Some manuscripts omit and from what has been strangled  21:40 Or the Hebrew dialect (probably Aramaic) (ESV)
GODS SOVEREIGNTY AND OUR FREE WILL 1 We read in the last half of Acts Nineteen how Paul sets up a Bible school called the school of Tyrannus and teaches both Jews and Greeks the Gospel there for two years, and God works powerfully through Paul, so that people who even touched Paul's clothing and handkerchiefs were healed. Many evil spirits came out of people through Paul's ministry and many people who practiced witchcraft repented and burned their books of magic which were reported to be worth fifty thousand silver coins. When Paul saw that God's word was now sovereign and prevailing in Ephesus he decided to move on to Macedonia. Then he said, ‘from there I'm going to Jerusalem and then I'm off to Rome - I've got to get to Rome'. But before he left Ephesus, a man named Demetrius who manufactured and traded statues of the Ephesian goddess Artemis (Diana to the Romans) accused Paul's teachings of destroying the glory of Artemis, whom the whole world worshipped and that her statues would end up a pile of rubbish. These accusations set the crowd off into a frenzy, and Paul and those with him were again in danger of being severely punished for this crime. But the mayor of Ephesus finally quietened the mob and said, ‘This conduct is unworthy of Artemis, and these men have done nothing to harm either our temple or our goddess, and if Demetrius and his artisans have a complaint, they can take it to court and have it dealt with - we're putting our city in serious danger here, because Rome does not look kindly on rioters.' With that, he sent everybody home. Reading on now in Acts Chapter Twenty after Paul had just farewelled the people of Ephesus Paul travels to Greece and preaches there for three months. He discovers that the Jews are plotting again to take his life, so he sails over to Troas in northern Turkey and preaches there for seven days. On the final day he went to preach at their communion service. Acts 20:7… He preached in an upstairs room until midnight! and as Paul spoke on and on, a young man named Eutychus, sitting on the windowsill, went fast asleep and fell three stories to his death below. Paul went down and took him into his arms. “Don't worry,” he said, “he's all right!” And he was brought back to life! They all went back upstairs and ate the Lord's Supper together; then Paul preached another long sermon—so it was dawn when he finally left them! Acts 20:17 Paul then sailed to Miletus, and he sent a message to the elders of the church at Ephesus which was not far away, asking them to come down to the boat to meet him. When they arrived he told them about the plots of the Jews against his life, and that he had never shrunk back from telling them the full counsel of the Word of God. Paul tells them that he is being drawn irresistibly by the Holy Spirit to go to Jerusalem, not knowing what awaited him, except that the Holy Spirit had told him in city after city that jail and suffering lay ahead of him, but he says that life is worth nothing unless he uses it for doing the work assigned to him by the Lord. Verse 36. He knelt and prayed with them, and they wept aloud as they embraced him in farewell, sorrowing most of all because he said that he would never see them again. We now come to Acts 21. Acts 21:1 After parting from the Ephesian elders, Paul sailed straight to Cos and then sailed across to the harbor of Tyre, in Syria, where he went ashore, found the local believers, and stayed with them for a week. These disciples spoke through Holy Spirit to Paul and warned him not to go on to Jerusalem. Then Paul went on to Caesarea and stayed at the home of Philip the Evangelist, one of the original seven deacons. He had four unmarried daughters who had the gift of prophecy. And during his stay of several days, a man named Agabus, who also had the gift of prophecy, arrived from Judea and visited Paul - he took Paul's belt, bound his own feet and hands with it, and said, “The Holy Spirit declares, ‘So shall the owner of this belt be bound by the Jews in Jerusalem and turned over to the Romans.' Hearing this, all the local believers and his traveling companions begged Paul not to go on to Jerusalem. But he said, “Why all this weeping and trying to dishearten me! For I am ready not only to be jailed at Jerusalem but also to die for the sake of the Lord Jesus.” We saw earlier that Paul had felt drawn by the Holy Spirit to go to Jerusalem. When it was clear that he wouldn't be dissuaded, they gave up and said, “God's will be done.” So shortly afterwards Paul and his company packed their things and left for Jerusalem. When Paul arrived at Jerusalem all the believers at gave them a warm welcome, and on the second day Paul met with James and the elders of the Jerusalem church, and he recounted the many things God had accomplished among the Gentiles through his work. They praised God but then James said, “You know, dear brother, how many thousands of Jews have also believed, and they all believe they must continue to follow the Jewish traditions and customs. They have been told that you are against the laws of Moses, against our Jewish customs, and that you forbid the circumcision of their children. Now what can be done? For they will certainly hear that you have come. It wasn't long before some Jews visiting from Turkey saw him in the Temple and roused a mob against him, and they grabbed hold of him, yelling, “Men of Israel! Help! Help! This is the man who preaches against our people and tells everybody to disobey the Jewish laws. Paul was dragged out of the Temple, and immediately the gates were closed behind him. And as they set about to kill him, word reached the commander of the Roman garrison that all Jerusalem was in an uproar. Paul declares his Roman citizenship to the Roman commander and in the following chapters through all kinds of hazards is escorted under an impressive military guard of two hundred soldiers, where he ends up preaching the Gospel to King Agrippa. These encounters of Paul's with the prophets and then with James and the Jewish elders that he had debated with before, and then with the lynch mob that wanted to kill him present us with some interesting options regarding whether Paul was in the will of God or not in going to Jerusalem. God's sovereignty and our free will. The first option is, were those prophets really speaking through the Holy Spirit? The next option is, was Paul overriding the Holy Spirit and determined in his own will to get the true message home to the Jewish Christians about the freedom of the Gospel of grace? And had James forgotten or been pressured to water down the prophetic word about the Tabernacle of David back in Acts Chapter 15 about the freedom from Jewish laws? The last option is, was there something bigger going on that only God knew about and had purposed, that nobody else knew about, including all the prophets, and James, and Paul's companions and even Paul himself. We had seen in earlier accounts that when Paul felt he had a good idea about when he should act on something or where he should go and preach, like when he wanted to go into Asia, that the Holy Spirit prevented him. He sometimes humbly found out that God would block him and redirect him later on, with a clear word, after having Paul wait for something greater to come to pass that Paul would never have imagined, but in God's good time. Those prophets prophesied correctly by the Holy Spirit that Paul would be beaten up and locked up in chains in Jerusalem, assuming in their love and concern for Paul that God was telling him not to go to Jerusalem, and Paul could still accept that and say, ‘So what!' Paul knew that part of his job description was to go through the sufferings of being resisted and rejected and opposed. There was something bigger going on that only God knew about and had purposed for Paul about his desire get to Rome that he could never have possibly foreseen. It is that last option that teaches us that only God knows the end from the beginning in everything concerning his will and purpose for us, even though we are fully committed to do his will and even though he lets us hear from him, and even though he gives us a glimpse of certain things that will come to pass along the way. God finally brings his will to pass in his own remarkable way, and we are privileged in all our stumbling and bumbling and suffering, to be included in the outworking on earth of what God has planned to do from heaven. People may debate the paradox of God's sovereignty and man's free will. However, we see here that God sovereignly takes us in his way but graciously accompanies and leads us on our way. This is how God is able to fold together and reveal to us the intricate parts of the unknowable mystery of His sovereignty and our free will. The Bible says that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who say yes to his invitation of living according to his purpose. (Ephesians 3:28) God meets us there and sorts out the loose ends of our bumbling in such a way that both we and God are very happy with that. That is why just turning to him and looking in his direction is often enough to receive a mountain of faith if we hang in there. He is so far above and beyond us in his workings with us that our acceptance of his unlimited sovereignty and our severely limited capacity to discern the future becomes the peace within us that surpasses all understanding. It is no longer a paradox but a new kind of certainty.
What does it mean to be a conservation advocate? It's different for every person. This week, Artemis ambassador Anne Jolliff talks about what she's learned over the past year about how to best advocate for wild spaces. She shares her "why" and her "how," and more on how it's going. 00:20 Artemis 101 and advocacy 1:00 "Go Confident as an Advocate" program 3:00 Ladies and gentlemen... we are hearing from a mother of 5-year-old triplets 6:00 Why be a conservation advocate? 8:00 First thing: What's holding you back? 10:00 The first time you speak up for something you believe in 13:00 Writing an op-ed, testifying at a hearing, sharing what you know with others 15:00 Preconceptions about what it means to "be an advocate" 16:00 "I'm not here to be the magic bullet that changes everyone's minds and pivots this whole discussion, as much as I would like it to... but I am going to show up." 21:00 When was the last time you changed your mind? 23:00 Wear fancy dresses in the dirt, ya'll 28:00 Start by watching... hearings, the political process, everything. Follow the groups that fit your beliefs. Engage. Reach out. Talk to people. 33:00 Don't be afraid to fail... failure is integral to how you learn this kind of thing 37:00 Ethos, logos, pathos 39:00 Bear! Right there! Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices
New York-based drummer, composer, and educator Allison Miller has played with singer/songwriters like Brandi Carlile, Ani DiFranco, or Natalie Merchant, but she's best known for her own bands, and her own music, which is usually labeled jazz, but you'll hear elements of rock, funk and folk in there too. She's the bandleader of the chamber jazz band Boom Tic Boom, and is part of the all-star jazz group Artemis along with many other collaborations. Allison Miller's latest album, Rivers In Our Veins, features a new band, including several members of Boom Tic Boom but with tap dancers as well. Allison Miller presents the full multimedia Rivers In Our Veins on Nov. 25 at Roulette. Commissioned by Mid Atlantic Arts Organization and Lake Placid Center for the Arts, Rivers In Our Veins is inspired by five major rivers of the Northeast United States – the James, Delaware, Potomac, Hudson and Susquehanna – their history, how they serve the communities around them, and how those communities need to better upkeep them. Allison Miller goes deep with research about rivers and social movement — migratory movement — along rivers, as well as what she learned from the River Keepers. [Much more about Rivers In Our Veins.] Her top-shelf band, with violinist Jenny Scheinman, bassist Todd Sickafoose, clarinetist Ben Goldberg, trumpeter Jason Palmer, and pianist Carmen Staaf, along with two phenomenally talented tap dancers, perform selections from Rivers In Our Veins, in-studio. Set list: 1. Hudson 2. Of Two Rivers (Part 2) 3. Fierce
#BESTOF2022: #HotelMars: NASA, Artemis, Risk Tolerance and the Lost Golden Age of the 1960s. Rand Simberg, author, Safe Is Not an Option. Safe Is Not an Option Paperback – October 31, 2013 by Rand E. Simberg (Author), William Simon (Editor), Ed Lu (Foreword) https://www.amazon.com/Safe-Not-Option-Rand-Simberg/dp/0989135519/ref=tmm_pap_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=&sr= The history of exploration and establishment of new lands, science and technologies has always entailed risk to the health and lives of the explorers. Yet, when it comes to exploring and developing the high frontier of space, the harshest frontier ever, the highest value is apparently not the accomplishment of those goals, but of minimizing, if not eliminating, the possibility of injury or death of the humans carrying them out. For decades since the end of Apollo, human spaceflight has been very expensive and relatively rare (about 500 people total, with a death rate of about 4%), largely because of this risk aversion on the part of the federal government and culture. From the Space Shuttle, to the International Space Station, the new commercial crew program to deliver astronauts to it, and the regulatory approach for commercial spaceflight providers, our attitude toward safety has been fundamentally irrational, expensive and even dangerous, while generating minimal accomplishment for maximal cost. This book entertainingly explains why this means that we must regulate passenger safety in the new commercial spaceflight industry with a lighter hand than many might instinctively prefer, that NASA must more carefully evaluate rewards from a planned mission to rationally determine how much should be spent to avoid the loss of participants, and that Congress must stop insisting that safety is the highest priority, for such insistence is an eloquent testament to how unimportant they and the nation consider the opening of this new frontier. 1963
Prada是義大利時尚品牌之一，其專賣店遍及全球，頗具知名度。 針對2025年的登陸月球任務，美國太空總署（NASA）已經委託該品牌設計和製作新的太空衣供太空人使用。 繼1972年12月的阿波羅17號（Apollo 17）任務之後，NASA預計在2025年執行阿提米絲3號（Artemis 3）任務，再度登陸月球，而且將首次派太空人探索月球南極附近的地區。 為此，普拉達將依據其對材料與製造的專業知識，與美國太空公司“公理太空”共同設計和製造這項任務所需的太空衣，太空衣是保護太空人在太空不受低溫，射線等的侵害並提供人類生存所需的氧氣的保護服。 太空衣的氧氣罐為太空人提供氧氣。 其次太空人的體溫則由一套貼身內衣調節，這件內衣佈滿水管，水泵不斷把水循環，把太空人身體所發出的熱帶走，而水則由昇華器所冷卻。 太空衣最後一個重要功用，是為太空人提供所需的氣壓。 如果氣壓過低，人體血液及身體組織內的氣體會離開，令太空人患上類似潛水員常有的潛水病一名太空人告訴英國廣播公司（BBC）說，普拉達能夠勝任這項工作是因為他們有相關的設計經驗。 除了參加米蘭時裝秀之外，這些經驗也來自於對美洲杯帆船賽（America』s Cup）的參與。 曾執行過5次NASA飛行任務與4次太空漫步的前太空人Jeffrey表示，普拉達對於各種合成材料的使用有大量的經驗，可能可以為新太空衣的表層製作帶來技術上的貢獻。 普拉達集團表示，很榮幸能與'公理太空'一起成為這項歷史性任務的一部分。 新的太空衣將更有彈性、更具保護力，能對抗惡劣的環境，讓太空人行動自如，隨時可拿出探索月球所需的特定工具進行更多科學試驗。 對於未來的太空探索而言，這些下一代太空衣的開發是個重大的里程碑，有助於人們更瞭解月球、太陽系和太陽系以外的太空。
It's the eye of the Tigress! Chamar and Andrew are back with yet another episode as we continue our coverage of Young Justice with the Artemis arc of the Phantoms season. Superboy is gone and we will see how that affects the new leader of the team, Artemis, who also has to deal with League of Shadows, new threats, her sister's abandonment issues, and A Tale of Two Cit-ok can someone give this woman a mental health day??As always, we are here to ask the big questions: Does the story make sense? How does it compare to the comic? Is it a good addition to the universe? And most importantly, who is the Amazing Man?For more Lady Shiva content, check out @TalkinLadyShiva's full list hereFollow Yet Another DC Animated Podcast on social media @yadcanimatedpod. Join our Patreon and support our journey through the DC Animated Universe starting at $1!Yet Another DC Animated Podcast is a proud part of the Forgotten Entertainment Company.
When we spend time with the herstorical record of the Sacred Feminine, we might be surprised to find that some of the most well-known Goddesses are far more complex than we've been told. Such is the case with the Greek Goddess Artemis, who is the subject of my discussion with this episode's guest, Dr. Carla Ionescu. Carla's research centers on the influential nature of Artemis across Anatolia, the Mediterranean and the Balkans. As one of the leading experts in the worship and ritual of the Goddess Artemis, Dr. Ionescu spends most of her time teaching in the field of Ancient History and Women's Studies, and/or applying for grants to support her research travels. In the summers she scavenges new locations and cities worldwide, digging through the remains of grave sites, ruins, and abandoned buildings, trying to uncover the long-lost mystery that is Artemis, The Great Mother. She is also the author of the book, She Who Hunts: Artemis – the Goddess Who Changed the World. On this episode, we discuss:Carla's ongoing spiritual journey, and why it's only been fairly recently that she's begun identifying as a pagan and Goddess worshipperHer evolving relationship with Artemis, and how it spans research, academia, and more mystical experiencesThe challenge of deeply exploring the spiritual nature of the Sacred Feminine within the confines of academic institutionsThe unknown and more complicated aspects of Artemis - and why this complexity is exactly what we need right nowShow Notes If you'd like to know whose ancestral tribal lands you currently reside on, you can look up your address here: https://native-land.ca/You can also visit the Coalition of Natives and Allies for more helpful educational resources about Indigenous rights and history.Please check out Home to Her Academy, my school dedicated to seekers of Sacred Feminine wisdom! www.hometoheracademy.com. And while you're there, don't forget to sign up for my newsletter to stay up to date with upcoming classes.My book, “Home to Her: Walking the Transformative Path of the Sacred Feminine,” is available from Womancraft Publishing! To learn more, read endorsements and purchase, please visit https://womancraftpublishing.com/product/home-to-her/. It is also available for sale via Amazon, Bookshop.org, and you can order it from your favorite local bookstore, too.Please – if you love this podcast and/or have read my book, please consider leaving me a review! For the podcast, reviews on iTunes are extremely helpful, and for the book, reviews on Amazon and Goodreads are equally helpful. Thank you for supporting my work!You can watch this and other podcast episodes at the Home to Her YouTube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/@hometoherYou can learn more about Carla at her website: www.artemisresearchcentre.com. You can also find her on social media @artemisexpert, and at The Goddess Project podcast. Carla mentioned the story of the nymph Callisto and Artemis. You can read more about this encounter here: https://madelinemiller.com/myth-of-the-week-callisto/She also mentioned the story of Artemis and Acteon. More information here: https://ancient-literature.com/artemis-and-actaeon/Carla referred to the work of Max Dashu, who is the creator behind Suppressed Histories Archives. Max was an early guest on this podcast, and you can listen to that episode here: https://hometoher.simplecast.com/episodes/reclaiming-womens-histories-with-max-dashu
In this episode, Astrologer Jason Holley and I explore the love story of Artemis and Orion. This story is etched into our stars through the two oppositional constellations of Scorpio and Orion. The Greeks saw this as a Scorpion, summoned by Artemis, chasing down Orion for all eternity. It was punishment for Orion's depletion of nature through an insatiable desire to hunt until all wildness was gone; Something that violated Artemis' code as a Huntress who, though herself a killer, is dedicated to protecting and perpetuating the species that she hunts. If Orion's behavior was to continue it would have led to a mass extinction on the planet, something that Artemis is unwilling to accept. And so the necessary poison of the Scorpion is unleashed to correct the imbalance. The story is of course complicated, however, by the fact that Orion is the first and only man that Artemis feels an attraction and affinity for. And as such the first time she drops her vow of chastity and virginity and joins the human to human world of love.This betrayal leads to the tragic story of Acteon who has the misfortune of stumbling into a grove where Artemis is bathing naked, years after the event. Stay tuned to hear of his fate and what it all means for us modern humans and our ways of being in the natural world today.Jason and I also explore the tension point between Aphrodite, personifying love and connection, and Artemis' rejection of such things through chastity.Podcast Musician: Marlia CoeurPlease consider becoming a Patron to support the show!Go to OnTheSoulsTerms.com for more.
Today I'm honored to be joined again by the Astrologer Jason Holley. As you're about to hear, Jason's work is dedicated to re-invigorating a relationship with the animate world through participation with the Zodiac as a circle of creatures; creatures that are alive inside of ourselves, in our relationships, and wandering through our world. In this first part of two episodes we discuss Jason's worldview and his evolving work, and how astrology can help to give us a full felt sense experience of being embedded in the natural world. We talk about Jason's childhood growing up with five generations of Matriarch. Everyone in the family was conversant in Astrology and as such he was already embedded in the language from an early age. His Great Grandmother would read tea leaves to the point where those in the village would come to seek her guidance as the town Oracle. As such, the world as animate and pregnant with information for those who know how to attune to it is something in the very fabric of Jason's DNA. Jason and I ended up talking for well over 2.5 hours. In Part Two of our conversation we turn to the Myths to help us better understand Scorpio dynamics. Jason's Moon and Venus in Scorpio lead the way in this one as we follow the ancient tragic love story between Artemis and Orion. Part Two will be released into the Scorpio Moon in just a few days. Stay tuned for that. Episode Artwork: Karl Friedrich Schinkel - Stage set for Mozart's Magic Flute Podcast Musician: Marlia CoeurPlease consider becoming a Patron to support the show!Go to OnTheSoulsTerms.com for more.
Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts Let's face it the New Testament probably calls Jesus God (or god) a couple of times and so do early Christian authors in the second century. However, no one offers much of an explanation for what they mean by the title. Did early Christians think Jesus was God because he represented Yahweh? Did they think he was God because he shared the same eternal being as the Father? Did they think he was a god because that's just what they would call any immortalized human who lived in heaven? In this presentation I focus on the question from the perspective of Greco-Roman theology. Drawing on the work of David Litwa, Andrew Perriman, Barry Blackburn, and tons of ancient sources I seek to show how Mediterranean converts to Christianity would have perceived Jesus based on their cultural and religious assumptions. This presentation is from the 3rd Unitarian Christian Alliance Conference on October 20, 2023 in Springfield, OH. Here is the original pdf of this paper. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c5Z3QbQ7dHc —— Links —— See more scholarly articles by Sean Finnegan Get the transcript of this episode Support Restitutio by donating here Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan? Read his bio here Introduction When early Christian authors called Jesus “god” (or “God”) what did they mean? Modern apologists routinely point to pre-Nicene quotations in order to prove that early Christians always believed in the deity of Christ, by which they mean that he is of the same substance (homoousios) as the Father. However, most historians agree that Christians before the fourth century simply didn't have the cognitive categories available yet to think of Christ in Nicene or Chalcedonian ways. If this consensus is correct, it behooves us to consider other options for defining what early Christian authors meant. The obvious place to go to get an answer to our initial question is the New Testament. However, as is well known, the handful of instances in which authors unambiguously applied god (θεός) to Christ are fraught with textual uncertainty, grammatical ambiguity, and hermeneutical elasticity. What's more, granting that these contested texts all call Jesus “god” provides little insight into what they might mean by that phrase. Turning to the second century, the earliest handful of texts that say Jesus is god are likewise textually uncertain or terse. We must wait until the second half of the second century and beyond to have more helpful material to examine. We know that in the meanwhile some Christians were saying Jesus was god. What did they mean? One promising approach is to analyze biblical texts that call others gods. We find helpful parallels with the word god (אֱלֹהִים) applied to Moses (Exod 7.1; 4.16), judges (Exod 21.6; 22.8-9), kings (Is 9.6; Ps 45.6), the divine council (Ps 82.1, 6), and angels (Ps 8.6). These are texts in which God imbues his agents with his authority to represent him in some way. This rare though significant way of calling a representative “god,” continues in the NT with Jesus' clever defense to his accusers in John 10.34-36. Lexicons have long recognized this “Hebraistic” usage and recent study tools such as the New English Translation (NET) and the Zondervan Illustrated Bible Background Commentary also note this phenomenon. But, even if this agency perspective is the most natural reading of texts like Heb 1.8, later Christians, apart from one or two exceptions appear to be ignorant of this usage. This interpretation was likely a casualty of the so-called parting of the ways whereby Christianity transitioned from a second-temple-Jewish movement to a Gentile-majority religion. As such, to grasp what early postapostolic Christians believed, we must turn our attention elsewhere. Michael Bird is right when he says, “Christian discourses about deity belong incontrovertibly in the Greco-Roman context because it provided the cultural encyclopedia that, in diverse ways, shaped the early church's Christological conceptuality and vocabulary.” Learning Greco-Roman theology is not only important because that was the context in which early Christians wrote, but also because from the late first century onward, most of our Christian authors converted from that worldview. Rather than talking about the Hellenization of Christianity, we should begin by asking how Hellenists experienced Christianization. In other words, Greco-Roman beliefs about the gods were the default lens through which converts first saw Christ. In order to explore how Greco-Roman theology shaped what people believed about Jesus as god, we do well to begin by asking how they defined a god. Andrew Perriman offers a helpful starting point. “The gods,” he writes, “are mostly understood as corporeal beings, blessed with immortality, larger, more beautiful, and more powerful than their mortal analogues.” Furthermore, there were lots of them! The sublunar realm was, in the words of Paula Fredriksen, “a god-congested place.” What's more, “[S]harp lines and clearly demarcated boundaries between divinity and humanity were lacking." Gods could appear as people and people could ascend to become gods. Comprehending what Greco-Roman people believed about gods coming down and humans going up will occupy the first part of this paper. Only once we've adjusted our thinking to their culture, will we walk through key moments in the life of Jesus of Nazareth to hear the story with ancient Mediterranean ears. Lastly, we'll consider the evidence from sources that think of Jesus in Greco-Roman categories. Bringing this all together we'll enumerate the primary ways to interpret the phrase “Jesus is god” available to Christians in the pre-Nicene period. Gods Coming Down and Humans Going Up The idea that a god would visit someone is not as unusual as it first sounds. We find plenty of examples of Yahweh himself or non-human representatives visiting people in the Hebrew Bible. One psalmist even referred to angels or “heavenly beings” (ESV) as אֱלֹהִים (gods). The Greco-Roman world too told stories about divine entities coming down to interact with people. Euripides tells about the time Zeus forced the god Apollo to become a human servant in the house of Admetus, performing menial labor as punishment for killing the Cyclopes (Alcestis 1). Baucis and Philemon offered hospitality to Jupiter and Mercury when they appeared in human form (Ovid, Metamorphoses 8.26-34). In Homer's Odyssey onlookers warn Antinous for flinging a stool against a stranger since “the gods do take on the look of strangers dropping in from abroad” (17.534-9). Because they believed the boundary between the divine realm and the Earth was so permeable, Mediterranean people were always on guard for an encounter with a god in disguise. In addition to gods coming down, in special circumstances, humans could ascend and become gods too. Diodorus of Sicily demarcated two types of gods: those who are “eternal and imperishable, such as the sun and the moon” and “the other gods…terrestrial beings who attained to immortal honour” (The Historical Library of Diodorus the Sicilian 6.1). By some accounts, even the Olympian gods, including Kronos and Uranus were once mortal men. Among humans who could become divine, we find several distinguishable categories, including heroes, miracle workers, and rulers. We'll look at each briefly before considering how the story of Jesus would resonate with those holding a Greco-Roman worldview. Deified Heroes Cornutus the Stoic said, “[T]he ancients called heroes those who were so strong in body and soul that they seemed to be part of a divine race.” (Greek Theology 31) At first this statement appears to be a mere simile, but he goes on to say of Heracles (Hercules), the Greek hero par excellence, “his services had earned him apotheosis” (ibid.). Apotheosis (or deification) is the process by which a human ascends into the divine realm. Beyond Heracles and his feats of strength, other exceptional individuals became deified for various reasons. Amphiarus was a seer who died in the battle at Thebes. After opening a chasm in the earth to swallow him in battle, “Zeus made him immortal” (Apollodorus, Library of Greek Mythology 3.6). Pausanias says the custom of the inhabitants of Oropos was to drop coins into Amphiarus' spring “because this is where they say Amphiarus rose up as a god” (Guide to Greece 1.34). Likewise, Strabo speaks about a shrine for Calchas, a deceased diviner from the Trojan war (Homer, Illiad 1.79-84), “where those consulting the oracle sacrifice a black ram to the dead and sleep in its hide” (Strabo, Geography 6.3.9). Though the great majority of the dead were locked away in the lower world of Hades, leading a shadowy pitiful existence, the exceptional few could visit or speak from beyond the grave. Lastly, there was Zoroaster the Persian prophet who, according to Dio Chrysostom, was enveloped by fire while he meditated upon a mountain. He was unharmed and gave advice on how to properly make offerings to the gods (Dio Chrysostom, Discourses 36.40). The Psuedo-Clementine Homilies include a story about a lightning bolt striking and killing Zoroaster. After his devotees buried his body, they built a temple on the site, thinking that “his soul had been sent for by lightning” and they “worshipped him as a god” (Homily 9.5.2). Thus, a hero could have extraordinary strength, foresight, or closeness to the gods resulting in apotheosis and ongoing worship and communication. Deified Miracle Workers Beyond heroes, Greco-Roman people loved to tell stories about deified miracle workers. Twice Orpheus rescued a ship from a storm by praying to the gods (Diodorus of Sicily 4.43.1f; 48.5f). After his death, surviving inscriptions indicate that he both received worship and was regarded as a god in several cities. Epimenides “fell asleep in a cave for fifty-seven years” (Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers 1.109). He also predicted a ten-year period of reprieve from Persian attack in Athens (Plato Laws 1.642D-E). Plato called him a divine man (θεῖος ἀνήρ) (ibid.) and Diogenes talked of Cretans sacrificing to him as a god (Diogenes, Lives 1.114). Iamblichus said Pythagoras was the son of Apollo and a mortal woman (Life of Pythagoras 2). Nonetheless, the soul of Pythagoras enjoyed multiple lives, having originally been “sent to mankind from the empire of Apollo” (Life 2). Diogenes and Lucian enumerate the lives the pre-existent Pythagoras led, including Aethalides, Euphorbus, Hermotimus, and Pyrrhus (Diogenes, Life of Pythagoras 4; Lucian, The Cock 16-20). Hermes had granted Pythagoras the gift of “perpetual transmigration of his soul” so he could remember his lives while living or dead (Diogenes, Life 4). Ancient sources are replete with Pythagorean miracle stories. Porphyry mentions several, including taming a bear, persuading an ox to stop eating beans, and accurately predicting a catch of fish (Life of Pythagoras 23-25). Porphyry said Pythagoras accurately predicted earthquakes and “chased away a pestilence, suppressed violent winds and hail, [and] calmed storms on rivers and on seas” (Life 29). Such miracles, argued the Pythagoreans made Pythagoras “a being superior to man, and not to a mere man” (Iamblichus, Life 28). Iamblichus lays out the views of Pythagoras' followers, including that he was a god, a philanthropic daemon, the Pythian, the Hyperborean Apollo, a Paeon, a daemon inhabiting the moon, or an Olympian god (Life 6). Another pre-Socratic philosopher was Empedocles who studied under Pythagoras. To him sources attribute several miracles, including stopping a damaging wind, restoring the wind, bringing dry weather, causing it to rain, and even bringing someone back from Hades (Diogenes, Lives 8.59). Diogenes records an incident in which Empedocles put a woman into a trance for thirty days before sending her away alive (8.61). He also includes a poem in which Empedocles says, “I am a deathless god, no longer mortal, I go among you honored by all, as is right” (8.62). Asclepius was a son of the god Apollo and a human woman (Cornutus, Greek Theology 33). He was known for healing people from diseases and injuries (Pindar, Pythian 3.47-50). “[H]e invented any medicine he wished for the sick, and raised up the dead” (Pausanias, Guide to Greece 2.26.4). However, as Diodorus relates, Hades complained to Zeus on account of Asclepius' diminishing his realm, which resulted in Zeus zapping Asclepius with a thunderbolt, killing him (4.71.2-3). Nevertheless, Asclepius later ascended into heaven to become a god (Hyginus, Fables 224; Cicero, Nature of the Gods 2.62). Apollonius of Tyana was a famous first century miracle worker. According to Philostratus' account, the locals of Tyana regard Apollonius to be the son of Zeus (Life 1.6). Apollonius predicted many events, interpreted dreams, and knew private facts about people. He rebuked and ridiculed a demon, causing it to flee, shrieking as it went (Life 2.4). He even once stopped a funeral procession and raised the deceased to life (Life 4.45). What's more he knew every human language (Life 1.19) and could understand what sparrows chirped to each other (Life 4.3). Once he instantaneously transported himself from Smyrna to Ephesus (Life 4.10). He claimed knowledge of his previous incarnation as the captain of an Egyptian ship (Life 3.23) and, in the end, Apollonius entered the temple of Athena and vanished, ascending from earth into heaven to the sound of a choir singing (Life 8.30). We have plenty of literary evidence that contemporaries and those who lived later regarded him as a divine man (Letters 48.3) or godlike (ἰσόθεος) (Letters 44.1) or even just a god (θεός) (Life 5.24). Deified Rulers Our last category of deified humans to consider before seeing how this all relates to Jesus is rulers. Egyptians, as indicated from the hieroglyphs left in the pyramids, believed their deceased kings to enjoy afterlives as gods. They could become star gods or even hunt and consume other gods to absorb their powers. The famous Macedonian conqueror, Alexander the Great, carried himself as a god towards the Persians though Plutarch opines, “[he] was not at all vain or deluded but rather used belief in his divinity to enslave others” (Life of Alexander 28). This worship continued after his death, especially in Alexandria where Ptolemy built a tomb and established a priesthood to conduct religious honors to the deified ruler. Even the emperor Trajan offered a sacrifice to the spirit of Alexander (Cassius Dio, Roman History 68.30). Another interesting example is Antiochus I of Comagene who called himself “Antiochus the just [and] manifest god, friend of the Romans [and] friend of the Greeks.” His tomb boasted four colossal figures seated on thrones: Zeus, Heracles, Apollo, and himself. The message was clear: Antiochus I wanted his subjects to recognize his place among the gods after death. Of course, the most relevant rulers for the Christian era were the Roman emperors. The first official Roman emperor Augustus deified his predecessor, Julius Caesar, celebrating his apotheosis with games (Suetonius, Life of Julius Caesar 88). Only five years after Augustus died, eastern inhabitants of the Roman Empire at Priene happily declared “the birthday of the god Augustus” (ἡ γενέθλιος ἡμέρα τοῦ θεοῦ) to be the start of their provincial year. By the time of Tacitus, a century after Augustus died, the wealthy in Rome had statues of the first emperor in their gardens for worship (Annals 1.73). The Roman historian Appian explained that the Romans regularly deify emperors at death “provided he has not been a despot or a disgrace” (The Civil Wars 2.148). In other words, deification was the default setting for deceased emperors. Pliny the Younger lays it on pretty thick when he describes the process. He says Nero deified Claudius to expose him; Titus deified Vespasian and Domitian so he could be the son and brother of gods. However, Trajan deified Nerva because he genuinely believed him to be more than a human (Panegyric 11). In our little survey, we've seen three main categories of deified humans: heroes, miracle workers, and good rulers. These “conceptions of deity,” writes David Litwa, “were part of the “preunderstanding” of Hellenistic culture.” He continues: If actual cases of deification were rare, traditions of deification were not. They were the stuff of heroic epic, lyric song, ancient mythology, cultic hymns, Hellenistic novels, and popular plays all over the first-century Mediterranean world. Such discourses were part of mainstream, urban culture to which most early Christians belonged. If Christians were socialized in predominantly Greco-Roman environments, it is no surprise that they employed and adapted common traits of deities and deified men to exalt their lord to divine status. Now that we've attuned our thinking to Mediterranean sensibilities about gods coming down in the shape of humans and humans experiencing apotheosis to permanently dwell as gods in the divine realm, our ears are attuned to hear the story of Jesus with Greco-Roman ears. Hearing the Story of Jesus with Greco-Roman Ears How would second or third century inhabitants of the Roman empire have categorized Jesus? Taking my cue from Litwa's treatment in Iesus Deus, I'll briefly work through Jesus' conception, transfiguration, miracles, resurrection, and ascension. Miraculous Conception Although set within the context of Jewish messianism, Christ's miraculous birth would have resonated differently with Greco-Roman people. Stories of gods coming down and having intercourse with women are common in classical literature. That these stories made sense of why certain individuals were so exceptional is obvious. For example, Origen related a story about Apollo impregnating Amphictione who then gave birth to Plato (Against Celsus 1.37). Though Mary's conception did not come about through intercourse with a divine visitor, the fact that Jesus had no human father would call to mind divine sonship like Pythagoras or Asclepius. Celsus pointed out that the ancients “attributed a divine origin to Perseus, and Amphion, and Aeacus, and Minos” (Origen, Against Celsus 1.67). Philostratus records a story of the Egyptian god Proteus saying to Apollonius' mother that she would give birth to himself (Life of Apollonius of Tyana 1.4). Since people were primed to connect miraculous origins with divinity, typical hearers of the birth narratives of Matthew or Luke would likely think that this baby might be either be a descended god or a man destined to ascend to become a god. Miracles and Healing As we've seen, Jesus' miracles would not have sounded unbelievable or even unprecedent to Mediterranean people. Like Jesus, Orpheus and Empedocles calmed storms, rescuing ships. Though Jesus provided miraculous guidance on how to catch fish, Pythagoras foretold the number of fish in a great catch. After the fishermen painstakingly counted them all, they were astounded that when they threw them back in, they were still alive (Porphyry, Life 23-25). Jesus' ability to foretell the future, know people's thoughts, and cast out demons all find parallels in Apollonius of Tyana. As for resurrecting the dead, we have the stories of Empedocles, Asclepius, and Apollonius. The last of which even stopped a funeral procession to raise the dead, calling to mind Jesus' deeds in Luke 7.11-17. When Lycaonians witnessed Paul's healing of a man crippled from birth, they cried out, “The gods have come down to us in the likeness of men” (Acts 14.11). Another time when no harm befell Paul after a poisonous snake bit him on Malta, Gentile onlookers concluded “he was a god” (Acts 28.6). Barry Blackburn makes the following observation: [I]n view of the tendency, most clearly seen in the Epimenidean, Pythagorean, and Apollonian traditions, to correlate impressive miracle-working with divine status, one may justifiably conclude that the evangelical miracle traditions would have helped numerous gentile Christians to arrive at and maintain belief in Jesus' divine status. Transfiguration Ancient Mediterranean inhabitants believed that the gods occasionally came down disguised as people. Only when gods revealed their inner brilliant natures could people know that they weren't mere humans. After his ship grounded on the sands of Krisa, Apollo leaped from the ship emitting flashes of fire “like a star in the middle of day…his radiance shot to heaven” (Homeric Hymns, Hymn to Apollo 440). Likewise, Aphrodite appeared in shining garments, brighter than a fire and shimmering like the moon (Hymn to Aphrodite 85-89). When Demeter appeared to Metaneira, she initially looked like an old woman, but she transformed herself before her. “Casting old age away…a delightful perfume spread…a radiance shone out far from the goddess' immortal flesh…and the solid-made house was filled with a light like the lightning-flash” (Hymn to Demeter 275-280). Homer wrote about Odysseus' transformation at the golden wand of Athena in which his clothes became clean, he became taller, and his skin looked younger. His son, Telemachus cried out, “Surely you are some god who rules the vaulting skies” (Odyssey 16.206). Each time the observers conclude the transfigured person is a god. Resurrection & Ascension In defending the resurrection of Jesus, Theophilus of Antioch said, “[Y]ou believe that Hercules, who burned himself, lives; and that Aesculapius [Asclepius], who was struck with lightning, was raised” (Autolycus 1.13). Although Hercules' physical body burnt, his transformed pneumatic body continued on as the poet Callimachus said, “under a Phrygian oak his limbs had been deified” (Callimachus, Hymn to Artemis 159). Others thought Hercules ascended to heaven in his burnt body, which Asclepius subsequently healed (Lucian, Dialogue of the Gods 13). After his ascent, Diodorus relates how the people first sacrificed to him “as to a hero” then in Athens they began to honor him “with sacrifices like as to a god” (The Historical Library 4.39). As for Asclepius, his ascension resulted in his deification as Cyprian said, “Aesculapius is struck by lightning, that he may rise into a god” (On the Vanity of Idols 2). Romulus too “was torn to pieces by the hands of a hundred senators” and after death ascended into heaven and received worship (Arnobius, Against the Heathen 1.41). Livy tells of how Romulus was “carried up on high by a whirlwind” and that immediately afterward “every man present hailed him as a god and son of a god” (The Early History of Rome 1.16). As we can see from these three cases—Hercules, Asclepius, and Romulus—ascent into heaven was a common way of talking about deification. For Cicero, this was an obvious fact. People “who conferred outstanding benefits were translated to heaven through their fame and our gratitude” (Nature 2.62). Consequently, Jesus' own resurrection and ascension would have triggered Gentiles to intuit his divinity. Commenting on the appearance of the immortalized Christ to the eleven in Galilee, Wendy Cotter said, “It is fair to say that the scene found in [Mat] 28:16-20 would be understood by a Greco-Roman audience, Jew or Gentile, as an apotheosis of Jesus.” Although I beg to differ with Cotter's whole cloth inclusion of Jews here, it's hard to see how else non-Jews would have regarded the risen Christ. Litwa adds Rev 1.13-16 “[W]here he [Jesus] appears with all the accoutrements of the divine: a shining face, an overwhelming voice, luminescent clothing, and so on.” In this brief survey we've seen that several key events in the story of Jesus told in the Gospels would have caused Greco-Roman hearers to intuit deity, including his divine conception, miracles, healing ministry, transfiguration, resurrection, and ascension. In their original context of second temple Judaism, these very same incidents would have resonated quite differently. His divine conception authenticated Jesus as the second Adam (Luke 3.38; Rom 5.14; 1 Cor 15.45) and God's Davidic son (2 Sam 7.14; Ps 2.7; Lk 1.32, 35). If Matthew or Luke wanted readers to understand that Jesus was divine based on his conception and birth, they failed to make such intentions explicit in the text. Rather, the birth narratives appear to have a much more modest aim—to persuade readers that Jesus had a credible claim to be Israel's messiah. His miracles show that “God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and with power…for God was with him” (Acts 10.38; cf. Jn 3.2; 10.32, 38). Rather than concluding Jesus to be a god, Jewish witnesses to his healing of a paralyzed man “glorified God, who had given such authority to men” (Mat 9.8). Over and over, especially in the Gospel of John, Jesus directs people's attention to his Father who was doing the works in and through him (Jn 5.19, 30; 8.28; 12.49; 14.10). Seeing Jesus raise someone from the dead suggested to his original Jewish audience that “a great prophet has arisen among us” (Lk 7.16). The transfiguration, in its original setting, is an eschatological vision not a divine epiphany. Placement in the synoptic Gospels just after Jesus' promise that some there would not die before seeing the kingdom come sets the hermeneutical frame. “The transfiguration,” says William Lane, “was a momentary, but real (and witnessed) manifestation of Jesus' sovereign power which pointed beyond itself to the Parousia, when he will come ‘with power and glory.'” If eschatology is the foreground, the background for the transfiguration was Moses' ascent of Sinai when he also encountered God and became radiant. Viewed from the lenses of Moses' ascent and the eschaton, the transfiguration of Jesus is about his identity as God's definitive chosen ruler, not about any kind of innate divinity. Lastly, the resurrection and ascension validated Jesus' messianic claims to be the ruler of the age to come (Acts 17.31; Rom 1.4). Rather than concluding Jesus was deity, early Jewish Christians concluded these events showed that “God has made him both Lord and Christ” (Acts 2.36). The interpretative backgrounds for Jesus' ascension were not stories about Heracles, Asclepius, or Romulus. No, the key oracle that framed the Israelite understanding was the messianic psalm in which Yahweh told David's Lord to “Sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool” (Psalm 110.1). The idea is of a temporary sojourn in heaven until exercising the authority of his scepter to rule over earth from Zion. Once again, the biblical texts remain completely silent about deification. But even if the original meanings of Jesus' birth, ministry, transfiguration, resurrection, and ascension have messianic overtones when interpreted within the Jewish milieu, these same stories began to communicate various ideas of deity to Gentile converts in the generations that followed. We find little snippets from historical sources beginning in the second century and growing with time. Evidence of Belief in Jesus' as a Greco-Roman Deity To begin with, we have two non-Christian instances where Romans regarded Jesus as a deity within typical Greco-Roman categories. The first comes to us from Tertullian and Eusebius who mention an intriguing story about Tiberius' request to the Roman senate to deify Christ. Convinced by “intelligence from Palestine of events which had clearly shown the truth of Christ's divinity” Tiberius proposed the matter to the senate (Apology 5). Eusebius adds that Tiberius learned that “many believed him to be a god in rising from the dead” (Church History 2.2). As expected, the senate rejected the proposal. I mention this story, not because I can establish its historicity, but because it portrays how Tiberius would have thought about Jesus if he had heard about his miracles and resurrection. Another important incident is from one of the governor Pliny the Younger's letters to the emperor Trajan. Having investigated some people accused of Christianity, he found “they had met regularly before dawn on a fixed day to chant verses alternately amongst themselves in honour of Christ as if to a god” (Letter 96). To an outside imperial observer like Pliny, the Christians believed in a man who had performed miracles, defeated death, and now lived in heaven. Calling him a god was just the natural way of talking about such a person. Pliny would not have thought Jesus was superior to the deified Roman emperors much less Zeus or the Olympic gods. If he believed in Jesus at all, he would have regarded him as another Mediterranean prophet who escaped Hades to enjoy apotheosis. Another interesting text to consider is the Infancy Gospel of Thomas. This apocryphal text tells the story of Jesus' childhood between the ages of five and twelve. Jesus is impetuous, powerful, and brilliant. Unsure to conclude that Jesus was “either god or angel,” his teacher remands him to Joseph's custody (7). Later, a crowd of onlookers ponders whether the child is a god or a heavenly messenger after he raises an infant from the dead (17). A year later Jesus raised a construction man who had fallen to his death back to life (18). Once again, the crowd asked if the child was from heaven. Although some historians are quick to assume the lofty conceptions of Justin and his successors about the logos were commonplace in the early Christianity, Litwa points out, “The spell of the Logos could only bewitch a very small circle of Christian elites… In IGT, we find a Jesus who is divine according to different canons, the canons of popular Mediterranean theology.” Another important though often overlooked scholarly group of Christians in the second century was led by a certain Theodotus of Byzantium. Typically referred to by their heresiological label “Theodotians,” these dynamic monarchians lived in Rome and claimed that they held to the original Christology before it had been corrupted under Bishop Zephyrinus (Eusebius, Church History 5.28). Theodotus believed in the virgin birth, but not in his pre-existence or that he was god/God (Pseudo-Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies 7.35.1-2; 10.23.1-2). He thought that Jesus was not able to perform any miracles until his baptism when he received the Christ/Spirit. Pseudo-Hippolytus goes on to say, “But they do not want him to have become a god when the Spirit descended. Others say that he became a god after he rose from the dead.” This last tantalizing remark implies that the Theodotians could affirm Jesus as a god after his resurrection though they denied his pre-existence. Although strict unitarians, they could regard Jesus as a god in that he was an ascended immortalized being who lived in heaven—not equal to the Father, but far superior to all humans on earth. Justin Martyr presents another interesting case to consider. Thoroughly acquainted with Greco-Roman literature and especially the philosophy of Plato, Justin sees Christ as a god whom the Father begot before all other creatures. He calls him “son, or wisdom, or angel, or god, or lord, or word” (Dialogue with Trypho 61). For Justin Christ is “at the same time angel and god and lord and man” (59). Jesus was “of old the Word, appearing at one time in the form of fire, at another under the guise of incorporeal beings, but now, at the will of God, after becoming man for mankind” (First Apology 63). In fact, Justin is quite comfortable to compare Christ to deified heroes and emperors. He says, “[W]e propose nothing new or different from that which you say about the so-called sons of Jupiter [Zeus] by your respected writers… And what about the emperors who die among you, whom you think worthy to be deified?” (21). He readily accepts the parallels with Mercury, Perseus, Asclepius, Bacchus, and Hercules, but argues that Jesus is superior to them (22). Nevertheless, he considered Jesus to be in “a place second to the unchanging and eternal God” (13). The Father is “the Most True God” whereas the Son is he “who came forth from Him” (6). Even as lates as Origen, Greco-Roman concepts of deity persist. In responding to Celsus' claim that no god or son of God has ever come down, Origen responds by stating such a statement would overthrow the stories of Pythian Apollo, Asclepius, and the other gods who descended (Against Celsus 5.2). My point here is not to say Origen believed in all the old myths, but to show how Origen reached for these stories as analogies to explain the incarnation of the logos. When Celsus argued that he would rather believe in the deity of Asclepius, Dionysus, and Hercules than Christ, Origen responded with a moral rather than ontological argument (3.42). He asks how these gods have improved the characters of anyone. Origen admits Celsus' argument “which places the forenamed individuals upon an equality with Jesus” might have force, however in light of the disreputable behavior of these gods, “how could you any longer say, with any show of reason, that these men, on putting aside their mortal body, became gods rather than Jesus?” (3.42). Origen's Christology is far too broad and complicated to cover here. Undoubtedly, his work on eternal generation laid the foundation on which fourth century Christians could build homoousion Christology. Nevertheless, he retained some of the earlier subordinationist impulses of his forebearers. In his book On Prayer, he rebukes praying to Jesus as a crude error, instead advocating prayer to God alone (10). In his Commentary on John he repeatedly asserts that the Father is greater than his logos (1.40; 2.6; 6.23). Thus, Origen is a theologian on the seam of the times. He's both a subordinationist and a believer in the Son's eternal and divine ontology. Now, I want to be careful here. I'm not saying that all early Christians believed Jesus was a deified man like Asclepius or a descended god like Apollo or a reincarnated soul like Pythagoras. More often than not, thinking Christians whose works survive until today tended to eschew the parallels, simultaneously elevating Christ as high as possible while demoting the gods to mere demons. Still, Litwa is inciteful when he writes: It seems likely that early Christians shared the widespread cultural assumption that a resurrected, immortalized being was worthy of worship and thus divine. …Nonetheless there is a difference…Jesus, it appears, was never honored as an independent deity. Rather, he was always worshiped as Yahweh's subordinate. Naturally Heracles and Asclepius were Zeus' subordinates, but they were also members of a larger divine family. Jesus does not enter a pantheon but assumes a distinctive status as God's chief agent and plenipotentiary. It is this status that, to Christian insiders, placed Jesus in a category far above the likes of Heracles, Romulus, and Asclepius who were in turn demoted to the rank of δαίμονες [daimons]. Conclusion I began by asking the question, "What did early Christians mean by saying Jesus is god?" We noted that the ancient idea of agency (Jesus is God/god because he represents Yahweh), though present in Hebrew and Christian scripture, didn't play much of a role in how Gentile Christians thought about Jesus. Or if it did, those texts did not survive. By the time we enter the postapostolic era, a majority of Christianity was Gentile and little communication occurred with the Jewish Christians that survived in the East. As such, we turned our attention to Greco-Roman theology to tune our ears to hear the story of Jesus the way they would have. We learned about their multifaceted array of divinities. We saw that gods can come down and take the form of humans and humans can go up and take the form of gods. We found evidence for this kind of thinking in both non-Christian and Christian sources in the second and third centuries. Now it is time to return to the question I began with: “When early Christian authors called Jesus “god” what did they mean?” We saw that the idea of a deified man was present in the non-Christian witnesses of Tiberius and Pliny but made scant appearance in our Christian literature except for the Theodotians. As for the idea that a god came down to become a man, we found evidence in The Infancy Gospel of Thomas, Justin, and Origen. Of course, we find a spectrum within this view, from Justin's designation of Jesus as a second god to Origen's more philosophically nuanced understanding. Still, it's worth noting as R. P. C. Hanson observed that, “With the exception of Athanasius virtually every theologian, East and West, accepted some form of subordinationism at least up to the year 355.” Whether any Christians before Alexander and Athanasius of Alexandria held to the sophisticated idea of consubstantiality depends on showing evidence of the belief that the Son was coequal, coeternal, and coessential with the Father prior to Nicea. (Readers interested in the case for this view should consult Michael Bird's Jesus among the Gods in which he attempted the extraordinary feat of finding proto-Nicene Christology in the first two centuries, a task typically associated with maverick apologists not peer-reviewed historians.) In conclusion, the answer to our driving question about the meaning of “Jesus as god” is that the answer depends on whom we ask. If we ask the Theodotians, Jesus is a god because that's just what one calls an immortalized man who lives in heaven. If we ask those holding a docetic Christology, the answer is that a god came down in appearance as a man. If we ask a logos subordinationist, they'll tell us that Jesus existed as the god through whom the supreme God created the universe before he became a human being. If we ask Tertullian, Jesus is god because he derives his substance from the Father, though he has a lesser portion of divinity. If we ask Athanasius, he'll wax eloquent about how Jesus is of the same substance as the Father equal in status and eternality. The bottom line is that there was not one answer to this question prior to the fourth century. Answers depend on whom we ask and when they lived. Still, we can't help but wonder about the more tantalizing question of development. Which Christology was first and which ones evolved under social, intellectual, and political pressures? In the quest to specify the various stages of development in the Christologies of the ante-Nicene period, this Greco-Roman perspective may just provide the missing link between the reserved and limited way that the NT applies theos to Jesus in the first century and the homoousian view that eventually garnered imperial support in the fourth century. How easy would it have been for fresh converts from the Greco-Roman world to unintentionally mishear the story of Jesus? How easy would it have been for them to fit Jesus into their own categories of descended gods and ascended humans? With the unmooring of Gentile Christianity from its Jewish heritage, is it any wonder that Christologies began to drift out to sea? Now I'm not suggesting that all Christians went through a steady development from a human Jesus to a pre-existent Christ, to an eternal God the Son, to the Chalcedonian hypostatic union. As I mentioned above, plenty of other options were around and every church had its conservatives in addition to its innovators. The story is messy and uneven with competing views spread across huge geographic distances. Furthermore, many Christians probably were content to leave such theological nuances fuzzy, rather than seeking doctrinal precision on Christ's relation to his God and Father. Whatever the case may be, we dare not ignore the influence of Greco-Roman theology in our accounts of Christological development in the Mediterranean world of the first three centuries. Bibliography The Homeric Hymns. Translated by Michael Crudden. New York, NY: Oxford, 2008. Antioch, Theophilus of. To Autolycus. Translated by Marcus Dods. Vol. 2. Ante-Nicene Fathers. Edited by Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2001. Aphrahat. The Demonstrations. Translated by Ellen Muehlberger. Vol. 3. The Cambridge Edition of Early Christian Writings. Edited by Mark DelCogliano. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge, 2022. Apollodorus. The Library of Greek Mythology. Translated by Robin Hard. Oxford, UK: Oxford, 1998. Appian. The Civil Wars. Translated by John Carter. London, UK: Penguin, 1996. Arnobius. Against the Heathen. Translated by Hamilton Bryce and Hugh Campbell. Vol. 6. Ante-Nicene Fathers. Edited by Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1995. Arrian. The Campaigns of Alexander. Translated by Aubrey De Sélincourt. London, UK: Penguin, 1971. Bird, Michael F. Jesus among the Gods. Waco, TX: Baylor, 2022. Blackburn, Barry. Theios Aner and the Markan Miracle Traditions. Tübingen, Germany: J. C. B. Mohr, 1991. Callimachus. Hymn to Artemis. Translated by Susan A. Stephens. Callimachus: The Hymns. New York, NY: Oxford, 2015. Cicero. The Nature of the Gods. Translated by Patrick Gerard Walsh. Oxford, UK: Oxford, 2008. Cornutus, Lucius Annaeus. Greek Theology. Translated by George Boys-Stones. Greek Theology, Fragments, and Testimonia. Atlanta, GA: SBL, 2018. Cotter, Wendy. "Greco-Roman Apotheosis Traditions and the Resurrection Appearances in Matthew." In The Gospel of Matthew in Current Study. Edited by David E. Aune. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2001. Cyprian. Treatise 6: On the Vanity of Idols. Translated by Ernest Wallis. Vol. 5. Ante-Nicene Fathers. Edited by Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1995. Dittenberger, W. Orientis Graecae Inscriptiones Selectae. Vol. 2. Hildesheim: Olms, 1960. Eusebius. The Church History. Translated by Paul L. Maier. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2007. Fredriksen, Paula. "How High Can Early High Christology Be?" In Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity. Edited by Matthew V. Novenson. Vol. 180.vol. Supplements to Novum Testamentum. Leiden: Brill, 2020. Hanson, R. P. C. Search for a Christian Doctrine of God. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2007. Hart, George. The Routledge Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses. 2nd ed. Oxford, UK: Routledge, 2005. Homer. The Odyssey. Translated by Robert Fagles. New York, NY: Penguin, 1997. Iamblichus. Life of Pythagoras. Translated by Thomas Taylor. Iamblichus' Life of Pythagoras. Delhi, IN: Zinc Read, 2023. Justin Martyr. Dialogue with Trypho. Translated by Thomas B. Falls. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2003. Laertius, Diogenes. Life of Pythagoras. Translated by Kenneth Sylvan Guthrie. The Pythagorean Sourcebook and Library. Edited by David R. Fideler. Grand Rapids, MI: Phanes Press, 1988. Laertius, Diogenes. Lives of the Eminent Philosophers. Translated by Pamela Mensch. Edited by James Miller. New York, NY: Oxford, 2020. Lane, William L. The Gospel of Mark. Nicnt, edited by F. F. Bruce Ned B. Stonehouse, and Gordon D. Fee. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1974. Litwa, M. David. Iesus Deus. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2014. Livy. The Early History of Rome. Translated by Aubrey De Sélincourt. London, UK: Penguin, 2002. Origen. Against Celsus. Translated by Frederick Crombie. Vol. 4. The Ante-Nicene Fathers. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2003. Pausanias. Guide to Greece. Translated by Peter Levi. London, UK: Penguin, 1979. Perriman, Andrew. In the Form of a God. Studies in Early Christology, edited by David Capes Michael Bird, and Scott Harrower. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2022. Philostratus. Letters of Apollonius. Vol. 458. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, MA: Harvard, 2006. Plutarch. Life of Alexander. Translated by Ian Scott-Kilvert and Timothy E. Duff. The Age of Alexander. London, UK: Penguin, 2011. Porphyry. Life of Pythagoras. Translated by Kenneth Sylvan Guthrie. The Pythagorean Sourcebook and Library. Edited by David Fideler. Grand Rapids, MI: Phanes Press, 1988. Pseudo-Clement. Recognitions. Translated by Thomas Smith. Vol. 8. Ante Nicene Fathers. Edited by Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2003. Pseudo-Hippolytus. Refutation of All Heresies. Translated by David Litwa. Atlanta, GA: SBL, 2016. Pseudo-Thomas. Infancy Gospel of Thomas. Translated by James Orr. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1903. Psuedo-Clement. Homilies. Translated by Peter Peterson. Vol. 8. Ante-Nicene Fathers. Edited by Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1897. Siculus, Diodorus. The Historical Library. Translated by Charles Henry Oldfather. Vol. 1. Edited by Giles Laurén: Sophron Editor, 2017. Strabo. The Geography. Translated by Duane W. Roller. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge, 2020. Tertullian. Against Praxeas. Translated by Holmes. Vol. 3. Ante Nice Fathers. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2003. Tertullian. Apology. Translated by S. Thelwall. Vol. 3. Ante-Nicene Fathers, edited by Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2003. Younger, Pliny the. The Letters of the Younger Pliny. Translated by Betty Radice. London: Penguin, 1969. End Notes  For the remainder of this paper, I will use the lower case “god” for all references to deity outside of Yahweh, the Father of Christ. I do this because all our ancient texts lack capitalization and our modern capitalization rules imply a theology that is anachronistic and unhelpful for the present inquiry.  Christopher Kaiser wrote, “Explicit references to Jesus as ‘God' in the New Testament are very few, and even those few are generally plagued with uncertainties of either text or interpretation.” Christopher B. Kaiser, The Doctrine of God: A Historical Survey (London: Marshall Morgan & Scott, 1982), 29. Other scholars such as Raymond Brown (Jesus: God and Man), Jason David BeDuhn (Truth in Translation), and Brian Wright (“Jesus as θεός: A Textual Examination” in Revisiting the Corruption of the New Testament) have expressed similar sentiments.  John 20.28; Hebrews 1.8; Titus 2.13; 2 Peter 1.1; Romans 9.5; and 1 John 5.20.  See Polycarp's Epistle to the Philippians 12.2 where a manuscript difference determines whether or not Polycarp called Jesus god or lord. Textual corruption is most acute in Igantius' corpus. Although it's been common to dismiss the long recension as an “Arian” corruption, claiming the middle recension to be as pure and uncontaminated as freshly fallen snow upon which a foot has never trodden, such an uncritical view is beginning to give way to more honest analysis. See Paul Gilliam III's Ignatius of Antioch and the Arian Controversy (Leiden: Brill, 2017) for a recent treatment of Christological corruption in the middle recension.  See the entries for אֱלֹהִיםand θεός in the Hebrew Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (HALOT), the Brown Driver Briggs Lexicon (BDB), Eerdmans Dictionary, Kohlenberger/Mounce Concise Hebrew-Aramaic Dictionary of the Old Testament, the Bauer Danker Arndt Gingrich Lexicon (BDAG), Friberg Greek Lexicon, and Thayer's Greek Lexicon.  See notes on Is 9.6 and Ps 45.6.  ZIBBC: “In what sense can the king be called “god”? By virtue of his divine appointment, the king in the ancient Near East stood before his subjects as a representative of the divine realm. …In fact, the term “gods“ (ʾelōhı̂m) is used of priests who functioned as judges in the Israelite temple judicial system (Ex. 21:6; 22:8-9; see comments on 58:1; 82:6-7).” John W. Hilber, “Psalms,” in The Minor Prophets, Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, vol. 5 of Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary: Old Testament. ed. John H. Walton (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2009), 358.  Around a.d. 340, Aphrahat of Persia advised his fellow Christians to reply to Jewish critics who questioned why “You call a human being ‘God'” (Demonstrations 17.1). He said, “For the honored name of the divinity is granted event ot rightoues human beings, when they are worthy of being called by it…[W]hen he chose Moses, his friend and his beloved…he called him “god.” …We call him God, just as he named Moses with his own name…The name of the divinity was granted for great honor in the world. To whom he wishes, God appoints it” (17.3, 4, 5). Aphrahat, The Demonstrations, trans., Ellen Muehlberger, vol. 3, The Cambridge Edition of Early Christian Writings (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge, 2022), 213-15. In the Clementine Recognitions we find a brief mention of the concept: “Therefore the name God is applied in three ways: either because he to whom it is given is truly God, or because he is the servant of him who is truly; and for the honour of the sender, that his authority may be full, he that is sent is called by the name of him who sends, as is often done in respect of angels: for when they appear to a man, if he is a wise and intelligent man, he asks the name of him who appears to him, that he may acknowledge at once the honour of the sent, and the authority of the sender” (2.42). Pseudo-Clement, Recognitions, trans., Thomas Smith, vol. 8, Ante Nicene Fathers (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2003).  Michael F. Bird, Jesus among the Gods (Waco, TX: Baylor, 2022), 13.  Andrew Perriman, In the Form of a God, Studies in Early Christology, ed. David Capes Michael Bird, and Scott Harrower (Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2022), 130.  Paula Fredriksen, "How High Can Early High Christology Be?," in Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, ed. Matthew V. Novenson, vol. 180 (Leiden: Brill, 2020), 296, 99.  ibid.  See Gen 18.1; Ex 3.2; 24.11; Is 6.1; Ezk 1.28.  Compare the Masoretic Text of Psalm 8.6 to the Septuagint and Hebrews 2.7.  Homer, The Odyssey, trans., Robert Fagles (New York, NY: Penguin, 1997), 370.  Diodorus Siculus, The Historical Library, trans., Charles Henry Oldfather, vol. 1 (Sophron Editor, 2017), 340.  Uranus met death at the brutal hands of his own son, Kronos who emasculated him and let bleed out, resulting in his deification (Eusebius, Preparation for the Gospel 1.10). Later on, after suffering a fatal disease, Kronos himself experienced deification, becoming the planet Saturn (ibid.). Zeus married Hera and they produced Osiris (Dionysus), Isis (Demeter), Typhon, Apollo, and Aphrodite (ibid. 2.1).  Lucius Annaeus Cornutus, Greek Theology, trans., George Boys-Stones, Greek Theology, Fragments, and Testimonia (Atlanta, GA: SBL, 2018), 123.  Apollodorus, The Library of Greek Mythology, trans., Robin Hard (Oxford, UK: Oxford, 1998), 111.  Pausanias, Guide to Greece, trans., Peter Levi (London, UK: Penguin, 1979), 98.  Strabo, The Geography, trans., Duane W. Roller (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge, 2020), 281.  Psuedo-Clement, Homilies, trans., Peter Peterson, vol. 8, Ante-Nicene Fathers (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1897). Greek: “αὐτὸν δὲ ὡς θεὸν ἐθρήσκευσαν” from Jacques Paul Migne, Patrologia Graeca, taken from Accordance (PSCLEMH-T), OakTree Software, Inc., 2018, Version 1.1.  See Barry Blackburn, Theios Aner and the Markan Miracle Traditions (Tübingen, Germany: J. C. B. Mohr, 1991), 32.  Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Eminent Philosophers, trans., Pamela Mensch (New York, NY: Oxford, 2020), 39.  Iamblichus, Life of Pythagoras, trans., Thomas Taylor, Iamblichus' Life of Pythagoras (Delhi, IN: Zinc Read, 2023), 2.  Diogenes Laertius, Life of Pythagoras, trans., Kenneth Sylvan Guthrie, The Pythagorean Sourcebook and Library (Grand Rapids, MI: Phanes Press, 1988), 142.  See the list in Blackburn, 39. He corroborates miracle stories from Diogenus Laertius, Iamblichus, Apollonius, Nicomachus, and Philostratus.  Porphyry, Life of Pythagoras, trans., Kenneth Sylvan Guthrie, The Pythagorean Sourcebook and Library (Grand Rapids, MI: Phanes Press, 1988), 128-9.  Iamblichus, 68.  What I call “resurrection” refers to the phrase, “Thou shalt bring back from Hades a dead man's strength.” Diogenes Laertius 8.2.59, trans. R. D. Hicks.  Laertius, "Lives of the Eminent Philosophers," 306. Two stories of his deification survive: in one Empedocles disappears in the middle of the night after hearing an extremely loud voice calling his name. After this the people concluded that they should sacrifice to him since he had become a god (8.68). In the other account, Empedocles climbs Etna and leaps into the fiery volcanic crater “to strengthen the rumor that he had become a god” (8.69).  Pausanias, 192. Sextus Empiricus says Asclepius raised up people who had died at Thebes as well as raising up the dead body of Tyndaros (Against the Professors 1.261).  Cicero adds that the Arcadians worship Asclepius (Nature 3.57).  In another instance, he confronted and cast out a demon from a licentious young man (Life 4.20).  The phrase is “περὶ ἐμοῦ καὶ θεοῖς εἴρηται ὡς περὶ θείου ἀνδρὸς.” Philostratus, Letters of Apollonius, vol. 458, Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge, MA: Harvard, 2006).  See George Hart, The Routledge Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, 2nd ed. (Oxford, UK: Routledge, 2005), 3.  Plutarch, Life of Alexander, trans., Ian Scott-Kilvert and Timothy E. Duff, The Age of Alexander (London, UK: Penguin, 2011), 311. Arrian includes a story about Anaxarchus advocating paying divine honors to Alexander through prostration. The Macedonians refused but the Persian members of his entourage “rose from their seats and one by one grovelled on the floor before the King.” Arrian, The Campaigns of Alexander, trans., Aubrey De Sélincourt (London, UK: Penguin, 1971), 222.  Translation my own from “Ἀντίοχος ὁ Θεὸς Δίκαιος Ἐπιφανὴς Φιλορωμαῖος Φιλέλλην.” Inscription at Nemrut Dağ, accessible at https://www.tertullian.org/rpearse/mithras/display.php?page=cimrm32. See also https://zeugma.packhum.org/pdfs/v1ch09.pdf.  Greek taken from W. Dittenberger, Orientis Graecae Inscriptiones Selectae, vol. 2 (Hildesheim: Olms, 1960), 48-60. Of particular note is the definite article before θεός. They didn't celebrate the birthday of a god, but the birthday of the god.  Appian, The Civil Wars, trans., John Carter (London, UK: Penguin, 1996), 149.  M. David Litwa, Iesus Deus (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2014), 20.  ibid.  Blackburn, 92-3.  The Homeric Hymns, trans., Michael Crudden (New York, NY: Oxford, 2008), 38.  "The Homeric Hymns," 14.  Homer, 344.  Theophilus of Antioch, To Autolycus, trans., Marcus Dods, vol. 2, Ante-Nicene Fathers (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2001).  Callimachus, Hymn to Artemis, trans., Susan A. Stephens, Callimachus: The Hymns (New York, NY: Oxford, 2015), 119.  Siculus, 234.  Cyprian, Treatise 6: On the Vanity of Idols, trans., Ernest Wallis, vol. 5, Ante-Nicene Fathers (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1995).  Arnobius, Against the Heathen, trans., Hamilton Bryce and Hugh Campbell, vol. 6, Ante-Nicene Fathers (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1995).  Livy, The Early History of Rome, trans., Aubrey De Sélincourt (London, UK: Penguin, 2002), 49.  Cicero, The Nature of the Gods, trans., Patrick Gerard Walsh (Oxford, UK: Oxford, 2008), 69.  Wendy Cotter, "Greco-Roman Apotheosis Traditions and the Resurrection Appearances in Matthew," in The Gospel of Matthew in Current Study, ed. David E. Aune (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2001), 149.  Litwa, 170.  William L. Lane, The Gospel of Mark, Nicnt, ed. F. F. Bruce Ned B. Stonehouse, and Gordon D. Fee (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1974).  “Recent commentators have stressed that the best background for understanding the Markan transfiguration is the story of Moses' ascent up Mount Sinai (Exod. 24 and 34).” Litwa, 123.  Tertullian, Apology, trans. S. Thelwall, vol. 3, Ante-Nicene Fathers, ed. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2003).  Eusebius, The Church History, trans. Paul L. Maier (Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2007), 54.  Pliny the Younger, The Letters of the Younger Pliny, trans., Betty Radice (London: Penguin, 1969), 294.  Pseudo-Thomas, Infancy Gospel of Thomas, trans., James Orr (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1903), 25.  Litwa, 83.  For sources on Theodotus, see Pseduo-Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies 7.35.1-2; 10.23.1-2; Pseudo-Tertullian, Against All Heresies 8.2; Eusebius, Church History 5.28.  Pseudo-Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, trans., David Litwa (Atlanta, GA: SBL, 2016), 571.  I took the liberty to decapitalize these appellatives. Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho, trans. Thomas B. Falls (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2003), 244.  Justin Martyr, 241. (Altered, see previous footnote.)  Justin Martyr, 102.  Justin Martyr, 56-7.  Arnobius makes a similar argument in Against the Heathen 1.38-39 “Is he not worthy to be called a god by us and felt to be a god on account of the favor or such great benefits? For if you have enrolled Liber among the gods because he discovered the use of wine, and Ceres the use of bread, Aesculapius the use of medicines, Minerva the use of oil, Triptolemus plowing, and Hercules because he conquered and restrained beasts, thieves, and the many-headed hydra…So then, ought we not to consider Christ a god, and to bestow upon him all the worship due to his divinity?” Translation from Litwa, 105.  Justin Martyr, 46.  Justin Martyr, 39.  Origen, Against Celsus, trans. Frederick Crombie, vol. 4, The Ante-Nicene Fathers (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2003).  Litwa, 173.  I could easily multiply examples of this by looking at Irenaeus, Tertullian, Hippolytus, and many others.  The obvious exception to Hanson's statement were thinkers like Sabellius and Praxeas who believed that the Father himself came down as a human being. R. P. C. Hanson, Search for a Christian Doctrine of God (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2007), xix.  Interestingly, even some of the biblical unitarians of the period were comfortable with calling Jesus god, though they limited his divinity to his post-resurrection life.  Tertullian writes, “[T]he Father is not the same as the Son, since they differ one from the other in the mode of their being. For the Father is the entire substance, but the Son is a derivation and portion of the whole, as He Himself acknowledges: “My Father is greater than I.” In the Psalm His inferiority is described as being “a little lower than the angels.” Thus the Father is distinct from the Son, being greater than the Son” (Against Praxeas 9). Tertullian, Against Praxeas, trans., Holmes, vol. 3, Ante Nice Fathers (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2003).
This week Ava, Brayden, and Niamh discuss the burden of leadership, Grover's growth, and the power and responsibilities of fandom. Together the team analyzes Trials of Apollo: The Burning Maze, Chapters 9 - 12 through the theme of Leadership. Dive In More: Listen to the Dark Prophecy Playlist: https://bit.ly/3KpTvn4 Keep up with the Offerings and Votes Off: https://bit.ly/451WJ9j Find Us on Socials: Follow us on Twitter, Instagram, and TikTok: @ReturnToCamp For more of your Hosts: @brydnstllmn @niamhhsherlock @avapirie Help Fund This Cast: Donate the price of a coffee to keep us going! https://ko-fi.com/returntocamp Buy cool merch at Redbubble: www.redbubble.com/people/onthevergepro/shop Recommendations This Week: Chapelle Roan Chapter Summary: Apollo, the Greek God of light, music, healing, truth, and prophecy, has been turned into a mortal teenager called Lester Papadopoulos by his father, Zeus. In the first book of the series, Apollo met the demigod Meg McCaffrey, a 13-year-old girl, who became his “master” after she learned Apollo must serve someone to regain his godhood. To become immortal again, Apollo must consult the oracles, the chief sources of wisdom and future-telling in the series' universe. Since the main oracles are under the control of three evil emperors from ancient Rome, Apollo and Meg go on a quest to find hidden sources of prophecy. By the end of the first book in the series, Apollo has received a prophecy from the Oracle of the Grove of Dodona but has been separated from Meg. The prophecy of Dodona guides Apollo and his friends Leo and Calypso to Indiana. In Indianapolis, the three are attacked by blemmyae, monsters under the control of Commodus, the second of the trio of Roman emperors. Apollo and the others are rescued by Emmie and Josephine, two former Hunters of Artemis, who run a safe house called the Waystation. Read On: Buy Trials of Apollo: The Dark Prophecy from an independent book store Credits: Return to Camp Half-Blood is an independent podcast by Brayden Stallman, Niamh Sherlock, and Ava Pirie. Each week these friends from college dive deep into the books of the Percy Jackson universe by Rick Riordan, starting with Percy Jackson and the Olympians, Heroes of Olympus, and now Trials of Apollo. While analyzing each set of chapters, the trio takes an english class approach while diving into how this effects their lives, relates to pop culture, and means about its relationship to literature and the Greek classics. Find out more about this podcast at returntocamp.com Music courtesy of Purple Planet Music: https://www.purple-planet.com --- Send in a voice message: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/return-to-camp-half-blood/message Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/return-to-camp-half-blood/support
Wednesday, 8 November 2023 And all the city was disturbed; and the people ran together, seized Paul, and dragged him out of the temple; and immediately the doors were shut. Acts 21:30 More literally, the verse reads, “And the whole city was moved. And there was a rallying of the people. And, having seized Paul, they dragged him outside the temple, and immediately the doors were shut” (CG). In the previous verse, it mentioned that the people erroneously believed Trophimus the Ephesian was brought into the temple by Paul. Because of this, it next says, “And the whole city was moved.” When the accusatory words of these Jews, as stated in verse 28, were heard, it would have been greeted with the same horror as the defilement of any closely held religious or national icon among any given people. The entire city would have gone into an uproar, just as it did when accusations were leveled against Paul while in Ephesus at the Temple of Artemis. One can see the entire throng beginning to move in unison as if rushing at a rock concert or political gathering, hurrying to participate in the surrounding events. This then led naturally to the next event, where Luke records, “And there was a rallying of the people.” Here is a word found only here in Scripture, sundromé. It is a noun signifying “a rushing together,” or literally “a concourse.” Saying “a rallying” gets the intent across because the accompanying words indicate that it was a riotous rallying. As the crowd was moved, it was impelled toward the source of the events. All rallied to where the finger of the accusing Jews was pointed, meaning Paul. He is the focus of the rallying that has occurred. The violent actions of that are seen as the words continue, saying, “And, having seized Paul, they dragged him outside the temple.” With a bloodthirsty lust, they grabbed Paul and dragged him out of the temple, supposing it was his actions that had brought defilement to their holy site. It is obvious that they intended to kill him. However, they didn't want to do so in the temple and further defile it with his blood. Instead, they would do it outside. Further, to make sure that there could not be any further defilement, it next says, “and immediately the doors were shut.” This would have been a hurried act by the priests to keep anyone else from coming in. These doors would have been the gates between the holy place and the Court of the Gentiles. Access to the temple was thus cut off from any but the priests. But no matter what would happen to Paul, because of the actions of the riotous mob, the good news of Revelation 21 would await him if this moment were to be his last – “But I saw no temple in it, for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are its temple. 23 The city had no need of the sun or of the moon to shine in it, for the glory of God illuminated it. The Lamb is its light. 24 And the nations of those who are saved shall walk in its light, and the kings of the earth bring their glory and honor into it. 25 Its gates shall not be shut at all by day (there shall be no night there). 26 And they shall bring the glory and the honor of the nations into it. 27 But there shall by no means enter it anything that defiles, or causes an abomination or a lie, but only those who are written in the Lamb's Book of Life.” Revelation 21:22-27 Life application: In the world today, there are innumerable edifices that claim to be the focus of religious life for adherents of whatever religion is espoused. Judaism has synagogues, Islam has mosques, and Hinduism has temples. The Roman Catholic Church has churches spread out around the world, but the main focus of their religious life is found at the Vatican. Someday, Israel will again have a temple that will be considered the ultimate symbol of their faith. These are locations where people meet and attend to their religious affairs. But despite being physical locations, this is shadow over substance. The true substance of rightly directed worship of God is not found in a building but in a Person. As Revelation 21:22 says, “the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are its temple.” Jesus implied this in His words to the woman at the well in John 4 – “Woman, believe Me, the hour is coming when you will neither on this mountain, nor in Jerusalem, worship the Father. 22 You worship what you do not know; we know what we worship, for salvation is of the Jews. 23 But the hour is coming, and now is, when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth; for the Father is seeking such to worship Him. 24 God is Spirit, and those who worship Him must worship in spirit and truth.” John 4:21-24 True and proper worship of God can occur anywhere and at any time. It is found in honoring God through the provision He has given to allow us to once again fellowship with Him, meaning the Person of Jesus Christ. Only Jesus can atone for our sin, which separates us from God. In this act of atonement, our prayers can be heard, our praises can be accepted, and our fellowship is restored. Don't worry about a building or a location when you need to pour your heart out to God. Instead, cry out to Him through Jesus. In this, your words will be heard. Lord God Almighty, how thankful we are for Jesus, who has made our calls to You possible. When we cry in anguish through Him, You will receive them and send comfort. When our hearts are overfilled with joy, and we extol You through Him, You will hear and be pleased. And when we have a need, You will attend to it according to Your wisdom because of Jesus. Yes, thank You for Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
“You were never going to take us to McDonald's, Zeus!”Rick Riordan created a rather bizarre portrayal of Prometheus. But what else is new? The Ancients also presented dramatically different versions of the fire-thieving Titan of foresight. Let's talk about all of them and Mary Shelley, too!Talking points include who is really to blame for Luke Castellan's fate, Zeus being a brat about getting tricked by Prometheus, dolphin culture, that time some CW writers decided Artemis was totally in love with Prometheus, and how Romantics really loved Prometheus. Spoilers for Heroes of Olympus, Trials of Apollo, Supernatural, Portal 2, Hercules: The Animated Series, Chalice of the Gods, Tomb Raider World, Promare, Stargate, and Mary Shelley's Frankenstein Content Warning: This episode contains mentions of and conversations about animal sacrifice, imprisonment, torture, mental illness, death, spontaneous combustion, kidnapping, burning, About UsMuses of Mythology was created and co-hosted by Darien and DJ Smartt.Our music is Athens Festival by Martin Haene. Our cover art is by Audrey Miller. Find her on Instagram @bombshellnutshellartLove the podcast? Support us on Patreon and get instant access to bloopers, outtakes, and bonus episodes! Patreon.com/musesofmythologyYou can also leave us a 5-star rating and review on your favorite podcatcher at Lovethepodcast.com/musesofmythologyFind us @MusesOfMyth on Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook. Find all of our episodes and episode transcripts at MusesOfMythology.com-----------------------Support the show
Topics: Demonic Doctrine, Doctrine of Demons, Teaching, 1 Timothy 1, 1 Timothy 2:11-12, 1 Timothy 4:1, Myths, Endless Genealogies, Titus, Acts 19-20, Temple of Artemis, Goddess Diana, Deliverance Ministries, Cast Out Demons, Unbelieving Exorcists, Speaking in Tongues, Mark 16:17, Signs That Follow, Fall Away From the Faith, Deceitful Spirits, Ephesians 4:14-15, Truth in Love, Doctrine of Jesus ChristSupport the showSign up for Matt's free daily devotional! https://mattmcmillen.com/newsletter