Annual celebration of Black history
Hymns for the Nation, or Patriotic Songs? Or both? As Americans are celebrating Independence Day, Lutherans once again consider the worth of hymns and songs that focus on God's gift of land and government. Within the context of our Two Realms (or Two Kingdoms) theology, Sarah considers the hymns found in the “Nation and National Songs” section of the Lutheran Service Book, along with some popular American favorites. Hymns featured in this episode include “God Bless Our Native Land,” “Before You, Lord, We Bow,” “Eternal Father, Strong to Save,” “God of Our Fathers, Whose Almighty Arm,” plus a few American songs you'll likely know. The third hymn in the Nation and National Songs section, “Lift Every Voice and Sing” was featured in the Hymns Sing with Sarah episode for Black History Month. Read all 101 additional verses for “Eternal Father, Strong to Save” in this PDF from alliedmerchantnavy.com. To learn more about these and other hymns in Lutheran Service Book, check out CPH's two-volume set Lutheran Service Book: Companion to the Hymns. Connect with the Lutheran Ladies on social media in The Lutheran Ladies' Lounge Facebook discussion group (facebook.com/groups/LutheranLadiesLounge) and on Instagram @lutheranladieslounge. Follow Sarah (@hymnnerd), Rachel (@rachbomberger), Erin (@erinaltered), and Bri (@grrrzevske) on Instagram! Sign up for the Lutheran Ladies' Lounge monthly e-newsletter here, and email the Ladies at email@example.com.
Download my new and improved brain detox app here: https://neurocycle.app Sign up to become a Neurocycle Certified Facilitator today and get 25% OFF! The first training will be on August 4-7 in Dallas, Texas. Just use code INAUG25 to get your discount: https://neurocycleinstitute.com EPISODE DESCRIPTION: In this podcast I talk to designer, writer and artist Morgan Harper Nichols about her incredible new book, Peace is a Practice. We discuss learning how to embrace the beauty of the present, approaching life's challenges with calm confidence, feeling peace in the midst of uncertainty or difficult times, letting go of regret of the past and fear of the future, and so much more! Sign up to Patreon to get access to bonus ad-free podcasts, exclusive downloads, live Q&As, and more: https://www.patreon.com/drcarolineleaf. Read the show notes here: https://drleaf.com/blogs/news/how-to-find-peace-in-the-midst-of-uncertainty-let-go-of-regret-fear-of-the-future Get Morgan's book here: https://morganharpernichols.com/peaceisapractice OFFERS FROM OUR SPONSORS: -Ritual's Essential Protein: Get 10% off during your first 3 months at ritual.com/DRLEAF. Ritual even offers a money-back guarantee if you're not 100% in love! -Amen Clinics: Visit amenclinics.com/drleaf and use the promo code DRLEAF10 to get 10% off your first evaluation. -Nord VPN: Using my link https://nordvpn.com/cleaningup you can receive a huge discount on a 2 year plan + 1 free month. There is literally no risk to you with their 30 day money back guarantee. Give it a try and if you like it, Great! If you don't, they'll issue a refund and you can pretend the entire situation never even happened! EPISODE HIGHLIGHTS: 5:25 Peace is more than a feeling—it is a practice 6:20 How Morgan's autism diagnosis impacted her sense of peace 10:15 It is okay to be different! 12:00 Peace & success 18:55 Black History Month & making peace with the past 20:00, 26:30 The power of looking at both the past & future 27:10, 32:15 Creativity & non-linear thinking ADDITIONAL RESOURCES: -Get my new book Cleaning up Your Mental Mess here: https://www.cleaningupyourmentalmess.com -Get a free Cleaning up Your Mental Mess workbook when you subscribe to my weekly email at drleaf.com! -Sign up to join my free text program and receive mental health care tips. Just text DRLEAF to 1 (833) 285 3747 -Visit my website at https://drleaf.com for more free resources -Instagram: @drcarolineleaf: https://www.instagram.com/drcarolineleaf/- -Facebook: Dr. Caroline Leaf: https://www.facebook.com/drleaf -Twitter: @drcarolineleaf: https://twitter.com/DrCarolineLeaf *DISCLAIMER: This podcast and blog are for educational purposes only and are not intended as medical advice. We always encourage each person to make the decision that seems best for their situation with the guidance of a medical professional.
BlackFacts.com presents the black fact of the day for June 29. NAACP chairman S.G. Spottswood criticize Nixon's administration. Stephen Gill Spottswood was born in Boston, Massachusetts. He went on to Albright College, earning a B.A. in history in 1917; Gordon Divinity School; and Yale Divinity School, where he earned his doctorate.He joined the NAACP in 1919 and was an active voice for racial equality throughout his adult life.He became president of the NAACP's Washington branch in 1947 and was elected to the national board of the NAACP in 1955, vice-president in 1959, and finally chairman in 1961, a post he held until 1975.Spottswood earned a reputation as an outspoken critic of racial injustice and several times attracted press coverage for his political censures.His most prominent criticism was directed at Richard Nixon and his administration's treatment of African-Americans, calling it "anti-Negro". At the following year's convention, Spottswood used his keynote address to soften the NAACP's stance on Nixon.Newly unearthed recordings show former President Richard Nixon mentioned racist language in conversations with his close associates. Learn black history, teach black history at blackfacts.com
BlackFacts.com presents the black fact of the day for June 28. The U.S. Supreme Court invalidated the use of racial quotas for university applications. The medical school at the University of California, as part of the university's affirmative action program, had reserved 16 percent of its admission places for minority applicants.Allan Bakke, a white California man who had twice unsuccessfully applied for admission to the medical school, filed suit against the university.Citing evidence that his grades and test scores surpassed those of many minority students who had been accepted for admission, Bakke charged that he had suffered unfair “reverse discrimination” on the basis of race.The Supreme Court, agreed that the university's use of strict racial quotas was unconstitutional and ordered that the medical school admit Bakke.Although the ruling legalized the use of affirmative action, in subsequent decisions during the next several decades the court limited the scope of such programs, and several U.S. states prohibited affirmative action programs based on race.Regents of University of California v. Bakke established a pragmatic means of reconciling well-intentioned quota and affirmative action programs with the Constitution's zealous protection of equality. Learn black history, teach black history at blackfacts.com
As children, we were often not encouraged to use our voice, or have an opinion the old saying of 'Children should be seen but not heard.' This then evolves into being easily manipulated as we second guess ourselves or question the decisions we initially decisively make. In the working world, we become susceptible to career manipulation this is demonstrated by displaced loyalty to a company that no longer serves you or being talked out of resigning, etc I am labeling this a Code Black!This episode includes x2 dilemmas and a follow-up to a previous dilemma.Email me: firstname.lastname@example.org Twitter: @toya_w (#ToyaTalksPodcast) Snapchat: @toyawashington Instagram: @toya_washington & @toya_talks YouTube: At Home With Toya https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCbXlRNLSYLuA9GbPB8cUYvQ www.toyatalks.com https://toyatalks.com/
BlackFacts.com presents the black fact of the day for June 27.Frederick Jones invents the ticket dispensing machine.He was an U.S. inventor credited with more than 60 patents.After a challenging childhood, Jones taught himself mechanical and electrical engineering, inventing a range of devices relating to refrigeration, sound, and automobiles.In the late 1920s, Jones designed a series of devices for the developing movie industry, which adapted silent movie projectors to use talking movie stock. He also developed an apparatus for the movie box office that delivers tickets and returns change to customers. In 1935, he invented the first automatic refrigeration system for long-haul trucks and railroad cars. This system eliminated the risk of food spoilage during long-distance shipping trips.His invention radically altered American consumer's eating habits; now people could eat fresh produce across the United States during the middle of summer or winter. Over the course of his career, Jones received more than 60 patents. While the majority pertained to refrigeration technologies, others related to X-ray machines, engines and sound equipment.He became the first African American elected to the American Society of Refrigeration Engineers. Learn black history, teach black history at blackfacts.com
BlackFacts.com presents the black fact of the day for June 26.Sit-in demonstrations and passive resistance began in Cairo, Illinois.Despite Illinois's relatively liberal reputation, Cairo, a small city far south from Chicago, was thoroughly segregated and violently racist.Local youths formed the Cairo Nonviolent Freedom Committee (CNVFC) and invited Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) to go to the small city to initiate protests.Soon after, CNVFC launched “Operation Open City,” with an eleven-point plan to segregate all areas of civic life, including schools, housing, and employment opportunities.But most of its energy focused on desegregating public accommodations, including several local restaurants, the public swimming pool, and a roller skating rink. Their efforts met fierce white resistance.By August, the young activists had successfully integrated most of the city's restaurants, though proprietors continued to harass Black patrons in other ways, like overcharging and providing poor service. Illinois Governor, Otto Kerner, Jr., ordered the city to desegregate in accordance with state law.The violence signaled the end of segregated public accommodations in Cairo. Economic and political discrimination continued, however. Learn black history, teach black history at blackfacts.com
BlackFacts.com presents the black fact of the day for June 25.Sonia Sotomayor was born.She is an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, the first woman of color, first Hispanic, and first Latina member of the Court.Sotomayor was raised in a housing project in the Bronx.After the death of her father, her mother worked long hours as a nurse to support the family.She graduated summa cum laude from Princeton University before attending Yale Law School on a scholarship. In 1979, Sotomayor was awarded a Juris Doctor. She was admitted to the New York Bar the following year.When President Bill Clinton nominated Sotomayor to be a judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in 1997, Republican senators delayed her appointment for more than a year because of their concerns that the position might lead to a Supreme Court nomination. In May 2009 Pres. Barack Obama nominated Sotomayor to the Supreme Court in order to fill the vacancy left by departing justice David Souter.Sotomayor's confirmation hearings before the Senate Judiciary Committee in July 2009 went smoothly, and the following month she was confirmed (68–31) by the Senate.During her tenure on the Supreme Court, Sotomayor has been identified with concern for the rights of defendants, calls for reform of the criminal justice system, and making impassioned dissents on issues of race, gender and ethnic identity.Learn black history, teach black history at blackfacts.com
BlackFacts.com presents the black fact of the day for June 24.John R. Lynch became first African-American to preside over deliberations of a national political party.Born into slavery in Louisiana, he became free in 1863 under the Emancipation Proclamation. He became active in the Republican Party by the age of 20. Although too young to participate as a delegate, he attended the state's constitutional convention of 1867, studying its developments closely. At the age of 26 in 1872, Lynch was elected as the youngest member of the US Congress from Mississippi's 6th congressional district, as part of the first generation of African-American Congressmen. Lynch introduced many bills and argued on their behalf. Perhaps his greatest effort was in the long debate supporting the Civil Rights Act of 1875 to ban discrimination in public accommodations. He was one of seven African-American Congressmen present, who all testified in 1874 as to personal and known experience of the effects of discrimination in this area.In 1884, Lynch became the first African American to chair a political party's National Convention. Learn black history, teach black history at blackfacts.com
BlackFacts.com presents the black fact of the day for June 23.Wilma Rudolph was born.She was an American sprinter, the first American woman to win three track-and-field gold medals in a single Olympics.Physically disabled for much of her early life, Rudolph wore a leg brace until she was twelve years old.Because there was little medical care available to African American residents of Clarksville in the 1940s, Rudolph's parents sought treatment for her at the historically black Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee, about 50 miles away.She attended Tennessee State University from 1957 to 1961. At age 16 she competed in the 1956 Olympic Games at Melbourne, Australia, winning a bronze medal in the 4 × 100-metre relay race. At the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome, Italy, Rudolph competed in three events on a cinder track in Rome's Stadio Olimpico: the 100- and 200-meter sprints, as well as the 4 × 100-meter relays. She won a gold medal in each of these events.These games launched Rudolph into the public spotlight and the media cast her as America's athletic "leading lady" and a "queen," with praises of her athletic accomplishments.Her strikingly fluid style made Rudolph a particular favorite with spectators and journalists. Learn black history, teach black history at blackfacts.com
BlackFacts.com presents the black fact of the day for June 22.Arthur Ashe leads UCLA to the NCAA tennis championship.Ashe was coached and mentored by Robert Walter Johnson at his tennis summer-camp home in Lynchburg, Virginia.Johnson helped fine-tune Ashe's game and taught him the importance of racial socialization through sportsmanship, etiquette and the composure that would later become an Ashe hallmark. In 1958, Ashe became the first African American to play in the Maryland boys' championships. It was also his first integrated tennis competition.In 1963, he became the first black player ever selected for the United States Davis Cup team. In 1965, ranked the number 3 player in the United States, Ashe won both the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) singles title and the doubles title (with Ian Crookenden of New Zealand), helping UCLA win the team NCAA tennis championship.His criticism of South African apartheid racial policy led to denial of permission to play in that country's open tournament, and, as a consequence, on March 23, 1970, South Africa was excluded from Davis Cup competition.He was the only black man ever to win the singles title at Wimbledon, the US Open, and the Australian Open.After his retirement, Ashe took on many roles, including writing for Time magazine and The Washington Post, commentating for ABC Sports and HBO from the early 1980s.Learn black history, teach black history at blackfacts.com
JUNETEENTH - A Celebration of Freedom.Juneteenth (a portmanteau of June and nineteenth) is also known as Freedom Day, Jubilee Day, Liberation Day, and Emancipation Day.It is a holiday celebrating the emancipation of those who had been enslaved in the United States. It is now celebrated annually on the 19th of June throughout the United States.HISTORYDuring the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, 1862. It became effective on January 1, 1863.This Proclamation declared that all enslaved persons in the Confederate States of America in rebellion and not in Union hands were freed.More isolated geographically, planters and other slaveholders had migrated into Texas from eastern states to escape the fighting, and many brought enslaved people with them.Although most lived in rural areas, more than 1,000 resided in both Galveston and Houston by 1860. By 1865, there were an estimated 250,000 enslaved people in Texas.Despite the surrender of General Robert E. Lee at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865, the western Army of the Trans-Mississippi did not surrender until June 2.On Monday, June 19, 1865, Union Major General Gordon Granger arrived to Galveston, Texas, to enforce the emancipation of its slaves and oversee a peaceful transition of power.The Texas Historical Commission and Galveston Historical Foundation report that Granger's men marchedThroughout Galveston reading General Order No 3: “The people of Texas are informed that, in accordance with a proclamation from the Executive of the United States, all slaves are free. This involves an absolute... ...equality of personal rights and rights of property between former masters and slaves, and the connection heretofore existing between them becomes... ...that between employer and hired labour. The freedmen are advised to remain quietly at their present homes and work for wages. They are informed that they will not... ...be allowed to collect at military posts and that they will not be supported in idleness either there or elsewhere.”It was from that moment that Juneteenth would be born.EARLY CELEBRATIONSFormerly enslaved people in Galveston celebrated after the announcement. The following year, freedmen in Texas organized the first of what became the annual celebration of "Jubilee Day."On January 2, 1866, a Galveston newspaper, reported on an Emancipation Celebration:“The colored people of Galveston celebrated their emancipation from slavery yesterday by a procession.Notwithstanding the storm some eight hundred or a thousand men, women and children took part in the demonstration.”Flake's Bulletin, 2 January 1866.Early celebrations were used as political rallies to give voting instructions to newly freed slaves. Early independence celebrations often occurred on January 1 or 4.OFFICIAL RECOGNITIONIn the late 1970s the Texas Legislature declared Juneteenth a “holiday of significance, particularly to the blacks of Texas", becoming the first state to establish Juneteenth as a state holiday.The bill passed through the Texas Legislature in 1979 and was officially made a state holiday on January 1, 1980.Recognition of Juneteenth varies across the United States. It is not officially recognized by the federal government, although the Senate unanimously passed......a simple resolution in 2018 in honour of the day, and legislation has been introduced in Congress to make it either a "national day of observance" or a full-scale federal holiday.The only three states yet to legally recognize Juneteenth as either a state or ceremonial holiday are Hawaii, North Dakota, and South Dakota.In 2020, Juneteenth was formally recognized by New York City (as an annual official city holiday and public school holiday, starting in 2021)CELEBRATIONSThe holiday is considered the "longest-running African-American holiday" and has been called "America's second Independence Day".Juneteenth is usually celebrated on the third Saturday in June. It was common for former slaves and their descendants to make a pilgrimage to Galveston.Observance today is primarily in local celebrations. In many places Juneteenth has become a multicultural holiday, Including lectures and exhibitions on African-American culture.Traditions include public readings of the Emancipation Proclamation, singing traditional songs and reading of works by noted African-American writers.Celebrations include picnics, rodeos, street fairs, cookouts, family reunions, park parties, historical reenactments, blues festivals and Miss Juneteenth contests.Historian Mitch Kachun considers that celebrations of the end of slavery have three goals: "to Celebrate, to Educate, and to Agitate."To learn more about black history visit www.blackfacts.com.
BlackFacts.com presents the black fact of the day for June 21. Painter Henry Ossawa Tanner was born.He was an American artist and the first African-American painter to gain international acclaim.After a childhood spent largely in Philadelphia, Tanner began an art career in earnest in 1876,painting harbour scenes, landscapes, and animals from the Philadelphia Zoo.Although many artists refused to accept an African-American apprentice, in 1879 Tanner enrolled at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia, becoming the only black student.In 1891 he traveled to Paris, France, to study at the Académie Julian. He also joined the American Art Students Club. Paris was a welcome escape for Tanner; within French art circles the issue of race mattered little. In 1893 on a short return visit to the United States, Tanner painted his most famous work, The Banjo Lesson, while in Philadelphia.Tanner was not limited to one specific approach to painting and drawing. His works reflect at times meticulous attention to detail and loose, expressive brushstrokes in others. Tanner's Sand Dunes at Sunset hangs in the Green Room at the White House; it is the first painting by an African-American artist to have been purchased for the permanent collection of the White House.Learn black history, teach black history at blackfacts.com
BlackFacts.com presents the black fact of the day for June 20.Harry Belafonte became the first African American to win an Emmy award.As one of the most successful African-American pop stars in history, he was dubbed the “King of Calypso” for popularizing the Caribbean musical style with an international audience in the 1950s. He was an early supporter of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s, and one of Martin Luther King, Jr.'s confidants. He financed the 1961 Freedom Rides, supported voter registration drives, and helped to organize the 1963 March on Washington.Throughout his career, he has been an advocate for political and humanitarian causes, such as the anti-apartheid movement and USA for Africa. Since 1987, he has been a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador.He was awarded an Emmy for his television special, Tonight Show with Harry Belafonte.In 1989, he received the Kennedy Center Honors.Learn black history, teach black history at blackfacts.com
This June, we as a nation get to celebrate the day when African Americans were freed from slavery and their contributions to America since. We talk to community leader and educator Vencil Holmes about the importance of the Juneteeth Holiday. Vencil then gives us his view on the current state of Black America. Happy Juneteeth!!
BlackFacts.com presents the black fact of the day for June 19. Solidarity Day March In November 1967 civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr., and the staff of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) met and decided to launch a Poor People's Campaign to highlight and find solutions to many of the problems facing the country's poor. The Poor People's Campaign was still in the planning stages when King was assassinated in April 1968. The plan for the march was that protestors would come together in Washington, D.C., and demonstrate daily from May 14 to June 24, 1968. June 19th was declared Solidarity Day, and a rally was held, attracting between 50–100,000 people. Addresses were made by Ralph Abernathy, Hubert Humphrey, Eugene McCarthy, Walter Reuther as well as Coretta Scott-King. In 1969, a Poor People's Campaign delegation, including Abernathy, met with President Nixon and asked him to address hunger and malnutrition. The 2nd Solidarity March came near the 10 year anniversary of the first and drew between 250,000 and 325,000 people. Learn black history, teach black history at blackfacts.com
BlackFacts.com presents the black fact of the day for June 18.W.H. Richardson patents Baby Buggy.He was born in Baltimore, Maryland, and he made a huge improvement to the baby carriage.Richardson decided to create a stroller to be shaped more like a symmetrical basket, rather than a shell, as it was back then.This new design made it easier for parents and nannies to move the carriage around 360 degrees, compared to only 90 degrees before.The big part of Richardson's change to the baby carriage is that it was now reversible, making it possible to have anyone pushing the baby face them instead of facing in the opposite direction.The use of prams became widespread among all economic classes by the 1900s.Many of Richardson's design modification are still in use today.Learn black history, teach black history at blackfacts.com
BlackFacts.com presents the black fact of the day for June 17. Tuskegee Boycott began. The issue of the boycott was segregation and voting rights. The voting districts for the city of Tuskegee were changed dramatically to prevent black citizens from electing local officials. The Tuskegee Civic Association (TCA), a predominantly black organization working for civil rights, challenged the new district boundaries and took it to court. The leader of the Civic Association was Dr. Charles Gomillion, a Tuskegee Institute professor. As a strategy to gain victory, he told the citizens to "Trade with your friends". This had an immediate result on the local businesses because even though blacks were to enter stores from the rear, and had to wait for white customers before they were served, they were significant consumers of goods in Tuskegee. The Boycott also resulted in local Macon County black businesses thriving and multiplying. It effectively created devastating economic consequences for Whites, who preferred to go out of business than give Blacks the right to vote. The use of redrawing voting district lines was ruled illegal and became a landmark case for the United States Civil Rights Movement. Participants in the Tuskegee boycott engaged in unwavering civil activism to end the expulsion of black city residents and re-establish their voting rights. Learn black history, teach black history at blackfacts.com
BlackFacts.com presents the black fact of the day for June 16.Kenneth A. Gibson became the first African American mayor of Newark.He entered politics in the 1960s, during the Civil Rights Movement, by joining the National Urban League, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), and the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE).Gibson ran for mayor in 1966. He joined the mayoral race only six weeks before the election. Mayor Hugh J. Addonizio was reelected, but Gibson got more votes than expected. Gibson would spend the next four years preparing for the 1970 mayoral campaign.In July of 1967, African Americans in Newark rebelled when a black taxi driver was arrested and beaten by white police officers. Over five days, 26 people died, but the violence sent a message that Newark's African Americans were no longer willing to be treated as second-class citizens.In 1970, Gibson ran for office again and won. He became the first African American mayor of a Northeastern city. He inspired other African Americans to enter politics. Following his term in office, other Northeastern cities like Philadelphia, Baltimore, and New York have elected black mayors.Since leaving city government, Gibson has headed Gibson Associates, a consulting firm that advises building developers and investment bankers on public financing and other construction management issues. Learn black history, teach black history at blackfacts.com
BlackFacts.com presents the black fact of the day for June 14.William H. Gray was elected Democratic Whip of the House of Representatives.He graduated from Simon Gratz High School in 1959 and enrolled in Franklin and Marshall College in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, majoring in sociology.In 1972, Gray succeeded his father as the senior minister at Bright Hope Baptist Church in Philadelphia, succeeding not only his father but also his grandfather, who had founded the 4,000-member church. He was elected as a Democrat to represent Philadelphia in the United States House of Representatives in 1978. Throughout his tenure, he was dedicated to promoting civil rights and economic advancement in Philadelphia, the United States, and the world. With his ascent to Majority Whip, the third-ranking leadership position in the House, Gray became the highest-ranking African American in congressional history.Outside politics he was also a businessman who has been a director at Dell, J.P. Morgan, Chase & Co., Prudential Financial Inc., Rockwell International Corporation, Visteon Corporation and Pfizer.Learn black history, teach black history at blackfacts.com
BlackFacts.com presents the black fact of the day for June 15.Henry Ossian Flipper became the first African American to graduate from the United States Military Academy at West Point.He was born into slavery in Thomasville, Georgia, the eldest of five brothers. His mother, Isabelle Flipper, and his father, Festus Flipper, a shoemaker, and carriage-trimmer were owned by Ephraim G. Ponder, a wealthy slave dealer.Flipper attended Atlanta University during Reconstruction. There, as a freshman, Representative James C. Freeman appointed him to attend West Point, where four other black cadets were already attending. The small group had a difficult time at the academy, where they were rejected by white students.Nevertheless, Flipper persevered, and in 1877, became the first of the group to graduate, earning a commission as a second lieutenant in the U.S. Army cavalry.He was assigned to the 10th Cavalry Regiment, one of the four all-black "buffalo soldier" regiments in the Army, and became the first black officer to command regular troops in the U.S. Army.In 1881, while serving at Fort Davis, Flipper's commanding officer accused him of embezzling $3,791.77 from commissary funds.. A court-martial found him not guilty of embezzlement but convicted him of conduct unbecoming an officer and ordered him dismissed from the Army.In 1976, the Army granted him an honorable discharge, and in 1999, President Bill Clinton issued him a full pardon.After his discharge was changed, a bust of Flipper was unveiled at West Point. Since then, an annual Henry O. Flipper Award has been granted to graduating cadets at the academy who exhibit "leadership, self-discipline, and perseverance in the face of unusual difficulties.Learn black history, teach black history at blackfacts.com
Welcome to the Whyte House Family Spoken Nonfiction Books podcast: Black History Month edition episode #124. Today we are celebrating the life of Paul Robeson from the book “100 Most Influential Black Christians in History” compiled and edited by the editors of BCNN1.
BlackFacts.com presents the black fact of the day for June 13.Thurgood Marshall named the first African-American Court's justice.After being rejected by the University of Maryland Law School because he was not white, Marshall attended Howard University Law School; he received his degree in 1933, ranking first in his class.He established a private legal practice in Baltimore before founding the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, where he served as executive director.As an attorney, he successfully argued before the Court the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), which declared unconstitutional racial segregation in American public schools.In September 1961 Marshall was nominated to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit by President John F. Kennedy, but opposition from Southern senators delayed his confirmation for several months.Marshall's nomination was confirmed (69–11) by the U.S. Senate on August 30, 1967.He served on the Court for the next 24 years, compiling a liberal record that included strong support for Constitutional protection of individual rights. Thurgood Marshall's Bible was used by Vice President Kamala Harris at her inauguration in Washington on January 20, 2021, when she was sworn into office.Learn black history, teach black history at blackfacts.com