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This Saturday is one of those rich traditions PBCC celebrates during the Harvest, the Lord's Acre, which has been around for 75 years.All of you have HEARD about Lord's Acre - new people means you might not know WHAT/WHY...You can read about it - but you might be surprised to find its roots in the Old Testament.Love harvest festivals? The Israelites were given THREE! Beginning of the grain, the end of the grain, and the beginning of the grape. Lord's Acre is connected with the first - Feast of Firstfruits.We read of the instructions for the Feast of Firstfruits in the OT book of Leviticus chapter 23:Lev. 23:10-14 “Speak to the Israelites and say to them: ‘When you enter the land I am going to give you and you reap its harvest, bring to the priest a sheaf of the first grain you harvest. He is to wave the sheaf before the Lord so it will be accepted on your behalf; the priest is to wave it on the day after the Sabbath... You must not eat any bread, or roasted or new grain, until the very day you bring this offering to your God. This is to be a lasting ordinance for the generations to come, wherever you live.”God is speaking of a time in the future when the Israelites would possess the land.When the guidelines were given, they were still wandering in the wilderness, no land yet.God speaks of a LATER time - so it's both a time of remembering the goodness of God in the past AND an anticipation that God will continue to BE good as He promised.What do the Firstfruits and Lord's Acre mean? What purpose do they serve?
The Scripture reference in "Mary and Martha" is Luke 10:38-42.
A segunda etapa da campanha nacional de vacinação contra a febre aftosa de 2021 terá início na próxima segunda-feira (1º). Nesta etapa, deverão ser vacinados cerca de 78 milhões de bovinos e bubalinos com até 2 anos de idade. A vacinação ocorrerá na maioria dos estados brasileiros, conforme o calendário nacional de vacinação. Das 19 unidades da Federação que fazem a vacinação neste período, no Amazonas e em Mato Grosso participam apenas os municípios que ainda não têm reconhecimento de áreas livres de febre aftosa sem vacinação. As vacinas devem ser adquiridas nas revendas autorizadas e mantidas entre 2°C e 8°C, desde a aquisição até o momento da utilização, incluindo o transporte e a aplicação, já na fazenda. Devem ser usadas agulhas novas para aplicação da dose de 2 ml na tábua do pescoço de cada animal, preferindo as horas mais frescas do dia, para fazer a contenção adequada dos animais e a aplicação da vacina. A chefe da Divisão de Febre Aftosa do Departamento de Saúde Animal do Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (DAS/Mapa), Ana Vidor, alerta os produtores que além de vacinar o rebanho, devem também declarar ao órgão de defesa sanitária animal de seu estado. A declaração de vacinação deve ser feita de forma online ou, quando não for possível, presencialmente nos postos designados pelo serviço veterinário estadual nos prazos estipulados. Em caso de dúvidas, a orientação é para que criador procure o órgão de defesa sanitária animal de seu estado. Os estados do Acre, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondônia, Santa Catarina e parte do Amazonas e do Mato Grosso são reconhecidos como livres de febre aftosa sem vacinação, sendo proibida a aplicação e comercialização da vacina nessas regiões. Conforme o Plano Estratégico do Pnefa 2017-2026, o Brasil segue executando as ações para garantir o status de país livre da febre aftosa e ampliar as zonas livres de febre aftosa sem vacinação. A meta é que todo o território brasileiro seja considerado livre de febre aftosa sem vacinação até 2026.
Check out our merch store! https://2njb.com/merch *** About 6 months ago, in May of this year, the entire country was hit with a wave of Arab-Israeli mob violence. Jews were targeted both in the streets and in their homes in cities like Acre, Lod, Jaffa. 2 Jews died, one in Acre, one in Lod. Many were injured. There were also a few incidents of Jewish mob violence but not quite on the same scale. On May 10th, Israel began it's fourth military operation in Gaza. Another round in Israel's ongoing attempt to defend itself against Hamas. All hope for co-existence seemed gone. And then about a month later the government was formed. In an unexpected and historic twist, Prime Minister Bennett managed to form a coalition by garnering the support of one of Israel's Arab parties. For the first time in history, an Arab party is part of the ruling coalition. Is this just a fling or is this a true step in the direction of peace between Israel and the Palestinians? Today we are joined by comedian and activist Noam Shuster-Eliassi. Noam joined us back in June to talk about her bout of covid and her time in Hotel Corona. But Covid-19 is so 2020. This time, Noam joins us to talk about Peace in the Middle East. Noam hails from quite a unique place - Neve Shalom or Wahat Al-Salam (which translates to Oasis of Peace), a cooperative village founded by Arabs and Jews with the stated goal of showing the world that it's possible. Noam performs in Hebrew, Arabic, and English and we are thrilled to have her on the show today.
A Justiça Federal atendeu o pedido de tutela de urgência feito pela Defensoria Pública da União (DPU), Ministério Público Federal (MPF) e Ministério Público do Estado do Acre (MPAC) para que que a União e o Estado do Acre comprovem a adoção de medidas para estabelecer procedimento de execução célere do Tratamento Fora de Domicílio (TFD) para o paciente em situação de urgência e emergência.
O Ministério Público do Estado do Acre, por meio da Promotoria Especializada em Defesa da Infância e Juventude e do Núcleo de Apoio e Atendimento Psicossocial (Natera), participou nesta sexta-feira, 22, de reunião com representantes da rede de atendimento a saúde mental do Acre, para tratar sobre o fluxo de acolhimento a gestantes e lactantes em situação de rua.
Nossa querida Voz Feminina desta semana é Cláudia Marques de Oliveira(@claudiamarquesdeo), mulher preta quilombola afroindígena, graduada em pedagogia, especialista em gestão de políticas públicas em gênero e raça, mestre em conhecimento e inclusão social em educação. É sócia da ABPN - Associação Brasileira de Pesquisadores Negros e Negras, é uma das fundadoras e coordenadora da Rede MulherAções no estado do Acre, apoiadora da Sitoakore – Associação de Mulheres Indígenas do Acre, Sul do Amazonas e Noroeste de Rondônia e da OPIAC - Organização dos Professores Indígenas do Acre. É pesquisadora integrante do NEABI / Núcleo de Estudos Afro-brasileiros e Indígenas da Universidade Federal do Acre, integrante do projeto: “Povo Warao no estado do Acre” com a Universidade de Strathclyde do Reino Unido com a ouvidoria estadual do Acre e Coordenadora do Projeto Escrevivências da Libertação com mulheres negras encarceradas no Acre. É professora da educação básica, atuante na formação continuada de professores e licenciatura. Neste episódio você terá uma aula sobre as lutas quilombolas!!!Aperte o play. #podcast #vozfeminina #opiac #acre #mulheresnegras #mulheresindígenas #mulheresafroindígenas #mulheresquilombolas
This week's guest is Harriet Carty. Harriet is the Charity Director & Beautiful Burial Ground Project Manager at Caring for God's Acre, an organisation which works nationally to support groups and individuals to investigate, care for, and enjoy burial grounds and graveyards. These sites are refuges for wildlife, veteran trees and plants. They're community assets which need protecting and preserving for us and for future generations and I was fascinated to find out more about what's being done to look after these local treasures. Dr Ian Bedford's Bug of the Week: Overwintering butterflies Please don't forget to rate, review and share the podcast! What we cover About Caring For God's Acre Why it's so important to protect burial grounds and the wildlife and plants that call then home Burial grounds as important historical sites and as a link to the past Veteran trees and ancient yews in burial grounds Biodiversity in burial sites How you can get involved with recording wildlife How to check if your local church is involved About Caring for God's Acre “Caring for God's Acre works nationally to support groups and individuals to investigate, care for, and enjoy burial grounds and graveyards. There are over 20,000 burial grounds in England and Wales, ranging from small rural medieval churchyards to large Victorian city cemeteries, spanning different cultures, religions and centuries. Appealing to many who are interested in local history and the natural world, burial grounds encapsulate the history of communities whilst offering refuge for our native wildlife.” https://www.caringforgodsacre.org.uk Links www.caringforgodsacre.org.uk On Twitter On Facebook
The Scripture reference in " Wisdom of John" is Mark 1:4-8, Luke 3:7-13, John 3:25-30.
EPISODE NOTE: Content warning for sounds of violence (gunshots); and spoiler alert for films mentioned belowGUESTAlyx is currently a Deputy Campaign Director on Policing and Incarceration at the Action Center on Race and the Economy (ACRE), organizes with BYP100 Chicago, and is a co-founder and writer with LEFT OUT Magazine. Her writing and activism are centered around the momentum and challenges of building Black power and self-determination. Her work at ACRE currently focuses on the relationship between the finance industry and policing, racialized capitalism, and how they exacerbate oppressions.OVERVIEWBrownTown spills even more the tea on in part two of the surveillance capitalism and abolitionist tech conversation with Alyx Goodwin. The team finishes their lengthy two-part discussion by breaking down myths of tech neutrality, offering anti-capitalist and anti-authoritarian critiques of dystopian tech action movies, and lean into what their abolitionist tech future looks like.Alyx and BrownTown pick up where they left off centering a couple reminders and updates before the dig in. The gang discusses the observations and broader lessons from the October 4th Chicago Police Department budget hearing, then-updates of the #StopShotSpotter campaign (1, 2), and the global ramifications of Facebook going down for several hours before unpacking policing as a logic, disaster capitalism, and the bias of tech. Alyx and Caullen discuss how prison tech came home during COVID-19 lockdowns and the advantages of public tech. David re-introduces the role of popular culture in both reinforcing copaganda and problematic systems while also offering heightened critiques of such "fictional" future worlds with tech and spectacle at the forefront. Caullen offers his abolitionist and anti-capitalist critiques of RoboCop (1987) and its early 90's sequels, RoboCop (2014), The Running Man (1987), Demolition Man (1993), and Minority Report (2002) while David and Alyx build out the real world implications, deducing the highly reflexive relationship between art and culture. Once again, they close out encouraging us to interrogate not only the uses of new technologies, but the technologies themselves as well as the unaltered violent systems that they often embolden. If surveillance capitalism and the prison-industrial complex is the puppet master of technology, who is the show for? Here's their take. Originally recorded October 7, 2021.Go back and re-listen to Part One!--Corrections and information on films mentioned:RoboCop (2014) - 5 Reasons Why RoboCop 2014 Isn't As Bad As People Say It Is (& 5 Reasons It Is) (Screenrant)RoboCop (2014) - Opening scene takes place in Tehran, Iran, presented as "Operation: Tehran" in the film.The Politics of Demolition Man (video)The Running Man (1987) synopsis: By 2017, the United States has become a totalitarian police state following a worldwide economic collapse. The government pacifies the populace through The Running Man, a broadcast game show, where criminals fight for their lives as "runners", fleeing from armed mercenaries named the "stalkers", to earn a state pardon. (Wikipedia)Minority Report (2002) - Filming took place from March 22 to July 18, 2001, in Washington, D.C., Virgina, and Los Angeles. Film locations included the Ronald Reagan Building (as Pre Crime headquarters) and Georgetown. (Wikipedia)Mentioned in episode and extra information:Shoshana Zuboff featured in 'The goal is to automate us': Welcome to the Age of Surveillance Capitalism (Naughton, The Guardian)Gang database under a new fancy name Criminal Enterprise Information System (CEIS) (MacArthur Justice Center)Operation Legend is Bringing Surveillance Tech to Cities (Schwenk, The Intercept)Students Are Pushing Back Against Proctoring Surveillance Apps (Kelly, EFF)For Tech to be equitable, the people must control it (Alyx Goodwin, LEFT OUT)Issues in "crime" reporting (Alex Karakatsanis)Afghan Activist: We All Deserve Refuge, Not Just Those Who Served the U.S. (Lazare, In These Times)Where Counter-terrorism Got Us (Todd St. Hill, LEFT OUT)General McKenzie apologies for Kabul strike killing 10 civilians, not ISIS-K (Smith, The Guardian)Plans for $400-billion new city in the American desert unveiled (Holland, CNN)Dystopian world': Singapore patrol robots stoke fears of surveillance state (France-Presse, The Guardian)Chicago Drill 'n' Activism cross-platform documentary and multimedia project on drill rap and activismObama CBA Coalition and SoapBox projectPredictive policing and Chicago's Heat List (The Verge)Neighborhoods Watched: The Rise of Urban Mass Surveillance (Stein, et. al)Social justice solutions for BIPOC communities (SXSW)Citizens Police Data ProjectTech is Not Neutral--Sign the #StopShotSpotter petition and take action with the toolkit! Check #DefundCPD's social media for updates on the campaign (Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Linktree). Watch SoapBox's Stop ShotSpotter PSA here!Follow Alyxandra on Instagram and Twitter! Read her and others' work at LEFTOUTmag.com and follow LEFT OUT on Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter.Follow ACRE on their site, Facebook, Instagram, and Medium; and BYP100 on their site, Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter.--CREDITS: Intro soundbite from SoapBox's Stop ShotSpotter PSA edited by James Edward Murray and outro song Police State by Dead Prez. Audio engineered by Genta Tamashiro and Kiera Battles. Episode photo by Thoughtpoet.--Bourbon 'n BrownTownFacebook | Twitter | Instagram | Site | Linktree | PatreonSoapBox Productions and Organizing, 501(c)3Facebook | Twitter | Instagram | Site | Linktree | Support
The Federal Reserve, better known as “the Fed,” has been in the spotlight quite a bit in recent weeks, following an apparent insider trading scandal embroiling several high-level officials at America's central bank. And in the latest shoe to drop, disclosure documents made public in recent weeks reveal that the scandal of stock trading during the pandemic extends all the way up to the chair of the Fed himself—Jerome “Jay” Powell. With Chairman Powell's term ending in January 2022, a growing chorus of progressives, climate activists, advocates for racial justice, and economic heavyweights from Nobel Prize–winning economist Joseph Stiglitz to Massachusetts Senator Elizabeth Warren are calling on President Biden not to renominate Powell and instead to use what could be as many as four open seats on the Fed's all-white, seven-member governing board to reshape the agency into an institutional force for racial, gender, climate, and economic progress—and bring some long-overdue racial and gender diversity to a critical institution that's been run nearly exclusively by white men. “Is the Biden administration going to fulfill what is at the heart of its agenda? Then it should not be Powell,” said Stiglitz in an interview with Reuters last month. The Biden White House has not yet announced what they plan to do when Powell's term ends, though a decision is expected any day now. With an historic debate brewing over what to do with the Federal Reserve, we at Off-Kilter thought it would be useful to pull together something of an explainer on the nation's central bank, how it operates, and why it's so important to economic and antipoverty policy—and to go inside the push to remake the Fed in the wake of the wave of recent scandals. So Rebecca sat down with Saqib Bhatti, co-executive director of the Action Center on Race and the Economy, better known as ACRE—and one of the groups leading the charge—to break it all down. For lots more on this: Read more from Saqib and his ACRE colleagues Brittany Alston and Vasudha Desikan in “President Biden Must Appoint a New Fed Chair Who Is Serious About Racial Equity.” Read Vasudha Desikan and Liberation in a Generation's Solana Rice in Ms. Magazine: “We Need More Women in Leadership at the Fed: Personnel Is Policy.” Here's more on the pandemic stock trading scandals, from The American Prospect's Bob Kuttner. Here's why Nobel economist Joseph Stiglitz says Powell should go. And here's Senator Elizabeth Warren's speech making the case for new leadership at the Fed.
O corregedor-geral do Ministério Público do Estado do Acre, procurador de Justiça Celso Jerônimo de Souza, esteve em Brasília (DF) essa semana, onde participou de agenda junto ao Conselho Nacional de Corregedores-Gerais do Ministério Público dos Estados e da União (CNCGMP), em defesa da autonomia e da independência funcional do Ministério Público brasileiro, que vem sendo preocupantemente ameaçada pela Proposta de Emenda Parlamentar nº. 005/21 (PEC 005/21).
Senator Chuck Grassley and other Midwest Senators raising questions about the delay in pandemic aid for biofuel producers and the fact that annual biofuel requirements haven't been released. Alan Kollmann, President of Illinois Pork Producers talks about contract production and how that works for him and his family. The return of LaNina and Jim McCormick, AgMarket.net, provides market insight.Acre predictions for the 2022 growing season.
O Ministério Público do Estado do Acre (MPAC), por meio do Centro de Apoio Operacional de Defesa do Meio Ambiente, Patrimônio Histórico e Cultural e Habitação e Urbanismo (CAOP/MAPHU), participou nesta quinta-feira (14) do evento de lançamento do Relatório “Iniciativa Acre de Monitoramento da Qualidade do Ar: Análise da rede de monitoramento da qualidade do ar com equipamentos de baixo custo no Estado do Acre”.
We've all heard time and time again that the biggest problem a landowner faces is their neighbor. But what if instead of competing with your neighbor, you joined forces? Join Dr. Marcus Lashley and Dr. Bronson Strickland, hosts of Fire University and Deer University, as they sit down to discuss the benefits co-ops provide and how working with your neighbor can give you a tangible return on investment. In this episode they interview Hunter Pruitt - founder of the National Wildlife Cooperative, an industry-wide project that quantifies wildlife co-ops across the U.S., connects landowners with nearby cooperatives, and supplies knowledge and resources to aid cooperatives across the U.S. landscape. National Wildlife Cooperative: Website: https://www.nationalwildlifecoop.com/national-wildlife-cooperative Twitter: https://twitter.com/natwildlifecoop Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/nationalwildlifecooperative Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/nationalwildlifecooperative/?hl=en Deer University: Twitter: https://twitter.com/MSUDeerLab Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/msu.deerlab Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/msudeerlab/ Podcast: https://deeruniversity.libsyn.com/ Fire University: Twitter: https://twitter.com/UFDEERLab Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ufdeerlab Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/ufdeerlab/ Podcast: https://fireuniversity.libsyn.com/ Natural Resources University: Twitter: https://twitter.com/NR_University Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/NRUniversity Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/nr_university/ Podcast: https://naturalresourcesuniversity.libsyn.com
A fable about the largest diamond mine in history and what it has to do with you fulfilling your enormous potential.Time Stamps: [0:15] My morning routine with Simple Abundance [0:30] Background of the Acre of Diamonds story [1:10] Abbreviated narration of the story [6:30] The moral and how it applies to YOUR life --Let's connect!Connect with Alessia:Claim your FREE coaching call that's just for Corporate Dropout listeners! alessiacitro.com/dropoutInstagram: @corporatedropoutofficial and @alessiacitro__TikTok: @alessiacitro__Show Support:If you enjoy this podcast please Rate, Review, Subscribe and SHARE this out at Apple Podcasts at The Corporate Dropout PodcastBig shout out to our team that makes this show possible!If you are looking to start your own podcast or join the network, hit up @upstarterpods on Instagram!
The Scripture reference in "Simple Rule" is Matthew 22:34-40.
Neil Hauger from Whitetail Properties joins Jared and Brian on a new episode! Neil is from Wisconsin and we dive into his real estate history and also his habitat set up on his farm. We cover: Wisconsin 121 Acre Farm setup & Strategy, Food Plot Setup, Treestand Access, Real Estate moves Neil has made, Top 5 things Neil looks for in a property, Habitat up North vs Southern WI, Gravel Roads & Off the beaten path, Geographic Travel Corridors, Habitat Podcast Video Team & More! Nick Percy GO FUND ME Neil's YouTube Page: https://www.youtube.com/c/NeilHaugerLandSpecialist Leave us a great review here: https://apple.co/2uhoqOO Habitat Podcast Site: www.habitatpodcast.com Land Plans: LAND PLANS Habitat PODCASTS & GEAR: http://bit.ly/HABITATGEAR The Squirrel - Nut Planting Device - Mention Habitat Podcast in the order notes for 10% off - https://bit.ly/3kdBp9V Realtree Land Pro - Lake States - https://bit.ly/34acwE9 Exodus Trail Cameras - https://bit.ly/ExodusHP Afflictor Broadheads - https://bit.ly/AfflictorBH Killer Food Plots - http://bit.ly/KillerFP 10% and free shipping w/code: HP10% Packer Maxx - http://bit.ly/PACKERMAXX $25 off with code: HPC25 Morse Nursery - http://bit.ly/MorseTrees 10% off w/code: HABITAT10 Michigan Whitetail Pursuit - http://bit.ly/MWpursuit Habitat Podcast AMAZON Store - https://www.amazon.com/shop/habitatpodcast Email us! firstname.lastname@example.org
Americans import the vast majority of chestnuts they eat each year, despite it being one of the few countries where the nut can be grown. That's changing as interest in starting orchards of the nut trees is gaining traction in the Midwest.
Another edition of Acre Insights! Tyler provides a quick update on Rivian, then Tim and Tyler discuss the latest at Nuss Farms and their journey developing a product to go direct-to-consumer. Plus, they discuss a recent article and study about the US importing tomatoes from Mexico. Tune in for some insights! Show Notes: https://themodernacre.com/193
An 11.97-acre property located in proximity to Canyon Distributing and Ace Hardware Distribution in Big Sky Business Park in Prescott Valley is available for purchase from Fain Signature Group. This property has direct access to Valley Road and Enterprise Parkway and has easy access to Hwy 69 and the I-17. The parcel has available utilities including electricity, telephone, underground cable, city water, natural gas, and city sewer. The acreage may be split. Zoned M1. The property is located at 9974 E. Valley Road, Prescott Valley, AZ. 86314. If you would like to know more about this property, contact JFowler Commercial;... For the written story, read here >> https://www.signalsaz.com/articles/11-97-acre-property-available-in-prescott-valley/
The Mongols were famous for their ultimatums of destruction and submission. No shortage of thirteenth century states received demands for their unconditional surrender to the Great Khan granted divine mandate to rule by Eternal Blue Heaven. Initially, the Mongol imperial ideology was extremely black and white: you could submit to Mongol rule, or face total annihilation. There was no room for other relationships, for the Great Khan had no allies, only subjects. But as the thirteenth century went on and the dream of Chinggisid world hegemony slipped away as the divisions of the Mongol Empire went their separate ways, the Mongol Khans in the west began to seek not the capitulation, but the cooperation of western Europe to aid in their wars against Mamluks. For the Ilkhanate's sixty-year struggle against the Mamluk Sultanate, the Il-Khans sought to bring the Popes and Monarchs of Europe to a new crusade to assist in the defeat of the Mamluks, an ultimately fruitless endeavour, and the topic of today's episode. I'm your host David, and this is Kings and Generals: Ages of Conquest. The first Mongol messages to the Kings of Europe came in the late 1230s and 40s, accompanying Batu and Sube'edei's western invasion, asking the Hungarians how they possibly could hope to flee the grasp of the Mongols. We know the Mongols sent a number of envoys to European monarchs and dukes, and employed a variety of peoples in this enterprise, including at least one Englishman. Over the 1240s and 50s, European envoys like John de Plano Carpini or William of Rubrucks to the Mongol Empire returned from Karakorum with orders for the Kings and Popes to come to Mongolia and submit in person.While Rus' and Armenian lords and kings did do so, there is little indication that European rulers even responded to these demands. For the Mongols, who seemed poised to dominate everything under the Eternal Blue Sky, there was little reason to adopt more conciliatory language. From their point of view, the Europeans were only stalling the inevitable: soon Mongol hoofbeats would certainly be heard in Paris and Rome. The Mongols treated the European states as their diplomatic inferiors, subjects basically in a state of rebellion by fact that they had not already submitted. Cruel, threatening and demanding letters were the norm, and it's safe to say any future efforts at alliance were greatly hampered by this opening salvo. The rare diplomatic exception was an embassy sent to King Louis IX of France during his stay in Cyprus in 1248 just before the 7th Crusade. There, messengers came from the Mongol commander in the west, Eljigidei, an ally to the reigning Great Khan, Guyuk. Headed by two Christians in Eljigidei's service, the embassy bore letters from Eljigidei. These letters called Louis ‘son,' and had no demand of submission, but mentioned Mongol favouritism to Christians, urged the French King not to discriminate between Latin and non-Latin Christians as all were equal under Mongol law, and wished him well in his crusade. The two Christian representatives of Eljigidei asserted that he was a Christian and that Guyuk himself had already been baptised. The urged Louis to attack Egypt, and prevent its Ayyubid prince from sending forces to aid the Caliph in Baghdad, who the Mongols were soon to attack. Louis, is should be noted, almost certainly had not been anticipating any cooperation from the Mongols; he had been well aware of their attacks on Hungary only a few years before, learned of Mongol demands and treatment of foreign powers from travellers like Carpini, and apparently received Mongol ultimatums for his submission in 1247. Further, a devout Christian, it is unlikely he would have gone looking for allies among “pagans,” even for fighting against Muslims. Still, he reacted well to Eljigidei's messengers and sent a return embassy with gifts with them back to Eljigidei which were to be sent on to Guyuk, while the initial letter was forwarded back to France and ultimately to King Henry III of England. Ultimately, it was for naught. Guyuk was dead even before Louis received Eljigidei's letter, and Eljigidei himself was soon put to death in the following political turmoil. Little is known of the embassy Louis sent back with Eljigdei's representatives, but from the little heard of it through William of Rubruck a few years later, it seems to have achieved nothing beyond meeting Guyuk's widow and the regent, Oghul Qaimish, who portrayed Louis' gifts as tokens of the French King's submission. Following the meeting on Cypress, Louis IX suffered a humiliating defeat in Egypt at Mansura, captured and was ransomed by the newly emerging Mamluks. By the time he returned to France and received Oghul Qaimish's reply, not only was she dead, but the responding letter was essentially another demand for his surrender. This first non-threatening Mongol embassy succeeded only in making the King of France feel like he had been tricked, especially since the new Great Khan, Mongke, sent a letter back with William of Rubruck that disavowed Eljigidei's embassy. It has been speculated that Eljigidei was using the embassy to spy on Louis, as he was wary of the sudden arrival of Louis' army in Cyprus, and a desire to find out his military intentions, rather than any genuine interest in cooperation at this point. His hope may have been to ensure that this new army attacked Mongol enemies, rather than get in the way of the Mongols. The halting of the Mongol advance at Ayn Jalut by the Mamluks, and fracturing of the Empire into independent Khanates after Great Khan Mongke's death left the new Ilkhanate in a precarious position. Surrounded by enemies on all sides, the only direction they could expand not at the expense of fellow Mongols was against the Mamluks, who fortified their shared border with the Ilkhans. Even a small raid could trigger the arrival of the full Mamluk army, a dangerous prospect against such deadly warriors. Yet the Ilkhans could not bring their full might to bear on the shared border with the Mamluks in Syria, as it would leave their other borders open to attacks from the Golden Horde, Chagatais or Neguderis, in addition to the trouble of provisioning an army in the tough, hot and dry conditions of the Levantine coastline, a route the Mamluks secured and fortified. Opening a new front against the Mamluks was necessary, and there were already convenient beachheads established in the form of the remaining Crusader States. A shadow of their former selves, the Crusader states were represented by a few major coastal holdings like Antioch, Tripoli, and Acre, and inland fortifications like Krak de Chevaliers and Montfort, as well as the Kingdom of Cyprus, whose ruler, Hugh III of Cyprus, took the title King of Jerusalem in 1268. The Crusader States had shown neutrality to the Mongols, or even joined them such as the County of Tripoli did in 1260 after the Mongols entered Syria. In early 1260, the papal legate at Acre sent an embassy to Hulegu, most likely to discourage him from attacking the Crusader holdings. Along with information from the Kings of Armenian Cilicia, their most important regional vassals, the Mongols would have had a vague knowledge of western Europe and their crusading history. The Ilkhanate's founder, Hulegu, sent the first letter to the west in 1262, intended once more for King Louis IX, though this embassy was turned back in Sicily. This letter was friendlier terms than most Mongol missives, but still contained threats, if rather subdued. Pope Urban IV may have learned of the attempt, and the next year sent a letter to Hulegu, apparently having been told that the Il-Khan had become a Christian. Delighted at the idea, the Pope informed Hulegu that if he was baptised, he would receive aid from the west. In reality, Hulegu never converted to Christianity, and died in 1265 without sending any more letters. His son and successor, Abaqa, was the Il-Khan most dedicated to establishing a Franco-Mongol alliance and came the closest to doing so. Due to conflict on his distant borders with the Golden Horde and Chagatayids, as well as the troubles of consolidating power as new monarch in a new realm, for the 1260s he was unable to commit forces to the Mamluk frontier. As a good Mongol, Abaqa was unwilling to allow the enemy total respite, and made it his mission to encourage an attack from the west on the Mamluks. His first embassy was sent in 1266, shortly after becoming Il-Khan, contacting the Byzantines, Pope Clement IV and King James I of Aragon, hoping for a united Christian front to combine efforts with the Mongols against the Mamluks, inquiring which route into Palestine the Christian forces would take. The responses were generally positive, Pope Clement replying that as soon as he knew which route, he would inform Abaqa. Abaqa sent a message again in 1268, inquiring about this progress. James of Aragon found himself the most motivated by the Il-Khans requests, encouraged by the promises of Abaqa's logistical and military support once they reached the mainland. James made his preparations, and launched a fleet in September 1269. An unexpected storm scattered the fleet, and only two of James' bastard children made it to Acre, who stayed only briefly, accomplishing little there. Not long after, King Louis IX set out for Crusade once more, making the inexplicable choice to land in Tunis in 1270. Despite his well planned efforts, the Crusade was an utter disaster, and Louis died of dysentery outside the walls of Tunis in August 1270. Prince Edward of England with his army landed in Tunis shortly before the evacuation of the crusaders, and disgusted by what he saw, set his fleet for the Holy Land, landing at Acre in May 1271, joined by Hugh of Lusignan, King of Cyprus. Edward's timing was good, as Abaqa had returned from a great victory over the Chagatai Khan Baraq at Herat in July 1270, though had suffered a major hunting accident that November. The Mamluk Sultan Baybars was campaigning in Syria in spring 1271, the famous Krak des Chevaliers falling to him that April. Tripoli would have fallen next, had Baybars not retreated back to Damascus hearing of the sudden arrival of a Crusader fleet, and was wary of being caught between European heavy cavalry and Mongol horse archers. Soon after landing Edward made his preparations for an offensive, and reached out to Abaqa. Abaqa was delighted, and sent a reply and orders for Samaghar, the Mongol commander in Anatolia, to head to Syria. Edward did not wait for Abaqa's reply, and there is no indication he ever responded to Abaqa's letter. He set out in mid-July, ensuring his army suffered the most from the summer heat, while missing the Mongols who preferred to campaign in the winter. Suffering high casualties and accomplishing little, he withdrew back to Acre. In mid-October Samaghar arrived with his army, raiding as far as to the west of Aleppo while an elite force of Mongols scouted ahead, routing a large group of Turkmen between Antioch and Harim, but was soon forced to retreat with the advance of the Mamluk army under Baybars. Missing Samagahr by only a few weeks, in November Edward marched south from Acre at the head of a column of men from England, Acre, Cyprus, with Templars, Hospitallers and Teutonic Knights. They ambushed some Turkmen on the Sharon plain, forced the local Mamluk governor to withdraw, but with the arrival of large Mamluk reinforcements the Crusaders fled, losing their prisoners and booty. That was the closest the Mongols and the Franks came to proper coordination. Edward helped oversee a peace treaty between the Mamluks and the Kingdom of Jersualem, but the heat, difficulties campaigning, political infighting and an assassination attempt on his life permanently turned him off of crusading. By September 1272, Edward set sail for England. A few weeks after his departure the Mongols again invaded, besieging al-Bira but were defeated by the Mamluks in December. Edward's brief effort in Syria demonstrated the difficulties prefacing any Mongol-Frankish cooperation. The Mamluks were a cohesive, unified force, well accustomed to the environment and working from a well supplied logistic system and intelligence network, while the Franks and Mongols were unable to ever develop a proper timetable for operations together. The European arrivals generally had unrealistic goals for their campaigns, bringing neither the men, resources or experience to make an impact. Abaqa continued to organize further efforts, and found many willing ears at the Second Council of Lyons in France in 1274, a meeting of the great powers of Christendom intended to settle doctrinal issues, the division of the Catholic and Orthodox Churches, and plan the reconquest of the Holy land. Abaqa's delegation informed the Council that the Il-Khan had secured his borders, that peace had been achieved between all the Mongols Khanates, and he could now bring his full might against the Mamluks, and urged the Christian powers to do likewise. The current Pope, Gregory X, fully supported this and made efforts to set things in motion, but his death in 1276 killed whatever momentum this process had had. Abaqa sent another round of envoys, who reached the King of France and the new King of England, Edward. The envoys brought the Il-khan's apologies for failing to cooperate properly during Edward's crusade, and asked him to return. Edward politely declined. This was the final set of envoys Abaqa sent west. Perhaps frustrated, he finally organized a proper invasion of Syria, only an army under his brother Mongke-Temur to be defeated by the Mamluks at Homs, and Abaqa himself dying soon after in 1282. His successors were to find no more luck that he had. The most interesting envoy to bring the tidings of the Il-Khan to Europe did not originate in the Ilkhanate, but in China: Rabban Bar Sawma, born in 1220 in what is now modern day Beijing, was a Turkic Nestorian priest who had set out on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem before being conscripted to act as a messenger for the Il-Khan, in a journey which is a fascinating contrast to that of his contemporary Marco Polo. Even given him his own dedicated episode in this podcast series, but we'll give here a brief recount of his journey. Writing his accounts down upon his return to Baghdad later in life, he described how he brought messages and gifts to the Byzantine Emperor Andronicos II Palaiologus, marvelled at the Hagia Sophia, then landed in Sicily and made his way to Rome, having just missed the death of Pope Honorius IV. Travelling on to France, he was warmly welcomed by King Phillip IV, and then on to Gascony where he met the campaigning King Edward of England, who again responded kindly to the Il-khan's envoy. On his return journey, he met the new Pope Nicholas IV in 1288 before returning to the Ilkhanate. Despite the generous receptions Rabban Sauma was given by the heads of Europe, and despite the Il-khan's promises to return Jerusalem to Christian hands, the reality was there was no ruler in the west interested, or capable of, going on Crusade. By now, the act of Crusading in the Holy land had lost its lustre, the final crusades almost all disasters, and costly ones at that. With the final Crusader strongholds falling to the Mamluks in the early 1290s, there was no longer even a proper beachhead on the coast for a Crusading army. The sheer distance and cost of going on Crusade, especially with numerous ongoing issues in their own Kingdoms at hand, outweighed whatever perceived benefit there might have been in doing so. Further, while Rabban Sauma personally could be well received, the Mongols themselves remained uncertain allies. From 1285 through to 1288, Golden Horde attacks on eastern Europe had recommenced in force. Even the new Khan of the Golden Horde, Tele-Buqa, had led an army into Poland. For the Europeans, the distinctions between the Mongol Khanates were hard to register; how could messages of peace from some Mongols be matched with the open war other Mongols were undertaking? All evidence seems to suggest that the western Franks did not understand that the Golden Horde and Ilkhanate were separate political entities. Recall earlier the conflicting letters Louis IX had received in the 1240s, where one Mongol general offered friendship, only to be tricked in seemingly submitting to the Mongols and then receive letters in the 1250s telling him to discount the previous envoys. Together these encouraged unease over perceiving the Mongols as allies, and served to further dampen interest to pursue these alliances. In contrast, the Mamluks had somewhat greater success in their own overseas diplomacy: in the 1260s Baybars initiated contact with the Golden Horde, ruled by the Muslim Berke Khan, encouraging him to keep up his warfare with his Ilkhanid cousins. Sultan Baybars also kept good relations with the Byzantine Empire and the Genoese, allowing him to keep the flow of Turkic slave soldiers from the steppes of the Golden Horde open, the keystone of the Mamluk military. There is also evidence they undertook some limited diplomacy with Qaidu Khan during the height of his rule over Central Asia and the Chagatayids. While the Mamluks and Golden Horde never undertook any true military cooperation, the continuation of their talks kept the Ilkhanate wary of enemies on all borders, never truly able to bring the entirety of its considerable might against one foe least another strike the Il-Khan's exposed frontiers. But, did the Golden Horde, in the 1260s, perceive this as an alliance? We only have Mamluk accounts of the relationship, but scholarship often supposes that the Golden Horde Khans perceived this as the submission of the Mamluks, and any cooperation was the cooperation between overlord and subject. As many of the Mamluk ruling class were Qipchaqs, so the Mongols had come to see as their natural slaves, it may well be that Berke saw the submission of the Mamluks as a natural part of their relationship, especially since he already ruled the Qipchaq homeland. This alliance, alongside never resulting in direct cooperation, was also never always amicable. When the Jochid Khans grew annoyed with the Mamluks, they would halt the trade of Qipchaq slaves and threaten to deprive the Mamluks of their greatest source of warriors. During the long reign of Mamluk Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad, a daughter of the Golden Horde Khan Ozbeg was wed to him, in an effort to cement the relationship after a rocky start to the 1300s. Al-Nasir soon accused her of not actually being a Chinggisid, insulting her and infuriating Ozbeg. Yet the relationship survived until the invasions of Emir Temur at the close of the fourteenth century, when the Mamluks and Golden Horde once again took part in a doomed west-Asian effort to ally against Temur. Ilkhanid-European contacts continued into the 14th century, but with somewhat less regularity after Rabban bar Sawma's journey. An archbishopric was even founded in the new Ilkhanid capital of Sultaniyya in 1318, and Papal envoys would travel through the Ilkhanate to the Yuan Dynasty in China until the 1330s. A few envoys came from the Il-Khans still hoping to achieve military cooperation; Ghazan Il-Khan continued to send them before his invasions, including the only one that actually defeated the Mamluk army and led to a brief Mongol advance down the coast, occupying Damascus. News of Ghazan's successes did spread rapidly, for the Spanish Franciscan Ramon Llull learned of it and promptly sailed all the way across the Mediterranean, hoping to be among the first missionaries to land in the newly reclaimed Holy Land. But upon arriving in Cypress, Llull learned of Ghazan's equally quick withdrawal. The combined news of a Mongol victory followed by sudden Mongol withdrawal must have only affirmed the opinion of many of the futility of taking part in any more crusades with the Mongols. Military operations against the Mamluks mostly ceased after Ghazan's death, until a formal peace was achieved between them and the Ilkhanate at the start of the 1320s. Naturally, no further messages for alliances with the powers of Europe were forth coming, and consequently putting an almost total end to European interest and contacts with the Middle East for the next five centuries. European-Mongol relations would continue for some time longer in the territory of the Golden Horde, where the attention of our podcast moves next, so be sure to subscribe to the Kings and Generals podcast for more. If you enjoyed this and would like to help us continue bringing you great content, then consider supporting us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals. This episode was researched and written by our series historian, Jack Wilson. I'm your host David, and we'll catch you on the next one.
The Scripture reference in "Bible School" is Exodus 20:1-21.
Richard the Lionheart and Saladin were military masterminds. The Third crusade pit each man against the other. The prize was the city of Jerusalem. Contribute on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/FPHx Leave some feedback: email@example.com Follow along on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/FLASHPOINTHX/ Engage on Twitter: https://twitter.com/FlashpointHx Flash Point History YouTube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTYmTYuan0fSGccYXBxc8cA
Looking for a dog walking service near Burlingame, CA that lets your pet exercise and roam free? Then you need Paws Dog Camp (650-703-2162) for your pooch! Go to https://www.pawsdogcamp.com (https://www.pawsdogcamp.com) for more information.
Extreme fire behavior with wind-driven runs and ember spotting has pushed the South Moccasin Fire to some 7,000 acres as of noon Tuesday. The fire is burning in timber and short grass 7 miles northwest of Lewistown in Fergus County and is zero percent contained.
Extreme fire behavior with wind-driven runs and ember spotting has pushed the South Moccasin Fire to some 7,000 acres as of noon Tuesday. The fire is burning in timber and short grass 7 miles northwest of Lewistown in Fergus County and is zero percent contained.
In this episode, we're covering an article that caught my attention. It breaks down some potential causes of what could be the driving factor behind this farmland bull market? You'll also hear what tract of ground broke land price records in Iowa this summer. CONNECT: https://linktr.ee/TheLandPodcast https://linktr.ee/exodustrailcameras --- Send in a voice message: https://anchor.fm/the-land-podcast-hofer/message
The Scripture reference in "Key to Success" is Genesis 32:22-32.
GUESTAlyx is currently a Deputy Campaign Director on Policing and Incarceration at the Action Center on Race and the Economy (ACRE), organizes with BYP100 Chicago, and is a co-founder and writer with LEFT OUT Magazine. Her writing and activism are centered around the momentum and challenges of building Black power and self-determination. Her work at ACRE currently focuses on the relationship between the finance industry and policing, racialized capitalism, and how they exacerbate oppressions.OVERVIEWBrownTown spills the tea on surveillance capitalism and talks abolitionist tech with Alyxandra Goodwin, who is recently organizing the #StopShotSpotter campaign in Chicago. In part one of this two-part episode, the gang unpack surveillance in various forms from policing to social media while unpacking the many intricacies and insidious ways it controls our lives from the most intimate to the most systemic.Alyx begins by sharing her journey growing up in the Chicago suburbs and finding her interest in movement at a young age. The gang quickly digs into the relationship between social media tech surveillance and large corporations, stating that these industries are moving faster than state regulation can keep up with or can even understand (see Zuckerberg vs. Congress). Alyx unpacks her article The True Dilemma: Silicon Valley, Race & Profit while BrownTown turns the surveillance conversation to the prison-industrial complex (PIC). As capitalism's output is always profit above all, we see the PIC's usage of surveillance to further the protection of that profit on top of uplifting the anti-Blackness, white supremacy, and the overall quell of dissent that it was founded on.BrownTown and Alyx sift through numerous related topics with surveillance and social control at the forefront, centering the current Chicago campaign to cancel the ShotSpotter contract with Chicago Police Department (which several other cities have done). LEFTOUT comrade and writer Todd St. Hill's article Where Counter-terrorism Got Us adds weight to the turn of surveillance in the U.S. after 9/11 as we reflect on the two-decade-long war in Afghanistan and the new departments and machines of surveillance that it yielded. David transitions the conversation out by asking about media narratives and pop culture's role in furthering copaganda and acceptance of new technologies without interrogating the unaltered violent systems that they often embolden. If technology is a mere puppet, surveillance capitalism and the prison-industrial complex is the puppet master. Originally recorded September 15, 2021.Part two of the conversation coming soon!--Also mentioned in episode:Shoshana Zuboff's workThe Age of Surveillance Capitalism (book)The Surveillance Threat Is Not What Orwell Imagined'The goal is to automate us': Welcome to the Age of Surveillance Capitalism (Naughton)A Company That Designs Jails is Spying On Activists Who Oppose Them (Fassler) on corporate counterinsurgencyOperation Legend is Bringing Surveillance Tech to Cities (Schwenk)Raptivist Bella BAHHS on the history of Chicago gangs and machine politics (TRiiBE)Defund CPD 2021 Survey (English, Spanish)Chicago Drill 'n' Activism cross-platform, multimedia project on drill rap and activismBnB Ep. 21 - Welcome to the Gun Show (on US vs. UK drill rap)Texas police surveillance: HALO cameras, BnB Episode 73Stingray technology for phone trackingErase the (Gang) Database in Chicago (coalition, SoapBox project)For Tech to be equitable, the people must control it (Alyx Goodwin, LEFTOUT)CPD Settlement for men wrongfully accused of murder (article, SoapBox project)Police surveillance resources and research:EndPoliceSurveillance.comChicagoPoliceSurvelliance.comElectronic Frontier Foundation--Sign the #StopShotSpotter petition and take action with the toolkit! Check #DefundCPD's social media for updates on the campaign (Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Linktree). Watch SoapBox's Stop ShotSpotter PSA here!Follow Alyxandra on Instagram and Twitter! Read her and others' work at LEFTOUTmag.com and follow LEFT OUT on Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter.Follow ACRE on their site, Facebook, Instagram, and Medium; and BYP100 on their site, Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter.--CREDITS: Intro soundbite from SoapBox's Stop ShotSpotter PSA edited by James Edward Murray and outro song Feds Watching by 2 Chainz ft. Pharrell. Audio engineered by Genta Tamashiro and Kiera Battles. Episode photo by Thoughtpoet.--Bourbon 'n BrownTownFacebook | Twitter | Instagram | Site | Linktree | PatreonSoapBox Productions and Organizing, 501(c)3Facebook | Twitter | Instagram | Site | Linktree | Support
Ice cream aficionado Hallie Meyer, founder of New York City's Caffè Panna, is serving ice cream with a twist using some of the best Italian and local ingredients available. She shares where her obsession with panna comes from, opens up about her secret panna source, details her experiences tasting panna at all of the gelaterie across Italy, and explains the difference between ice cream and gelato. Five Acre Farms founder and CEO Dan Horan details his food and farming journey producing consistent dairy quality products from local farms and bringing them to the mainstream market. Follow @halliemeyer @cafepanna @trattoriapanna @fiveacrefarms https://www.fiveacrefarms.com/https://www.caffepanna.com/In partnership with The Chefs' Warehouse, a specialty food distributor that has been purveying high-quality artisan ingredients to chefs for over 30 years @wherechefsshophttps://www.chefswarehouse.com/Produced by HayNow Media @haynowmediahttp://haynowmedia.com/
The Scripture reference in "The Life Saving Business" is John 4:1-42.
In this hollow, dry episode of Tubi or Not Tubi, we survey the land in the 2007 film, The Empty Acre, written and directed by Patrick Rea. The labor necessary to cultivate the resources on a farm is a great amount, but what happens when the earth itself refuses to provide? This week, we explore Tubi's take on what needs tubi done in this situation!
Today - A Colville Tribes' casino, golf course and concert venue, along with a 100-home development are being considered for a 640-acre property between Chelan and Pateros. Also, today we're highlighting 33 year old Alisa Franklin. Alisa is a Registered investment associate at Stifel Financial. She's described as a self-starter, wise beyond her years, someone who succeeds in male-dominated industries of agriculture and finance. Support the show: https://www.wenatcheeworld.com/site/forms/subscription_services/ See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
“Ket Buqa Noyan kept attacking left and right with all zeal. Some encouraged him to flee, but he refused to listen and said, “Death is inevitable. It is better to die with a good name than to flee in disgrace. In the end, someone from this army, old or young, will reach the court and report that Ket Buqa, not wanting to return in shame, gave his life in battle. The padishah should not grieve over lost Mongol soldiers. Let him imagine that his soldiers' wives have not been pregnant for a year and the mares of their herds have not folded. [...]The life or death of servants like us is irrelevant.” Although the soldiers left him, he continued to struggle in battle like a thousand men. In the end his horse faltered, and he was captured. [...] After that, Ket Buqa was taken before Quduz with his hands bound. “Despicable man,” said Quduz, “you have shed so much blood wrongfully, ended the lives of champions and dignitaries with false assurances, and overthrown ancient dynasties with broken promises. Now you have finally fallen into a snare yourself.”[...] “If I am killed by your hand,” said Ket Buqa, “I consider it to be God's act, not yours. Be not deceived by this event for one moment, for when the news of my death reaches Hülägü Khan, the ocean of his wrath will boil over, and from Azerbaijan to the gates of Egypt will quake with the hooves of Mongol horses. They will take the sands of Egypt from there in their horses' nose bags. Hülägü Khan has three hundred thousand renowned horsemen like Ket Buqa. You may take one of them away.” So the great Ilkhanid vizier and historian Rashid al-Din records the heroic, and certainly greatly dramatized, account of Kitbuqa Noyan's final stand at the battle of Ayn Jalut in September 1260. This was the famous Mongol defeat at the newly established, and rather fragile, Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. The Mongols however, did not see it as an irreversible cataclysm, but the defeat of a small force which would soon be avenged, for Heaven demanded nothing less. The defeat of the Mongols at Ayn Jalut in 1260 was not the end of the war between the Mongols and the Mamluks, and over the next 50 years Hulegu's successors, the Ilkhans, tried repeatedly to avenge their losses only to be halted by the Mamluks' valiant resistance. Here, we will look at the efforts by the Mongol Ilkhanate to bring their horses to the Nile. I'm your host David, and this is Kings and Generals: Ages of Conquest. First, we should note that for anyone wishing to read more about the war between the Mongols and the Mamluks, the most detailed work on the subject can be found in Reuven Amitai-Preiss' Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, released in 1995. No other work details the entire conflict and its sources so fully, and is an absolute must read for anyone desiring the most effective overview on the subject possible. With the death of Grand Khan Mongke in 1259, the Mongol Empire was irrevocably broken: while Hulegu and his successors stayed on good terms with his brother Khubilai, the nominal Great Khan, Hulegu was independent, ruler of vast domain stretching from Anatolia to the Amu Darya, known as the Ilkhanate. Hulegu's cousins in the neighbouring Golden Horde, Chagatai Khanate and the Neguderis were almost immediately antagonistic to the Ilkhans, who found themselves defending their distant frontiers from all three, in addition to internal revolts. For the Ilkhans, the Mamluks were but one frontier amongst several, one they could turn to only when the threat from the other Khanates was low. More often than not, this simple fact prevented any great Ilkhanid invasion of the Mamluk state. For the Mamluks though, their border with the Ilkhanate along the Euphrates river was of utmost importance. In the aftermath of Ayn Jalut, the Mamluk Sultan Qutuz was assassinated by the energetic Baybars, who had fought alongside Qutuz against Kitbuqa. We introduced Baybars back in episode 30 of this podcast. While much credit can be given to Qutuz and the quality of the Mamluk soldiery for the victory at Ayn Jalut, the reason for continued Mamluk successes against the Mongols can be attributed to Baybars. A Qipchaq from the great Eurasian steppe, as a young boy Baybars had been sold into slavery to the Ayybuid Sultan of Egypt. There, Baybars was converted to Islam and received extensive training in all matter of military affairs. An excellent soldier, coupled with immense ambition, endurance and drive, Baybars understood clearly the danger the Mongols posed, and set up his entire kingdom to defend against them. The new Sultan greatly expanded the Mamluk regiments, encouraging good relations with the Golden Horde, Genoese and Byzantine Empire to keep up the flow of Turkic slave soldiers from the Eurasian steppe, over the Mediterranean to the ports of Egypt. He established a sophisticated intelligence network to inform him on the Ilkhanate and spread misinformation within it, supported by a system of signal towers, messenger pigeons, improved roads, bridges and relay stations to rapidly send messages. This was the barid, which served as the Mamluks' answer to the Mongol yam system. Its riders reported directly to the Mamluk Sultan. Frontier fortifications along the Euphrates River like al-Bira and al-Rahba were strengthened, and they served as the first line of defence when the armies of the Ilkhanate advanced. When messengers raced down from Syria to Egypt with news of a Mongol assault, Baybars would immediately march with an army from Cairo to meet them head on. More often than not, the Mongol attack party would return to the Ilkhanate rather than face Baybars head on. His swift reaction kept border officials loyal, feeling their Sultan would soon be there to assist them, or to punish defections. Rather than face the Mongols in battle, garrisons of cities in Syria past the Euphrates border were ordered to withdraw and regrouped at designated locations during invasions, facing the Mongols with united forces or awaiting the Sultan. Baybars would not allow the Mongols to overrun his empire piecemeal, as they had the Khwarezmian Empire some forty years prior. Baybars cultivated relations with bedouin nomads across Syria, who provided valuable auxiliaries, intelligence and also to keep them from allying with the Mongols. Finally, he strengthed his position domestically, controlling the economy and appointing his own Caliphs to legitimize himself, presenting himself as the defender of Islam. Baybars prepared his entire kingdom for Mongol attacks, a highly effective system the Ilkhanate struggled against. For the Ilkhans, the theater with the Mamluks was a sideshow, one to attack only when other frontiers were secured. The Mamluk Sultanate itself had no hope of conquering the Ilkhanate or seriously threatening it, so the various Ilkhans felt no great rush to overwhelm the Mamluks. In contrast, for the Mamluks the Ilkhanid border was of utmost importance: Baybars had to levy almost entirety of the Mamluk army to repel the Mongols, and thus not even a single defeat could be afforded for it would allow the Mongols to overrun Egypt, and the remainder of the Islamic west. Thus did Baybars finetune a system that proved remarkably successful at defending against the house of Hulegu, although it demanded great personal ability on the part of the monarch, and Baybars' successors struggled to compare to his vision. Soon after Ayn Jalut in September 1260, a Mongol force of about 6,000 returned to Syria that December. Commanded by Baydar, an officer of Kitbuqa who had escaped Qutuz and Baybars' great advance earlier that year, it was a serious threat. At that time Sultan Baybars had not tightened his hold over Syria, attacks by the Crusader states had wrought further confusion, and some of Qutuz's loyalists had rebelled against Baybars' rule, one of whom even declared himself sultan. There is implication in the Mamluk sources that the attack was not launched on Hulegu's order, but Baydar's own initiative to avenge Kitbuqa. As his army marched, they found that the garrisons of Syria had retreated before them. Placing a governor in Aleppo and other major cities, as the Mongols neared Homs they found the combined garrisons of Homs, Hama and Aleppo had retreated there and rallied before them. Greatly outnumbering the Syrian forces, perhaps 6,000 troops under Baydar to 1,400 under the Syrians, Baydar was ultimately defeated in battle, the Syrians aided by thick fog and the timely flanking of local Bedouin. Coincidentally, it was fought near the grave of Khalid ibn al-Walid, the great commander of the early Islamic conquests and victor at Yarmouk, which earned it double the symbolic value. This first battle of Homs, as it was to become known, strengthened the feeling that the Mongols were not invincible. The Mongol army outnumbered the Mamluk garrisons, and keenly demonstrated the importance of unified defense rather than each garrison hiding behind city walls. For many Mamluk writers, it was the first battle of Homs that stood as the great victory over the Mongols, rather than Ayn Jalut. It was also the last major Mongol offensive into Syria in the 1260s. Hulegu spent the next years fighting with Berke Khan of the Golden Horde over the valuable territory of Azerbaijan, which Berke believed belonged to the house of Jochi. With Hulegu's death in February 1265, he was succeeded by his son Abaqa, who was distracted by Jochid attacks and the efforts of setting up a new empire. By then, the most entrenched Sultan Baybars could solidify his defences, and turn to the isolated Crusader strongholds. By this time, little remained of the former Crusader Kingdoms, baring some coastal cities like Antioch, Tripoli and Acre and a few inland fortresses like Krak des Chevaliers and Montfort. The Crusader States had shown neutrality to the Mongols, or even joined them such as the County of Tripoli in 1260 after the Mongols entered Syria. Their neutrality or allegiance to the Mongols, in addition to the possibility of them acting as a foothold to further European troops, meant that the Mamluks would unleash bloody vengeance on them whenever the opportunity arose. From February to April 1265 in the immediate aftermath of Hulegu's death, Baybars conquered Caesarea, Haifa, Arsuf, Galilee and raided Cilician Armenia, the vassals of the Ilkhanate. In 1268 Baybars took Antioch, and in 1270-71 when Abaqa was fighting with Chagatayid and Neguderi armies in the far east, Baybars took the fortresses of Krak des Chevaliers and Montfort, and planned to attack Tripoli, another Ilkhanid vassal. Though it remains popular in some circles to portray the Mamluk conquest of the Crusader holdouts as titanic clashes, they were side affairs, undertaken by the Mamluks whenever the Ilkhans were occupied. Such was the slow and humiliating coup de grace which ended the Crusader states. The Mamluks' ending of the Crusader kingdoms certainly served them strategically, for it was the most effective way to prevent any link up between European and Mongol forces. Hulegu and his successors sent letters to the Kings and Popes of Europe, encouraging them to take up crusade against the Mamluks and together defeat them, offering to return Jerusalem and other holy sites back into Christian hands, but this almost always fell on deaf ears or were greeted with empty promises. Louis IX's highly organized crusades had resulted in utter debacles at Mansura in 1250 and Tunis in 1270, which dampened whatever minor enthusiasm for crusade was left in Europe. Few European monarchs ever seriously took up Mongol offers at military alliances, with two exceptions. King James I of Aragon found himself the most motivated by the Il-Khan Abaqa's requests, encouraged by the promises of the Ilkhanate's logistical and military support once they reached the mainland. James made his preparations, and launched a fleet in September 1269. An unexpected storm scattered the fleet, and only two of James' bastard children made it to Acre, who stayed only briefly, accomplishing little there before departing. This was soon followed by the arrival of prince Edward of England, the future King Edward I, at Acre in May 1271 with a small force, and Abaqa sent an army under Samaghar, the Mongol commander in Rum, to assist him: but Samaghar's force withdrew with the arrival of Baybars. Edward's troops performed poorly on their own minor raids, and set sail for England in September 1272. One of the commanders who took part in Samaghar's raid was Mu'in al-Din Sulaiman, better known as the Pervane, from sahib pervana, the keeper of the seals, though it literally means “butterfly.” The Pervane was the dominant figure of the rump state of the Seljuqs of Rum: when the previous Mongol installed Seljuq Sultan, Kilij Arlan IV, had challenged the Pervane, he succeeded in getting Abaqa to execute the Sultan and instate Arslan's young son, a toddler enthroned as Ghiyath al-Din Kaykhusraw III. Thus did the Pervane, in coordination with Samaghar Noyan, act as the master of Anatolia. Essentially co-governors, Samaghar and the Pervane had a stable relationship, enriching themselves along the way. But when Abaqa appointed his younger brother Ejei to oversee the Pervana and Samaghar. The Pervane chafed under the increased financial burden and supervision, and asked Abaqa to recall his brother, claiming Ejei was in cooperation with Baybars. Abaqa promised to recall him, but delayed. In his frustration, the Pervane himself reached out to Baybars. The Sultan's curiosity was piqued, but didn't commit; by the time his response reached the Pervane in 1274, Ejei and Samaghar had been replaced by Toqa Noyan, and the Pervane didn't respond. Under Toqa Noyan, Mongol pressure was even greater in Anatolia, and the Pervane's powers were more limited than ever. What followed was a terrible mess of political machinations. The Pervane got Toqa Noyan removed, Ejei was reinstated, the Pervane's efforts to remove Ejei again frustrated Abaqa, who removed Ejei, killed some of his followers and reinstated the Pervane and Toqa Noyan. In November 1275, the Mongols besieged al-Bira, but Baybars had learned of it in advance allegedly due to contacts with the Pervane. After this, the Pervane was careful to rebuild trust with Abaqa, bringing him the Seljuq Sultan's sister to wed. At the same time, with or without the Pervane's support a group of Rumi amirs met with Baybars in July 1276, urging him to attack. Judging there was enough support in Rum for him he agreed, and Baybars mobilized his army over winter 1276, setting out in February 1277. As Baybars sped up the Levantine coast, the Pervane rapidly lost control of Rum as various Turkmen rebelled and a new Mongol army under Tudawan cracked down on the amirs who had contacted Baybars. In Syria, Baybars sent a diversionary force from Aleppo over the Euphrates, while his main army entered Anatolia in early April. After pushing off a Mongol advance force of 3,000 in the Taurus Mountains, news reaches Baybars that Tudawun was camped close by on a plain near the town of Abulustayn (Elbistan) and set out for them, the armies meeting on the 15th of April 1277. Tudawan's army was about 14,000 Mongols, Turk and heavily armoured Georgian cavalry was joined by an army of Rumi troops similar size under the Pervane, but Tudawan distrusted them, and kept them away from his lines. Tudawan's scouts had failed to judge the size of the Mamluk army, which he believed to be smaller and lacking Baybars. In reality, the Mamluks outnumbered the Mongols by a few thousand. As the Mamluks entered the plain at the narrow end they were unable to properly form up, and their centre was positioned before their left wing. The Mongol left flank began the battle, sending arrows into the Mamluk standard bearers in the centre before charging them. The Mamluk centre buckled under the charge, and the more exposed Mamluk left wing was similarly pounded by the Mongol right. The situation was critical for the Mamluks: likely at this stage, their bedouin irregulars fled. Baybars sent in his reserve, the garrison of Hama, to reinforce his left, and succeeded in forcing back the Mongols. A brief respite allowed the Mamluks to better deploy their lines, and counterattack. The Mongols fought fiercely, but the greater number of the Mamluks made the difference. Gradually forced back over the course of the day, their horses exhausted and unable to access remounts, the Mongols dismounted, signalling they were fighting to the death. With great struggle, the Mamluks defeated them and killed their commanders. The Rumi army took little part in the battle and dispersed, the Pervane escaping, with one of his sons captured by Baybars. The next day the Mamluk Sultan marched for Kayseri, reaching it on April 20th. Baybars ordered the Pervane and the Seljuq Sultan to him, but the Pervane held out in his own castle. Both realized that Baybars would not be able to hold this position, deep in enemy territory, supplies low and the rest of his kingdom unprotected while a furious Abaqa rallied his army. 5 days after entering Kayseri, Baybars was en route back to Syria and though his vanguard deserted to the Mongols, by June he was in Damascus. Abaqa arrived in Rum too late to catch Baybars, and in his fury was only narrowly persuaded out of massacring everything between Kayseri and Erzerum, while the summer heat kept him from invading Syria. He was able to catch the Pervane though, and put him to death: allegedly, his flesh was eaten by Abaqa and the senior Mongols. Thus ended one of Baybars' most skillfully executed campaigns: lightning quick and devastating, creating a terrible mess for the Ilkhanate, though in itself brought no strategic gain or shift in the status quo. It was a great shock when the Lion of Egypt suddenly died at the beginning of July 1277 soon after his return. Baybars had hoped to establish a dynasty: he was seamlessly succeeded by his older son, named al-Sa'id Berke. The new Sultan quickly antagonized the Mamluk emirs through his efforts to limit their powers, and was forced to abdicate in favour of his younger brother, the 7 year old Sulamish. The boy was nothing but a puppet, and his guardian, one of the late Baybars' Mamluks named Qalawun, soon forced the boy out and took power himself in November 1279. Like Berke, Qalawun had been taken from the Qipchap steppe and sold as a Mamluk. He had loyally served Baybars and proven himself an able commander, though something of a schemer. Though Qalawun's line came to dominate the Mamluk Sultanate for essentially the next century, initially Qalawun faced stiff opposition in attempting to assert his authority. This disruption in the Sultanate was a golden opportunity for Abaqa, who decided it was time to press the Mamluk frontier. To this, he decided to put his younger brother Mongke-Temur to the task. Prince Mongke-Temur first raided Syria in November 1280 with King Lewon III of Armenian Cilicia, Bohemond VII of Tripoli and a contingent of Knights Hospitaller. In September 1281, Mongke-Temur returned again, a large force of perhaps 40-50,000 Mongols, Armenians under Lewon III, Georgians, Franks and troops from Seljuq Rum. Abaqa initially followed with another army, but may have been forced to hold due to rumours of an attack by the Golden Horde at Derbent. The Mongol invasion provided a common enemy to unite the Mamluk factions fighting for power, and under Qalawun they advanced, reinforced by Syrian garrisons and bedouins. They reached Homs a few days before the Mongols in late October, giving Qalawun's troops a chance to dig in and rest on the plain north of the city. Their preparations were improved as a Mongol defector informed them of Mongke-Temur's battle plan. Most of the Mongol army was to be placed in the center with the right wing also strong, intending to overpower the Mamluk left and centre where the Sultan's banners would be. Qalawun thus reinforced his left wing, and positioned himself on a hill behind the vanguard to oversee the battle and act as reserve. Marching through the night, the Mongols arrived early on the 29th of October, 1281. It was a massive front, over 24 kilometres in length due to the size of both armies. The wings of both forces, so far apart, had little knowledge of what was occurring on the other side. While tired from the night march, the Mongols were eager: the battle was initiated when the Mongol right under Alinaq charged forth. The Mamluk left and part of their centre crumpled and routed under the onslaught. Alinaq continued his pursuit, and here Mongke-Temur's inexperience and the scale of the battlefield began to tell. Proper communication with the command seemingly absent, Alinaq pursued the fleeing Mamluks off the battlefield, as far as the Lake of Homs where they dismounted to rest, evidently anticipating the rest of the army would soon arrive. A similar charge by the Mongol left wing lacked the numbers of the Mongol right, so the Mamluk right and centre were able to hold and counterattack. Qalawun's actual role in this counterattack isn't clear: some sources have him personally lead the attack, while in others he kept his position hidden, not even raising his banners so as to avoid Mongol arrows. The Mamluks pushed back the Mongol right and the bedouin came around to hit the Mongol flank. The Mongol right fell back to the centre, which under Mongke-Temur was being held in reserve. In the resulting confusion, perhaps thrown by his horse, Mongke-Temur was injured and unable to command. Most of the Mongols then dismounted to make a final stand around the prince, and ultimately routed under the Mamluk assault. The Mamluks chased the fleeing Mongols right to the border with the Ilkhanate, many drowning in the Euphrates or dying in the desert: so deadly was this rout that Mamluk authors said more Mongols were killed in flight than in the actual battle. Qalawun and a small guard remained on the battlefield: they were forced to hide their banners and stay silent when the Mongol right wing finally returned to the battlefield, too late to turn the tide. It seems it was able to take an orderly retreat back into the Ilkhanate. Abaqa was furious at this loss, and intended to return the next year, but died in April 1282. As we have covered in our previous episodes, Abaqa's successors were not blessed with his same longevity or stability, and until 1295 the Ilkhanate saw a succession of short lived monarchs and infighting, internal revolts and renewed attacks by the Golden Horde. Though the succeeding Ilkhans continued to demand Mamluk submission, send threatening letters and continue to attempt an alliance with European powers, nothing materialized beyond border raids and skirmishes in both directions. For the time being, the immediate Mongol threat to the Mamluks had ended, and Sultan Qalawun turned to the remaining Frankish strongholds, all possible beachheads for European armies coming to assist the Ilkhans. Armenian Cilicia was pillaged, remaining inland Crusader strongholds were taken, and in April 1289 the Mongols' vassal Tripoli fell. After the death of Abaqa's son Arghun Il-Khan in March 1291, the Mamluks used the resulting distraction in the Ilkhanate to take the final major Frankish city in the Holy Land, Acre, leaving them with but miniscule holdings which fell in the following years. So ended 200 years of Crusader Kingdoms. Following Qalawun's death in 1290, he was succeeded by his son al-Ashraf Khalil. A fearsome military commander, it was he who led the push to seize Acre and the final Crusader holdings of note. Yet he did not long to enjoy the throne, and was assassinated in the last days of 1293 due to his efforts to curb the power of the existing Mamluk emirs. With his assassination, the Mamluks entered a period of political instability over the Sultanate. Initially his younger brother al-Nasir Muhammad was placed on the throne, still a child and without any real power. After a year as Sultan he was forced out by his guardian and regent, a Mamluk named, of all things, Kitbuqa. Apparently of Mongol origin, he had been taken captive by the Mamluks at the first battle of Homs in 1260, and made in turn a Mamluk, that is, a slave soldier. Kitbuqa's reign as Sultan was not particularly notable, mostly marked by intense political infighting and machinations. There was, however, a large body of Oirats who deserted the Ilkhanate to join the Mamluks Sultanate. Kitbuqa's generous treatment of this body of nomadic troops, with whom it appeared he shared kinship, angered a number of the other Mamluk emirs and undermined his power. He was soon forced to flee as one of al-Ashraf Khalil's assassins, the Emir Lajin, seized power. When Lajin was murdered in 1299, al-Ashraf Khalil's young brother al-Nasir Muhammad was recalled to take the throne. Only 14 years old, al-Nasir Muhammad had no real power and was still a puppet for the emirs competing for power. In comparison, 1295 saw the beginning of the reign of the powerful Ghazan Khan, son of Arghun. Ghazan, as we have covered, was not the first Muslim Ilkhan but by his reign a majority of the Mongols within the Ilkhanate had converted, and made the Ilkhanate an Islamic state. Ghazan consolidated his position early on, executing a number of potential challengers to the throne and restabilizing the Ilkhanid economy, though you can listen to our episode dedicated to Ghazan for more on the internal matters of his reign. While Ghazan was a Muslim, this did not change Ilkhanid policy to the Mamluk. He continued to send letters to western Europe urging them to land an army behind enemy lines. In late 1298, while Mamluk armies ravaged the Ilkhan's vassal Cilician Armenia, the na'ib of Damascus, Sayf al-Din Qibjaq and a few other top Mamluks deserted to the Ilkhanate during a particularly violent stretch within the Sultanate. Fearing for their lives, they inform Ghazan of Sultan Lajin and his vice-Sultan Manketamur's purges and unstable positions. Then in summer 1299 a Mamluk raid into the Ilkhanate sacked Mardin, violating Muslim women and descretating a mosque during Ramadan. Ghazan was thus able to easily obtain a fatwa against the Mamluks for this, presenting himself not as an invader, but a holy warrior coming to avenge atrocities against Islam to encourage dissent among Mamluk ranks. Indeed, the ruler of Hama, a top Mamluk ally, believed the accusations. By December 1299, Ghazan and his army of Mongols, Georgians and Armenians under their King Het'um II, had crossed the Euphrates. By then, Sultan Lajin had been replaced by a al-Nasir Muhammad who was nearly toppled by the Oirat refugees to the Sultanate. Ghazan bypassed Aleppo and Hama, and hunted for the Mamluk army. While encamped on the edge of the Syrian desert, Ghazan learned the Mamluks were gathering at Homs, where they had defeated Mongke-Temur 18 years prior. Rather than fall into their trap, Ghazan chose to outflank them, crossing the Syrian desert and coming out onto a stream some 16 kilometres north of Homs on the 22nd of December. To the Mamluks, it appeared that Ghazan was retreating, and advanced out of their favourable position to pursue. In a reverse of the 2nd Battle of Homs, now the Mamluks were forced to cross the desert, exhausting themselves to reach Ghazan early the next morning, while his own troops rested, quenched their thirst and formed up. Crucially, the Ilkhanid army was under the firm control of Ghazan and his commander Qutlugh-Shah, while the young al-Nasir Muhammad could not control his senior emirs. On the morning of December 23rd, 1299, the Mamluks found Ghazan's army was drawn up. Ghazan commanded the centre, while his general Qutlugh-Shah commanded the right. Qutlugh-Shah's beating of war drums made the Mamluks believe Ghazan to be located there, and to him they charged, forcing the Mongol right back. Ghazan led the counterattack against them, and Qutlugh-Shah rallied what forces he could and rejoined the Il-Khan. From 11 a.m until nightfall, the battle raged, but finally the Mamluks broke and fled. Ghazan pursued them past Homs before encamping, not wishing to be drawn into a false retreat in the dark. Homs surrendered without a fight and Ghazan took the Sultan's treasure, distributing it among his nokod, keeping for himself a sword, the title deeds to the Mamluk Sultanate and the muster roll of its army. Next Ghazan marched onto Damascus, which also surrendered without a fight, though its citadel held out. It seems almost the entire Mamluk garrison of Syria had retreated, perhaps recalled to defend the capital. Mongol raiding parties were making it as far as Gaza, with one source reporting they even entered Jerusalem, and the Sultanate seemed poised to fall. But on February 5th, 1300, Ghazan withdrew from Damascus, returning to the Ilkhanate. Qutlugh-Shah had been left to take the Citadel of Damascus, but he soon followed the Il-Khan. By the end of May, the Mamluks had retaken Syria. Exactly why Ghazan withdrew is unclear: possibly reports of a Neguderi invasion in the east of his realm demanded his attention, or he feared there would not be sufficient pasturage for his large army to make the trip to Egypt: the Mamluks were known to burn grassland and destroy supply depots on the routes they suspected the Mongols to take. Likely he was unaware of how dire the situation really was for the Mamluks, and suspected further armed resistance along the route would make the already treacherous crossing over the Sinai even harder on his army. Whatever the reason, Ghazan had lost the greatest chance to destroy the Mamluks. Ghazan did cross the Euphrates at the end of December 1300, reaching as far as Aleppo, but heavy rains rendered military operations untenable. In 1303 Ghazan ordered Qutlugh-Shah back into Syria, but he was defeated at Marj al-Suffar near Damascus in April. Ghazan's death the next year, only 34 years old, prevented his next assault. His brother and successor, Oljeitu, ordered the final Ilkhanid attack on the Sultanate, an embarrassing effort in winter 1312 which saw the army retreat not from the Royal Mamluks, but the stiff resistance of ordinary townsfolk. Oljeitu's son, Abu Sa'id, ultimately organized peace with the Mamluks in the early 1320s, ending the sixty years of warfare between the Mongols and the Mamluks. The Ilkhanate did not long outlive this treaty. Abu Sa'id death in 1335 without an heir saw the Ilkhanate torn apart by regional commanders -the Jalayirids, Chobanids, Muzaffarids and Injuids, among others- who appointed their own puppet Khans or abandoned the pretense entirely. For the Mamluks, they were unable to take advantage of the Ilkhanate's disintegration as when al-Nasir Muhammad died in 1341, they entered their own period of anarchy: 8 of al-Nasir's children and 4 of his grandsons would in turn become Sultan between 1341 and 1382, a period which culminated in the rise of the Circassian Burji Mamluk Dynasty. Whereas the Sultans from Qutuz, Baybars through Qalawun and his descendants were men of Qipchaq-Cuman or even Mongol origin, over the late thirteenth and first half of the fourteenth century a growing number of the Mamluks were sourced no longer from the Qipchaq steppe, but Circassia, a region along the Black Sea's northeastern coastline. With the end of the Qalawunid Dynasty, Mamluks of Circassian origin took power and established their own dynasty. The Bahri and Burji distinction refers to the parts of Cairo each Mamluk garrison had been based. It was this Mamluk dynasty who would face the wrath of Temur-i-lang at the beginning of the fifteenth century. These post-Ilkhanid events will be the topic for a forthcoming episode, so be sure to subscribe to the Kings and Generals podcast to follow for that. If you enjoyed this and would like to help us continue bringing you great content, please consider supporting us on patreon at www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals. This episode was researched and written by our series historian, Jack Wilson. I'm your host David, and we'll catch you on the next one.
The Scripture reference in "Flawed" is Genesis 6:5-10, Jeremiah 18:1-4, Matthew 5:43-45.
After their success at Damietta, the participants in the Fifth Crusade decide what to do next, and they wait for a certain someone... If you like what you hear and want to chip in to support the podcast, my Patreon is here. I'm on Twitter @circus_human, Instagram @humancircuspod, and I have some things on Redbubble. Sources: Prester John: The Legend and its Sources, compiled and translated by Keagan Brewer. Taylor & Francis, 2019. Crusade and Christendom: Annotated Documents in Translation from Innocent III to the Fall of Acre, 1187-1291. Edited by Jessalynn Bird, et al. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013. The Fifth Crusade in Context: The Crusading Movement in the Early Thirteenth Century. Edited by E.J. Mylod, et al. Routledge, 2016. Brownworth, Lars. In Distant Lands: A Short History of the Crusades. Crux Publishing Ltd, 2017. Cassidy-Welch, Megan. War and Memory at the Time of the Fifth Crusade. Penn State University Press, 2019. Madden, Thomas F. The New Concise History of the Crusades. Rowman & Littlefield, 2005. Powell, James M. Anatomy of a Crusade, 1213-1221. University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986. Powell, James M. Innocent III: Vicar of Christ Or Lord of the World? Catholic University of America Press, 1994. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit podcastchoices.com/adchoices
Welcome to Bringing Design Closer, the podcast focussed on discussing Designs role in tackling complex societal issues. Our goal is to have conversations that inspire and to help move the dial forward for organisations to become more human-centred in their approach to solving complex business and societal problems. In this episode we welcome Randal Plunkett who is also Lord Dunsany of Dunsany land in Meath, an area 50 miles north west of Dublin City in Ireland. Randal's family are deeply entrenched in my upbringing - as a great great great great great great uncle of Randals was Oliver Plunkett, who was brutally murdered by Oliver Cromwell in 1681 and who's head is still on display in the town where I grew up, Drogheda. Randal is one of the last blood lines of Oliver Plunkett - so it's been fantastic to connect and hear stories about his up bringing. I recently spotted an interview with Randal in The Guardian newspaper in the UK where he was interviewed about one of the largest Rewilding projects that I had heard of - which is part of his 1700 acre estate. In the conversation we speak about what led Randal to take the leap into Rewilding, how it was perceived amongst his family and community and mostly importantly, what happened to the land as the years went by. We speak about the darker side of life as a Lord, who is responsible for not only maintaining an estate - but protecting it for future generations both from environmental damage and decay but also from human damage of the land and hunters who come to prey on the animals who have returned to the Dunsany Estate and Reserve. It's a good one - let's jump in... Dunsany Nature Reserve https://www.facebook.com/dunsanynaturereserve-10511170787794 Randal Instagram https://www.instagram.com/randal_plunkett Dunsany Nature Reserve Instagram https://www.instagram.com/dunsanynaturereserve/ Twitter https://twitter.com/RandalPlunkett Trailer https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H9hbXEoGZw8&t=8s Watch The Green Sea on Youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BNg3ISYG5Jk&t=3899s Watch it on Google Play https://play.google.com/store/movies/details/The_Green_Sea?id=Tl-gd0TBoNs.P&hl=en&gl=US See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
Do you have student loans holding you back from buying land? Get inspired with Cody Sieben's story and how he and his wife paid off $140,000 in student debt, found a FSBO property, and made the purchase! This is another addition of the first time land buyer's series and it's a good one, so here we go! Connect with Cody - https://www.thedeerdudes.com/ Connect: https://linktr.ee/TheLandPodcast https://linktr.ee/exodustrailcameras --- Send in a voice message: https://anchor.fm/the-land-podcast-hofer/message
Was great to chat with Anna Keen; she is such an influence in the safety space. We had many a technical issue but got through it in the end! It was eye opening to talk about the work Anna is doing at Acre Frameworks and how it contributes to a better way of managing our risks, and people's perception of safety professionals and how it can be improved.
Today is Thursday, Sept. 2, 2021. Here's a look at the top headlines from around the Northland. The Duluth News Tribune Minute is a product of Forum Communications Company and is brought to you by reporters at the Duluth News Tribune, Superior Telegram and Cloquet Pine Journal. Find more news throughout the day at duluthnewstribune.com.
The crusaders make their way first to Acre and then to Damietta. Perhaps someone would be along to help them soon? If you like what you hear and want to chip in to support the podcast, my Patreon is here. I'm on Twitter @circus_human, Instagram @humancircuspod, and I have some things on Redbubble. Sources: Prester John: The Legend and its Sources, compiled and translated by Keagan Brewer. Taylor & Francis, 2019. Crusade and Christendom: Annotated Documents in Translation from Innocent III to the Fall of Acre, 1187-1291. Edited by Jessalynn Bird, et al. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013. The Fifth Crusade in Context: The Crusading Movement in the Early Thirteenth Century. Edited by E.J. Mylod, et al. Routledge, 2016. Brownworth, Lars. In Distant Lands: A Short History of the Crusades. Crux Publishing Ltd, 2017. Cassidy-Welch, Megan. War and Memory at the Time of the Fifth Crusade. Penn State University Press, 2019. Madden, Thomas F. The New Concise History of the Crusades. Rowman & Littlefield, 2005. Powell, James M. Anatomy of a Crusade, 1213-1221. University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986. Powell, James M. Innocent III: Vicar of Christ Or Lord of the World? Catholic University of America Press, 1994. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit podcastchoices.com/adchoices
Hot, dry conditions continue to fuel over a dozen wildfires in California, mostly in the state's northern quarter. Fire officials said they were seeing a "generational destruction of forests." Six of the seven largest fires on record in California have happened in 2020 or 2021, and at the current rate, fires this year are expected to burn more land than they did last year. Lisa Desjardins reports. PBS NewsHour is supported by - https://www.pbs.org/newshour/about/funders
In this episode, Chris Hadnagy and Ryan MacDougall are joined by Bernie Acre. Bernie is the Chief Information Officer for the City of Bryan, TX where he's responsible for all technology and communications systems, including the Fire, Police, Public Works, the municipal electric utility, and a myriad of general support organizations. Bernie is currently an appointed Member of the Texas Cybersecurity Council. Bernie has a combined 41-years of experience in information technology; including 20+ in the US Air Force and 21 years in the electric utility industry and municipal government. August 16, 2021 00:00 – Intro www.social-engineer.com Managed Voice Phishing Managed Email Phishing Adversarial Simulations Social-Engineer channel on SLACK CLUTCH www.innocentlivesfoundation.org 03:34 – Bernie Acre Intro 04:43 – How did your transition into this position take place? 08:18 – What makes you proud of the culture that you created around employee awareness? 12:25 – How do you get all senior management on board? 14:24 – What did it take to find the people to make such a great team? 15:35 – What were you looking for in these people 17:15 – Setting the bar 19:15 – Team Advocate vs. Adversary 23:59 – Was your senior management always on board with being part of the testing? 27:06 – So the third hour of their required training is something the employees choose? 27:54 – Have you always had the philosophy that the security training you do at work should become personal? 29:21 – What are three things you would tell someone beginning in the field to focus on? 32:51 – Taking the time to grow 34:49 – What do you do to help combat burn out? How about promoting self-care? 37:31 – What lacks the most sometimes in an organization is communication 37:43 – Who in this industry do you respect the most? One of Bernie's commanders in the service, for overall leadership For this industry: Chris Hadnagy Roger Grimes (KnowBe4) Stu Sjouwerman (KnowBe4) Kevin Mitnick (KnowBe4) 40:13 – Book Recommendations Winning America by Allan Eckert All works by James Michener Valor Across The Lone Star by Charles M. Neal 43:55 – What got you so heavily into history? 44:38 – Finding Bernie on the internet: www.linkedin.com/in/bernie-acre-cgcio-7838375a/ www.bryantx.gov 47:04 – Outro Thanks to Bernie www.innocentlivesfoundation.org
Last week, the federal government, in a limited way, extended the eviction moratorium in place since the start of the pandemic. It's a temporary solution to a long-looming crisis — a crisis we explored in our series "The Scarlet E: Unmasking America's Eviction Crisis" back in 2019. In this excerpt from that series, we catalog the long line of thefts and schemes — most of which were perfectly legal at the time — that led to where we are today: a system, purpose-built, that extracts what it can, turning black and brown renters into debtors and evictees. Matthew Desmond [@just_shelter], founder of The Eviction Lab and our partner in this series, and Marty Wegbreit, director of litigation for the Central Virginia Legal Aid Society, point us toward the legal and historical developments that evolved into the present crisis. And WBEZ's Natalie Moore [@natalieymoore], whose grandparents moved to Chicago during the Great Migration, shows us around a high-eviction area on Chicago's South Side.
Having laid waste to the once glorious city of Baghdad, Hulegu Ilkhan now sets his sights east of the Euphrates, to the fertile lands of Syria and Egypt beyond. But what's to follow will set of a momentous clash in Galilee, at a spring called Ain Jalut, that will shake the very fundaments of history...Time Period Covered:1258-1260 CEMajor Historical Figures:Mongol Empire:Mongke KhaghanKhubilai IlkhanAriq BokeIlkhanate:Hulegu IlkhanGeneral BaijuGeneral Kitbuqa Ayyubid Dynasty:al-Muzzam Turanshahal-Malik al-Nasir Yusufal-Azizal-Zayn al-HafiziMamluks:Saif ad-Din QutuzBaybars al Bunduqdari, "The Great Lord Panther"European Christendom:King Louis IX of FranceBohemond V of AntiochBohemond VI of AntiochKing Hethum I of CiliciaMajor Sources Cited:Amitai, Reuven. Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk Ilkhanate War, 1260-1281.Amitai, Reuven. “An Exchange of Letters in Arabic Between Abakha Ilkhan and Sultan Baybars (A.H. 667/A.D. 1268-69)” in Central Asiatic Journal, Vol. 38, No. 1.Gillespie, Alexander. Causes of War, Volume II: 1000 CE to 1400 CE.Grousset, René. Empire of the Steppes: A history of Central Asia.Subani, Hamad. The Secret History of Iran.Richard, Jean. The Crusades, C.1071-1291.Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades, Volume 3, The Kingdom of Acre and the Later Crusades.Tschanz, David W. “History's Hinge: ‘Ain Jalut” in Saudi Aramco World. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
Having laid waste to the once glorious city of Baghdad, Hulegu Ilkhan now sets his sights east of the Euphrates, to the fertile lands of Syria and Egypt beyond. But what's to follow will set of a momentous clash in Galilee, at a spring called Ain Jalut, that will shake the very fundaments of history... Time Period Covered: 1258-1260 CE Major Historical Figures: Mongol Empire: Mongke Khaghan Khubilai Ilkhan Ariq Boke Ilkhanate: Hulegu Ilkhan General Baiju General Kitbuqa [d. 1260] Ayyubid Dynasty: al-Muzzam Turanshah al-Malik al-Nasir Yusuf al-Aziz al-Zayn al-Hafizi Mamluks: Saif ad-Din Qutuz Baybars al Bunduqdari, "The Great Lord Panther" European Christendom: King Louis IX of France Bohemond V of Antioch Bohemond VI of Antioch King Hethum I of Cilicia Major Sources Cited: Amitai, Reuven. Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk Ilkhanate War, 1260-1281. Amitai, Reuven. “An Exchange of Letters in Arabic Between Abakha Ilkhan and Sultan Baybars (A.H. 667/A.D. 1268-69)” in Central Asiatic Journal, Vol. 38, No. 1. Gillespie, Alexander. Causes of War, Volume II: 1000 CE to 1400 CE. Grousset, René. Empire of the Steppes: A history of Central Asia. Subani, Hamad. The Secret History of Iran. Richard, Jean. The Crusades, C.1071-1291. Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades, Volume 3, The Kingdom of Acre and the Later Crusades. Tschanz, David W. “History's Hinge: ‘Ain Jalut” in Saudi Aramco World.