Podcasts about Otis Redding

American singer, songwriter and record producer

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Latest podcast episodes about Otis Redding

Caropop
Bettye LaVette

Caropop

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 1, 2022 65:14


Soul singer Bettye LaVette has had an epic career. She recorded her first single "My Man — He's a Lovin' Man" as a 16-year-old Detroiter in 1962, and its success put her on tour with Ben E. King, Clyde McPhatter and a young Otis Redding. Yet it was another 20 years before her first album was released and another 20 years before her career finally caught fire and the accolades and Grammy nominations started pouring in. How did she become one of our most treasured song interpreters? How did she overcome her “buzzard luck”? And what did Bob Dylan do to tick her off? Don't underestimate or mess with Bettye LaVette. (Photo by Joseph A. Rosen.)

Disk Dungeon
Chance the Rapper | Otis Redding | "Music Blessings" Interview with Angela Workman Disk Dungeon ep 33

Disk Dungeon

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 21, 2022 72:26


In episode 33 we explore a couple of gospel influences in the music of yesterday and today. Julian puts Joe onto #ChanceTheRapper and Joe puts Julian on to #OtisRedding! #MusicBlessings This is a One of Two interview series with special Guest Angela Workman who has toured and sang with #RayCharles #Eminem #Prince #BBKing and more. Angela Workman is known as the Funk Balladtress. She has encompassed stages throughout the world. Her original global infused compositions and standard renditions are sure to stir the soul. Her goal is to change the world one note at a time. http://www.angelaworkman.com/

Ajax Diner Book Club
Ajax Diner Book Club Episode 226

Ajax Diner Book Club

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 15, 2022


Louis Armstrong "I Ain't Go Nobody"Curtis Harding "Where's The Love"S.G. Goodman "If You Were Someone I Loved"Bessie Smith "House Rent Blues"Steve Earle & The Dukes (& Duchesses) "Pocket Full of Rain"Willie Nelson & Wynton Marsalis "Ain't Nobody's Business"Plains "Line of Sight"Vic Chesnutt "Band Camp"Twain And The Deslondes "Run Wild"James McMurtry "Paris"Ray Charles "The Right Time"Benjamin Booker "Violent Shiver"The Deslondes "Good to Go"Doc Watson "Nashville Blues"Eilen Jewell "Queen of the Minor Key"Hubert Sumlin "Howlin' For My Darling"Loretta Lynn "Heartaches Meet Mr. Blues"Jimmy Reed "You Got Me Dizzy"Kathleen Edwards "Empty Threat"Valerie June "Tonight I'll Be Staying Here With You"Charlie Parr "Henry Goes to the Bank"Willie Nelson "Stay All Night (Stay a Little Longer)"Willie Nelson "Devil in a Sleepin' Bag"Micah Schnabel "I'm Dead, Serious"Spirit Family Reunion "I Am Following That Sound"Lula (Lulu) Reed "Watch Dog"Langhorne Slim & The Law "The Way We Move"Fats Waller "Dream Man"Sam Cooke "Touch The Hem Of His Garment"Billy Joe Shaver "The Hottest Thing In Town"Miranda Lambert "I'm Just An Old Chunk Of Coal (But I'm Gonna Be A Diamond Someday)"Amanda Shires "Honky Tonk Heroes"Billy Joe Shaver "Ride Me Down Easy"Otis Redding "I've Been Loving  You Too Long ( To Stop Now)"Ike Gordon "Don't Let The Devil Ride"Guy Clark "Desperados Waiting For A Train"Joan Shelley "Jenny Come In"Oscar Peterson Trio "Have You Met Miss Jones?"Ry Cooder "Good Morning Mr. Railroad Man"Charlie Bozo Nickerson "What's The Matter Now? - Part 1"Hattie Hart "Coldest Stuff In Town"Hank Williams "Lost Highway"Tommy Tucker "Walking The Dog"Vic Chesnutt "Worst Friend"

Political Beats
Episode 117: Andrew Fink / Otis Redding

Political Beats

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 7, 2022 190:19


Introducing the Band:Your hosts Scot Bertram (@ScotBertram) and Jeff Blehar (@EsotericCD) are joined by guest Andrew Fink. Andrew is a member of the Michigan House of Representative (District 35 -- Branch & Hillsdale Counties). Prior to that, he was the district director for Senate majority leader Mike Shirkey. Follow him on Twitter at @AndrewFinkMI.Andrew's Music Pick: Otis ReddingLadies and gentlemens, we are so happy to be here with the Love Crowd tonight because we gotta gotta gotta gotta turn it loose about soul giant Otis Redding, a man whose recorded legacy looms large not just in the history of soul and R&B but in modern popular music as a whole. Redding is universally acknowledged as one of the greatest R&B vocalists of all time, and as a "soul giant," but what is far too less appreciated about him is that he was the first truly modern African-American popular musician, a man self-consciously carving out a sound, pushing sonic boundaries and the traditions of his genre, and working self-consciously to craft albums as complete statements at a time when absolutely no other black artist in the country outside of jazz was thinking along those lines.Redding's early singles established him, simply on their own terms, as an early Sixties soul great. ("Pain In My Heart," "Mr. Pitiful," "That's How Strong My Love Is," "I've Been Loving You Long," and "Security" are the sorts of timeless Redding soul belters that went immediately into the working books of countless English R&B bands, notably including The Rolling Stones.) His mid-Sixties albums demonstrated that he, alone among all major soul/R&B artists of his era -- long before Stevie or Marvin moved for their artistic freedom -- had a sound and vision that belonged to something more than a series of singles. And the music he was making before he suddenly died (in a December 1967 plane crash while flying between shows) was mutating both into chart-topping contemplative folk-pop ("(Sittin' On) The Dock Of The Bay," his only #1 single) and forward-looking hard funk ("Hard To Handle"). Four albums of posthumous Redding material were released between 1968 and 1970. Much of it is great work. But one can only imagine where Otis would actually have been by 1970. He was growing so quickly as an artist.Join us this week, as we open with a long discussion of Stax/Volt and the nature of its "sound," and then engage in a celebration of one of the greatest popular musical artists of the Sixties -- and perhaps the most heartbreaking loss of modern musical history, in terms of what we likely missed when that plane went down on a cold winter's day in December 1967. Hail to The King of Soul.

The Women in Vinyl Podcast
Episode 34 - Cheryl Pawelski, Omnivore Recordings

The Women in Vinyl Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 2, 2022 46:13


Today we're joined by Cheryl Pawelski co-founder of Omnivore Recordings and two time Grammy® Award-winning producer. Cheryl has had almost every job you can imagine in the music business, starting at the legendary Capitol Records, and moving her way through Rhino Entertainment, Concord Music Group, Warner Music Group, iTunes, Sony Legacy, BMG and the Universal Music Group. A true trailblazer and champion of the complete discography, Cheryl has compiled, curated and created more legendary and comprehensive collections, than we can begin to list here, but some of the highlights are Wilco, Aretha Franklin, Miles Davis, Otis Redding, Willie Nelson and John Coltrane… just to name a few. Cheryl Pawelski: https://cherylpawelski.com/Omnivore: http://omnivorerecordings.com/about-omnivore-recordings/Interview with Henry Rollins: https://www.udiscovermusic.com/news/henry-rollins-omnivore-cheryl-pawelski/ Huge thank you to Vinylux Records and the Fleabops for the use of their song ‘Sinner Not Saint' off the upcoming record ‘Get In, Sit Down, Shut Up, Hold On'. For more visit www.vinylux.com THANK YOU TO OUR AWESOME SPONSORS!The ones that make your vinyl needs even more accessible with so many great codes and resources. Other Record Labels - Who've gifted our listeners - you! - a 50% code in their store for the myriad of resources compiled there using the code WIV50 at checkout! https://www.otherrecordlabels.com/store Selektor Record Bags - Our new favorite record bag: https://www.theselektor.com/us/Koeppel Design (pronounced Kep-ul) - Sleek and sophisticated, handmade record collection organization! Get $10 off your first order of $85 using the code WOMENINVINYL at checkout! https://koeppeldesign.com/Eargasm - High fidelity ear plugs! keep your hearing protected in style! Eargasm has a great deal for you with 10% off your order using, you guessed it, discount code: WOMENINVINYL at checkout. www.eargasm.com/ Glowtronics - Custom slip mats - you already love the WIV branded slipmat, but think, you can make your own! Get 15% off using the code: WOMENINVINYL15 at www.glowtronics-store.com/ Nugen Audio - Innovative, intuitive, award-winning professional audio plugins and software for all your creative music producing and sound design needs! Use code WOMENINVINYL for 20% off at check out: https://nugenaudio.com/womeninvinyl/ Vinyl Revolution Record Show - Attend one of the longest running record shows out there. 55 dealer tables filled with vendors from all over the east coast and tons of rare and collectible vinyl records! Find more at: https://www.instagram.com/vinylrevolutionrecordshow/ Want to be a sponsor too? Email us: info@womeninvinyl.com As always, join the conversation on Instagram or send us a note at: media@womeninvinyl.comCheck out www.womeninvinyl.com for past episodes, the store, job board, and the growing library of resources!Don't forget to like, subscribe and give us a review on your favorite podcast delivery method! You can also contribute to furthering our mission at https://www.patreon.com/womeninvinylWhere you'll find all of the B-Sides, Deep Cuts and amazing extras, including longer episodes and contribute to the creation of scholarships and educational opportunities to further the demystification and infiltration of more Women and Non-Binary identifying humans into the Vinyl Making Space!

Tennessee Talks with Tim Burchett
Steve Cropper, Hall of Fame guitarist and songwriter

Tennessee Talks with Tim Burchett

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 19, 2022 13:21


Steve Cropper wrote and played guitar for iconic songs such as the #1 smash hit “Green Onions” with Booker T. & The M.G.'s and “(Sittin' On) the Dock of the Bay” with Otis Redding. He also played guitar for the iconic song “Soul Man” by soul duo Sam & Dave, which was the #2 song on the Billboard Hot 100 list in 1967.Steve is featured in both the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the Rhythm and Blues Hall of Fame. In 2004, he received the Tennessee Arts and Humanities Life Time Achievement Award, and in 2007 he received a Lifetime Achievement GRAMMY Award.

Leo's
Episode 101: Leo Schumaker's "Bluesland" podcast from October 13, 2022 and interview with Robert Cray

Leo's "Bluesland"

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 14, 2022 119:47


I have the honor of interviewing 5 time Grammy award winner Robert Cray in support of his show at The Mount Baker Theatre Oct. 19. We talk about his latest album "That's What I Heard" on Nozzle Records, his musical influences and I play his music. Also the music of Rod Piazza, Roy Buchanan, Otis Redding, Otis Rush, Gary Clark Jr. and more. The podcast is free. Just click on the link/picture. 

The Coast Highway Shuffle Show
Love Songs for an Anniversary {CHS10092022}

The Coast Highway Shuffle Show

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 12, 2022 131:05


Alright, so this show IS a bit self serving, as it was broadcast on my marriage anniversary. First time in over 10 years 'on air' where Oct. 9th landed on a Sunday and I was there to broadcast it, real time. So, you can understand that this is a rather personally felt show....even more so than usual! This episode contains great love songs by artists like JD Souther, Otis Redding, Restless Heart, Stevie Wonder, k.d. Lang, Robert Ellis, Bonnie Raitt, Crowded House, The Beach Boys, Diana Krall, The Beatles and SO many more! I also hope you might listen to them with someone you love. Enjoy.

Les Nuits de France Culture
Otis Redding, l'homme aux larmes dans la voix

Les Nuits de France Culture

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 10, 2022 24:59


durée : 00:24:59 - Les Nuits de France Culture - Massif, lourd, un peu raide, Otis Redding n'était certainement pas le plus grand danseur du monde, mais durant son passage sur terre, il démontra qu'il était sans doute l'un des plus grands chanteurs de l'histoire de la Soul music, probablement même le plus grand. Le 10 décembre 1967, en s'écrasant dans le lac gelé de Monona, son avion l'envoyait au ciel pour l'éternité, à seulement 26 ans, à l'aube d'une carrière qui s'annonçait gigantesque. * Il est resté depuis la référence de la soul, la voix noire du label Stax qui a fait danser les blancs. Une voix pleine d'énergie et de larmes qui a fait bouger des générations de toutes les couleurs ; toujours aussi époustouflante de virtuosité et de puissance aujourd'hui, même après la millième écoute de Try a Little Tenderness. En 1989, l'émission "Coda" consacrait une série à Otis Redding. Coda - Otis Redding, 1 à 5 1ère diffusion : 28/11/1989 et 02/12/1989

They Did Not Get The Memo
Otis Redding sitting on the dock of the Bay on they did not get the memo

They Did Not Get The Memo

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 8, 2022 9:04


Sorry about the wrong sitting on the dock of the Bay there's only one person qualified to do that song and that's Otis Redding and thank you for your patience I have played the Otis Redding version please forgive me for that first version have a good day enjoy your Saturday --- This episode is sponsored by · Anchor: The easiest way to make a podcast. https://anchor.fm/app --- Send in a voice message: https://anchor.fm/j-w54/message Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/j-w54/support

Electric Thunder Radio
Episode 24: Fab Fifties + Swingin' Sixties II

Electric Thunder Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 6, 2022 119:59


If you love the content, you can buy me a coffee. I love coffee $2.00CashApp: £djcolzz - Donate just $2.00 PayPal - Donate just $2.00 *** Your donation keeps this podcast alive ***                             Look us up on Deezer, Google Podcasts, Amazon Music, Audacy Boomplay iHeart Radio PlayerFM and TuneIn “Electric Thunder Radio”Apple Podcasts “DJColzz” Back to the 50s and 60s we go, with Elvis Presley, Connie Francis, The Beatles, Otis Redding, Sam Cooke, Cilla Black, The Chiffons, Eddie Cochran, Mary Wells, Fairport Convention, Led Zeppelin, Bobby Vinton, Chris Montez, Freddie And The Dreamers, The Kinks, James Brown, The Searchers and a whole lot more. Two whole hours to download for FREE.However, if you feel like dropping a tip to my cashapp, it keeps me able to do more, for you.Enjoy!

Destination Freedom's podcast
S3 Ep 2 The Tale of Stackalee: The Live Concert

Destination Freedom's podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 5, 2022 36:16


As a follow up to S3 Ep1, this episode features a concert by Lionel Young, Roy Hightower, and Otis Taylor recorded live directly following the audio drama The Tale of Stackalee. Lionel Young Mr. Young has won numerous awards including The Young Artist Award (Pittsburgh Symphony); The Concerto Contest (Carnegie-Mellon); The Passamenic Award (Branchwood String Quartet); and the award for the Best Blues Band in Westword's Best of Denver. He's also won a position with The Denver Chamber Orchestra and premiered a solo piece by William Hill. Lionel has had the honor of working with such show biz luminaries as: Count Basie, Stevie Wonder, Jimmy Paige/Robert Plant, Doc Severenson, Linda Ronstadt, Living Color, Billy Taylor. Otis Taylor, Since 2009's award-winning Pentatonic Wars and Love Songs, Taylor has released five more celebrated albums and his music has been included in Hollywood and foreign movie soundtracks and television shows including Shooter and Public Enemies. Personal highlights of Taylor's career were when he was an answer in the New York Times crossword puzzle in 2009, and in 2016 Taylor was proud to be included in the inaugural exhibition of the Smithsonian's National Museum of African American History and Culture. Roy Hightower Well-regarded as a blues guitarist and soulful singer around Chicago, Roy Hightower has carved out an equally impressive niche as an actor in various Windy City musical productions. Among his starring roles: portraying Muddy Waters and Otis Redding. Even in death, the larger-than-life figure of Stagger Lee triumphs. It is unfathomable why the obscure murder of a levee hand in a red-light bar would attain such far-reaching notoriety, while songs about equally sordid killings—fact-based murder ballads such as “Ella Speed” and “Duncan and Brady”—are doomed to relative obscurity. Nonetheless, “Stagger Lee” spread with extraordinary speed, beginning shortly after the actual killing. It was soon being sung in various forms by workers on the levee, convicts on chain gangs throughout the South, saloon and street singers, and even school children. Soon, the musical, mythical iteration of “Stack Lee” supplanted the man himself, as black America cultivated and nurtured a heroic outlaw to admire. Follow @nocreditsproductions on Facebook and Instagram, and @donniebetts on Twitter. #Blackradiodays #socialjustice #destinationfreedomblackradiodays #donniebetts Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

Rock N Roll Pantheon
Rock's Backpages: Luke Haines & Peter Buck on R.E.M. + The Auteurs + Pharoah Sanders

Rock N Roll Pantheon

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 4, 2022 58:25


In this episode we welcome the dynamic transatlantic duo of Luke Haines & Peter Buck and invite them to discuss their splendidly-titled new album All the Kids are Super Bummed-Out.Luke and Peter reflect on their musical partnership, working methodology, and relationships with music journalists — sometimes fractious, occasionally fruitful. Peter recalls growing up as a New York Dolls fan in the Allman Brothers country of his native Georgia, then listens to 1992 audio of himself and bandmate Mike Mills telling Ira Robbins about R.E.M.'s rise and decision not to tour the imminent Automatic for the People. Luke then reflects on his early preference for Sounds (over NME and Melody Maker) and the postpunk writing of the late Dave McCullough.Mark & Jasper pay fulsome tribute to the departed Pharoah Sanders, with both guests pitching in on the music of the intrepid jazz man — and we also bid farewell to 'Gangsta's Paradise' rapper Coolio. Marks then talks us through his highlights among the latest articles added to the RBP library, including pieces about the Beatles in America (1964), Otis Redding at the Whisky (1966) and Leon Russell at the Royal Albert Hall(1971) — the greatest gig he ever saw, he claims — and Jasper wraps matters up with quotes from articles about Harry Styles (2017) and Rose Royce (2021)...Many thanks to special guests Luke Haines and Peter Buck; their new album All The Kids Are Super Bummed Out is out October 28th on Cherry Red.Pieces discussed: Rock Criticism and the Rocker: Peter Buck in conversation with Anthony DeCurtis, Simon Price on the Auteurs, Peter Buck and Mike Mills audio, Don Snowden's tribute to Pharoah Sanders, Coolio Like That, The Beatles in New York, Graham Nash, The Beach Boys, Leon Russell, Otis Redding, Arif Mardin, Harry Styles and Rose Royce on making 'Car Wash'.

Saturday Live
Craig David

Saturday Live

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 3, 2022 84:36


Craig David joins Julia Bradbury and Richard Coles. The singer-songwriter found fame age 18 with ‘Rewind' and over the next 22 years dealt with the highs and lows of fame. Craig talks about his career, overcoming obstacles and rediscovering his good vibes. Kwesia aka City Girl in Nature grew up in Deptford, an inner city area of London. Growing up Kwesia dealt with violence and trauma but an opportunity to go to the Peruvian Amazon rainforest changed her life and she now works to share her love and passion for the outdoors. Sandy Nairne was deputy director of London's Tate Gallery back in 1994 when he was woken in the early hours to be told that two Turner paintings, on loan from the Tate, had been stolen in Frankfurt. They were worth £30 million. He became the person responsible for tracking them down, which would take eight and a half years. Jamie Oliver shares his Inheritance Tracks: (Sittin' On) The Dock Of The Bay by Otis Redding and Only To Be With You by Roachford. Susannah Constantine made her name as a stylist in What Not To Wear. She talks about her life, from being an 80s IT girl to the impact of her mother's illness, and her own alcoholism. Craig David's new album 22 is out now and his book What's Your Vibe is out on the 6th October. Kwesia features in a new podcast called Waterland's from The Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust. Catching the Art Thieves is on the BBC iPlayer now. One by Jamie Oliver is out now Ready for Absolutely Nothing by Susannah Constantine is out now. Producer: Claire Bartleet

Rock's Backpages
E137: Luke Haines & Peter Buck on R.E.M. + The Auteurs + Pharoah Sanders

Rock's Backpages

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 3, 2022 58:25


In this episode we welcome the dynamic transatlantic duo of Luke Haines & Peter Buck and invite them to discuss their splendidly-titled new album All the Kids are Super Bummed-Out.Luke and Peter reflect on their musical partnership, working methodology, and relationships with music journalists — sometimes fractious, occasionally fruitful. Peter recalls growing up as a New York Dolls fan in the Allman Brothers country of his native Georgia, then listens to 1992 audio of himself and bandmate Mike Mills telling Ira Robbins about R.E.M.'s rise and decision not to tour the imminent Automatic for the People. Luke then reflects on his early preference for Sounds (over NME and Melody Maker) and the postpunk writing of the late Dave McCullough.Mark & Jasper pay fulsome tribute to the departed Pharoah Sanders, with both guests pitching in on the music of the intrepid jazz man — and we also bid farewell to 'Gangsta's Paradise' rapper Coolio. Marks then talks us through his highlights among the latest articles added to the RBP library, including pieces about the Beatles in America (1964), Otis Redding at the Whisky (1966) and Leon Russell at the Royal Albert Hall (1971) — the greatest gig he ever saw, he claims — and Jasper wraps matters up with quotes from articles about Harry Styles (2017) and Rose Royce (2021)...Many thanks to special guests Luke Haines and Peter Buck; their new album All The Kids Are Super Bummed Out is out October 28th on Cherry Red.Pieces discussed: Rock Criticism and the Rocker: Peter Buck in conversation with Anthony DeCurtis, Simon Price on the Auteurs, Peter Buck and Mike Mills audio, Don Snowden's tribute to Pharoah Sanders, Coolio Like That, The Beatles in New York, Graham Nash, The Beach Boys, Leon Russell, Otis Redding, Arif Mardin, Harry Styles and Rose Royce on making 'Car Wash'.

Bringin' it Backwards
Interview with Hezron Clarke

Bringin' it Backwards

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 2, 2022 31:41


We had the pleasure of interviewing Brooke Annibale over Zoom video.Montego Bay, Jamaica raised vocalist, songwriter and producer Hezron Clarke released his album, M.O.A.M. (Man on a Mission), via Tad's Record (Ernie Ranglin, Tanya Stephens). Recorded in Reggae's birthplace, Kingston Jamaica, M.O.A.M. features some of Jamaica's greatest musicians including Dean Fraser (saxophone), Kirk “Kirkle Dove” Bennett (drums), Donald “Danny Bassie” Dennis (bass), Mitchum Khan (guitar), Carol “Bowie” McLaughlin (keyboards) and Robbie Lyn (keyboards). On a lyrical front, the album embodies feel-good vibes with motivational and inspirational concepts that encourage patience and resilience. With inspiration from classic soul artists such as Luther Vandross, Otis Redding and Sam Cooke, to 90's favorites KC and Jojo and Dave Hollister to iconic Jamaican singers Beres Hammond and Dennis Brown, Hezron has embodied his own classic vocal and musical style while taking notes from some of the greats. Hezron released his debut album The Life I Live(d) on Tad's Record in 2015. His return to the label with M.O.A.M. unites two established Jamaican brands, each committed to proving that quality reggae with the potential for widespread global appeal is still being made in the music's birthplace. Although many younger Jamaican artists embrace trap and hip-hop over indigenous reggae and dancehall, a stark contrast to the proliferation of young American reggae bands, especially in California, Tad's Record founder Tad Dawkins is determined to see Jamaican reggae restored to prominence internationally. It's an objective he firmly believes will be fulfilled with the release of M.O.A.M. We want to hear from you! Please email Tera@BringinitBackwards.com. www.BringinitBackwards.com #podcast #interview #bringinbackpod #HezronClarke #MOAM #ManOnAMission #NewMusic #zoom Listen & Subscribe to BiB https://www.bringinitbackwards.com/follow/ Follow our podcast on Instagram and Twitter! https://www.facebook.com/groups/bringinbackpod

The Funk Assassin
Northern Soul Classics WIL151-Otis Redding, Marvin Gaye, Frank Wilson, Dean Parrish, Jimmy Radcliffe

The Funk Assassin

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 30, 2022 66:28


This is a special mix I've been saving for a while, recorded at a Northern Soul reunion gig earlier in the year celebrating the sound of Wigan Casino, Blackpool Mecca and the Twisted Wheel in Manchester. Northern Soul revellers are notoriously very picky with their music and putting a set together that the original crowd loved was magic and much fun was had by all. I grew up on Northern Soul, Motown, Funk and Disco with the legendary Colin Curtis of Blackpool Mecca fame being an idol of mine as a youngster. It's fair to say the modernised sound I come out with today is laden with the vibe of these early clubs that are the blueprint to the night club scene today. This is an ode to some of the greats including Marvin Gaye, Frank Wilson, Dean Parris, Jimmy Radcliffe plus many more with the amazing Otis Redding ending the mix with 'Sitting On The Dock Of The Bay'. This is a mix recorded with much Love & Soul, turn it on, turn it up and do a back drop! All tracks are selected and mixed by @thefunkassassin with Love. For all past shows click here ==> soundcloud.com/thefunkassassin/sets/the-word-is-love-soul-funk Thank you for listening. Instagram: www.instagram.com/the_funk_assassin/ Spotify: open.spotify.com/user/g2fac3ls3k8e1ucxe4fqe7g89 Facebook: www.facebook.com/TheFunkAssassin/

Sound of MuzaK
Journey Through Muzak: Andy's Top 10 Favorite Records released in 1967

Sound of MuzaK

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 29, 2022 71:46


In this series, now named "Journey Through Muzak with Andy,” I will be sharing my top 10 favorite albums released each year! Starting with 1965, and continuing all the way to the present year. Today, we will talk about my top 10 favorite albums released in 1967. Here is a timeline of what was going on in music back in 1967 from Rock Music Timeline: https://www.rockmusictimeline.com/1966 "The Beatles release their landmark album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. Paul McCartney reveals that all four Beatles have dropped acid. Elvis Presley marries long time girlfriend Priscilla Beaulieu. The debut album from the Jimi Hendrix Experience is released. The Monterey Pop Festival, the world's first large-scale (200,000 attendance) outdoor music festival is held. Britain moves to outlaw off-shore "pirate" radio stations. The first issue of Rolling Stone magazine is published. Soul music star Otis Redding and four members of his band are killed in a plane crash." This series will live on, via my Rate Your Music Page! You can see more of my favorite albums that were released in 1967 over there: https://rateyourmusic.com/~andymuzak Also, feel free to check out my Spotify and Apple Music playlists called “10 for 1967.” This is a playlist of my favorite tracks released in 1967: Spotify: https://open.spotify.com/playlist/4KyoPN45WFPNokrsm7vCXE?si=8109100e5ac641a1&nd=1 Apple Music: https://music.apple.com/us/playlist/10-for-1967/pl.u-oZylMMZsRLaKra Check us out on Anchor, Spotify, Apple Podcasts, or wherever you listen to podcasts! Anchor: https://anchor.fm/somk Spotify: https://open.spotify.com/show/5RJtJDSzx4fpgbIRNKfwFh?si=95556081d0424c69 Apple Podcasts: https://podcasts.apple.com/nz/podcast/sound-of-muzak/id1500794001

The Age Old Question
What Is The Greatest Record Label? (Part 2)

The Age Old Question

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 16, 2022 32:49


• Intro to the question  — part 2 (part 1 was Episode 48) of "What Is The Greatest Record Label of All-Time?"• Atlantic Records — Ahmet Ertegun created and curated one of the most remarkable and influential catalogs in music, spanning genres from jazz and soul to rock, folk and pop.• Sun Records — Sam Phillips was an incubator for early rockabilly and rock and roll, signing Elvis, Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis and Carl Perkins.• Let's Go To The Comments — we missed a big one on the "Walked Away At Their Peak" episode.

Rock N Roll Pantheon
What Is The Greatest Record Label? (part 2)

Rock N Roll Pantheon

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 16, 2022 32:49


• Intro to the question  — part 2 (part 1 was Episode 48) of "What Is The Greatest Record Label of All-Time?"• Atlantic Records — Ahmet Ertegun created and curated one of the most remarkable and influential catalogs in music, spanning genres from jazz and soul to rock, folk and pop.• Sun Records — Sam Phillips was an incubator for early rockabilly and rock and roll, signing Elvis, Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis and Carl Perkins.• Let's Go To The Comments — we missed a big one on the "Walked Away At Their Peak" episode.

Rock N Roll Pantheon
"SOUTHERN MAN: Music and Mayhem in the American South" Act Two by Alan Walden with S.E. Feinberg

Rock N Roll Pantheon

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 15, 2022 18:29


In the first part of our chat with S. E. Feinberg about his book “Southern Man: Music and Mayhem in the American South,” which he co-authored with Alan Walden, we focused on the legendary work Walden did with R&B artists such as Otis Redding, Sam & Dave, and Percy Sledge.. It wasn't always peaches and cream: the music business is tough. But after following his passion for R&B and building the careers of many of the legends in the genre, Alan Walden needed a break. In Act Two, author S.E. Feinberg tells us how Alan was renewed by the music of The Allman Brothers Band. Listening to hundreds of bands, he discovered Lynyrd Skynyrd and The Outlaws, amongst others and helped define the sound of what would become known as “Southern Rock.”

Rock N Roll Pantheon
“SOUTHERN MAN: Music and Mayhem in the American South” ACT ONE by Alan Walden with S.E. Feinberg

Rock N Roll Pantheon

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 15, 2022 24:49


Anyone who was alive during the golden age of R&B remembers the music, but Alan Walden and SE Feinberg's book “Southern Man: Music and Mayhem in the American South” invites the reader to the centre of the story, into the studio and on the road, to backroom deals and backroom brawls. In Act One, S.E. Feinberg talks about Alan, his best friend Otis Redding, his brother — the legendary producer Phil Walden — the juke joints in Macon, Georgia, The Apollo in New York City's Harlem, and the tragedies of loss, disappointment, and betrayal in racially turbulent times.

Behind the Notes
Episode 2: David Broza

Behind the Notes

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 14, 2022 71:25


Neranenah's Joe Alterman has a delightful and wide-ranging conversation with Israeli music legend, David Broza. Broza has released over 40 albums under his name - many of which are multi-platinum. Today, Broza shares his thoughts with us about Israeli music, Jewish music, Otis Redding, getting to know one's heroes, the concept of music genres, and so much more.

Ajax Diner Book Club
Ajax Diner Book Club Episode 219

Ajax Diner Book Club

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 12, 2022 177:02


Charlie Parr "Poor Lazarus"Tom Waits "Warm Beer And Cold Women"Margo Price "Sweet Revenge"Slim Dunlap "Hate This Town"Jerry Jeff Walker "Pick Up The Tempo"Vic Chesnutt "Coward"Valerie June "Summer's End"Dirtball "Get a Load of This"Drive-By Truckers "Aftermath USA"Dirtball "Over and Over"Drive-By Truckers "Mercy Buckets"John Prine "Spanish Pipedream"Willie Dixon "Nervous"Baby Huey & The Baby Sitters "Mama Get Yourself Together"Mississippi John Hurt "Since I've Laid My Burden Down"Alison Krauss "Come and Go Blues"Neil Young "Revolution Blues"Miss Lavelle White "I've Never Found a Man"Dolly Parton "Here I Am"Lucinda Williams "It's Nobody's Fault But Mine"Otis Redding "These Arms of Mine"Mavis Staples "We Shall Not Be Moved"Jason Isbell and the 400 Unit "Last of My Kind"S.G. Goodman "If You Were Someone I Loved"Chris Stapleton "Gotta Serve Somebody"The 40 Acre Mule "Brown Eyed Handsome Man"Mildred Anderson "Cool Kind of Poppa (Good Kind Daddy)"Lightnin Hopkins "Uncle Stan, The Hip Hit Record Man"Nina Simone "Nobody Knows You When You're Down And Out"The Meters "Can You Do Without?"R.E.M. "Gardening At Night"Two Cow Garage "The Little Prince and Johnny Toxic"The Hold Steady "Stay Positive"Two Cow Garage "My Concern"Nikki Lane "Walk of Shame"Black Joe Lewis & The Honeybears "No Rhyme or Reason"Bonnie "Prince" Billy "Make Worry for Me"Jake Xerxes Fussell "Love Farewell"Dolly Parton "To Know Him Is to Love Him"Billy Joe Shaver "Sunbeam Special"Hurray for the Riff Raff "Crash on the Highway"

On this day in Blues history
On this day in Blues history for September 9th

On this day in Blues history

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 9, 2022 2:00


Today's show features music performed by Buddy Guy and Otis Redding

History & Factoids about today
Sept 9th-Box Wine, Col. Sanders, Leo Tolstoy, Otis Redding, Adam Sandler, Hugh Grant, Iron Butterfly

History & Factoids about today

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 9, 2022 14:16


box wine, pop culture 2018, otis redding, adam sandler, col. sanders, cliff robertson, leo tolstoy, henry thomas, michelle williams, doug ingle, hugh grants, michael buble, hunter hayes, eric stonestreet, grace hopper

Music History Today
Music History Today Podcast September 9 - What Happened on This Day in Music History

Music History Today

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 9, 2022 10:58


On the September 9 edition of the Music History Today podcast, Elvis gets on Ed Sullivan, Nirvana takes one for the team, & Apple pisses off its customers by giving away a free album. Plus, its Otis Redding's birthday. ALL MY LINKS - https://allmylinks.com/musichistorytoday --- Send in a voice message: https://anchor.fm/musichistorytodaypodcast/message Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/musichistorytodaypodcast/support

Closer Look with Rose Scott
Lyrics as evidence; Mental health inequity; Celebrating Otis Redding

Closer Look with Rose Scott

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 9, 2022 48:08


On this edition of Closer Look:Are artist's lyrics fair game for use as evidence against them in court? Georgia's Congressman Hank Johnson doesn't believe so. He explains why he considers this a First Amendment issue. Also, the cost of mental health inequities is staggering. A groundbreaking new study finds nearly 117,000 lives were lost at a cost of about $278 billion dollars between 2016 and 2020 due to a lack of equitable mental health care. Study author, Professor Daniel Dawes, Executive Director of the Satcher Health Leadership Institute at Morehouse School of Medicine discusses the numbers and offers solutions.And a celebration of the legacy of Macon, Georgia native, Otis Redding. The R&B legend, who died in a plane crash at the age of 26, would have turned 81 today. See Privacy Policy at https://art19.com/privacy and California Privacy Notice at https://art19.com/privacy#do-not-sell-my-info.

The Michael Berry Show
It Is Otis Redding's Birthday | AM Show Hr 1

The Michael Berry Show

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 9, 2022 35:31


The Michael Berry Show
The King Of Ding's Top Five Otis Redding Songs! Do You Agree?!

The Michael Berry Show

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 9, 2022 8:46


Booked On Rock with Eric Senich
Episode 81 | Brian J. Kramp ["This Band Has No Past: How Cheap Trick Became Cheap Trick"]

Booked On Rock with Eric Senich

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 8, 2022 91:44


"This band has no past" was the first line of the farcical biography printed on the inner sleeve of Cheap Trick's first album, but the band, of course, did have a past—a past that straddles two very different decades: from the tumult of the sixties to the anticlimax of the seventies, from the British Invasion to the record industry renaissance, with the band's debut album arriving in 1977, the year vinyl sales peaked.“This Band Has No Past: How Cheap Trick Became Cheap Trick”, featuring a foreword by Pearl Jam bassist Jeff Ament, tells the story of a bar band from the Midwest—the best and weirdest bar band in the Midwest— and how they doggedly pursued a most unlikely career in rock'n'roll. It traces every gnarly limb of the family tree of bands that culminated in Cheap Trick, then details how this unlikely foursome paid their dues—with interest—night after night, slogging it out everywhere from high schools to bars to bowling alleys to fans' back yards, before signing to Epic Records and releasing two brilliant albums six months apart.Drawing on more than eighty original interviews, “This Band Has No Past: How Cheap Trick Became Cheap Trick” is packed full of new insights and information that fans of the band will devour. How was the Cheap Trick logo created? How did the checkerboard pattern come to be associated with the band? When did Rick Nielsen start wearing a ballcap 24/7? Who caught their mom and dad rolling on the couch? What kind of beer did David Bowie drink? And when might characters like Chuck Berry, Frank Zappa, Don Johnson, Otis Redding, Eddie Munster, Kim Fowley, John Belushi, Jim Belushi, Elvis Presley, Leslie West, Groucho Marx, Robert F. Kennedy, Patti Smith, Andy Warhol, Lou Reed, The Coneheads, Tom Petty, Harvey Weinstein, Michael Mann, Linda Blair, Eddie Van Halen, Elvis Costello, Matt Dillon, and Pam Grier turn up? Read “This Band Has No Past” and find out and you may even get an answer to a few of those questions today with our guest Brian J. Kramp.I also ask Brian a question that has nothing to do with Cheap Trick or rock and roll, but the paranormal. Here is what his bio says: "Brian J., short for Brian James, hails from Waukesha, where he was raised in two houses, one across the street from a bowling alley, the other haunted. The bowling alley was the Sunset Bowl, where Cheap Trick were ‘discovered' by Jack Douglas. Douglas also happened to be the name of the ghost: a seven-year-old boy, one of the previous owner's nine children, who fell off the roof of a neighborhood building."In the mid-nineties, Brian attended the University of Wisconsin in Madison, where it seemed like every other person he met had a great Cheap Trick story and was eager to tell it. The band were legendary in that town, icons already, and for Brian, an ardent rock fan and budding record collector, Cheap Trick pressed all the right buttons. Thirty years and thousands of records later, here we are: Brian is now the proud author of this, his first book, about his favorite band.Brian has lived in Queens, New York, and Austin, Texas, but now resides near Madison with his wife and daughter. He has been a featured host on the long running podcasts Cheap Talk (a podcast devoted to Cheap Trick) with Ken Mills; and Rock and/or Roll, a part of the Pantheon Podcast Network.Purchase a copy of “This Band Has No Past: How Cheap Trick Became Cheap Trick” through Amazon: www.amazon.com/This-Band-Has-No-Past/dp/1911036874/ref=sr_1_2?keywords=brian+kramp&qid=1662419299&sr=8-2Visit Brian J. Kramp's "This Band Has No Past" blog: https://thisbandhasnopast.blogspot.com/Listen to Brian's podcast Rock And/Or Roll: https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/rock-and-or-roll/id654789361Listen to a playlist of the music discussed in this episode: https://open.spotify.com/playlist/1hLWZemL56WNyvoLilQSez?si=98d0ed9077cd4f14The Booked On Rock Website: www.bookedonrock.comFollow The Booked On Rock with Eric Senich:FACEBOOK: www.facebook.com/bookedonrockpodcastTWITTER: https://twitter.com/bookedonrockINSTAGRAM: www.instagram.com/bookedonrockpodcast/?hl=enSupport Your Local Bookstore! Find your nearest independent bookstore here: www.indiebound.org/indie-store-finderContact The Booked On Rock Podcast:thebookedonrockpodcast@gmail.comThe Booked On Rock Music: “Whoosh” & “Nasty” by Crowander (www.crowander.com)

What the Riff?!?
1968 - March: The Electric Flag “Long Time Comin'”

What the Riff?!?

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 5, 2022 32:07


The Electric Flag was the brainchild of guitarist Mike Bloomfield, and Long Time Comin' was their debut studio album.  The core of the band was formed by Mike Bloomfield on guitar, Barry Goldberg on keyboards, and Buddy Miles (soon to be with Jimmy Hendrix's Band of Gypsies) on drums.  Additionally, Nick Gravenites would sing lead on several tracks.With "Long Time Comin'" Bloomfield wanted to create a sound that would feature what he called "American music."  He would draw inspiration from many sources including traditional country, gospel, and R&B, and the result would be a fusion of rock, jazz, R&B, and an early use of a horn section.  The sound would be described as an "eclectic approach toward American musical."  Critics would complement the group's sound on this album, though it would be somewhat of a failure commercially on the charts.The Electric Flag would put out two albums in 1968, but would break up shortly before their second album was released.  Drug use affected the group's ability to perform, and Bloomfield would later admit that heroin caused his playing to fall apart.Wayne brings us this classic of southern rock. WineThe full name for this song is actually "Drinking Wine Spo-Dee-O-Dee," and is a traditional boogie-woogie blues song about a famous and not very good wine called Thunderbird ("the word is Thunderbird").  It was a creation of E & J Gallo Winery, made cheap with a high alcohol content.Texas Buddy Miles sings lead on this blues track.  This sound would find traction with later groups like ZZ Top and Stevie Ray Vaughan. Bloomfield's playing was inspired by groups he heard in Chicago, and he would become known as one of the premier guitarists in rock music.  "I Wouldn't be an American, If it wasn't for Texas."Killing Floor This is an updated take on the Howlin' Wolf blues classic.  It has a blues feel but with an upbeat tempo.  The Electric Flag would cover this long before Led Zeppelin would make it the basis for "The Lemon Song."  Jimmy Hendrix would play this at the 1967 Monterey Pop Festival.Groovin' Is Easy This is the "hit single" from the album.  The sound is different from the other blues-based tracks, and is a bit more time stamped for the age.  "Groovin's so easy, baby, if you know how.  You don't have to keep yourself forever slavin' - go out an chase whatever you're cravin'." ENTERTAINMENT TRACK:main theme from the animated series “Speed Racer”While it would become a staple of after school and Saturday morning cartoons in the United States, this animated series was crossing the finish line of its run in Japan in this month.   STAFF PICKS:Summertime Blues by Blue CheerRob starts off our staff picks with a cover of Eddie Cochran's song from 1958.  Blue Cheer was a psychedelic band out of San Francisco, and considered a precursor to the heavy metal band.  Many consider this song to be the first heavy metal song to chart in the U.S.  They were considered the loudest group in concert at the time.I Thank You by Sam & Dave Bruce takes a soulful turn with the final Sam & Dave release on Stax records, as Stax ended a distribution deal with Atlantic Records (from which Sam & Dave were on loan).  It hit number 3 on the Billboard Pop Singles chart.  ZZ Top would cover this song later on, and it would be their second top 40 hit after "Tush."(Sittin' On) The Dock of the Bay  by Otis Redding Brian's staff pick is another song from Stax records, and the last single from Otis Redding.  Redding died in a plane crash 3 days after recording this song.  It was Redding's biggest hit, and the first posthumous release in the U.S.  It hit number 1 on the Billboard Hot 100.Are You Gonna Be There (At the Love In) by The Chocolate WatchbandWayne closes out the staff picks in fine hippie style with  this band out of Los Altos, California.  The Chocolate Watchband started in 1965 and would break up by 1970.  Supposedly Jerry Garcia plays guitar on this track. The story is that when the band's guitarist was too high to play, Garcia was in another studio in the same building, and sat in. INSTRUMENTAL TRACK:(Sittin' On) The Dock of the Bay by King Curtis & the Kingmakers"Dock of the Bay" was so popular that it featured both Redding and this instrumental version on the charts.

Pacific Street Blues and Americana
Episode 113: September 4, 2022 part one

Pacific Street Blues and Americana

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 4, 2022 83:17


Lots of new releases and homegrown tracks this week. Short looks at Otis Redding, The Allman Brothers, and Louis JordanPacific St Blues & AmericanaSeptember 4, 20221. Otis Redding / These Arms of Mine 2. Paul Rodgers / That's How Strong My Love Is3. Rod Stewart / Shake 4. Aretha Franklin / Respect 5. BB King / I'm Gonna Move to the Outskirts of Town 6. Chris Cain / Gamblers Blues 7. Louis Jordan / Ain't That Just Like a Woman8. Peter Frampton / The Thrill is Gone 9. Shemekia Copeland / Pink Turns to Red 10. Playing For Change / Gimme Shelter 11. Rex Granite Band / To the Sea12. Claudettes / Park Bench 13. T Bone Walker / I'm Gonna Find My Baby 14. The Allman Brothers / Stormy Monday Blues15. Elmore James / One Way Out 16. Blind Willie McTell / Statesboro Blues 17. Josh Hoyer / Gimme That Lovin' 18. James Brown / Kansas City 19. Nighthawks / Nobody 20. Tommy Castro / I Got Burned

The Wheeler Centre
Love and Vulnerability

The Wheeler Centre

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 31, 2022 52:38


'It's ok to be uncomfortable, and it's a sign of strength if you're feeling really weird about it - cause that's a normal, human, good thing.' At this special salon event held in partnership with State Library Victoria, we took a leaf out of Otis Redding's book and tried a little tenderness. Sarah Krasnostein's March Quarterly Essay, Not Waving, Drowning: Mental Illness and Vulnerability in Australia examines a society that often punishes vulnerability, but that does have the resources to mend this broken system. Rick Morton's memoir My Year of Living Vulnerably charts his journey towards embracing the healing and transformative power of love. Together, these remarkable writers discussed the push and pull that take place across the broad spectrum of social policy, care and human vulnerability, with host Mahmood Fazal. This podcast was recorded at State Library Victoria on 27 May 2022. The bookseller for this event was Readings.Support the Wheeler Centre: https://www.wheelercentre.com/support-us/donateSee omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

A History Of Rock Music in Five Hundred Songs
Episode 152: “For What It’s Worth” by Buffalo Springfield

A History Of Rock Music in Five Hundred Songs

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 30, 2022


Episode 152 of A History of Rock Music in Five Hundred Songs looks at “For What It's Worth”, and the short but eventful career of Buffalo Springfield. Click the full post to read liner notes, links to more information, and a transcript of the episode. Patreon backers also have a twenty-five-minute bonus episode available, on "By the Time I Get to Phoenix" by Glen Campbell. Tilt Araiza has assisted invaluably by doing a first-pass edit, and will hopefully be doing so from now on. Check out Tilt's irregular podcasts at http://www.podnose.com/jaffa-cakes-for-proust and http://sitcomclub.com/ Resources As usual, there's a Mixcloud mix containing all the songs excerpted in the episode. This four-CD box set is the definitive collection of Buffalo Springfield's work, while if you want the mono version of the second album, the stereo version of the first, and the final album as released, but no demos or outtakes, you want this more recent box set. For What It's Worth: The Story of Buffalo Springfield by Richey Furay and John Einarson is obviously Furay's version of the story, but all the more interesting for that. For information on Steve Stills' early life I used Stephen Stills: Change Partners by David Roberts.  Information on both Stills and Young comes from Crosby, Stills, Nash, and Young by David Browne.  Jimmy McDonough's Shakey is the definitive biography of Neil Young, while Young's Waging Heavy Peace is his autobiography. Patreon This podcast is brought to you by the generosity of my backers on Patreon. Why not join them? Transcript A quick note before we begin -- this episode deals with various disabilities. In particular, there are descriptions of epileptic seizures that come from non-medically-trained witnesses, many of whom took ableist attitudes towards the seizures. I don't know enough about epilepsy to know how accurate their descriptions and perceptions are, and I apologise if that means that by repeating some of their statements, I am inadvertently passing on myths about the condition. When I talk about this, I am talking about the after-the-fact recollections of musicians, none of them medically trained and many of them in altered states of consciousness, about events that had happened decades earlier. Please do not take anything said in a podcast about music history as being the last word on the causes or effects of epileptic seizures, rather than how those musicians remember them. Anyway, on with the show. One of the things you notice if you write about protest songs is that a lot of the time, the songs that people talk about as being important or impactful have aged very poorly. Even great songwriters like Bob Dylan or John Lennon, when writing material about the political events of the time, would write material they would later acknowledge was far from their best. Too often a song will be about a truly important event, and be powered by a real sense of outrage at injustice, but it will be overly specific, and then as soon as the immediate issue is no longer topical, the song is at best a curio. For example, the sentencing of the poet and rock band manager John Sinclair to ten years in prison for giving two joints to an undercover police officer was hugely controversial in the early seventies, but by the time John Lennon's song about it was released, Sinclair had been freed by the Supreme Court, and very, very few people would use the song as an example of why Lennon's songwriting still has lasting value: [Excerpt: John Lennon, "John Sinclair"] But there are exceptions, and those tend to be songs where rather than talking about specific headlines, the song is about the emotion that current events have caused. Ninety years on from its first success, for example, "Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?" still has resonance, because there are still people who are put out of work through no fault of their own, and even those of us who are lucky enough to be financially comfortable have the fear that all too soon it may end, and we may end up like Al begging on the streets: [Excerpt: Rudy Vallee, "Brother Can You Spare a Dime?"] And because of that emotional connection, sometimes the very best protest songs can take on new lives and new meanings, and connect with the way people feel about totally unrelated subjects. Take Buffalo Springfield's one hit. The actual subject of the song couldn't be any more trivial in the grand scheme of things -- a change in zoning regulations around the Sunset Strip that meant people under twenty-one couldn't go to the clubs after 10PM, and the subsequent reaction to that -- but because rather than talking about the specific incident, Steve Stills instead talked about the emotions that it called up, and just noted the fleeting images that he was left with, the song became adopted as an anthem by soldiers in Vietnam. Sometimes what a song says is nowhere near as important as how it says it. [Excerpt: Buffalo Springfield, "For What It's Worth"] Steve Stills seems almost to have been destined to be a musician, although the instrument he started on, the drums, was not the one for which he would become best known. According to Stills, though, he always had an aptitude for rhythm, to the extent that he learned to tapdance almost as soon as he had learned to walk. He started on drums aged eight or nine, after somebody gave him a set of drumsticks. After his parents got sick of him damaging the furniture by playing on every available surface, an actual drum kit followed, and that became his principal instrument, even after he learned to play the guitar at military school, as his roommate owned one. As a teenager, Stills developed an idiosyncratic taste in music, helped by the record collection of his friend Michael Garcia. He didn't particularly like most of the pop music of the time, but he was a big fan of pre-war country music, Motown, girl-group music -- he especially liked the Shirelles -- and Chess blues. He was also especially enamoured of the music of Jimmy Reed, a passion he would later share with his future bandmate Neil Young: [Excerpt: Jimmy Reed, "Baby, What You Want Me To Do?"] In his early teens, he became the drummer for a band called the Radars, and while he was drumming he studied their lead guitarist, Chuck Schwin.  He said later "There was a whole little bunch of us who were into kind of a combination of all the blues guys and others including Chet Atkins, Dick Dale, and Hank Marvin: a very weird cross-section of far-out guitar players." Stills taught himself to play like those guitarists, and in particular he taught himself how to emulate Atkins' Travis-picking style, and became remarkably proficient at it. There exists a recording of him, aged sixteen, singing one of his own songs and playing finger-picked guitar, and while the song is not exactly the strongest thing I've ever heard lyrically, it's clearly the work of someone who is already a confident performer: [Excerpt: Stephen Stills, "Travellin'"] But the main reason he switched to becoming a guitarist wasn't because of his admiration for Chet Atkins or Hank Marvin, but because he started driving and discovered that if you have to load a drum kit into your car and then drive it to rehearsals and gigs you either end up bashing up your car or bashing up the drum kit. As this is not a problem with guitars, Stills decided that he'd move on from the Radars, and join a band named the Continentals as their rhythm guitarist, playing with lead guitarist Don Felder. Stills was only in the Continentals for a few months though, before being replaced by another guitarist, Bernie Leadon, and in general Stills' whole early life is one of being uprooted and moved around. His father had jobs in several different countries, and while for the majority of his time Stills was in the southern US, he also ended up spending time in Costa Rica -- and staying there as a teenager even as the rest of his family moved to El Salvador. Eventually, aged eighteen, he moved to New Orleans, where he formed a folk duo with a friend, Chris Sarns. The two had very different tastes in folk music -- Stills preferred Dylan-style singer-songwriters, while Sarns liked the clean sound of the Kingston Trio -- but they played together for several months before moving to Greenwich Village, where they performed together and separately. They were latecomers to the scene, which had already mostly ended, and many of the folk stars had already gone on to do bigger things. But Stills still saw plenty of great performers there -- Miles Davis and Dizzy Gillespie and Thelonius Monk in the jazz clubs, Woody Allen, Lenny Bruce, and Richard Pryor in the comedy ones, and Simon and Garfunkel, Richie Havens, Fred Neil and Tim Hardin in the folk ones -- Stills said that other than Chet Atkins, Havens, Neil, and Hardin were the people most responsible for his guitar style. Stills was also, at this time, obsessed with Judy Collins' third album -- the album which had featured Roger McGuinn on banjo and arrangements, and which would soon provide several songs for the Byrds to cover: [Excerpt: Judy Collins, "Turn, Turn, Turn"] Judy Collins would soon become a very important figure in Stills' life, but for now she was just the singer on his favourite record. While the Greenwich Village folk scene was no longer quite what it had been a year or two earlier, it was still a great place for a young talented musician to perform. As well as working with Chris Sarns, Stills also formed a trio with his friend John Hopkins and a banjo player called Peter Tork who everyone said looked just like Stills. Tork soon headed out west to seek his fortune, and then Stills got headhunted to join the Au Go Go Singers. This was a group that was being set up in the same style as the New Christy Minstrels -- a nine-piece vocal and instrumental group that would do clean-sounding versions of currently-popular folk songs. The group were signed to Roulette Records, and recorded one album, They Call Us Au-Go-Go Singers, produced by Hugo and Luigi, the production duo we've previously seen working with everyone from the Tokens to the Isley Brothers. Much of the album is exactly the same kind of thing that a million New Christy Minstrels soundalikes were putting out -- and Stills, with his raspy voice, was clearly intended to be the Barry McGuire of this group -- but there was one exception -- a song called "High Flyin' Bird", on which Stills was able to show off the sound that would later make him famous, and which became so associated with him that even though it was written by Billy Edd Wheeler, the writer of "Jackson", even the biography of Stills I used in researching this episode credits "High Flyin' Bird" as being a Stills original: [Excerpt: The Au-Go-Go Singers, "High Flyin' Bird"] One of the other members of the Au-Go-Go Singers, Richie Furay, also got to sing a lead vocal on the album, on the Tom Paxton song "Where I'm Bound": [Excerpt: The Au-Go-Go Singers, "Where I'm Bound"] The Au-Go-Go Singers got a handful of dates around the folk scene, and Stills and Furay became friendly with another singer playing the same circuit, Gram Parsons. Parsons was one of the few people they knew who could see the value in current country music, and convinced both Stills and Furay to start paying more attention to what was coming out of Nashville and Bakersfield. But soon the Au-Go-Go Singers split up. Several venues where they might otherwise have been booked were apparently scared to book an act that was associated with Morris Levy, and also the market for big folk ensembles dried up more or less overnight when the Beatles hit the music scene. But several of the group -- including Stills but not Furay -- decided they were going to continue anyway, and formed a group called The Company, and they went on a tour of Canada. And one of the venues they played was the Fourth Dimension coffee house in Fort William, Ontario, and there their support act was a rock band called The Squires: [Excerpt: The Squires, "(I'm a Man And) I Can't Cry"] The lead guitarist of the Squires, Neil Young, had a lot in common with Stills, and they bonded instantly. Both men had parents who had split up when they were in their teens, and had a successful but rather absent father and an overbearing mother. And both had shown an interest in music even as babies. According to Young's mother, when he was still in nappies, he would pull himself up by the bars  of his playpen and try to dance every time he heard "Pinetop's Boogie Woogie": [Excerpt: Pinetop Smith, "Pinetop's Boogie Woogie"] Young, though, had had one crucial experience which Stills had not had. At the age of six, he'd come down with polio, and become partially paralysed. He'd spent months in hospital before he regained his ability to walk, and the experience had also affected him in other ways. While he was recovering, he would draw pictures of trains -- other than music, his big interest, almost an obsession, was with electric train sets, and that obsession would remain with him throughout his life -- but for the first time he was drawing with his right hand rather than his left. He later said "The left-hand side got a little screwed. Feels different from the right. If I close my eyes, my left side, I really don't know where it is—but over the years I've discovered that almost one hundred percent for sure it's gonna be very close to my right side … probably to the left. That's why I started appearing to be ambidextrous, I think. Because polio affected my left side, and I think I was left-handed when I was born. What I have done is use the weak side as the dominant one because the strong side was injured." Both Young's father Scott Young -- a very famous Canadian writer and sports broadcaster, who was by all accounts as well known in Canada during his lifetime as his son -- and Scott's brother played ukulele, and they taught Neil how to play, and his first attempt at forming a group had been to get his friend Comrie Smith to get a pair of bongos and play along with him to Preston Epps' "Bongo Rock": [Excerpt: Preston Epps, "Bongo Rock"] Neil Young had liked all the usual rock and roll stars of the fifties  -- though in his personal rankings, Elvis came a distant third behind Little Richard and Jerry Lee Lewis -- but his tastes ran more to the more darkly emotional. He loved "Maybe" by the Chantels, saying "Raw soul—you cannot miss it. That's the real thing. She was believin' every word she was singin'." [Excerpt: The Chantels, "Maybe"] What he liked more than anything was music that had a mainstream surface but seemed slightly off-kilter. He was a major fan of Roy Orbison, saying, "it's almost impossible to comprehend the depth of that soul. It's so deep and dark it just keeps on goin' down—but it's not black. It's blue, deep blue. He's just got it. The drama. There's something sad but proud about Roy's music", and he would say similar things about Del Shannon, saying "He struck me as the ultimate dark figure—behind some Bobby Rydell exterior, y'know? “Hats Off to Larry,” “Runaway,” “Swiss Maid”—very, very inventive. The stuff was weird. Totally unaffected." More surprisingly, perhaps, he was a particular fan of Bobby Darin, who he admired so much because Darin could change styles at the drop of a hat, going from novelty rock and roll like "Splish Splash" to crooning "Mack The Knife" to singing Tim Hardin songs like "If I Were a Carpenter", without any of them seeming any less authentic. As he put it later "He just changed. He's completely different. And he's really into it. Doesn't sound like he's not there. “Dream Lover,” “Mack the Knife,” “If I Were a Carpenter,” “Queen of the Hop,” “Splish Splash”—tell me about those records, Mr. Darin. Did you write those all the same day, or what happened? He just changed so much. Just kinda went from one place to another. So it's hard to tell who Bobby Darin really was." And one record which Young was hugely influenced by was Floyd Cramer's country instrumental, "Last Date": [Excerpt: Floyd Cramer, "Last Date"] Now, that was a very important record in country music, and if you want to know more about it I strongly recommend listening to the episode of Cocaine and Rhinestones on the Nashville A-Team, which has a long section on the track, but the crucial thing to know about that track is that it's one of the earliest examples of what is known as slip-note playing, where the piano player, before hitting the correct note, briefly hits the note a tone below it, creating a brief discord. Young absolutely loved that sound, and wanted to make a sound like that on the guitar. And then, when he and his mother moved to Winnipeg after his parents' divorce, he found someone who was doing just that. It was the guitarist in a group variously known as Chad Allan and the Reflections and Chad Allan and the Expressions. That group had relatives in the UK who would send them records, and so where most Canadian bands would do covers of American hits, Chad Allan and the Reflections would do covers of British hits, like their version of Geoff Goddard's "Tribute to Buddy Holly", a song that had originally been produced by Joe Meek: [Excerpt: Chad Allan and the Reflections, "Tribute to Buddy Holly"] That would later pay off for them in a big way, when they recorded a version of Johnny Kidd and the Pirates' "Shakin' All Over", for which their record label tried to create an air of mystery by releasing it with no artist name, just "Guess Who?" on the label. It became a hit, the name stuck, and they became The Guess Who: [Excerpt: The Guess Who, "Shakin' All Over"] But at this point they, and their guitarist Randy Bachman, were just another group playing around Winnipeg. Bachman, though, was hugely impressive to Neil Young for a few reasons. The first was that he really did have a playing style that was a lot like the piano style of Floyd Cramer -- Young would later say "it was Randy Bachman who did it first. Randy was the first one I ever heard do things on the guitar that reminded me of Floyd. He'd do these pulls—“darrr darrrr,” this two-note thing goin' together—harmony, with one note pulling and the other note stayin' the same." Bachman also had built the first echo unit that Young heard a guitarist play in person. He'd discovered that by playing with the recording heads on a tape recorder owned by his mother, he could replicate the tape echo that Sam Phillips had used at Sun Studios -- and once he'd attached that to his amplifier, he realised how much the resulting sound sounded like his favourite guitarist, Hank Marvin of the Shadows, another favourite of Neil Young's: [Excerpt: The Shadows, "Man of Mystery"] Young soon started looking to Bachman as something of a mentor figure, and he would learn a lot of guitar techniques second hand from Bachman -- every time a famous musician came to the area, Bachman would go along and stand right at the front and watch the guitarist, and make note of the positions their fingers were in. Then Bachman would replicate those guitar parts with the Reflections, and Neil Young would stand in front of him and make notes of where *his* fingers were. Young joined a band on the local circuit called the Esquires, but soon either quit or was fired, depending on which version of the story you choose to believe. He then formed his own rival band, the Squires, with no "e", much to the disgust of his ex-bandmates. In July 1963, five months after they formed, the  Squires released their first record, "Aurora" backed with "The Sultan", on a tiny local label. Both tracks were very obviously influenced by the Shadows: [Excerpt: The Squires, "Aurora"] The Squires were a mostly-instrumental band for the first year or so they were together, and then the Beatles hit North America, and suddenly people didn't want to hear surf instrumentals and Shadows covers any more, they only wanted to hear songs that sounded a bit like the Beatles. The Squires started to work up the appropriate repertoire -- two songs that have been mentioned as in their set at this point are the Beatles album track "It Won't Be Long", and "Money" which the Beatles had also covered -- but they didn't have a singer, being an instrumental group. They could get in a singer, of course, but that would mean splitting the money with another person. So instead, the guitarist, who had never had any intention of becoming a singer, was more or less volunteered for the role. Over the next eighteen months or so the group's repertoire moved from being largely instrumental to largely vocal, and the group also seem to have shuttled around a bit between two different cities -- Winnipeg and Fort William, staying in one for a while and then moving back to the other. They travelled between the two in Young's car, a Buick Roadmaster hearse. In Winnipeg, Young first met up with a singer named Joni Anderson, who was soon to get married to Chuck Mitchell and would become better known by her married name. The two struck up a friendship, though by all accounts never a particularly close one -- they were too similar in too many ways; as Mitchell later said “Neil and I have a lot in common: Canadian; Scorpios; polio in the same epidemic, struck the same parts of our body; and we both have a black sense of humor". They were both also idiosyncratic artists who never fit very well into boxes. In Fort William the Squires made a few more records, this time vocal tracks like "I'll Love You Forever": [Excerpt: The Squires, "I'll Love You Forever"] It was also in Fort William that Young first encountered two acts that would make a huge impression on him. One was a group called The Thorns, consisting of Tim Rose, Jake Holmes, and Rich Husson. The Thorns showed Young that there was interesting stuff being done on the fringes of the folk music scene. He later said "One of my favourites was “Oh Susannah”—they did this arrangement that was bizarre. It was in a minor key, which completely changed everything—and it was rock and roll. So that idea spawned arrangements of all these other songs for me. I did minor versions of them all. We got into it. That was a certain Squires stage that never got recorded. Wish there were tapes of those shows. We used to do all this stuff, a whole kinda music—folk-rock. We took famous old folk songs like “Clementine,” “She'll Be Comin' 'Round the Mountain,” “Tom Dooley,” and we did them all in minor keys based on the Tim Rose arrangement of “Oh Susannah.” There are no recordings of the Thorns in existence that I know of, but presumably that arrangement that Young is talking about is the version that Rose also later did with the Big 3, which we've heard in a few other episodes: [Excerpt: The Big 3, "The Banjo Song"] The other big influence was, of course, Steve Stills, and the two men quickly found themselves influencing each other deeply. Stills realised that he could bring more rock and roll to his folk-music sound, saying that what amazed him was the way the Squires could go from "Cottonfields" (the Lead Belly song) to "Farmer John", the R&B song by Don and Dewey that was becoming a garage-rock staple. Young in turn was inspired to start thinking about maybe going more in the direction of folk music. The Squires even renamed themselves the High-Flying Birds, after the song that Stills had recorded with the Au Go Go Singers. After The Company's tour of Canada, Stills moved back to New York for a while. He now wanted to move in a folk-rock direction, and for a while he tried to persuade his friend John Sebastian to let him play bass in his new band, but when the Lovin' Spoonful decided against having him in the band, he decided to move West to San Francisco, where he'd heard there was a new music scene forming. He enjoyed a lot of the bands he saw there, and in particular he was impressed by the singer of a band called the Great Society: [Excerpt: The Great Society, "Somebody to Love"] He was much less impressed with the rest of her band, and seriously considered going up to her and asking if she wanted to work with some *real* musicians instead of the unimpressive ones she was working with, but didn't get his nerve up. We will, though, be hearing more about Grace Slick in future episodes. Instead, Stills decided to move south to LA, where many of the people he'd known in Greenwich Village were now based. Soon after he got there, he hooked up with two other musicians, a guitarist named Steve Young and a singer, guitarist, and pianist named Van Dyke Parks. Parks had a record contract at MGM -- he'd been signed by Tom Wilson, the same man who had turned Dylan electric, signed Simon and Garfunkel, and produced the first albums by the Mothers of Invention. With Wilson, Parks put out a couple of singles in 1966, "Come to the Sunshine": [Excerpt: The Van Dyke Parks, "Come to the Sunshine"] And "Number Nine", a reworking of the Ode to Joy from Beethoven's Ninth Symphony: [Excerpt: The Van Dyke Parks, "Number Nine"]Parks, Stills, and Steve Young became The Van Dyke Parks Band, though they didn't play together for very long, with their most successful performance being as the support act for the Lovin' Spoonful for a show in Arizona. But they did have a lasting resonance -- when Van Dyke Parks finally got the chance to record his first solo album, he opened it with Steve Young singing the old folk song "Black Jack Davy", filtered to sound like an old tape: [Excerpt: Steve Young, "Black Jack Davy"] And then it goes into a song written for Parks by Randy Newman, but consisting of Newman's ideas about Parks' life and what he knew about him, including that he had been third guitar in the Van Dyke Parks Band: [Excerpt: Van Dyke Parks, "Vine Street"] Parks and Stills also wrote a few songs together, with one of their collaborations, "Hello, I've Returned", later being demoed by Stills for Buffalo Springfield: [Excerpt: Steve Stills, "Hello, I've Returned"] After the Van Dyke Parks Band fell apart, Parks went on to many things, including a brief stint on keyboards in the Mothers of Invention, and we'll be talking more about him next episode. Stills formed a duo called the Buffalo Fish, with his friend Ron Long. That soon became an occasional trio when Stills met up again with his old Greenwich Village friend Peter Tork, who joined the group on the piano. But then Stills auditioned for the Monkees and was turned down because he had bad teeth -- or at least that's how most people told the story. Stills has later claimed that while he turned up for the Monkees auditions, it wasn't to audition, it was to try to pitch them songs, which seems implausible on the face of it. According to Stills, he was offered the job and turned it down because he'd never wanted it. But whatever happened, Stills suggested they might want his friend Peter, who looked just like him apart from having better teeth, and Peter Tork got the job. But what Stills really wanted to do was to form a proper band. He'd had the itch to do it ever since seeing the Squires, and he decided he should ask Neil Young to join. There was only one problem -- when he phoned Young, the phone was answered by Young's mother, who told Stills that Neil had moved out to become a folk singer, and she didn't know where he was. But then Stills heard from his old friend Richie Furay. Furay was still in Greenwich Village, and had decided to write to Stills. He didn't know where Stills was, other than that he was in California somewhere, so he'd written to Stills' father in El Salvador. The letter had been returned, because the postage had been short by one cent, so Furay had resent it with the correct postage. Stills' father had then forwarded the letter to the place Stills had been staying in San Francisco, which had in turn forwarded it on to Stills in LA. Furay's letter mentioned this new folk singer who had been on the scene for a while and then disappeared again, Neil Young, who had said he knew Stills, and had been writing some great songs, one of which Furay had added to his own set. Stills got in touch with Furay and told him about this great band he was forming in LA, which he wanted Furay to join. Furay was in, and travelled from New York to LA, only to be told that at this point there were no other members of this great band, but they'd definitely find some soon. They got a publishing deal with Columbia/Screen Gems, which gave them enough money to not starve, but what they really needed was to find some other musicians. They did, when driving down Hollywood Boulevard on April the sixth, 1966. There, stuck in traffic going the other way, they saw a hearse... After Steve Stills had left Fort William, so had Neil Young. He hadn't initially intended to -- the High-Flying Birds still had a regular gig, but Young and some of his friends had gone away for a few days on a road trip in his hearse. But unfortunately the transmission on the hearse had died, and Young and his friends had been stranded. Many years later, he would write a eulogy to the hearse, which he and Stills would record together: [Excerpt: The Stills-Young Band, "Long May You Run"] Young and his friends had all hitch-hiked in different directions -- Young had ended up in Toronto, where his dad lived, and had stayed with his dad for a while. The rest of his band had eventually followed him there, but Young found the Toronto music scene not to his taste -- the folk and rock scenes there were very insular and didn't mingle with each other, and the group eventually split up. Young even took on a day job for a while, for the only time in his life, though he soon quit. Young started basically commuting between Toronto and New York, a distance of several hundred miles, going to Greenwich Village for a while before ending up back in Toronto, and ping-ponging between the two. In New York, he met up with Richie Furay, and also had a disastrous audition for Elektra Records as a solo artist. One of the songs he sang in the audition was "Nowadays Clancy Can't Even Sing", the song which Furay liked so much he started performing it himself. Young doesn't normally explain his songs, but as this was one of the first he ever wrote, he talked about it in interviews in the early years, before he decided to be less voluble about his art. The song was apparently about the sense of youthful hope being crushed. The instigation for it was Young seeing his girlfriend with another man, but the central image, of Clancy not singing, came from Young's schooldays. The Clancy in question was someone Young liked as one of the other weird kids at school. He was disabled, like Young, though with MS rather than polio, and he would sing to himself in the hallways at school. Sadly, of course, the other kids would mock and bully him for that, and eventually he ended up stopping. Young said about it "After awhile, he got so self-conscious he couldn't do his thing any more. When someone who is as beautiful as that and as different as that is actually killed by his fellow man—you know what I mean—like taken and sorta chopped down—all the other things are nothing compared to this." [Excerpt: Neil Young, "Nowadays Clancy Can't Even Sing (Elektra demo)"] One thing I should say for anyone who listens to the Mixcloud for this episode, that song, which will be appearing in a couple of different versions, has one use of a term for Romani people that some (though not all) consider a slur. It's not in the excerpts I'll be using in this episode, but will be in the full versions on the Mixcloud. Sadly that word turns up time and again in songs of this era... When he wasn't in New York, Young was living in Toronto in a communal apartment owned by a folk singer named Vicki Taylor, where many of the Toronto folk scene would stay. Young started listening a lot to Taylor's Bert Jansch albums, which were his first real exposure to the British folk-baroque style of guitar fingerpicking, as opposed to the American Travis-picking style, and Young would soon start to incorporate that style into his own playing: [Excerpt: Bert Jansch, "Angie"] Another guitar influence on Young at this point was another of the temporary tenants of Taylor's flat, John Kay, who would later go on to be one of the founding members of Steppenwolf. Young credited Kay with having a funky rhythm guitar style that Young incorporated into his own. While he was in Toronto, he started getting occasional gigs in Detroit, which is "only" a couple of hundred miles away, set up by Joni and Chuck Mitchell, both of whom also sometimes stayed at Taylor's. And it was in Detroit that Neil Young became, albeit very briefly, a Motown artist. The Mynah Birds were a band in Toronto that had at one point included various future members of Steppenwolf, and they were unusual for the time in that they were a white band with a Black lead singer, Ricky Matthews. They also had a rich manager, John Craig Eaton, the heir to the Eaton's department store fortune, who basically gave them whatever money they wanted -- they used to go to his office and tell him they needed seven hundred dollars for lunch, and he'd hand it to them. They were looking for a new guitarist when Bruce Palmer, their bass player, bumped into Neil Young carrying an amp and asked if he was interested in joining. He was. The Mynah Birds quickly became one of the best bands in Toronto, and Young and Matthews became close, both as friends and as a performance team. People who saw them live would talk about things like a song called “Hideaway”, written by Young and Matthews, which had a spot in the middle where Young would start playing a harmonica solo, throw the harmonica up in the air mid-solo, Matthews would catch it, and he would then finish the solo. They got signed to Motown, who were at this point looking to branch out into the white guitar-group market, and they were put through the Motown star-making machine. They recorded an entire album, which remains unreleased, but they did release a single, "It's My Time": [Excerpt: The Mynah Birds, "It's My Time"] Or at least, they released a handful of promo copies. The single was pulled from release after Ricky Matthews got arrested. It turned out his birth name wasn't Ricky Matthews, but James Johnson, and that he wasn't from Toronto as he'd told everyone, but from Buffalo, New York. He'd fled to Canada after going AWOL from the Navy, not wanting to be sent to Vietnam, and he was arrested and jailed for desertion. After getting out of jail, he would start performing under yet another name, and as Rick James would have a string of hits in the seventies and eighties: [Excerpt: Rick James, "Super Freak"] Most of the rest of the group continued gigging as The Mynah Birds, but Young and Palmer had other plans. They sold the expensive equipment Eaton had bought the group, and Young bought a new hearse, which he named Mort 2 – Mort had been his first hearse. And according to one of the band's friends in Toronto, the crucial change in their lives came when Neil Young heard a song on a jukebox: [Excerpt: The Mamas and the Papas, "California Dreamin'"] Young apparently heard "California Dreamin'" and immediately said "Let's go to California and become rock stars". Now, Young later said of this anecdote that "That sounds like a Canadian story to me. That sounds too real to be true", and he may well be right. Certainly the actual wording of the story is likely incorrect -- people weren't talking about "rock stars" in 1966. Google's Ngram viewer has the first use of the phrase in print being in 1969, and the phrase didn't come into widespread usage until surprisingly late -- even granting that phrases enter slang before they make it to print, it still seems implausible. But even though the precise wording might not be correct, something along those lines definitely seems to have happened, albeit possibly less dramatically. Young's friend Comrie Smith independently said that Young told him “Well, Comrie, I can hear the Mamas and the Papas singing ‘All the leaves are brown, and the skies are gray …' I'm gonna go down to the States and really make it. I'm on my way. Today North Toronto, tomorrow the world!” Young and Palmer loaded up Mort 2 with a bunch of their friends and headed towards California. On the way, they fell out with most of the friends, who parted from them, and Young had an episode which in retrospect may have been his first epileptic seizure. They decided when they got to California that they were going to look for Steve Stills, as they'd heard he was in LA and neither of them knew anyone else in the state. But after several days of going round the Sunset Strip clubs asking if anyone knew Steve Stills, and sleeping in the hearse as they couldn't afford anywhere else, they were getting fed up and about to head off to San Francisco, as they'd heard there was a good music scene there, too. They were going to leave that day, and they were stuck in traffic on Sunset Boulevard, about to head off, when Stills and Furay came driving in the other direction. Furay happened to turn his head, to brush away a fly, and saw a hearse with Ontario license plates. He and Stills both remembered that Young drove a hearse, and so they assumed it must be him. They started honking at the hearse, then did a U-turn. They got Young's attention, and they all pulled into the parking lot at Ben Frank's, the Sunset Strip restaurant that attracted such a hip crowd the Monkees' producers had asked for "Ben Frank's types" in their audition advert. Young introduced Stills and Furay to Palmer, and now there *was* a group -- three singing, songwriting, guitarists and a bass player. Now all they needed was a drummer. There were two drummers seriously considered for the role. One of them, Billy Mundi, was technically the better player, but Young didn't like playing with him as much -- and Mundi also had a better offer, to join the Mothers of Invention as their second drummer -- before they'd recorded their first album, they'd had two drummers for a few months, but Denny Bruce, their second drummer, had become ill with glandular fever and they'd reverted to having Jimmy Carl Black play solo. Now they were looking for someone else, and Mundi took that role. The other drummer, who Young preferred anyway, was another Canadian, Dewey Martin. Martin was a couple of years older than the rest of the group, and by far the most experienced. He'd moved from Canada to Nashville in his teens, and according to Martin he had been taken under the wing of Hank Garland, the great session guitarist most famous for "Sugarfoot Rag": [Excerpt: Hank Garland, "Sugarfoot Rag"] We heard Garland playing with Elvis and others in some of the episodes around 1960, and by many reckonings he was the best session guitarist in Nashville, but in 1961 he had a car accident that left him comatose, and even though he recovered from the coma and lived another thirty-three years, he never returned to recording. According to Martin, though, Garland would still sometimes play jazz clubs around Nashville after the accident, and one day Martin walked into a club and saw him playing. The drummer he was playing with got up and took a break, taking his sticks with him, so Martin got up on stage and started playing, using two combs instead of sticks. Garland was impressed, and told Martin that Faron Young needed a drummer, and he could get him the gig. At the time Young was one of the biggest stars in country music. That year, 1961, he had three country top ten hits, including a number one with his version of Willie Nelson's "Hello Walls", produced by Ken Nelson: [Excerpt: Faron Young, "Hello Walls"] Martin joined Faron Young's band for a while, and also ended up playing short stints in the touring bands of various other Nashville-based country and rock stars, including Patsy Cline, Roy Orbison, and the Everly Brothers, before heading to LA for a while. Then Mel Taylor of the Ventures hooked him up with some musicians in the Pacific Northwest scene, and Martin started playing there under the name Sir Raleigh and the Coupons with various musicians. After a while he travelled back to LA where he got some members of the LA group Sons of Adam to become a permanent lineup of Coupons, and they recorded several singles with Martin singing lead, including the Tommy Boyce and Steve Venet song "Tomorrow's Gonna Be Another Day", later recorded by the Monkees: [Excerpt: Sir Raleigh and the Coupons, "Tomorrow's Gonna Be Another Day"] He then played with the Standells, before joining the Modern Folk Quartet for a short while, as they were transitioning from their folk sound to a folk-rock style. He was only with them for a short while, and it's difficult to get precise details -- almost everyone involved with Buffalo Springfield has conflicting stories about their own careers with timelines that don't make sense, which is understandable given that people were talking about events decades later and memory plays tricks. "Fast" Eddie Hoh had joined the Modern Folk Quartet on drums in late 1965, at which point they became the Modern Folk Quintet, and nothing I've read about that group talks about Hoh ever actually leaving, but apparently Martin joined them in February 1966, which might mean he's on their single "Night-Time Girl", co-written by Al Kooper and produced and arranged by Jack Nitzsche: [Excerpt: The Modern Folk Quintet, "Night-Time Girl"] After that, Martin was taken on by the Dillards, a bluegrass band who are now possibly most famous for having popularised the Arthur "Guitar Boogie" Smith song "Duellin' Banjos", which they recorded on their first album and played on the Andy Griffith Show a few years before it was used in Deliverance: [Excerpt: The Dillards, "Duellin' Banjos"] The Dillards had decided to go in a country-rock direction -- and Doug Dillard would later join the Byrds and make records with Gene Clark -- but they were hesitant about it, and after a brief period with Martin in the band they decided to go back to their drummerless lineup. To soften the blow, they told him about another band that was looking for a drummer -- their manager, Jim Dickson, who was also the Byrds' manager, knew Stills and his bandmates. Dewey Martin was in the group. The group still needed a name though. They eventually took their name from a brand of steam roller, after seeing one on the streets when some roadwork was being done. Everyone involved disagrees as to who came up with the name. Steve Stills at one point said it was a group decision after Neil Young and the group's manager Frazier Mohawk stole the nameplate off the steamroller, and later Stills said that Richey Furay had suggested the name while they were walking down the street, Dewey Martin said it was his idea, Neil Young said that he, Steve Sills, and Van Dyke Parks had been walking down the street and either Young or Stills had seen the nameplate and suggested the name, and Van Dyke Parks says that *he* saw the nameplate and suggested it to Dewey Martin: [Excerpt: Steve Stills and Van Dyke Parks on the name] For what it's worth, I tend to believe Van Dyke Parks in most instances -- he's an honest man, and he seems to have a better memory of the sixties than many of his friends who led more chemically interesting lives. Whoever came up with it, the name worked -- as Stills later put it "We thought it was pretty apt, because Neil Young is from Manitoba which is buffalo country, and  Richie Furay was from Springfield, Ohio -- and I'm the field!" It almost certainly also helped that the word "buffalo" had been in the name of Stills' previous group, Buffalo Fish. On the eleventh of April, 1966, Buffalo Springfield played their first gig, at the Troubadour, using equipment borrowed from the Dillards. Chris Hillman of the Byrds was in the audience and was impressed. He got the group a support slot on a show the Byrds and the Dillards were doing a few days later in San Bernardino. That show was compered by a Merseyside-born British DJ, John Ravenscroft, who had managed to become moderately successful in US radio by playing up his regional accent so he sounded more like the Beatles. He would soon return to the UK, and start broadcasting under the name John Peel. Hillman also got them a week-long slot at the Whisky A-Go-Go, and a bidding war started between record labels to sign the band. Dunhill offered five thousand dollars, Warners counted with ten thousand, and then Atlantic offered twelve thousand. Atlantic were *just* starting to get interested in signing white guitar groups -- Jerry Wexler never liked that kind of music, always preferring to stick with soul and R&B, but Ahmet Ertegun could see which way things were going. Atlantic had only ever signed two other white acts before -- Neil Young's old favourite Bobby Darin, who had since left the label, and Sonny and Cher. And Sonny and Cher's management and production team, Brian Stone and Charlie Greene, were also very interested in the group, who even before they had made a record had quickly become the hottest band on the circuit, even playing the Hollywood Bowl as the Rolling Stones' support act. Buffalo Springfield already had managers -- Frazier Mohawk and Richard Davis, the lighting man at the Troubadour (who was sometimes also referred to as Dickie Davis, but I'll use his full name so as not to cause unnecessary confusion in British people who remember the sports TV presenter of the same name), who Mohawk had enlisted to help him. But Stone and Greene weren't going to let a thing like that stop them. According to anonymous reports quoted without attribution in David Roberts' biography of Stills -- so take this with as many grains of salt as you want -- Stone and Greene took Mohawk for a ride around LA in a limo, just the three of them, a gun, and a used hotdog napkin. At the end of the ride, the hotdog napkin had Mohawk's scrawled signature, signing the group over to Stone and Greene. Davis stayed on, but was demoted to just doing their lights. The way things ended up, the group signed to Stone and Greene's production company, who then leased their masters to Atlantic's Atco subsidiary. A publishing company was also set up for the group's songs -- owned thirty-seven point five percent by Atlantic, thirty-seven point five percent by Stone and Greene, and the other twenty-five percent split six ways between the group and Davis, who they considered their sixth member. Almost immediately, Charlie Greene started playing Stills and Young off against each other, trying a divide-and-conquer strategy on the group. This was quite easy, as both men saw themselves as natural leaders, though Stills was regarded by everyone as the senior partner -- the back cover of their first album would contain the line "Steve is the leader but we all are". Stills and Young were the two stars of the group as far as the audience were concerned -- though most musicians who heard them play live say that the band's real strength was in its rhythm section, with people comparing Palmer's playing to that of James Jamerson. But Stills and Young would get into guitar battles on stage, one-upping each other, in ways that turned the tension between them in creative directions. Other clashes, though were more petty -- both men had very domineering mothers, who would actually call the group's management to complain about press coverage if their son was given less space than the other one. The group were also not sure about Young's voice -- to the extent that Stills was known to jokingly apologise to the audience before Young took a lead vocal -- and so while the song chosen as the group's first A-side was Young's "Nowadays Clancy Can't Even Sing", Furay was chosen to sing it, rather than Young: [Excerpt: Buffalo Springfield, "Nowadays Clancy Can't Even Sing"] On the group's first session, though, both Stills and Young realised that their producers didn't really have a clue -- the group had built up arrangements that had a complex interplay of instruments and vocals, but the producers insisted on cutting things very straightforwardly, with a basic backing track and then the vocals. They also thought that the song was too long so the group should play faster. Stills and Young quickly decided that they were going to have to start producing their own material, though Stone and Greene would remain the producers for the first album. There was another bone of contention though, because in the session the initial plan had been for Stills' song "Go and Say Goodbye" to be the A-side with Young's song as the B-side. It was flipped, and nobody seems quite sure why -- it's certainly the case that, whatever the merits of the two tracks as songs, Stills' song was the one that would have been more likely to become a hit. "Nowadays Clancy Can't Even Sing" was a flop, but it did get some local airplay. The next single, "Burned", was a Young song as well, and this time did have Young taking the lead, though in a song dominated by harmonies: [Excerpt: Buffalo Springfield, "Burned"] Over the summer, though, something had happened that would affect everything for the group -- Neil Young had started to have epileptic seizures. At first these were undiagnosed episodes, but soon they became almost routine events, and they would often happen on stage, particularly at moments of great stress or excitement. Several other members of the group became convinced -- entirely wrongly -- that Young was faking these seizures in order to get women to pay attention to him. They thought that what he wanted was for women to comfort him and mop his brow, and that collapsing would get him that. The seizures became so common that Richard Davis, the group's lighting tech, learned to recognise the signs of a seizure before it happened. As soon as it looked like Young was about to collapse the lights would turn on, someone would get ready to carry him off stage, and Richie Furay would know to grab Young's guitar before he fell so that the guitar wouldn't get damaged. Because they weren't properly grounded and Furay had an electric guitar of his own, he'd get a shock every time. Young would later claim that during some of the seizures, he would hallucinate that he was another person, in another world, living another life that seemed to have its own continuity -- people in the other world would recognise him and talk to him as if he'd been away for a while -- and then when he recovered he would have to quickly rebuild his identity, as if temporarily amnesiac, and during those times he would find things like the concept of lying painful. The group's first album came out in December, and they were very, very, unhappy with it. They thought the material was great, but they also thought that the production was terrible. Stone and Greene's insistence that they record the backing tracks first and then overdub vocals, rather than singing live with the instruments, meant that the recordings, according to Stills and Young in particular, didn't capture the sound of the group's live performance, and sounded sterile. Stills and Young thought they'd fixed some of that in the mono mix, which they spent ten days on, but then Stone and Greene did the stereo mix without consulting the band, in less than two days, and the album was released at precisely the time that stereo was starting to overtake mono in the album market. I'm using the mono mixes in this podcast, but for decades the only versions available were the stereo ones, which Stills and Young both loathed. Ahmet Ertegun also apparently thought that the demo versions of the songs -- some of which were eventually released on a box set in 2001 -- were much better than the finished studio recordings. The album was not a success on release, but it did contain the first song any of the group had written to chart. Soon after its release, Van Dyke Parks' friend Lenny Waronker was producing a single by a group who had originally been led by Sly Stone and had been called Sly and the Mojo Men. By this time Stone was no longer involved in the group, and they were making music in a very different style from the music their former leader would later become known for. Parks was brought in to arrange a baroque-pop version of Stills' album track "Sit Down I Think I Love You" for the group, and it became their only top forty hit, reaching number thirty-six: [Excerpt: The Mojo Men, "Sit Down I Think I Love You"] It was shortly after the first Buffalo Springfield album was released, though, that Steve Stills wrote what would turn out to be *his* group's only top forty single. The song had its roots in both LA and San Francisco. The LA roots were more obvious -- the song was written about a specific experience Stills had had. He had been driving to Sunset Strip from Laurel Canyon on November the twelfth 1966, and he had seen a mass of young people and police in riot gear, and he had immediately turned round, partly because he didn't want to get involved in what looked to be a riot, and partly because he'd been inspired -- he had the idea for a lyric, which he pretty much finished in the car even before he got home: [Excerpt: The Buffalo Springfield, "For What it's Worth"] The riots he saw were what became known later as the Riot on Sunset Strip. This was a minor skirmish between the police and young people of LA -- there had been complaints that young people had been spilling out of the nightclubs on Sunset Strip into the street, causing traffic problems, and as a result the city council had introduced various heavy-handed restrictions, including a ten PM curfew for all young people in the area, removing the permits that many clubs had which allowed people under twenty-one to be present, forcing the Whisky A-Go-Go to change its name just to "the Whisk", and forcing a club named Pandora's Box, which was considered the epicentre of the problem, to close altogether. Flyers had been passed around calling for a "funeral" for Pandora's Box -- a peaceful gathering at which people could say goodbye to a favourite nightspot, and a thousand people had turned up. The police also turned up, and in the heavy-handed way common among law enforcement, they managed to provoke a peaceful party and turn it into a riot. This would not normally be an event that would be remembered even a year later, let alone nearly sixty years later, but Sunset Strip was the centre of the American rock music world in the period, and of the broader youth entertainment field. Among those arrested at the riot, for example, were Jack Nicholson and Peter Fonda, neither of whom were huge stars at the time, but who were making cheap B-movies with Roger Corman for American International Pictures. Among the cheap exploitation films that American International Pictures made around this time was one based on the riots, though neither Nicholson, Fonda, or Corman were involved. Riot on Sunset Strip was released in cinemas only four months after the riots, and it had a theme song by Dewey Martin's old colleagues The Standells, which is now regarded as a classic of garage rock: [Excerpt: The Standells, "Riot on Sunset Strip"] The riots got referenced in a lot of other songs, as well. The Mothers of Invention's second album, Absolutely Free, contains the song "Plastic People" which includes this section: [Excerpt: The Mothers of Invention, "Plastic People"] And the Monkees track "Daily Nightly", written by Michael Nesmith, was always claimed by Nesmith to be an impressionistic portrait of the riots, though the psychedelic lyrics sound to me more like they're talking about drug use and street-walking sex workers than anything to do with the riots: [Excerpt: The Monkees, "Daily Nightly"] But the song about the riots that would have the most lasting effect on popular culture was the one that Steve Stills wrote that night. Although how much he actually wrote, at least of the music, is somewhat open to question. Earlier that month, Buffalo Springfield had spent some time in San Francisco. They hadn't enjoyed the experience -- as an LA band, they were thought of as a bunch of Hollywood posers by most of the San Francisco scene, with the exception of one band, Moby Grape -- a band who, like them had three guitarist/singer/songwriters, and with whom they got on very well. Indeed, they got on rather better with Moby Grape than they were getting on with each other at this point, because Young and Stills would regularly get into arguments, and every time their argument seemed to be settling down, Dewey Martin would manage to say the wrong thing and get Stills riled up again -- Martin was doing a lot of speed at this point and unable to stop talking, even when it would have been politic to do so. There was even some talk while they were in San Francisco of the bands doing a trade -- Young and Pete Lewis of Moby Grape swapping places -- though that came to nothing. But Stills, according to both Richard Davis and Pete Lewis, had been truly impressed by two Moby Grape songs. One of them was a song called "On the Other Side", which Moby Grape never recorded, but which apparently had a chorus that went "Stop, can't you hear the music ringing in your ear, right before you go, telling you the way is clear," with the group all pausing after the word "Stop". The other was a song called "Murder in my Heart for the Judge": [Excerpt: Moby Grape, "Murder in my Heart for the Judge"] The song Stills wrote had a huge amount of melodic influence from that song, and quite a bit from “On the Other Side”, though he apparently didn't notice until after the record came out, at which point he apologised to Moby Grape. Stills wasn't massively impressed with the song he'd written, and went to Stone and Greene's office to play it for them, saying "I'll play it, for what it's worth". They liked the song and booked a studio to get the song recorded and rush-released, though according to Neil Young neither Stone nor Greene were actually present at the session, and the song was recorded on December the fifth, while some outbursts of rioting were still happening, and released on December the twenty-third. [Excerpt: Buffalo Springfield, "For What it's Worth"] The song didn't have a title when they recorded it, or so Stills thought, but when he mentioned this to Greene and Stone afterwards, they said "Of course it does. You said, 'I'm going to play the song, 'For What It's Worth'" So that became the title, although Ahmet Ertegun didn't like the idea of releasing a single with a title that wasn't in the lyric, so the early pressings of the single had "Stop, Hey, What's That Sound?" in brackets after the title. The song became a big hit, and there's a story told by David Crosby that doesn't line up correctly, but which might shed some light on why. According to Crosby, "Nowadays Clancy Can't Even Sing" got its first airplay because Crosby had played members of Buffalo Springfield a tape he'd been given of the unreleased Beatles track "A Day in the Life", and they'd told their gangster manager-producers about it. Those manager-producers had then hired a sex worker to have sex with Crosby and steal the tape, which they'd then traded to a radio station in return for airplay. That timeline doesn't work, unless the sex worker involved was also a time traveller,  because "A Day in the Life" wasn't even recorded until January 1967 while "Clancy" came out in August 1966, and there'd been two other singles released between then and January 1967. But it *might* be the case that that's what happened with "For What It's Worth", which was released in the last week of December 1966, and didn't really start to do well on the charts for a couple of months. Right after recording the song, the group went to play a residency in New York, of which Ahmet Ertegun said “When they performed there, man, there was no band I ever heard that had the electricity of that group. That was the most exciting group I've ever seen, bar none. It was just mind-boggling.” During that residency they were joined on stage at various points by Mitch Ryder, Odetta, and Otis Redding. While in New York, the group also recorded "Mr. Soul", a song that Young had originally written as a folk song about his experiences with epilepsy, the nature of the soul, and dealing with fame. However, he'd noticed a similarity to "Satisfaction" and decided to lean into it. The track as finally released was heavily overdubbed by Young a few months later, but after it was released he decided he preferred the original take, which by then only existed as a scratchy acetate, which got released on a box set in 2001: [Excerpt: Buffalo Springfield, "Mr. Soul (original version)"] Everyone has a different story of how the session for that track went -- at least one version of the story has Otis Redding turning up for the session and saying he wanted to record the song himself, as his follow-up to his version of "Satisfaction", but Young being angry at the idea. According to other versions of the story, Greene and Stills got into a physical fight, with Greene having to be given some of the valium Young was taking for his epilepsy to calm him down. "For What it's Worth" was doing well enough on the charts that the album was recalled, and reissued with "For What It's Worth" replacing Stills' song "Baby Don't Scold", but soon disaster struck the band. Bruce Palmer was arrested on drugs charges, and was deported back to Canada just as the song started to rise through the charts. The group needed a new bass player, fast. For a lipsynch appearance on local TV they got Richard Davis to mime the part, and then they got in Ken Forssi, the bass player from Love, for a couple of gigs. They next brought in Ken Koblun, the bass player from the Squires, but he didn't fit in with the rest of the group. The next replacement was Jim Fielder. Fielder was a friend of the group, and knew the material -- he'd subbed for Palmer a few times in 1966 when Palmer had been locked up after less serious busts. And to give some idea of how small a scene the LA scene was, when Buffalo Springfield asked him to become their bass player, he was playing rhythm guitar for the Mothers of Invention, while Billy Mundi was on drums, and had played on their second, as yet unreleased, album, Absolutely Free: [Excerpt: The Mothers of Invention, "Call any Vegetable"] And before joining the Mothers, Fielder and Mundi had also played together with Van Dyke Parks, who had served his own short stint as a Mother of Invention already, backing Tim Buckley on Buckley's first album: [Excerpt: Tim Buckley, "Aren't You the Girl?"] And the arrangements on that album were by Jack Nitzsche, who would soon become a very close collaborator with Young. "For What it's Worth" kept rising up the charts. Even though it had been inspired by a very local issue, the lyrics were vague enough that people in other situations could apply it to themselves, and it soon became regarded as an anti-war protest anthem -- something Stills did nothing to discourage, as the band were all opposed to the war. The band were also starting to collaborate with other people. When Stills bought a new house, he couldn't move in to it for a while, and so Peter Tork invited him to stay at his house. The two got on so well that Tork invited Stills to produce the next Monkees album -- only to find that Michael Nesmith had already asked Chip Douglas to do it. The group started work on a new album, provisionally titled "Stampede", but sessions didn't get much further than Stills' song "Bluebird" before trouble arose between Young and Stills. The root of the argument seems to have been around the number of songs each got on the album. With Richie Furay also writing, Young was worried that given the others' attitudes to his songwriting, he might get as few as two songs on the album. And Young and Stills were arguing over which song should be the next single, with Young wanting "Mr. Soul" to be the A-side, while Stills wanted "Bluebird" -- Stills making the reasonable case that they'd released two Neil Young songs as singles and gone nowhere, and then they'd released one of Stills', and it had become a massive hit. "Bluebird" was eventually chosen as the A-side, with "Mr. Soul" as the B-side: [Excerpt: Buffalo Springfield, "Bluebird"] The "Bluebird" session was another fraught one. Fielder had not yet joined the band, and session player Bobby West subbed on bass. Neil Young had recently started hanging out with Jack Nitzsche, and the two were getting very close and working on music together. Young had impressed Nitzsche not just with his songwriting but with his arrogance -- he'd played Nitzsche his latest song, "Expecting to Fly", and Nitzsche had said halfway through "That's a great song", and Young had shushed him and told him to listen, not interrupt. Nitzsche, who had a monstrous ego himself and was also used to working with people like Phil Spector, the Rolling Stones and Sonny Bono, none of them known for a lack of faith in their own abilities, was impressed. Shortly after that, Stills had asked Nitzsch

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Deep Dive: An AllMusicBooks Podcast
"SOUTHERN MAN: Music and Mayhem in the American South" Act Two by Alan Walden with S.E. Feinberg

Deep Dive: An AllMusicBooks Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 25, 2022 18:29


In the first part of our chat with S. E. Feinberg about his book “Southern Man: Music and Mayhem in the American South,” which he co-authored with Alan Walden, we focused on the legendary work Walden did with R&B artists such as Otis Redding, Sam & Dave, and Percy Sledge.. It wasn't always peaches and cream: the music business is tough. But after following his passion for R&B and building the careers of many of the legends in the genre, Alan Walden needed a break. In Act Two, author S.E. Feinberg tells us how Alan was renewed by the music of The Allman Brothers Band. Listening to hundreds of bands, he discovered Lynyrd Skynyrd and The Outlaws, amongst others and helped define the sound of what would become known as “Southern Rock.”