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Top-Thema mit Vokabeln | Deutsch lernen | Deutsche Welle
60 Jahre deutsch-französische Freundschaft

Top-Thema mit Vokabeln | Deutsch lernen | Deutsche Welle

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 24, 2023 2:44


Aus Feinden sollten Freunde werden: 1963 unterzeichneten Charles de Gaulle und Konrad Adenauer den Élysée-Vertrag. Die deutsch-französische Freundschaft hält bis heute – steht aber vor neuen Herausforderungen.

Teamistry
Part 5: Rising from the Ashes

Teamistry

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 23, 2023 37:25


In the late afternoon of July 25th, 2000, a Concorde crashed into a hotel near Charles de Gaulle airport. Air France flight 4590 was carrying 100 passengers, most of them tourists from Germany, along with a crew of nine. All perished, including four people on the ground. The incident shocked the globe, and halted Air France Concorde operations indefinitely. On this episode of Teamistry, host Nastaran Tavakoli-Far and lead producer Pedro Mendes sit down with the team of engineers who played a leading role in piecing together the evidence from the crash site, hoping to learn exactly what went wrong. We gain insights through cockpit recordings and an interview with a friend of the pilot who tells the story of the crash – and its aftermath – truthfully and respectfully. We also address a common myth that the crash spelled the end of Concorde.Guests in this episode:Jonathan Glancey, author of 'Concorde: The Rise and Fall of the Supersonic Airliner'Michel Polacco, French aviation reporter, and author of a book on the Concorde in FrenchMike Hall, Chief Engineer for Concorde Support OperationsKatie John, Editor of Mach 2 magazineJohn Britton, Chief Engineer of the British Concorde fleetYves Gourinat, former Airbus employee during Concorde's last decade, and currently an Aviation professor at the University of Toulouse.Ricky Bastin, Technical Liaison Engineer at Concorde.For more on this episode, visit: https://www.atlassian.com/blog/podcast/teamistry/season/season-4/rising-from-the-ashes.

Le Nouvel Esprit Public
Retraites : une réforme mal accueillie / La relation franco-allemande

Le Nouvel Esprit Public

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 22, 2023 60:01


N°281 / 22 janvier 2023Connaissez-vous notre site ? www.lenouvelespritpublic.frUne émission de Philippe Meyer, enregistrée au studio l'Arrière-boutique le 20 janvier 2023.Avec cette semaine :Nicolas Baverez, essayiste et avocat.Matthias Fekl, avocat et ancien ministre de l'Intérieur.Marc-Olivier Padis, directeur des études de la fondation Terra Nova.Michaela Wiegel, correspondante à Paris de la Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung.RETRAITES : UNE RÉFORME MAL ACCUEILLIELe 10 janvier, la Première ministre a présenté les différentes mesures de sa refonte controversée du régime de retraites. Le recul de l'âge légal de départ de 62 ans actuellement, à 64 ans d'ici à 2030 sera couplé à un allongement de la durée de cotisation, qui interviendra plus rapidement que prévu : il faudra avoir cotisé quarante-trois ans dès 2027 au lieu de 2035 pour obtenir une pension de retraite à taux plein. Ce nouveau système actera par ailleurs « l'extinction des principaux régimes spéciaux ». Le minimum de pension sera relevé à 85 % du smic net, « soit près de 1 200 euros par mois dès cette année », pour les futurs retraités ayant une carrière complète, mais aussi pour ceux d'aujourd'hui. Un dispositif « carrières longues » sera préservé. Afin de favoriser le maintien au travail des seniors, le gouvernement veut créer un « index seniors ». Concernant le facteur pénibilité, les trois critères abandonnés en 2017 (port de charges lourdes, postures pénibles et vibrations mécaniques) devraient être réintégrés, sous réserve d'un examen médical. Les périodes de congés parentaux seraient désormais prises en compte. Selon le ministre de l'Économie, la réforme des retraites pourrait rapporter 17,7 milliards d'euros aux caisses des retraites d'ici à 2030 et pourrait créer 100.000 emplois d'ici à 2025. Selon ces calculs, l'exécutif disposera d'une cagnotte de 4,2 milliards d'euros pour financer des mesures d'accompagnement, dont quelque 3,1 milliards d'euros serviront à financer les départs en retraite anticipés pour inaptitude ou invalidité.Plus de deux tiers des Français (68 %) sont défavorables au report de l'âge légal, même à 64 ans, selon un sondage IFOP pour Fiducial. Dès l'annonce du plan, les dirigeants des huit grands syndicats (CFDT, CGT, FO, CFE-CGC, CFTC, UNSA, Solidaires et FSU) ont appelé avec succès à une première journée de grève et de manifestation le 19 janvier. Les organisations syndicales sont opposées à tout relèvement de l'âge légal, estimant qu'il affecterait surtout les plus modestes, qui ont commencé à travailler tôt et ont déjà leurs trimestres à 62 ans. La droite, qui avait affirmé être prête « à soutenir une réforme » des retraites, à « quelques conditions », s'est dite « satisfaite d'avoir été entendue » par le gouvernement, notamment quant à la chronologie du report de l'âge de départ à la retraite et à la revalorisation des petites pensions. Le syndicat patronal Medef a salué « les décisions pragmatiques et responsables » tout en se disant « opposé au principe d'un index seniors ». Pour le leader de La France insoumise « la réforme Macron-Borne, c'est une grave régression sociale », tandis que le premier secrétaire du Parti communiste français a dénoncé un « projet brutal de recul de l'âge de départ en retraite ». La présidente du Rassemblement national a fait part de sa « détermination pour faire barrage » à la réforme « injuste » des retraites présentée par la Première ministre.***LA RELATION FRANCO-ALLEMANDE Ce dimanche à Paris, on célèbre le 60e anniversaire du Traité de l'Elysée, colonne vertébrale de la relation franco-allemande, signé le 22 janvier 1963 par le Général de Gaulle et le Chancelier Konrad Adenauer pour sceller officiellement la réconciliation entre les deux pays. Cérémonie à la Sorbonne ce matin, suivie d'un Conseil des ministres franco-allemand à l'Élysée. Celui-là même qui avait été reporté fin octobre sur fond de dissensions bilatérales, et de glissement du cœur de l'Europe vers l'Est avec la guerre en Ukraine qui bouleverse l'équilibre du moteur franco-allemand.Les motifs d'incompréhension, voire de discorde, sont apparus depuis qu'Olaf Scholz a succédé à Angela Merkel en décembre 2021, notamment sur le prix du gaz, le nucléaire, le Système de combat aérien futur ou la défense antimissile européenne - pour laquelle Berlin prône une solution concurrente de celle de Paris. Emmanuel Macron n'a pas apprécié d'avoir été écarté de la visite du chancelier allemand à Pékin, le 4 novembre. Il n'a pas non plus été informé à l'avance de la mise en place d'un plan d'aide allemand de 200 milliards d'euros pour compenser la crise énergétique. Olaf Scholz reproche au président français d'avoir tué dans l'œuf le projet de gazoduc MidCat (Midi-Catalogne), soutenu par Berlin. En matière d'énergie, l'Allemagne a choisi une politique de transition vers le tout renouvelable, couplée au gaz, tandis que la stratégie française repose sur le nucléaire qu'Emmanuel Macron veut renforcer avec de nouveaux EPR. En août, à Prague, le chancelier a dessiné sa vision de l'Europe, comprenant de nombreux points de convergence avec celle d'Emmanuel Macron, mais sans mentionner une seule fois l'axe franco-allemand. Derniers incidents en date : Emmanuel Macron a annoncé la livraison de chars de combat légers à l'Ukraine le 4 janvier, sans crier gare, conduisant Berlin et Washington à sortir du bois avec la même annonce le lendemain, puis le 17 janvier, à Davos, la présidente de la Commission européenne Ursula von der Leyen a détaillé la réponse de la Commission européenne à l'Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) américain, avec notamment la création d'un fonds commun pour soutenir les industries vertes et un assouplissement temporaire du cadre des aides d'Etat. Une solution défendue par Paris, mais critiquée par Berlin.Afin de rapprocher les points de vue, après Olaf Scholz, les partenaires de la coalition allemande ont été conviés pour la première fois à l'Élysée et Élisabeth Borne a pris le chemin de Berlin le 25 novembre. Un groupe de quelques Françaises et Français, dont le diplomate Maurice Gourdault-Montagne, et notre ami Matthias Fekl, a pris l'initiative de créer une Académie franco-allemande de Paris, comme il existe une Académie de Berlin depuis 2006.Il se murmure que le travail entamé à Paris en janvier pourrait aboutir à une visite d'État du président français en Allemagne l'été prochain.Vous pouvez consulter notre politique de confidentialité sur https://art19.com/privacy ainsi que la notice de confidentialité de la Californie sur https://art19.com/privacy#do-not-sell-my-info.

Was jetzt?
Deutschland und Frankreich in der Beziehungskrise

Was jetzt?

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 22, 2023 12:05


Heute vor 60 Jahren, am 22. Januar 1963, unterzeichneten Charles de Gaulle und Konrad Adenauer den Élysée-Vertrag und besiegelten damit die deutsch-französische Freundschaft. Anlässlich des Jubiläums ist Bundeskanzler Olaf Scholz (SPD) in Paris und trifft Frankreichs Präsidenten Emmanuel Macron. Aller Freundschaft zum Trotz ist das Verhältnis der beiden Länder zuletzt auch von Differenzen und Alleingängen geprägt – insbesondere in der Verteidigungspolitik. Matthias Krupa (https://www.zeit.de/autoren/K/Matthias_Krupa/index.xml), ZEIT-Korrespondent in Paris, ordnet ein, wie es um die deutsch-französische Freundschaft gerade steht. Ende des vergangenen Jahres hat der Hype um ein neues Computerprogramm begonnen: Es geht um den Bot ChatGPT, der auf Befehl Texte aller Art erstellt und mathematische Aufgaben lösen kann. Jakob von Lindern (https://www.zeit.de/autoren/L/Jakob-von_Lindern/index), Leiter des Digital-Ressorts von ZEIT ONLINE, stellt die Fähigkeiten von ChatGPT vor, erklärt aber auch, wo die Grenzen und Risiken der KI liegen – denn der Bot wird nicht nur das Lernen und Arbeiten grundsätzlich verändern. Alles außer Putzen: Sack-Sammlung, Giraffen-Galerie oder Bratwurst-Beschauung - das sind die kuriosesten Museen Deutschlands (https://www.zeit.de/entdecken/2017-12/kuriose-sammlung-privat-museum-deutschland/komplettansicht). Moderation und Produktion: Elise Landschek (https://www.zeit.de/autoren/L/Elise_Landschek/index) Mitarbeit: Paulina Kraft **Weitere Links zur Folge:** - Élysée-Vertrag: So kamen wir uns näher (https://www.zeit.de/2023/03/elysee-vertrag-deutschland-frankreich) - ChatGPT: So macht künstliche Intelligenz auch Ihr Leben besser (https://www.zeit.de/digital/2023-01/chatgpt-kuenstliche-intelligenz-arbeit-alltag-tipps) - ChatGPT: Ausgebeutet, um die KI zu zähmen (https://www.zeit.de/digital/2023-01/chatgpt-ki-training-arbeitsbedingungen-kenia) - ChatGPT: "Schüler müssen wissen, wie künstliche Intelligenz funktioniert" (https://www.zeit.de/2023/04/chatgpt-kuenstliche-intelligenz-schule-uni)

Was jetzt?
Deutschland und Frankreich in der Beziehungskrise

Was jetzt?

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 22, 2023 12:05


Heute vor 60 Jahren, am 22. Januar 1963, unterzeichneten Charles de Gaulle und Konrad Adenauer den Élysée-Vertrag und besiegelten damit die deutsch-französische Freundschaft. Anlässlich des Jubiläums ist Bundeskanzler Olaf Scholz (SPD) in Paris und trifft Frankreichs Präsidenten Emmanuel Macron. Aller Freundschaft zum Trotz ist das Verhältnis der beiden Länder zuletzt auch von Differenzen und Alleingängen geprägt – insbesondere in der Verteidigungspolitik. Matthias Krupa (https://www.zeit.de/autoren/K/Matthias_Krupa/index.xml), ZEIT-Korrespondent in Paris, ordnet ein, wie es um die deutsch-französische Freundschaft gerade steht. Ende des vergangenen Jahres hat der Hype um ein neues Computerprogramm begonnen: Es geht um den Bot ChatGPT, der auf Befehl Texte aller Art erstellt und mathematische Aufgaben lösen kann. Jakob von Lindern (https://www.zeit.de/autoren/L/Jakob-von_Lindern/index), Leiter des Digital-Ressorts von ZEIT ONLINE, stellt die Fähigkeiten von ChatGPT vor, erklärt aber auch, wo die Grenzen und Risiken der KI liegen – denn der Bot wird nicht nur das Lernen und Arbeiten grundsätzlich verändern. Alles außer Putzen: Sack-Sammlung, Giraffen-Galerie oder Bratwurst-Beschauung - das sind die kuriosesten Museen Deutschlands (https://www.zeit.de/entdecken/2017-12/kuriose-sammlung-privat-museum-deutschland/komplettansicht). Moderation und Produktion: Elise Landschek (https://www.zeit.de/autoren/L/Elise_Landschek/index) Mitarbeit: Paulina Kraft **Weitere Links zur Folge:** - Élysée-Vertrag: So kamen wir uns näher (https://www.zeit.de/2023/03/elysee-vertrag-deutschland-frankreich) - ChatGPT: So macht künstliche Intelligenz auch Ihr Leben besser (https://www.zeit.de/digital/2023-01/chatgpt-kuenstliche-intelligenz-arbeit-alltag-tipps) - ChatGPT: Ausgebeutet, um die KI zu zähmen (https://www.zeit.de/digital/2023-01/chatgpt-ki-training-arbeitsbedingungen-kenia) - ChatGPT: "Schüler müssen wissen, wie künstliche Intelligenz funktioniert" (https://www.zeit.de/2023/04/chatgpt-kuenstliche-intelligenz-schule-uni)

InterNational
Le Traité de l'Elysée : 60 ans de coopération Franco-allemande.

InterNational

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 22, 2023 4:15


durée : 00:04:15 - Café Europe - par : Stéphane Leneuf - C'est aujourd'hui le soixantième anniversaire du traité franco-allemand. Un traité signé le 22 janvier 1963 entre le Général de Gaulle et Konrad Adenauer. Un accord qui a permis d'approfondir la relation franc allemande, même si elle a connu des hauts et des bas.

Ideas Untrapped
Why Education, Electricity, And Fertility Matter for Development

Ideas Untrapped

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 21, 2023 81:36


Welcome to another episode of Ideas Untrapped. My guest today is Charlie Robertson, who is the chief economist of Renaissance Capital - a global investment bank - and in this episode we talked about the subject of Charlie's new book, "The Time-Travelling Economist''. The book explores the connection between education, electricity, and fertility to economic development. The thrust of the book's argument is that no poor country can escape poverty without education, and that electricity is an important factor for investors looking to build businesses. It also explains that a low fertility rate helps to increase household savings. Charlie argues, with a lot of data and historical parallels, that countries need at least a 70-80% adult literacy rate (defined as being able to read and write four sentences in any language) and cheap electricity (an average of 300 - 500 kWh per capita) in order to industrialize and grow their economies rapidly. Small(er) families (3 children per woman) mean households are able to save more money, which can improve domestic investments by lowering interest rates - otherwise countries may repeatedly stumble into debt crises. We also discussed how increasing education can lead to higher domestic wages, but that this is usually offset by a large increase in the working-age population - and other interesting implications of Charlie's argument.TRANSCRIPTTobi;The usual place I would start with is what inspired you to write it. You mentioned in the book that it was an IMF paper that sort of started your curiosity about the relationship between education, electricity, fertility, and economic development. Generally. So, what was the Eureka moment?Charlie;Yeah, the eureka moment actually came in Kenya, um, because I'd already done a lot of work showing how important education was. It's the most important, no country escapes poverty without education. So I'd already made that clear and there wasn't much debate about that. Perhaps there was a debate about why some countries have gone faster than others, but there wasn't much debate about that. The second thing I was very clear on was electricity, which kept on coming up in meetings across Sub-Saharan Africa, Pakistan, [at] a number of countries, people kept on talking about the importance of electricity. But the eureka moment came when somebody pointed out to me that Kenya, where I was at the time, couldn't afford to build huge excess capacity of electricity, which I was arguing you need to have. You need to have too much electricity, so that it's cheap and it's reliable.And then investors come in and say, "great! I've got cheap educated labour, and I've got cheap reliable electricity. I've got the human capital and the power I need, that then enables me to invest and build a business here." And the question then was, well, why was it so expensive in Kenya but so cheap in China? Why was the cost of borrowing so high in Nigeria but so cheap in Morocco or Mauritius? And when I was trying to work out where did the savings come from in China, uh, well I was looking globally, but China's the best example of economic success and development success we've seen in the last 50 years. Over half the answer came from this IMF paper saying, actually it came from their low fertility rate. That's over half of the rise in household savings, which are massive in China, came about because the fertility rate had fallen so dramatically.And I then thought, could this possibly be true for other countries as well? Could this help explain why interest rates are so high in Nigeria or Kenya and so low elsewhere? And the answer is yes. So this book, The Time Travelling Economist is bringing all of these three things together - the fertility rate, the education rate, and electricity - to say not just how countries develop, cause I think I've answered that, but when they develop. Because once we know those three factors are key, we can then work out the when. Not just in the past [of] countries, but also in the future. Um, so that's where this came from.Tobi;I mean, we're going to be talking about each of those factors over the course of this conversation, but another question...some would say boring question, but I know how development economists and economists generally always try to defend their turf, you know, around issues like these. So, has anybody like taking you to task on the causal link between these three factors and development? And how would you defend yourself against that were it to be asked?Charlie;I haven't found anyone yet who's argued successfully against these points. Um, the closest criticism I get, and just to say, you know, this book came about off the back of three key reports I did in 2017 on education, 2018 on electricity, and 2019 on fertility and savings. So I've now been talking about these ideas for three to five years. The book only came out in July, 2022, bringing them all together. But in five years I haven't had pushback other than people ask, "is it not correlated?" You know, "is it not perhaps economic growth leads fertility declines or boosts savings?" And I think I show really clearly in the data that "no." Um, the fertility declines give us the growth. You don't get growth without adult literacy of at least 40%, you certainly don't get industrialization until literacy is at 70 to 80.So, you know, I'm looking at the data and I think it's pretty crystal clear that you've gotta get these other things right first before your economy can take off. And I can't find any counter-examples. Except, I mean there's the inevitable few, those countries like Qatar or Kuwait with huge amounts of energy exports per capita or diamonds in Botswana's case. And there you don't have to get everything right before you get wealthier because you just happen to be lucky to have huge amounts of energy exports per person and a very small population. But they are a bit of an exception. I think you could probably argue that they do grow first before they get everything else right. But for the vast majority of the planet and all countries in history, it's the other way around. You gotta get education, power, fertility rates in the right place to take off.Tobi;So I mean, getting into the weeds, let's look at education first. Before your book, personally for me, and I should say what I really like about your book is, it's well written, it's an interesting read. It comes across as a bit less analytical, which is what you get from the standard development literature, you know, and I think that's partly because you are writing about a lot of the countries that you have also worked in and interacted with a lot of these factors. So it really gives it a first-hand experience kind of narrative. So I like that very much. So prior to your book, if someone were to ask me about the relationship between education and economic development or catch-up growth, generally, the reference usually goes to Studwell's big claim, Joe Studwell, that: Yeah. You don't really need a super high level of education metrics for a country to industrialize because the standard explanation is that how a relatively poor country starts industrializing is from the low-skill, uh, labour-intensive, low-skill manufacturing jobs, that you don't need a high level of education and skill for you to be able to do that.So what I wanna work out here is what is the transmission mechanism between adult literacy and industrialization the way you've, like, clearly analyzed in your book?Charlie;Well, thank you very much for saying it was nicely written, I appreciate that. I wanted to try and make it as accessible as possible. Yeah, I think Joe Studwell's books are really good and I think he's right that you don't need a high level of education to do that first step out of rural poverty, subsistence farming into a textile mill. I think what's interesting is how many people writing about development forget how important just adult literacy actually is, because we've taken [it] so much for granted. So Adam Smith, who wrote The Wealth of Nations, the father of economics back in the 18th century in Scotland, he didn't make a big deal about adult literacy driving growth. And more recently, you know, people like Dani Rodrik have echoed exactly that saying you don't need any great education to work in a textile mill. You just need to be dextrous with your fingers. Which is almost exactly actually what Adam Smith said 250 years ago. And I was sympathetic to that, but I then kept on seeing in the data, well, first of all, I found this theory written in the sixties that said that no country has industrialized even to that first basic level of textiles without adult literacy being about 70 to 80% of the population. Which means basically all adults, all men, plus well over half the female population as well. And this was the theory written in the sixties and when I looked at the data, it was proven right and I couldn't quite understand why - if you just need dextrous fingers to work in a textile mill, why would there be that link? And I ended up talking to a guy who ran Levi's factories in Asia in the 1980s and he said, “Charlie, just think about it.”You've got this box of Levi's jeans coming down the conveyor belt. Do you put that box onto the truck labelled United States or that truck labelled Europe for export? And if you can't read and write, you won't even get that right. So the adult literacy thing I think is overlooked. People are focusing on secondary school, high school education, how much [many] university graduates a country needs and they do need graduates too. But until you get to that 70 to 80% adult literacy, textile mills don't go to a country. And we can see that they did go to China in the nineties when they got to adult literacy of 70%. They are in Southeast Asia. They're in Bangladesh since education hit about 70 to 80% in the last 10 to 15 years. But they're not big in sub-Saharan Africa, or at least in parts of Nigeria or the Sahel or West Africa because the education levels still aren't there yet. So, you know, I looked as far back as I could go to the 19th century and even the first non-European country to take off, Japan, had an adult literacy rate of about 70% by 1900 and 20 years later, they had a thriving textile industry. The education always comes first. And Korea copied that Japan model in the 1950s and sixties, Taiwan, Hong Kong, all the rest [of] Southeast Asia's followed. Now, South Asia's doing it and luckily it's spreading across Africa too. But the adult literacy is the first essential step.Tobi;One possible objection. And I haven't seen this anywhere, but I couldn't really get it out of my mind while I was reading that part of the book is that some will argue that increasing education also increases domestic wages and that is really a problem for industrializing. And, if I recall, one particular point that the anonymous economic historian on Twitter, Pseudoerasmus, made particularly about Asia, is they were able to combine a very high adult literacy rate - a measure which you use is completion of secondary education…Charlie;Yeah.Tobi;With very unusually low domestic wages. What role do wages play in your analysis?Charlie;I think that's the norm actually. It connects to the fertility thing. And I'm not sure if you want to jump there just yet, but what tends to happen when you've educated your population is that the fertility rate drops a lot. And when that happens, the number of people who have to stay at home looking after 5, 6, 7 children goes down a lot too. Women can go into the workforce and of course cause you've got the education, right? Those women are educated so they can join the industrial workforce as well. So very roughly, if we say there's a hundred people in Nigeria, 50 kids and 50 adults, let's say 25 of the adults have to be staying at home to look after 50 kids, you're talking 25% of the population can go out and work of the overall population. You go to Asia today and it's more like 70% adults, say 30% of kids.So you need maybe 15% of adults to stay at home. And you end up with something like 85% of the whole population can go out to work instead of 25%. Now, the consequence of that is a massive rise in the working-age population. And I think that that keeps industrial wages low for a few generations, in fact. Or at least three decades. Probably 40 years, where the education's come through, the fertility rates come down, you've got this huge excess supply of labour, which is then joining the industrial workforce and getting jobs. But because there keeps on being more people joining that workforce, it keeps wages relatively low. Now, what eventually happens then after a few decades is that that big increase in the workforce stops increasing as fast. We've seen this in China in the last 20 years. So, 20 years ago China's per capita GDP was about fifteen hundred dollars, $1,500.Whereas now, now the population has stopped growing. Working age population's shrinking. It's gone up to over $11,500. It's gone up tenfold. So the big reward for industrialization comes later. And we had this in Europe of course in the 19th century, you know, wages were pretty awful and industrial working was pretty awful experience in the 19th century. I mean it paid slightly better than rural subsistence farming, which is why people came to the cities. But London was a horrible place for the vast majority of people. And the industrial workhouses were terrible places as well. And that lasted for generations. It's only when that big population, kind of, boom stories started to shift that labour eventually got any bargaining power. Cause when there was too much labour coming into the market, they had no bargaining power with the factory owners. It wasn't until the 1870s that the trade unions became legal in, say, the United States. Because up till then, you know, "you join a union, I fire you," you know, could be what the factory owner would say in the United States, cause there's always gonna be another person I can employ. But once the workforce starts to gain a bit of bargaining power, cause it's not expanding quite so fast, then finally wages start to pick up. So I think what's happened in Asia is pretty normal and will probably be the experience that we've seen across Africa as well.Tobi;Inevitably this will take us into what it means to be educated, really. Because a lot of countries, I mean it's pretty much standard - they say, Oh yeah, we want invest in education. Um, we know it is important for human capital. We know how important it is to have an educated population and all that. You talked about some data challenges also for some countries in your book. So what I wanna ask here is what exactly does it mean to be educated in the sense that you are talking about in the book?Charlie;Yeah, this is a really fair question. Why am I talking about adult literacy? The definition is can you read and write four sentences in any language? Sentences like "farming is hard work." So it's not a very high threshold and I wouldn't argue, I don't think you would, that it's highly educated. It's just educated enough to put that box of jeans onto the right truck when it's going to America or Europe. But all that's doing then is taking your country's per capita GDP from your per person kind of wealth from say $500 a year, a thousand dollars a year to the kind of two, $3,000 a year level. It doesn't mean you've got the education levels you need to get to the $10,000 per capita GDP level growth or 20 or 50 or even a hundred. Um, to get to the 10,000 level, I think you probably need very good secondary school education as well.And to get to the $20,000 per capital GDP level, you're talking a lot of graduates coming out of university and you need to have that education then spreading throughout the population, both broadening and deeper education as well. And that is a process that takes decades. I mean I focused quite a bit on Korea because it was one of the most successful models and then China came along and did it even faster. But what Korea prioritized in the 1950s was getting that adult literacy rate from 35% or so, too low even to grow sustainably, to about 90% they said by 1960. So in about 10 or 15 years they got it from 35 to 90 and that was enough then to have textile mills do really well in the 1960s and they became a manufacturing country, an industrialized country by the early 1970s.But already then the government said, right, we need more engineers, we need graduates coming out of university to do heavy industry, to do cars, shipbuilding. But Korea had no cars or shipbuilding at the time, nothing significant. So they were changing the university focus from, kind of, the arts or law towards engineering and the sciences before they had the economic sectors that they were trying to promote. And then about 10 to 20 years later, all these graduates were then in the economy and ready to start up companies like Deawoo, Hyundai, Kia, Samsung. And they started small obviously in the 1980s and early nineties. But this kind of sequential thinking about it meant that Korea kept on having the right human capital at every stage of development. So my book's trying to focus on, you know, why hasn't Pakistan got all the textile factories?Why does Bangladesh have them? Why doesn't Nigeria have them? Why does Vietnam have them? And this is saying first you've gotta get that sequencing right of everybody ideally being literate, everybody having had school up to 11 years old and come out with a good standard of education. On the quality issue you just raised, the problem here is a couple of things. So I mean firstly people sometimes just make up the data and say, yes, my population is literate when it's not. But secondly, when you try and kind of shoehorn a hundred kids into one class to say, you know, they're all going to school now, but you've only got one teacher, you are not coming out with a good education at all. You might not even be coming out literate at all. So that, you know, I'm also trying to warn that governments can't do this on the cheap. Or not completely. They have to take it seriously and say, look, we actually need to make sure everyone really is coming out able to read and write. It's not just trying to tick a box to say everyone's at school.Tobi;Hopefully, we'll circle back to policy questions around this later. Let's talk briefly about electricity, which as you say, once you start investigating these factors, then you start teasing out what's what for each country. And the way you introduce that is [that] there are some countries with very high adult literacy rates but still weren't getting the benefits - like [the] Philippines, which was your example in the book. And it turns out what was missing in that particular case was electricity generation. But first I want you to make one distinction for me quite quickly. Cause it's funny, I was reading David Pilling's brief coverage of your book in the FT and he talked about the fertility part being controversial and I wonder that people miss the obvious controversy in electricity, but we'll get to that. So, now, is it really about investment in electricity that is often missing in countries that can't quite manage to get it right or the way their electricity market is structured? I know you are quite familiar with Nigeria and it's really a big, big, big debate that we've been having for, I don't know, like 20 years. So, some people will say you need very large upfront investment, possibly by the government, in generating capacity transmission, machinery and co. We argue, oh no, you really need to restructure the electricity market first. People have to pay for what they use. You need to restructure the tariff system, blah blah blah, blah, blah. What are your thoughts?Charlie;Um, big issues. And there is a debate. There're so many debates about this actually. There's the debate about whether you need a big national grid, big national generation and distribution companies or whether you can have localized electricity. Um, you are getting a couple of points though that I think it's easier to say some answers to. And one of them was to do with getting people to actually pay their bills. Certainly a problem in Nigeria, apparently, you know, discos will say that because there hasn't been good metering and despite privatization that those meters have not been rolled out. I know the government's promising to roll it out to all 10 million account holders now, but because there hasn't been metering, you can't charge necessarily the fair price for the amount of electricity people have used. So then people don't wanna pay. So then the discos are losing money, then they can't pay the generators and this then becomes a problem.And I think there is a case to say that if the generators can sell some power directly to some big companies, that could be one way around part of the problem. So in a place like Lagos, very similar to the Philippines in the 20th century, good educated population just held back by a lack of cheap reliable power. You know, I think if Lagos could have its own electricity story, it would be a phenomenally successful economy. It should be over the next three or four decades. So there is a case about how you structure this. But I found two or three things interesting when I was looking into this issue in 2018. And the first was just clarifying that it really is electricity that people need more than say transport infrastructure. You know, this is a survey the world bank had done and the only countries where they've said transport infrastructure was the bigger problem was countries where there wasn't an electricity problem because there's so much of it.So countries, where there's a load of electricity, say yes we need more transport infrastructure, but everybody else says we have to have the electricity first. So then it's a question of how do you roll that out in a way that makes money and supports development? And there is a... I think, a problem at the moment with well-meaning policies from people like the United Nations or the African Development Bank saying everybody should have access to electricity. But my point in the book is, and Adam Smith said the same thing in the 18th century, you want your infrastructure to be making money not losing money. You need to make sure that if you're going to supply people with a road or a bridge or electricity, that they can pay for it. And if you start building stuff that loses you money because people can't pay their bills, then you'll end up with an uneconomic electricity system which can't function properly and can't give industry what it needs.And what I try to emphasize in this is that every country from America and France in the 1920s to Turkey in the 1960s or seventies to Korea in the 1970s, every country has said, okay, let's make sure we've got electricity for industry first. Profitable, makes money, and then households over time? Yeah, okay, we'll connect them over time, but only when they can start affording to pay for electricity. It's not another subsidy that governments can't afford, we just can't do that. [This] is what every other country's done. But at the moment I do see this pressure for electricity systems to try and roll out universal access and so, in places like Kenya that's putting the whole electricity system under financial pressure because it's hurting their profits. And if you're trying to roll out cheap electricity to households, well how do you pay for that?Well, government subsidies partly, but the other way to pay for it is to make industry pay a high price. But if you're making industry pay a high price industry won't come. They'll go to Asia; where they get a low price for electricity. They're not going to go to somewhere that's got a high price. Cause no company's gonna say, I just wanna subsidize households getting electricity. Companies are coming to build stuff in countries because they'll make a good profit from doing so. So I think you've raised a number of issues there, you know, is localized electricity good, and so on? You know, what should you be prioritizing first - industry or households? And there's a whole host of issues. But I hope I've answered that.Tobi;Actually, that's the controversy I was referring to at the beginning of that question because the background that is, it'll be a very, very tough sell in the current political climate, for example in Nigeria, for any person aspiring to public office to make this argument that you have to power industry first. What it's going to sound like is: you are just trying to prioritize the rich and trying to exclude some people from what, like you said, has come to be framed as a universal basic right. You talk to a lot of small businesses, even individuals, like you mentioned with the World Bank Survey, the importance of electricity is so paramount on everybody's mind that if there's stable electricity, I can start X and Y businesses. I could make money and, I mean, no one needs the government for anything else. Just give us electricity.Charlie;Yeah.Tobi;So my point is practically… thinking about this practically, how do you think a sensible government that is not trying to bankrupt itself prematurely can manage this situation?Charlie;Well, I think it's hard work. Um, how did the Koreans do it in the sixties or the seventies or the eighties? They gave you no right to protest - military government. How did the communists do so well at getting this industry first, households later? How did they get it right in China or Russia? Same thing. You've got no rights to protest. "Your interests don't matter, we're thinking 10 to 20 years ahead how to make our country better off and how to make everyone better off. So you suffer now because we are gonna prioritize business." So that is one model. I'm not recommending it, I'm just saying it is a model that can be done. The other way is to allow it to be done by the private sector. And if you let the private sector roll out electricity, they will not supply electricity to people who won't pay their bills.And that is the story that you saw in western Europe, it's the story you saw in the States, and to some extent you're seeing actually in Kenya. There's quite an interesting company there called M-KOPA. And M-KOPA will sell you, well, they'll lend you, they'll lease you, a solar panel, a little one that you can put on your - actually, a friend of mine was showing it to me the other day in Uganda...they put it on the straw roof of the mud hut and that solar panel, you pay a monthly fee and after about 18 months you've paid for the panel, you've also got energy during that time enough to supply a mobile phone and so on, lights a little bit, and then it's yours and that's effectively privatizing that rural distribution story. But I think the difficulty is that politicians find it really hard to do this.And part of what I'm writing about in the book is how really hard it is for governments in a country with no savings, big population growth, to constantly meet all of the different demands. With huge population growth you're having to build new schools all the time, you have to hire even more teachers all the time. You've got population pressure, maybe, causing clashes over agricultural land like the Fulani herdsman in Central Nigeria, Northern Nigeria as well. And all of these pressures are on you all of the time. And there's constant demand to spend more on bridges, on hospitals, on education, on security. And what you can't afford to be doing is making a loss. And so I think what politicians need to do is say, we've gotta sequence this right. The same thing as with education. It's no good having a million university graduates if a country isn't literate enough to have an industrial base, you've gotta have the literacy first.And equally, it's no good having electricity rolled out to every household when there are no factories for people to go and get the jobs they need to be able to pay the electricity bill. And it's not easy. I, I totally understand it's not an easy situation for anyone to be in. The difficulty is [that] because it's not easy, too many political leaders will take what appears to be the easy option of saying, "I tell you what, let's just go and borrow a load of dollars offshore. Nigeria's going to go and issue a lot of dollar debt and we'll use that to try and sort these problems out." Kenya's done the same, Ghana's done the same, Pakistan's done the same. And the risk then is that you end up in default situations. So that feeds into one of the other chapters in the book as well.But I think it's very difficult. I think realistically governments need to say, what can we do here? And this is how long it's going to take. And it's going to be not a five-year story, it's going be a 20-year story, a 30-year story to get it right. And people, sadly, need to be patient, which is hard; when for generations people have been waiting for things to get much, much better and little progress has been made, relatively little progress has been made compared to Asia and that causes a lot of political frustration. I think.Tobi;I mean, speaking about Asia and I mean your point about taking away the right to protest, I think Africa and Nigeria sort of missed that window when we had military governments everywhere. So, uh, let me give you one experience I've had in trying to discuss your book with friends. So I get two reactions to the fertility section.It's almost automatic, you know, when you discuss fertility being at a certain level and I try to, you know, successfully argue your point, you get two strands of reactions in my experience, one goes immediately to the China issue - the one-child policy; that, "oh, so are you trying to say we should do what China did?" The other slightly more technical objection I get goes to the relationship between population growth and economic growth that is quite pervasive in the growth literature. Did you also experience that while writing the book and debating with colleagues?Charlie;Now I'll take each point in turn. Um, the China one-child policy story helps explain this massive rise in Chinese savings and then their very strong growth. What I'm trying to show in the book, of course, is that every rich country has seen a fertility decline. And what I'm arguing is probably the right sort of level for countries to aim for is about two to three kids on average. I don't care if people have five kids or one kid, it's just as a country the average of two to three kids is consistent with a very high, well, a big jump in the level of sayings. And with those savings, you can then industrialize and grow, and grow fast. Um, China I think actually made a mistake. I think China got it wrong by going for the one-child policy because they kind of turbocharged that story, that story that every rich country has got, of lower fertility, it took a really long time in Europe. I mean it took a really, really long time in Europe and that's why Europe had the slowest growth of any industrial revolution. It was done faster by the communism [they had] in Russia and they did faster growth and we've done even faster in China. But the consequence of this one-child policy and what the Chinese have discovered is it's bloody hard to get the fertility rate back up again once you've had one kid. I was talking to a Chinese professor on a plane back from Asia once and she was saying all of her friends, they can't get married, they can't stay married. They get married and they can't stay married because they're all used to being a one-child kind of princess or prince in the family who gets everything they want and then they try married life and they discover as you might well know, that you never get everything you want in a marriage, and you have to compromise.And it's certainly created a problem now that China can't get the kids, they can't raise the fertility level and it's not just China that's discovered that once you've got a low fertility rate, too low, I think of one, you have a problem raising it. Again, Italy's had the same problem, Iran, uh, Russia. So I think China did it too fast. And you certainly don't need to do it and loads of other countries show you that just aiming for that two to three kids figure really helps your economy and gets you onto the path to being middle-income and then a rich country. So I don't think you need to do the China one child. No. Um, the second issue, the population growth versus economic growth. What I show, what we did in this was we looked back at every country's growth rate since 1960 and I compared the per capita GDP growth, the per personal growth of an economy, it's the best way to measure how well an economy itself is really doing. And I compared that growth rate against the share of adults to kids that I was talking to you about a little earlier.Tobi;Yeah.Charlie;And where it's 50-50 roughly, between adults and kids, per capita GDP grows at 1% and that was the story of Asia in the sixties and seventies. It's still the story for a good number of countries including Nigeria today. So per capita GDP growth is about 1% when half your population can't work because they're kids. But once you get two-thirds of the population being adults, your average per capita growth in lower-income countries by half of America's wealth level, so not even lower-income, lower or middle-income countries, your per capita growth, and it averages three to 5% a year. So the structure of your population tells you what your per capita GDP growth is. So it's just... I can't see that there's any other way to explain this than you've gotta get that fertility rate down first before you can start to get the high per capita GDP growth. Um, and it's connected to the savings, of course; cause once you've got two kids instead of six, you're saving money in the bank, the bank starts to have more cash to lend out. There's more money for lending for investment. The government can borrow more cheaply so it can build infrastructure, roads and rail, electricity and cheap electricity cause interest rates are low cause the savings are high because most families are able to put some money aside at the end of the week. But that doesn't happen when 50% of the population are kids. They're not earning any money, they're not saving anything and the poor parents are trying to manage to feed five, six kids on average. You know, they've got nothing left at the end of the week to put into a bank.So the bank's got no cash. So interest rates are really high cause there's no money in the bank. Um, so money's really expensive. So the government can't afford to invest in infrastructure and if it does build electricity it has to charge a lot of money cause it's having to pay a lot of interest on the debt it's taken on. So to me, I've yet to find someone demolish the argument and uh, you know, it could happen.Tobi;Yeah.Charlie;But so far it seems you've got to get the fertility rate down first if you want to get fast growth. Now if you don't want to grow at three, four, 5% a year, you could do it really slowly like Europe did and you grow at say, one and a half, two, eventually, you get from European farming in 1800 to factories that are producing not great stuff by 1900, a hundred years later. But when I'm looking at Nigeria today, I don't want Nigeria to be waiting a hundred years to be doing what Europe took a hundred years to do. I also don't think the Chinese model of it taking 30 years, 20, 30 years but then having a population problem of being too old, I don't think that's the right solution either. But there's somewhere in between. At the moment though, Nigeria's on that long growth story, it's not yet ready for the faster growth storyTobi;On the China question, um, thinking about your answer there, is extremely low fertility or what they say "fertility below the replacement rate" a feature of the kind of explosive growth 30, 35, 40-year trajectory that we've seen in Asia. Because if you look at Korea, Korea even have worse demographic numbers than China and there was no draconian population policy, but it's kind of gone through this explosive growth phase that is even faster and bigger than China's.Charlie;Well, it's been going on for longer. So what the Koreans got right was they raised their adult literacy rate to, you know, they said about 90% by 1960. China, despite being communist and communists tend to say they really appreciate education, didn't get to over 70% literacy until 1990, sometime in the early 1990s, which is 25, 35 years later than Korea. Uh, so Korea was already booming in 1970 at a time when China was having the catastrophic mistakes of the cultural revolution and really bad growth and people feared mass famine. Well many, many did die in China in the sixties. So what I would argue is that Korea had a slower fertility decline and the growth rates were not as fast as China's but they've been growing for 50, 60 years already. So Korea's two to three times richer than China is today. But as you say, they're so ageing that they're gonna be the oldest country in the world by 2030.And what's gonna get interesting then, and I can't really answer this in the book cause we haven't seen it yet, but what's interesting about Korea and we're going to have to watch it carefully, is that you are going to end up with, not 70% adults and 30% kids, it'll be less and less working-age adults, maybe 60%, I dunno maybe eventually 50% and it'll be 50% kids and old age pensioners who can't work. And my guess is that Korean growth is going to slow back to about the 1% per capita growth that Nigeria's got at the moment because Korea's going to be too old. You know, and that's not something that I think people should be thinking about or worrying about. [People should be thinking about] Pakistan, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa at the moment. It's [Korea is] just not a...you know, that's a problem to worry about in 50, 60 years. But it is going to be interesting to watch what does happen to growth in really old countries. Um, can pensioners actually still do work? You know, maybe they end up retiring at 70 or 75 or 80, I dunno. It's gonna be quite interesting to see.Tobi;So I mean the question then is, uh, for countries that have fertility rates that are higher than what you described in the book.Charlie;Yeah.Tobi;It then becomes how do we get it to the point where domestic savings start going up, interest rate for the domestic investment environment then benefits from that virtuous cycle. You talked about access to uh, reproductive interventions like contraception, also education, which takes us to where we started this conversation from, especially the education of women and girls, generally. I was taking a look at David Le Bris recently where he was talking about equality between siblings and inequality between siblings and how it affects the overall capital formation, whether it's physical capital or human capital in the society. So my question then is, do you see individual sort of personalized household decision-making affecting this more or it is sort of a national policy thing?Charlie;When it's something as important as family, you know, the individual decisions matter a huge amount. And as I said earlier, I've got no issues with anyone doing what they choose to do. But that big family story, I was just talking to a former minister, actually, of a... former finance minister of a country and he's got five kids, he's saying that he's been able to help fund them go to university, but he can't afford to help them buy a house cause he just hasn't got the cash. And I thought that was a really interesting example of even in a wealthier country, you know, it still matters how big that family is. You know, when I looked into this on how do you get the fertility rate down and there's been quite a lot written about it. I don't have a magic or a single answer, but the theories are first: girls if they're staying at school until they're 18, versus girls who leave school at 13. If you leave school at 13, perhaps you have your first kid at 14, maybe a second kid at 17, third kid at 20. But if you stay at school until you're 18, perhaps the first kid's at 20. So already you've reduced the fertility rate by two just by keeping girls at school. And the key figure, but just kind of remind, well tell people is the key figure is at about three to four kids per woman on average, the banking system has got deposits cash in it of about 35% of GDP, at four to five kids, it's around 30, 25 to 30. At five to six kids, which is where Nigeria is, it's about 20% of GDP. Um, so 20, 30, you know, these sort of levels. If you get to two to three kids though, if you get it below three kids, it more than doubles to about 60% of GDP.That's when banks suddenly have loads of cash. When banks have got loads of cash, there's loads of lending, suddenly access to finance isn't a problem anymore. So how do you get it below three kids? So you educate girls, there's an incentive when women are educated for them to work cause they can start to make decent money in a textile factory that you can't do unless you've got that literacy. Um, the government just telling people that low fertility is a good thing is shown to have some success. From Indonesia to India, these kinds of government campaigns suggesting lower fertility rates have made a difference. The third thing, which really surprised me cause it's such a strong correlation, is [to] stop kids [from] dying. And I was pretty upset, actually, to see the numbers where, for Nigeria, you've got a 10% chance, just over a 10% chance of dying before the age of five because you're born in Nigeria. And when I was comparing that to Covid - which the world spent, what, trillions trying to fight - with a fatality rate of about one or 2%, you think of those with more than a 10% chance of dying just before the age of five in Nigeria. Anyway, it's kind of shockingly high, but when you have such a high chance of losing a child, you tend to have more children and the correlation is really quite strong. So, if you can try and address infant, [and] young child mortality rates, which doesn't cost that much, you can see countries with Nigeria's wealth level that have a mortality rate of not over 10%, but five or even 3%. And usually, countries with such a low mortality rate then have a much lower fertility rate as well. So, people tend to have less kids when they are more confident that all their kids are going to survive childhood. So, some investment in basic healthcare for children, education of girls, contraception availability, yes it does help, and government information campaigns. You put those things together and then you get a country like Bangladesh. Bangladesh which had the same population as Nigeria about 15 years ago. But today Nigeria's got tens of millions more. But Bangladesh is growing as fast as India. Bangladesh's per capita GDP is over $2,000. And it keeps on growing at six, seven, 8% every year. Because they have on average two kids per woman, they've got savings, they don't have much foreign debt because they don't need to borrow dollars from abroad to fund their growth, because they've got their own savings, because the fertility rate is low. Muslim Bangladesh: tremendous success story over the last two or three decades.Tobi;You sort of made allowances for countries that can't quite get their savings right up to the levels where they can get the desired domestic savings and really positively affect their investment environment in a big way. And you talked about debt in the book, which would be familiar to anybody that's been in the new cycle about Nigeria currently, which is that government revenue has collapsed. Debt servicing is rapidly approaching a hundred percent of what the government can collect. And it's only a matter of time before we are talking about a debt crisis. But, like you said, a debt crisis is, like, unavoidable if you're trying to grow and you don't have to requisite domestic savings to sort of mitigate that. But this inevitably brings in the question of debt restructuring which, again, some would also argue does not help you grow. So, in terms of just the sheer macroeconomics management of this, how do you go about it?Charlie;It's tough. The book's arguing, obviously, that a whole chunk of this stuff is really long term. You got to get the education right. So, you've got to have enough teachers and that takes, well, at best Korea did it in 15, 20 years. But even if you've got the education, then you've got to get the fertility rate down. And that takes at best 10 years to get it down by about two kids per woman. Nigeria's at 5.3 kids or so at the moment. It needs to be below three to have the local savings. So, we're talking at least 15 years, even if every priority was made today to try and improve education, do all this reproductive education and so on. So, the governments then have the choice of what do you do? I mean, if you're going to wait 15 years, you can grow at 1% a year per person. But you'll find the population is getting pretty cross because you've got all these other countries in the world growing at three, four, 5% per person every year. You know, why is my country growing at one [percent]? So, the politicians then...[it] becomes so attractive to go out and borrow and, you know, every country, not every single one, but the vast majority of debt defaults in the second half of the 20th century were in high fertility countries. The fertility rate I think was around, on average, five - five kids per woman was the average fertility rate in countries that defaulted in the second half of the 20th century. Wherever they were in the world. A lot of them were in Latin America in the debt crisis of 1980s. So firstly, debt crises are really common in high fertility countries because governments say I want to speed up my growth and they borrow when the markets let them.And we've certainly seen that in Africa in the last 10 years too. And then they borrow too much and then they go into default and then they can lose maybe a decade. And that is what happened in Latin America in the 1980s. But the alternative is to only grow at 1% a year. And yeah, you can avoid debt default. I'm not saying every high fertility country defaults. I'm saying almost all the countries that have defaulted are high fertility. So, you can settle for the low growth but if you don't want to settle for the low growth, the debt becomes a very attractive way to try and get faster growth. But it causes a problem. I end up finding roughly two other ways that you can try.Tobi;Okay.Charlie;And grow faster. Is it okay to jump on to those?Tobi;Yeah, go ahead please.Charlie;Yeah. First is to try and bring in as much foreign investment as you can. Cause you haven't got enough local savings, you don't want to take on too much debt cause eventually you'll default. So, you can try and make yourself very attractive for foreign investors. Foreign direct investors. The only problem with that model is that those foreign direct investors do also want their cheap electricity and the good infrastructure that unfortunately high fertility countries haven't got the money to pay for. So, it's difficult to get in a lot of foreign direct investment. Foreign direct investment in China, I was just reading a really good book by David Lubin, who's the chief economist of Citi for Emerging Markets and he did a book called Dance of the Trillions. Highly recommend, it's brilliant on emerging markets. And he says FDI suddenly started in China in the 1990s. Now, I know why. My book is explaining why I think, which is you finally had a literate population, 70% literacy and you also had the low fertility rate. So, you had the high savings, you had the good infrastructure. But the FDI didn't come 10 years before into China. It only really picked up in the 1990s. So, the point of then is, I mean yeah, try and get some [FDI] if you can, but the last option that I can see other than to just, perhaps, try to go full Stalinist, kind of communist, take control of every part of the economy. But even that still education and low fertility really helps... Um, the last option which any country can do is to run a current account surplus, I think. Have a currency level that's so cheap that you are running a trade surplus. A current account surplus, which is obviously trade plus services and remittances and so on.If you've got a surplus on that current account, you are bringing dollars into the economy and those dollars help reduce interest rates. And Nigeria saw that actually in 2005, six, seven and eight when the oil price was booming. Nigeria had that flood of dollars coming into the economy. Interest rates were really low below inflation and investment was relatively cheap and easy to finance. Now it's a problem to manage when it's a commodity-driven boom because commodities then bust. So, all that flood of money that came in suddenly disappeared again, you know, once the oil price collapsed there wasn't that current account surplus anymore. But if you run a cheap currency policy to make sure you always run a current account surplus, then that helps give you that supply of savings that you can then use to start investing. So that seems to me one of the few ways that a low-income country that's got not enough local savings, doesn't want to wait forever until its fertility rate's down [and] low enough to build the domestic savings, this is one way that looks sustainable that can bring in some foreign cash to help support growth.Tobi;But one minor aside on FDI and you can really correct me here if I'm wrong, wouldn't that really be a bit unstable? Because if you have loads of FDI, if other indicators are really working in your favour and at the slightest hint of a crisis, all that money then flows out.Charlie;Yeah. Well, I'll just differentiate between foreign direct investment and foreign portfolio investment. And, again, David Lubin's book is very good on this because the Washington consensus, which is this set of policies that were drawn up by policy makers around 1989, 1990, it said countries should welcome foreign direct investment. Building factories that it's pretty hard to move out of the country, that that should be welcomed. But when the original guys who drew up the Washington Consensus wrote down the kind of 10 principles, they weren't that keen on foreign portfolio investment. This is the hot money that will include a lot of my investors who will come in and buy shares in companies in the Nigerian Stock Exchange and might come in and buy bonds. And I think it's fair to say that that money can leave in times of trouble and doesn't really support...isn't necessarily as supportive [of growth] and that money we count on the capital account because it is foreign capital.What I was talking about on the current account surplus was obviously the trade surplus, the remittances, the services and so on. So, I think it's more debatable. I think a number of countries have restricted foreign portfolio flows into equity market or the bond market. And if they've got other things going for them, like a low fertility rate, they can kind of get away with that. Um, what I'm highlighting is that for some countries they just don't have that choice. And when America was short of capital in the 19th century, it was British capital that went over and built their railways, that bought all the shares in their infrastructure companies. The Brits owned America for much of the 19th century and then the French actually owned most of Russia. Uh, the railways and the ports and some of the industry, the coal mines [were] very significantly owned by French investors, portfolio funds, and portfolio guys are there to make money as well. You know, they're there to make profit and if you're making good profit, five, 10% a year or whatever sitting in Nigerian equity market, people will stay, and it won't leave. They'll be happy to stay there for many, many years as people are and have been doing in India, actually, since India's education fertility and electricity numbers have all come together in the last 10 years in a really good way. Foreign portfolio guys are saying, "Hey, we wanna put our money into the Indian stock market too." And Indian shares are pretty expensive right now because of that. But the money doesn't want to leave. It'll leave when policy mistakes are made but fundamentally doesn't want to leave. However, I don't deny that there is a reasonable argument you can make to say we're going to choose foreign direct investment, we're going to be more restrictive on foreign portfolio investment. Because that can be more volatile. It can leave quicker. And I wouldn't argue with that. Well, I mean we could debate it, but I think it's harder to prove that you must have foreign portfolio investments to thrive. I think the current account surplus is a better policy choice because it's in your control. Foreign portfolio investors and what they do, that's not in your control.Tobi;One question that stayed with me throughout your book, which is a bit silent in the book itself, maybe it's implied, you can tell me, is that it's really difficult to find a country at any particular point where all these three factors align at the same time. Where you have the requisite adult literacy rate, electricity and fertility, they rarely align at the same point in time in the history of any one country. Because your book did not really distinguish between any particular political preference or institutional arrangements, which I like that, but what institutional arrangement favours the consistency for all these factors to sort of come together, uh, in the economic history basically of a country. Because we know that political leaders tend to favour what benefits their ambition at any particular point in time, you know? And a lot of these things are investments that do pay off in the long run, you know? Like we talked about on savings, a lot of political leaders would want to borrow a lot of money and then leave the debt crisis to the next administration.Charlie;Yeah. Yeah. Happens a lot.Tobi;Yeah. You know, and so many other things, whether you are investing in electricity or education or whatever, they don't really want to do the hard work. They want to do the easy stuff and just leave it to the next guy.So, what institutional arrangements have you found in your observation and study of this that favours the patient consistent build-up to the alignment of these three factors?Charlie;I think it's really, um, it's kind of interesting actually because in each chapter I try and say which countries are at the right place for industrialization, education, which countries are at the right place for electricity, and which countries are at the right place for fertility. Perhaps I didn't properly bring that together in one chapter at the end to say, "so, who's the fast growth story?" But right now, the countries that have brought them together are Vietnam, India, Philippines, Indonesia, Bangladesh, and I think those five countries, Morocco actually six, um, those six countries should be the countries that will show the really good growth for the next 30 to 40 years. Um it's going to be great. And I'm then trying to highlight who's closest to joining them on a 10 year view. Um, Pakistan and Egypt both got big debt problems right now, but five to 10 years they could be joining that group as well and Ghana and actually Kenya and I would argue southern Nigeria could be, could be there in the 2030s.Um, so I am trying to say when they come together. The question you are asking, though, about institutions or perhaps leadership and so on, I think is a really important one because I guess this book in lots of ways is an argument against Why Nations Fail, which was a really interesting book; and [it] said it is all about institutions and the right institutions and that's why if you walk a kilometre across the US border into Mexico, things are run so very differently. It's got to be the institutions, that book argues, that makes the difference between a country succeeding or not. And what I'm arguing is that I don't think that's true. I think you appear to have the good institutions when everything else is running well and you appear to have the terrible institutions when you don't have the education or you don't have the electricity or you don't have the low fertility or worst of all, you haven't got any of them.So, a country that hasn't got any of them, like Niger, Chad, Somalia, you know, these are countries in a terrible place. But I'm saying that they can't have good institutions cause there's no money in the economy, there are not enough educated people in the economy. There's just no way that you're going to get a good setup in those countries. And actually, even at the beginning when, at the first 10 years or so, when you've got these things all coming together, you still don't think the institutions are good. You know, you go to India today, people don't think, "wow, this is a brilliantly run civil service. It's so uncorrupt[ed]." Such wonderful institutions everywhere. They don't say that. They don't say that about Philippines' Duterte, the president who's been just recently retired, by people who were worried the institutions found it difficult to control his populism. And yet Philippines boomed under Duterte, and India's boomed under Modi and countries like Korea boomed even with a level of corruption that means in the last 10 years we've seen four presidents go to jail for corruption.Um, so I argue that the better institutions come afterwards and that's why four presidents have gone to jail in Korea because they're now getting the institutions better. And I read a really good book about why democracies die by some American academics about three or four years ago now. I recommend it. And they pointed out that Latin America, across Latin America, they just copied the American institutions. They said, look, what's working in the Americas is North America. It's United States, they've got it right. Let's copy their institutions, we'll put them into my country, be it Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina, whoever. And then they discovered that actually if the human capital is not as advanced, people will undermine the institutions. And you arguably saw Trump try it in the United States itself, but the human capital and the rest of the place was good enough to stop him from going too far.This is all debatable stuff, but you know, this is... So, I think the institutions do work when everything else has been working for some time and before then it's very hard to argue that the institutions work or can make a huge difference. I think the fundamental economic reality of are you growing at 1% a year or three to 5% a year per capita? That isn't about the institutions. Having said all of that? I think there's no doubt that you can have, if you're lucky, very lucky, really good leadership. A leader like Lee Kuan Yew in Singapore, who has got vision, understands or is lucky, but he prioritized education and all the rest, who gets it right and takes the country onto a new path. When I think of some of the most obvious successes, a lot of them are small Singapore, Hong Kong, even Taiwan really.And maybe it's just tougher to do it in a country the size of Nigeria with over 200 million people or, or uh, India with over a billion, which is why it took India so long or Brazil. But I remember even the French president, Charles de Gaulle, I think in the sixties or seventies said, "how is it possible to govern a country with 350 types of cheese?".Um, and in India you'd say, "how can you govern a country of over a billion people with that many different dialects, different customs, different local cultures?" Um, and it is hard, but once you get these fundamentals of education, electricity and fertility right, suddenly, it looks like you can govern well. So, I want to think there is a role for good leadership, um, and it can make a difference and it does help. I just think history's telling us over the last 300 years that we can't count on luck and that lucky guy who happens to be the right leader to come in, sometimes woman who can come in, and push reform in the right way. What we can count on is that if you get the education, electricity and fertility numbers right, you will get out of poverty, you will get better off and your kids will have a much, much better future and your grandchildren even more so.So, I think that's probably one area [where] my book differs from many in the last 10, 15 years is saying, "I don't think it is so much about the things that we all like to pay attention to [like] who's going to win the next election and what are their different policies going to be?" And you know, most of the time I'm arguing it doesn't really make as much difference as we'd like to think.Tobi;Now, another point that came in the later chapters in the book, which I found interesting, and which is quite also a bit of a political issue right now, surrounds migration. Uh, a lot of Nigerians are leaving, I mean it's become even a social media trend and meme - "who is...Charlie;The Japa trend.Tobi;Who is leaving next, uh, yeah, yeah, Japa. So, like, who is leaving next, you know? Right. But you argued in the book that as countries grow richer, there will be more migration not less because what you often hear is that the reason why people are living is because the country is so bad and they're looking for a way to make better lives for themselves, which is true anyway. So, and that the way to really stop this migration wave is if you can improve the domestic economy and then suddenly you see a drop, but you are saying no, um, we are actually going to see more migration as countries grow richer. Now, how do you suppose that this can be resolved with the current, should I say, political environment in Europe and to some extent in America that is increasingly seeing migration from poorer countries as a problem, right? Is it a case of as countries grow richer, then the migration demographic just, sort of, changes to more educated people leaving and less tension and political rancour about migration?Charlie;Um, I doubt, I mean, I doubt that these political problems about immigration in Europe and The States are going to disappear. Cause we've seen election results just in the last two, three weeks in Italy with the far right becoming dominant, in Sweden as well. Where they took in a huge amount of, I think, it was Syrian refugees and before that Somalian refugees. Um, and you're trying to integrate people coming from a country with very low adult literacy into, particularly in Somalia's case, into a country like Sweden, which had a hundred percent, nearly a hundred percent adult literacy already by 1900. That's an integration process that takes generations. As America's still struggling 150 years after civil war, still struggling to manage integration. So, I think that political problem is going to carry on, but it is going to get more acute for Europe, um, and eventually United States because Europe is this aging old continent that hasn't got enough people.I was in Germany two weeks ago and there, there was a surprising number of industrialists saying "we must have a much more open border situation." I said, well, you know, that'll be really interesting to see if you do that because the backlash that we're seeing elsewhere says there is a limit to what countries politics seem ready to accept. And, I think, I even think the Brexit vote was about that. It was about the East European migration into the UK, which had the most open approach to east European countries from Poland and Hungary and Czech coming to the UK. Every other country in Europe kept in a border, well, restrictions, but the UK didn't. And I think that backfired on the UK when it had a Brexit vote that said, "oh, we have too many Polish people eating sausage in our supermarkets. And I, I, yeah, I mean really people cared.I don't understand it. I love the variety obviously, but while I don't understand, while I don't feel the same, [some] people do. So, I think that's the political problem. And even educated people who are needed by the economy might find it hard to integrate, say, beyond the bigger urban centres. I was really shocked when I was writing the book and I was looking at what happens when you've got an educated population but a high fertility rate. What happens across history is people leave. Cause there aren't enough jobs at home. Cause the fertility rate's so high, there's thousands, millions of people coming into the workforce. The savings aren't there to help create the jobs. So, they leave and it's the Philippines, you know, in the 20th century, it's Pakistanis now, where a number of people are well educated, not everyone sadly. But 150 years ago, it was Ireland, and it was Norway, and they were sending their excess population to America, and it caused huge controversy.There was, you know, rioting between, kind of, the Italian immigrants and the Irish immigrants in New York. T

Global News Podcast
Alec Baldwin to be charged over fatal shooting

Global News Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 19, 2023 27:04


The actor is being charged with involuntary manslaughter over a cinematographer's death on a film set. Also: scientists say light pollution has reduced the number of stars we can see, and bringing back to life General de Gaulle's BBC war time broadcast.

Europe 1 - Hondelatte Raconte
Hondelatte raconte - L'année 1960 - 4/5

Europe 1 - Hondelatte Raconte

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 19, 2023 50:47


Toute cette semaine, on continue à se promener en 1960!Au menu de ce 4èME volet :- le Général de Gaulle croule sous les honneurs- la naissance du Prince Andrew, le 3ème enfant de la Reine- la fin du monde prévue pour le 14 juilletEt un couple qui disparaît dans les égouts…

Europe 1 - Hondelatte Raconte
Le général a disparu - Le récit

Europe 1 - Hondelatte Raconte

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 15, 2023 26:14


L'histoire incroyable de la fuite du général de Gaulle à Baden-Baden, en Allemagne, en plein mai 68 racontée de l'intérieur.

Witness History
World's first tidal power station

Witness History

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 13, 2023 8:59


The world's first tidal power station is on the estuary of the River Rance in France. It was opened in 1966 by President Charles de Gaulle and has been capturing the natural power of the oceans' tides and turning it into electricity ever since. Alex Collins hears how the project to build it was a cause for national pride and how the facility is now a tourist attraction, as he speaks to Brittany historian Marc Bonnel. (Photo: La Rance tidal power station. Credit: Getty Images)

E o Resto é História
Estados papais: o que são e como duraram mil anos?

E o Resto é História

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 11, 2023 46:50


A histórias dos estados papais até ao seu desaparecimento em 1870, o porquê de existirem ainda vários microestados na Europa e o veto do general de Gaulle à entrada do Reino Unido na CEE em 1963See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

Géopolitique, le débat
Malgré les tensions, retrouver le souffle du moteur franco-allemand

Géopolitique, le débat

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 8, 2023 50:00


Les bouleversements de 2022 nous accompagnent encore en 2023. La guerre en Ukraine qui sévit depuis le 24 février de l'année passée se poursuit…et avec elle, son lot d'interrogations concernant l'Europe. Et parmi celles-ci, la relation franco-allemande, véritable pilier de l'Union Européenne que le Brexit, sortie de la GB de l'UE a rendu encore davantage incontournable.  Entre Berlin et Paris les sources de discorde -qui ont toujours existé- se sont particulièrement multipliées ces derniers mois alors que les initiatives franco-allemandes ont longtemps permis à cette Union européenne d'avancer. Au point que l'on s'interroge désormais sur le leadership franco-allemand, volontiers contesté par les pays Baltes et la Pologne, que la guerre en Ukraine a placé sous les projecteurs. Regard sur la relation franco-allemande à quelques jours du soixantième anniversaire du traité franco-allemand dit aussi traité de l'Elysée, signé le 22 janvier 1963 par le Général de Gaulle, Président de la République Française et par Konrad Adenauer, chancelier de la République fédérale d'Allemagne. Edition en partenariat avec la Revue Internationale et Stratégique  «(RE)PENSER LA RELATION FRANCO-ALLEMANDE» Invités :  Hélène Miard-Delacroix, Professeure d'histoire et de civilisation de l'Allemagne contemporaine à Sorbonne Université. Présidente du Centre Interdisciplinaire d'Etudes et de Recherches sur l'Allemagne (CIERA).   Jacques-Pierre Gougeon, Historien et germaniste, ancien conseiller culturel à Berlin et à Vienne. Directeur de Recherche à l'IRIS.   Gaspard Schnitzler, chercheur à l'IRIS et co-directeur de l'observatoire de l'Allemagne. 

Highlights from On The Record with Gavan Reilly
Hidden Histories: Charles de Gaulle in Ireland

Highlights from On The Record with Gavan Reilly

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 8, 2023 13:23


On this day in 1959, a hero of the Second World War, Charles de Gaulle, became President of France. What followed was a decade of real turbulence, ultimately leading to his resignation a decade later in 1969. Upon leaving, De Gaulle most unexpectedly made for Ireland. While we're used to foreign Presidents visiting for a day or two, De Gaulle spent a remarkable six weeks in Ireland, walking the beach, attending mass and visiting the sights. On what was to be his first and only visit, the fallen leader nonetheless captivated the Irish people, who encountered him as a Private Citizen. Gavan is joined by Donal Fallon for another episode of Hidden Histories to discuss.

Ici Rennes
[Raconte-moi Rennes] Le général de Gaulle en Gaule

Ici Rennes

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 6, 2023 10:10


Entre 1940 et 1969, le Général de Gaulle est venu à 8 reprises dans la capitale bretonne. Raconte-moi Rennes revient sur ces petites histoires qui ont contribué à forger la grande !

Le Nouvel Esprit Public
Si vous l'aviez manquée : De Gaulle, thématique avec Julian Jackson / n°278 / 1er janvier 2023

Le Nouvel Esprit Public

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 1, 2023 61:15


Connaissez-vous notre site ? www.lenouvelespritpublic.frUne émission de Philippe Meyer, enregistrée au studio l'Arrière-boutique le 15 novembre 2019.Avec cette semaine :Julian Jackson, historien britannique et biographe du général de Gaulle.Nicolas Baverez, essayiste et avocat.François Bujon de l'Estang, ambassadeur de France.Michaela Wiegel, correspondante à Paris de la Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung.« DE GAULLE » PAR JULIAN JACKSONJ'ai trouvé dans les mémoires du diplomate et journaliste libanais Salah Stétié cette appréciation sur le commandant de Gaulle, rédigée par le général de Bigault du Granrut lorsque de Gaulle quitta son poste au Liban : "Depuis deux ans que je peux l'apprécier dans les fonctions de Chef du 3ème Bureau de mon état-major, je n'ai cessé d'éprouver pour l'ensemble des qualités intellectuelles et morales qu'il possède une estime mêlée d'admiration. Sur la valeur guerrière je n'ai pas besoin d'appuyer, ses blessures, le reste de ses citations se passent de commentaires. J'insiste sur les mérites hors pair de ce soldat qui développe par un travail constant les qualités qu'il a conscience de posséder. Il sait d'ailleurs les faire apprécier avec discrétion, gardant en toutes circonstances une attitude réservée, empreinte d'une correction toute militaire. Beau soldat, ce sera un beau chef, qu'il y a intérêt pour le bien de son armée et de toute l'armée à pousser rapidement aux hautes situations où il donnera sa pleine mesure et ne décevra pas."2020 marquera un triple anniversaire : les 130 ans de la naissance de Charles de Gaulle, les 50 ans de sa disparition et les 80 ans de l'appel du 18 juin. Pour nous y préparer, c'est le citoyen d'un pays avec lequel le général a entretenu des rapports pour le moins contrastés, la Grande Bretagne. Professeur Julian Jackson, vous enseignez à Queen Mary, University of London, vous êtesun spécialiste de l'histoire de la France au XXe siècle. On vous doit notamment, « La France sous l'occupation 1940-1944 » aux éditions Flammarion et vouspubliez aux éditions du Seuil « De Gaulle. Une certaine idée de la France ouvrage salué par la critique britannique, américaine et française et couronné du Duff Cooper Prize.» Pour cette biographie, vous vous êtes appuyé sur de nombreux fonds documentaires, lettres, et livres, et sur les archives récemment ouvertes de la présidence de la Ve République, ainsi que de celles de Michel Debré.La personnalité rugueuse du Général constitue une donnée essentielle pour comprendre un itinéraire parfois chaotique. Courageux, déterminé, mais aussi colérique et ingrat, Charles de Gaulle parait un homme pétri de contradictions : « un soldat qui passa le plus clair de sa carrière à critiquer l'armée ; un conservateur qui s'exprimait souvent comme un révolutionnaire ; un homme de passion incapable, ou presque, d'exprimer des émotions » Si le général de Gaulle s'affirmait guidé par « une certaine idée de la France », vous montrez que cette idée était sujette à d'importantes variations selon une dialectique toute bergsonienne qui cherche « à établir l'importance de l'intuition par rapport à l'intelligence analytique, de l'élan vital contre la doctrine figée ».Vous pouvez consulter notre politique de confidentialité sur https://art19.com/privacy ainsi que la notice de confidentialité de la Californie sur https://art19.com/privacy#do-not-sell-my-info.

Canal B - Le Cinéma est mort
Le Masque, la Plume et des Cacahuètes, Top/Flop 2022 ( Part 1)

Canal B - Le Cinéma est mort

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 31, 2022 60:00


Au casting de notre marathon radiophonique annuel, notre intérimaire de choc (et collègue de bureau) Jules Topok, et deux immigrés clandestins en provenance directe de la célèbre émission En attendant Goldman, DocErwan Cadoret et Thomas Kiki Gombaud.Dans cette première émission, on cause du cinéma du pays au 258 fromages, la France du général de Gaulle.On en parle trop peu mais vous pouvez nous filer un peu de caillasse ici, ça nous permettra (entre autres choses) de boire des bières de meilleure qualité.Nos tops de l'année (cliquez sur les films pour écouter les émissions où on en a causé)Etienne C.Antonin M.As Bestas de Rodrigo Sorogoyen RRR de SS Rajamouli Vortex de Gaspar Noé Avatar 2, la voie de l'eau de James Cameron Au cœur des volcans - Requiem pour Katia et Maurice Krafft de Werner Herzog    RRR de SS Rajamouli / Avatar 2, la voie de l'eau de James CameronAs Bestas de Rodrigo SorogoyenEnquête sur un scandale d'état de Thierry de PerettiArmageddon Time de James GrayNightmare Alley de Guillermo Del ToroPacifiction d'Albert SerraLes Passagers de la Nuit de Mikaël HersRien à foutre d'Emmanuel Marre et Julie LecoustreLa Légende du roi crabe d'Alessio Rigo de Righi et Matteo ZoppisLes Enfants des autres de Rebecca ZlotowskiErwan CadoretThomas GombaudLeila et ses frères de Saeed Roustaee As Bestas de Rodrigo Sorogoyen Vortex de Gaspar Noé La Conspiration du Caire de Tariq Saleh Dédales de Bogdan George Apetri/ La Légende du roi crabe d'alessio Rigo de Righi et Matteo Zoppis Armageddon Time de James Gray Les Nuits de Masshad d'Ali Abbasi Licorice Pizza de PTA / Enquête sur un scandale d'état de Thierry de Peretti Decision to Leave de Park Chan Wook Nightmare Alley de Guillermo Del Toro / Bruno Reidal de Vincent Le Port   Apollo 10½: A Space Age Childhood  de Richard LinklaterLa Légende du Roi Crabe d'Alessio Rigo de Righi et Matteo Zoppis)Jackass Forever de Jeff TremaineAmbulance de Michael BayIl Buco de Michelangelo FrammartinoTop Gun: Maverick de Joseph KosinskiRRR de S.S. RajamouliLa Petite Bande de Pierre SalvadoriAs Bestas de Rodrigo SorogoyenIrma Vep – The Serie d'Olivier Assayas)Russia 1985–1999: TraumaZone : What It Felt Like to Live Through The Collapse of Communism and Democracy d'Adam CurtisAu cœur des volcans - Requiem pour Katia et Maurice Krafft de Werner HerzogJules Topok(Dans le désordre)Pacifiction d'Albert SerraArmageddon time de James GrayThe tragedy of Macbeth de Joel CoenLa Légende du roi crabe d'Alessio Rigo de Righi et Matteo ZoppisAfter blue, paradis sale de Bertrand MandicoVortex de Gaspar NoéEnquête sur un scandale d'état de Thierry de PerettiAs bestas de Rodrigo SorogoyenTriangle of sadness de Ruben OstlundBruno Reidal de Vincent Le PortAucun ours de Jafar Panahi 

La ContraHistoria
El proyecto Cherburgo

La ContraHistoria

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 24, 2022 12:50


En la década de los sesenta la armada israelí era de pequeño tamaño y estaba anticuada. El Gobierno identificó las necesidades y concluyó que necesitaban barcos rápidos que pudiesen atacar a la costa. Los encargó a un astillero de Bremen que hizo un diseño específico en función de lo indicado por los israelíes adaptando unas lanchas que había empleado la marina alemana en la guerra. Pero intervino la Liga Árabe y los alemanes se negaron a construirlos. Un astillero de Cherburgo, en Francia, aceptó, pero luego el Gobierno de Charles de Gaulle se negó a entregarlas arguyendo un embargo armamentístico tras la guerra de los seis días. Los israelíes no se amilanaron y fueron a Cherburgo a por ellas valiéndose de un ingenioso truco. · Canal de Telegram: https://t.me/lacontracronica · “La ContraHistoria de España. Auge, caída y vuelta a empezar de un país en 28 episodios”… https://amzn.to/3kXcZ6i · “Lutero, Calvino y Trento, la Reforma que no fue”… https://amzn.to/3shKOlK · “La ContraHistoria del comunismo”… https://amzn.to/39QP2KE Apoya La Contra en: · Patreon... https://www.patreon.com/diazvillanueva · iVoox... https://www.ivoox.com/podcast-contracronica_sq_f1267769_1.html · Paypal... https://www.paypal.me/diazvillanueva Sígueme en: · Web... https://diazvillanueva.com · Twitter... https://twitter.com/diazvillanueva · Facebook... https://www.facebook.com/fernandodiazvillanueva1/ · Instagram... https://www.instagram.com/diazvillanueva · Linkedin… https://www.linkedin.com/in/fernando-d%C3%ADaz-villanueva-7303865/ · Flickr... https://www.flickr.com/photos/147276463@N05/?/ · Pinterest... https://www.pinterest.com/fernandodiazvillanueva Encuentra mis libros en: · Amazon... https://www.amazon.es/Fernando-Diaz-Villanueva/e/B00J2ASBXM #FernandoDiazVillanueva #israel #cherburgo Escucha el episodio completo en la app de iVoox, o descubre todo el catálogo de iVoox Originals

Afrique Économie
Un vol direct d'Air Algérie vers Djanet rouvre le Grand Sud algérien

Afrique Économie

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 21, 2022 2:41


C'est sans encombre que, le 17 décembre 2022, le vol direct Air Algérie Paris-Charles-de-Gaulle/Djanet, le premier depuis douze ans a acheminé les premiers touristes enchantés de pouvoir rallier ainsi, en moins de quatre heures, cette destination. Un premier vol qui permet de rouvrir la perle du Grand Sud algérien.  Le 17 décembre, à 23 heures à l'aéroport Paris-Charles-de-Gaulle, en chaussures de trek et sac à dos, Julie Mater est fin-prête pour avaler les sables du désert : « Nous allons embarquer pour Djanet dans un vol inaugural que nous avons trouvé par le biais de Point Afrique, qui propose très nouvellement la destination de Djanet, qui est sortie de la zone rouge début décembre, nous confie-t-elle. Nous partons marcher quinze jours avec une équipe chamelière, nous partons en trek. On était déjà en Mauritanie avec Point Afrique. Tout s'est très bien passé, donc nous réitérons l'expérience. Nous n'avons aucune appréhension. » Vol de nuit, cap plein sud, tout va bien à bord. Soudain le steward prend la parole : « Mesdames, messieurs, notre atterrissage à l'aérodrome de Djanet est imminent. Pour votre sécurité et confort, nous vous prions de laisser vos ceintures attachées, de redresser le dossier de votre siège et de relever vos tablettes, merci. » Moins de quatre heures après le décollage, bienvenue à Djanet. À l'arrivée, le PDG de l'Office national algérien du tourisme, Tahar Aresky, ne cache pas son soulagement : « Pour nous, c'est un évènement très important, explique-t-il. C'est la première fois depuis pratiquement douze ans que l'on n'a pas eu un vol direct depuis Paris sur Djanet, ou bien Tamanrasset. C'est beaucoup pour des considérations que nous ignorons surtout en matière de vol direct. Et la population vit essentiellement du tourisme ici. » « Les touristes n'ont rien à craindre » Rétablir la confiance, c'est le défi que doivent relever les professionnels du tourisme. Le directeur de l'agence Tadrart Voyages, Abdelkader Hamid, a récemment rénové son hôtel de 280 lits, et dont s'enorgueillit Djanet : « Les années passées ont été très dures avec le Covid-19, et tout ce qui se passe dans le monde... ».   Pas d'appréhension à avoir pour les touristes : « Non, les touristes n'ont rien à craindre, assure Abdelkader Hamid. La sécurité est totale, on certifie à nos clients qu'ils peuvent venir. Et surtout, qu'ils profitent au maximum du vol Paris-Djanet. » Profiter au maximum, Julie et son mari en sont bien décidés, qui vont – qui sait – réveillonner dans le canyon d'Essendilène, époustouflant joyau du parc national du Tassili n'Ajjer. ► À lire aussi : Algérie : premier vol entre Paris et Djanet après une suspension de douze ans

Choses à Savoir
Emmanuel Macron pourrait-il se représenter en 2027 ?

Choses à Savoir

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 20, 2022 2:36


Élu à nouveau en 2022, Emmanuel Macron était le Premier Président, depuis Jacques Chirac, à entamer un second mandat. Seuls deux de ses prédécesseurs avaient, depuis les débuts de la Ve République, effectué deux mandats. À la vérité, seul François Mitterrand était parvenu au terme de son second mandat, le général de Gaulle ayant démissionné avant d'y arriver. Mais certains se demandent si l'actuel locataire de l'Élysée pourrait briguer un troisième mandat. En principe, la chose paraît impossible. En effet, l'article 6 de la Constitution de 1958, révisé par la loi constitutionnelle du 2 octobre 2000, semble très clair. Parlant du Président, il stipule en effet que "nul ne peut exercer plus de deux mandats consécutifs". Mais le doute est venu d'une récente décision du Conseil d'État. Ce dernier avait été saisi par le Président de la Polynésie française, Édouard Fritch. Il avait été élu à cette fonction en septembre 2014, après la démission de son prédécesseur, Gaston Flosse. Puis il avait été réélu, en 2018, pour un second mandat. Édouard Fritch exprime alors son intention de solliciter, en 2023, un troisième mandat. Or, la loi organique pour la Polynésie française, adoptée en 2004, est formelle: le Président du territoire "ne peut exercer plus de deux mandats de 5 ans consécutifs". Mais l'actuel Président pense tout de même pouvoir briguer un troisième mandat. En effet, son premier mandat n'a duré que 4 ans. De fait, il avait été élu pour succéder à Gaston Flosse, qui avait commencé son mandat, avant de démissionner. Édouard Fritch n'a donc pas exercé deux mandats consécutifs de 5 ans. Il aurait donc le droit de se représenter, ce qu'a admis le Conseil d'État. Emmanuel Macron pourrait imiter son exemple. Pour solliciter un troisième mandat, il lui suffirait d'écourter le second, en démissionnant quelque temps avant son terme. Il se retrouverait alors un peu dans la même situation que le Président de la Polynésie et, si l'on se réfère à la décision du Conseil d'État, pourrait peut-être briguer un troisième mandat. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

Ah ouais ?
LES ? DE L'INFO - Pourquoi Elizabeth II est-elle à l'origine d'une tradition des présidents français ?

Ah ouais ?

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 19, 2022 2:26


REDIFF - C'est une tradition à laquelle depuis Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, tous nos présidents sans exception sont fidèles. D'ailleurs le mot "fidèle" est un indice. Sous la Vème République, les présidents français ont toujours eu des chiens. Le Général de Gaulle avait un corgi baptisé Lutin, mais surnommé Rasemotte vu que ce chien était court sur pattes... Le corgi, c'était le chien préféré d'Elizabeth II. Normal, c'est la Reine qui le lui avait offert en 1954. Tous les jours à 6h50 sur RTL, Florian Gazan révèle une histoire insolite et surprenante, liée à l'actualité.

Choses à Savoir HISTOIRE
Pourquoi Félix Eboué est-il entré au Panthéon ?

Choses à Savoir HISTOIRE

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 18, 2022 2:30


En 1949, Félix Éboué (1884-1944) entre au Panthéon. C'est un honneur insigne car, on le sait, ce temple accueille les restes des hommes et des femmes dont la République entend célébrer la mémoire. Singulier destin d'un homme né, en Guyane, dans un milieu très modeste. À une époque où la couleur de peau pouvait représenter un sérieux obstacle à toute promotion sociale, Félix Éboué connaît une carrière brillante. Élève très doué, aussi bien en Guyane que dans la métropole, il devient administrateur colonial. Dans ses différents postes, tant à Madagascar que dans divers pays d'Afrique, il s'attache à améliorer la vie quotidienne des populations. Très soucieux du respect des traditions locales, il lutte aussi contre la discrimination. C'est ainsi qu'aux Antilles, où il est nommé en 1932, Félix Éboué organise un bal unique dans sa résidence officielle, où sont conviés aussi bien les blancs, les noirs et les métis. En 1936, il est élevé au rang de gouverneur. C'est le premier noir à accéder à une telle dignité. En 1938, il devient le gouverneur en titre du Tchad. Mais ce n'est pas ce brillant parcours de fonctionnaire colonial qui a permis à Éboué d'entrer au Panthéon. C'est bien plutôt le choix politique qu'il fait au début de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. En effet, Félix Éboué est l'un des rares gouverneurs coloniaux à rallier le général de Gaulle. Il est même le premier à le faire, puisqu'il proclame son allégeance au général dès le 18 juin 1940, le jour du célèbre appel. De Gaulle le considère donc comme le premier résistant de l'Empire colonial. En août 1940, Éboué prononce le ralliement officiel du Tchad à la France libre. C'est la première parcelle de l'Empire à la rejoindre, lui donnant ainsi une assise territoriale. En novembre 1940, Éboué devient gouverneur général de l'Afrique équatoriale française (AEF). Pour le récompenser de ses éminents services, de Gaulle, en janvier 1941, en fait l'un des premiers compagnons de l'Ordre de la Libération. On comprend dès lors que l'action de Félix Éboué lui ait permis de franchir les portes du Panthéon. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

Zeteo
Bernard Lecomte : Qui sont ces chrétiens qui changent le monde ?

Zeteo

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 17, 2022 68:17


Bernard Lecomte est un journaliste et un écrivain dont les œuvres et les articles sont connus du grand public, en particulier des lecteurs chrétiens. Après avoir longtemps écrit pour Le Figaro Magazine, L'Express ou La Croix, il a écrit de nombreux livres sur l'Église – en particulier sur Jean Paul II – comme sur la Russie, en particulier sur les coulisses du Kremlin qui a peu de secrets pour lui. En partant du constat du déclin du Christianisme en Europe, Bernard Lecomte dresse le portrait, dans son dernier ouvrage Ces chrétiens qui ont changé le monde, d'une douzaine de figures majeures qui donnent une raison de vivre et d'espérer. Des hommes et des femmes, religieux ou laïcs, politiques, artistes, intellectuels : autant de personnalités marquantes qui ne baissent pas les bras. Bien au contraire, des chrétiens qui bousculent, qui agissent et qui ont tous le point commun d'être habités par une foi renversante. Au micro de Zeteo, près de trois ans après sa première participation, Bernard Lecomte nous présente certains des héros de son livre. Son regard d'expert sur les enjeux de l'actualité, en particulier sur la guerre en Ukraine au sujet duquel il intervient très régulièrement dans les médias, est à la fois lucide et porteur d'une grande espérance. Celle qui est nourrie par le surgissement si fréquent de héros chrétiens : Du Curé d'Ars à Mère Teresa, en passant par Charles de Gaulle ou Soljenitsyne. Un épisode captivant, avec un homme qui sait écrire et dire l'histoire avec passion, un moment pour prendre du recul et pour s'inspirer des grands aventuriers de Dieu.  Pour écouter ce 188ème épisode avec Bernard Lecomte, il suffit de cliquer sur le bouton en haut de ce texte, ou de cliquer ici pour l'écouter sur le site de Zeteo, ou encore de cliquer ici pour l'écouter sur Spotify, Deezer et toutes les bonnes applications de podcasts. Pour lire Ces chrétiens qui ont changé le monde, écrit par Bernard Lecomte, cliquer ici. -------------- POUR BIEN FINIR L'ANNÉE ET PRÉPARER 2023Nous faisons appel à tous ceux d'entre vous qui pouvez participer à notre effort de production et de diffusion d'un podcast qui est entièrement gratuit d'accès, pour toucher le grand public. La fin de l'année se rapproche… Nous préparons déjà le début de l'année prochaine pour tous nos podcasts, et nous avons besoin de vous puisque nous dépendons intégralement de vous ! Cette année 2022 s'achève en beauté pour nous, avec des audiences de plus en plus fortes, des milliers d'écoutes par jour, de très nombreux messages d'auditeurs dont certains deviennent parfois les témoins de nos podcasts suivants.  Les succès de nos audiences et vos réactions nous convainquent que nos podcasts ont du sens. Qu'ils font du bien, qu'ils contribuent souvent aussi à ouvrir des discussions nécessaires. Qu'ils participent au dialogue et aux ouvertures qui font le renouveau de l'Église, tout en cherchant toujours à aller à l'essentiel, au cœur de la spiritualité, au plus près possible du Christ. Alors pour que notre mission continue avec vous, à vos côtés, pour continuer de vous rejoindre dans vos vies quotidiennes, parfois dans vos doutes ou vos souffrances, pour vous transmettre les flambeaux de lumière de nos témoins, nous avons besoin de dons, quels que soient le montants de votre soutien. Pour faire un don défiscalisé, il vous suffit de cliquer sur ce lien : Faire un don D'avance un grand merci à tous ceux qui entendront ce message et toujours, une immense gratitude pour vous tous, invités, auditeurs et donateurs et avant tout pour Celui qui est notre amour et notre lumière.  Belle montée vers Noël à chacun d'entre vous ! Ceux qui préfèrent payer par chèque le peuvent en l'adressant à l'Association Telio, 116 boulevard Suchet – 75016 Paris. Virement : nous contacter. -------------- BETHESDA "Veux-tu être guéri ?" Depuis quelques jours, le 46ème épisode de Bethesda est en ligne, avec Jérôme : un homme habité par la joie et l'évidence de la présence de Dieu à chaque instant. C'est au fil des épreuves de sa vie qu'il a transformé la quête de sens qui l'anime depuis son enfance, en une quête d'un Dieu qu'il rencontre maintenant au quotidien. Jérôme témoigne de sa carrière professionnelle réussie, et de sa vie personnelle où la joie du mariage et de la paternité a été attaquée par la souffrance du divorce et de la maladie psychique. Il a vécu des étapes de vie spirituelle qui l'ont ouvert à un Dieu qui est en fait toujours proche et toujours présent. Aujourd'hui, Jérôme poursuit son cheminement en se rapprochant de la spiritualité orthodoxe, tout en gardant beaucoup de proximité avec le catholicisme de son enfance. Un homme rayonnant de paix, de confiance, dont la vie est peuplée par la prière, la solitude accueillie, la fragilité acceptée, le silence et l'écriture.  Pour écouter J'ai découvert le trésor de vivre la présence de Dieu à chaque instant, le témoignage de Jérôme, cliquer ici. -------------- CANOPÉELe podcast pour un monde meilleur Depuis quelques jours, le 5ème épisode de notre nouveau podcast avec Michel Chapoutier, qui a fait de son entreprise familiale l'une des 50 marques françaises les plus connues au monde. Un homme qui a la passion pour le terroir, parce qu'il relie la nature, la spiritualité, les traditions et le travail de l'homme. Il est aussi le lieu où il sait exprimer son ouverture au monde, au voyage, à la liberté, à toutes les cultures, même à ses rêves. Depuis maintenant 30 années d'un travail acharné, Michel Chapoutier incarne aujourd'hui l'excellence et l'exigence, tout en démontrant que la recherche du Bien Commun est primordiale, et qu'elle ne nuit pas à l'entreprise. Talentueux, créatif et innovant, cet amoureux du vin et de la vie, est devenu un producteur et un négociant en vin phare dans le monde. Pour écouter Le terroir, une passion, une conquête, un rêve, le témoignage de Michel Chapoutier, cliquer ici.  -------------- Pour en savoir plus au sujet de Zeteo, cliquer ici. Pour en savoir plus au sujet de Bethesda, cliquer ici. Pour en savoir plus au sujet de Telio, cliquer ici. Pour en savoir plus au sujet de Canopée, cliquer ici. Pour lire les messages de nos auditeurs, cliquer ici. Nous contacter : contact@zeteo.fr Proposer votre témoignage ou celui d'un proche : temoignage@zeteo.fr    

Les Nuits de France Culture
L'épopée de la France libre : Le débarquement, Paris, la victoire

Les Nuits de France Culture

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 17, 2022 59:58


durée : 00:59:58 - Les Nuits de France Culture - par : Albane Penaranda - Dernier volet de l 'histoire de la Résistance française rassemblée autour de la figure du Général de Gaulle avec le débarquement en Normandie le 6 juin 44, la libération de la Bretagne et de Paris. Une série de témoignages diffusée durant l'été 1986.

Les Nuits de France Culture
L'épopée de la France libre : La préparation de la Libération

Les Nuits de France Culture

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 16, 2022 60:00


durée : 01:00:00 - Les Nuits de France Culture - par : Albane Penaranda - L'hiver approche, tout annonce qu'il sera le dernier, avant que les armes décident. Plus que jamais, les actions de sabotage des maquis préparent le terrain à l'intervention des Américains. Avant dernier volet d'une série de 1986 sur l'organisation de la Résistance autour de la figure de de Gaulle.

Les Nuits de France Culture
L'épopée de la France libre : De Gaulle à Alger

Les Nuits de France Culture

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 15, 2022 65:00


durée : 01:05:00 - Les Nuits de France Culture - par : Albane Penaranda - Au début de 1943, trois instances se veulent les représentantes de la France : Vichy, Giraud à Alger soutenu par les Américains, et de Gaulle. Huitième volet de l'histoire de la Résistance intérieure et extérieure, une série de dix émissions diffusées durant l'été 1986

Les Nuits de France Culture
L'épopée de la France libre : Les combats, le débarquement en Afrique du Nord

Les Nuits de France Culture

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 14, 2022 65:00


durée : 01:05:00 - Les Nuits de France Culture - par : Albane Penaranda - Le septième volet de cette série de dix diffusés en 1986, qui relate la naissance et l'organisation de la Résistance depuis Londres, retrace la fondation du Comité Français de Libération Nationale, l'arrivée du Général de Gaulle à Alger en juin 1943, et la préparation du débarquement en France. - invités : Maurice Couve de Murville haut fonctionnaire, diplomate et homme d'État français, dernier Premier ministre du général de Gaulle, de 1968 à 1969.

The Realignment
326 | Ian Kershaw: The Personalities Who Built and Destroyed Modern Europe

The Realignment

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 14, 2022 37:11


This episode is a part of The Realignment's daily end-of-year coverage of the themes and topics that defined 2022. JOIN MARSHALL & SAAGAR AT OUR LIVE CONFERENCE IN DC ON 1/25/2023: https://www.eventbrite.com/e/realignment-live-tickets-443348436107?aff=erelexpmltSubscribe to The Realignment to access our exclusive Q&A episodes and support the show: https://realignment.supercast.com/.REALIGNMENT NEWSLETTER: https://therealignment.substack.com/PURCHASE BOOKS AT OUR BOOKSHOP: https://bookshop.org/shop/therealignmentEmail us at: realignmentpod@gmail.comIan Kershaw, author of Personality and Power: Builders and Destroyers of Modern Europe, Hitler: A Biography, and The Global Age: Europe, 1950-2017, joins The Realignment to discuss how the characters and personalities of individual 20th-century European leaders led to triumph and tragedy. Ian and Marshall also discuss his evaluations of despots ranging from Hitler, Stalin, and Lenin to democratic leaders such as de Gaulle, Churchill, and Adenauer, and how we should approach today's authoritarian leaders.

Les Nuits de France Culture
L'épopée de la France libre : L'information, la résistance intérieure, l'entrée en guerre des USA

Les Nuits de France Culture

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 13, 2022 59:42


durée : 00:59:42 - Les Nuits de France Culture - par : Albane Penaranda - En 1941, avec l'invasion de la Russie par l' Allemagne, l 'espoir d'une poignée de Français exilés à Londres devient raisonnable. Le Général de Gaulle coordonne l'action de la résistance intérieure par la constitution du Comité National Français. Sixième volet d'une série de dix émissions de 1986.

Reportage International
La frégate «Chevalier Paul» en mer Baltique pour renforcer les positions de l'Otan

Reportage International

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 10, 2022 2:34


Un fleuron de la marine française, le bras droit du porte-avion Charles de Gaulle, patrouille actuellement en mer Baltique. La frégate de défense anti-aérienne Chevalier Paul, intégrée à la mission « Brilliant Shield » de l'Otan a fait escale à Stockholm. Un signal donné à la Suède (et à la Finlande), pour leur témoigner du soutien de la France pendant leur attente d'adhésion à l'Otan. De notre correspondante à Stockholm,  C'est un colosse de 153 mètres de long et de 42 mètres de haut. La frégate Chevalier Paul abrite 200 marins et plus de 40 missiles de moyenne et longue portée. Ce soir, la presse suédoise est conviée à bord. C'est donc en anglais, depuis la passerelle de pilotage, que le commandant Anthony Branchereau décrit sa mission. « Ce qu'on offre à l'Otan ici en mer Baltique, c'est notre capacité très ample de détecter tout ce qui passe dans l'espace aérien. Les vols commerciaux, à plus de 10 000 mètres de haut, toute l'activité militaire liée à l'Otan. On travaille aussi avec les forces aériennes suédoises, on s'entraîne avec vos avions militaires, les Grippen. Et on est là pour surveiller les activités de l'armée de l'air russe entre Saint-Pétersbourg et l'enclave de Kaliningrad, au sud de la Baltique. Pour être prêts, pour anticiper, pour connaître les activités menées par les forces russes. » Depuis le début de la guerre en Ukraine, l'Otan a doublé sa présence dans la Baltique pour renforcer le flanc est de la frontière européenne. Avec son radar d'une portée de 500 kilomètres, le Chevalier Paul, une fois posté au milieu de la mer, a l'œil sur toute la région. « Il y a 50 ans, beaucoup de pays de la région étaient sous la tutelle de l'URSS. Mais depuis que les États baltes, que les Polonais, les Danois et les Norvégiens ont rejoint l'Otan, et peut-être demain la Suède et la Finlande, si on regarde une carte, on peut dire que la Baltique – qui était un lac russe avant – est devenue un lac de l'Otan », poursuit le commandant Anthony Branchereau. Coopération  Sur le pont, une piste d'hélicoptères, des lanceurs de missiles, des cheminées infrarouges pour capter et brouiller les signaux. Le navire peut lancer une attaque en quatre secondes et atteindre une vitesse de trente nœuds en deux minutes. Pour Jérôme Chevalier, l'attaché de la Défense française en Suède, l'escale du Chevalier Paul à Stockholm est aussi une opération diplomatique : « On a permis au personnel du FMB, l'équivalent de la DGA française qui s'occupe des programmes d'armement suédois, de nous visiter pour s'intéresser à des systèmes très particuliers puisqu'ils voudraient acquérir les mêmes sur leurs bâtiments. » C'est la première fois que la frégate navigue dans la Baltique, l'occasion de tester le matériel dans des conditions glaciales : les températures prévues pour les prochaines semaines sont bien en dessous de zéro.

Les Nuits de France Culture
L'épopée de la France libre 4/10 : L'affaire de Syrie ; Les rapports avec les alliés

Les Nuits de France Culture

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 9, 2022 60:06


durée : 01:00:06 - Les Nuits de France Culture - par : Albane Penaranda - Nous retrouvons un de Gaulle différent, affecté par l'échec cuisant de l' expédition de Dakar, en septembre 1940, un de Gaulle qui a perdu "sa jeunesse et son "alacrité". Ce quatrième volet aborde le guerre en Méditerranée, la campagne au Liban et en Syrie en 1941. - invités : Maurice Schumann Homme politique, résistant durant la seconde guerre mondiale, ancien porte-parole de la France Libre, ministre, journaliste; Pierre-Olivier Lapie

CRIMES • Histoires Vraies
Le meurtre de Gérard Lebovici, l'agent des stars • Episode 1 sur 2

CRIMES • Histoires Vraies

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 7, 2022 12:22


Paris dort encore, ce mercredi 7 mars 1984. Sur la place Charles-de-Gaulle désertée, l'Arc de Triomphe se prépare à accueillir l'incessant ballet du trafic et des touristes gravitant toute l'année autour de lui. Sous l'avenue Foch, un rottweiler traîne son vigile torpide le long des allées silencieuses d'un parking. La nuit a été longue, l'homme languit l'arrivée de la relève. Aux alentours de 3 heures du matin, il poursuit sa ronde au second sous-sol lorsque le chien s'agite soudainement, affolé à la vue d'une Renault 30 TX grossièrement garée, les feux de position allumés. Le gardien en fait le tour, promène le faisceau de sa lampe à travers les vitres et illumine le conducteur, affalé sur le volant. Celui-ci ne bronche pas, profondément assoupi, tranquille comme dirait Rimbaud, quatre trous rouges à la tête... "CRIMES : Histoires vraies" est un podcast Studio Minuit.Retrouvez nos autres productions : Sports Insolites Espions : Histoires vraies  Morts Insolites : Histoires vraies  Sherlock Holmes - Les enquêtes 1 Mot 1 Jour : Le pouvoir des mots Je comprends R : le dictionnaire du nouveau millénaire Arsène Lupin : Gentleman cambrioleurSoutenez ce podcast http://supporter.acast.com/crimes-histoires-vraies. Become a member at https://plus.acast.com/s/crimes-histoires-vraies. Hébergé par Acast. Visitez acast.com/privacy pour plus d'informations.

CRIMES • Histoires Vraies
Le meurtre de Gérard Lebovici, l'agent des stars • Episode 2 sur 2

CRIMES • Histoires Vraies

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 7, 2022 8:34


Paris dort encore, ce mercredi 7 mars 1984. Sur la place Charles-de-Gaulle désertée, l'Arc de Triomphe se prépare à accueillir l'incessant ballet du trafic et des touristes gravitant toute l'année autour de lui. Sous l'avenue Foch, un rottweiler traîne son vigile torpide le long des allées silencieuses d'un parking. La nuit a été longue, l'homme languit l'arrivée de la relève. Aux alentours de 3 heures du matin, il poursuit sa ronde au second sous-sol lorsque le chien s'agite soudainement, affolé à la vue d'une Renault 30 TX grossièrement garée, les feux de position allumés. Le gardien en fait le tour, promène le faisceau de sa lampe à travers les vitres et illumine le conducteur, affalé sur le volant. Celui-ci ne bronche pas, profondément assoupi, tranquille comme dirait Rimbaud, quatre trous rouges à la tête... "CRIMES : Histoires vraies" est un podcast Studio Minuit.Retrouvez nos autres productions : Sports Insolites Espions : Histoires vraies  Morts Insolites : Histoires vraies  Sherlock Holmes - Les enquêtes 1 Mot 1 Jour : Le pouvoir des mots Je comprends R : le dictionnaire du nouveau millénaire Arsène Lupin : Gentleman cambrioleurSoutenez ce podcast http://supporter.acast.com/crimes-histoires-vraies. Become a member at https://plus.acast.com/s/crimes-histoires-vraies. Hébergé par Acast. Visitez acast.com/privacy pour plus d'informations.

L'info en intégrale - Europe 1
L'aéroport Charles de Gaulle renommé «Anne de Gaulle» pour sensibiliser aux situations de handicap

L'info en intégrale - Europe 1

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 2, 2022 1:28


À l'occasion de la journée internationale des personnes en situation de handicap, l'aéroport Paris-Charles de Gaulle sera rebaptisé "Anne de Gaulle", en référence à la fille du général qui était porteuse de trisomie 21. Pendant une semaine, l'aéroport parisien sensibilisera à l'insertion des personnes handicapées.

Escuchando Documentales
Apocalipsis, Hitler Ataca Europa Occidental: 2- Las Ultimas Batallas #documental #IIWW #podcast

Escuchando Documentales

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 30, 2022 52:36


En Dunkerque, los aliados, atrapados, huyeron en desorden bajo las bombas alemanas. Francia está al borde del colapso, el avance nazi ha arrojado a las carreteras a millones de civiles. El 14 de junio de 1940, los soldados alemanes entraron en París y Hitler renunció a bombardear la capital. Un millón de parisinos abandonan la ciudad. El 18 de junio, el general de Gaulle lanzó un llamamiento desde Londres y dio esperanzas a los franceses. Pero Hitler quiere conquistar Gran Bretaña por aire y derramará un diluvio de acero sobre Londres e Inglaterra.

Ah ouais ?
LES ? DE L'INFO - Pourquoi le RER a failli être victime d'une boulette très gênante ?

Ah ouais ?

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 29, 2022 1:56


Le RER, le Réseau Express Régional qui dessert Paris et toute son agglomération, ses 5 lignes, ses 249 points d'arrêt, ses 587 kilomètres de voies, ses 11 grèves depuis le début de l'année. Imaginé dès 1936, mis en route en 1965 et inauguré il y a 45 ans, précisément le 9 décembre 1977 par le président Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. Le Réseau Express Régional a failli avoir 5 initiales puisque le premier tronçon avait pour objectif de relier Paris, via la station Charles de Gaulle - Étoile, au nouveau quartier d'affaires de la Défense. Tous les jours à 6h50 sur RTL, Florian Gazan révèle une histoire insolite et surprenante, liée à l'actualité. Ecoutez Les pourquoi de l'info avec Florian Gazan du 29 novembre 2022

C dans l'air
CDLA L'INVITÉ – FRANZ-OLIVIER GIESBERT – 29/11/22

C dans l'air

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 29, 2022 11:24


POLITIQUE : « LA BELLE ÉPOQUE » C'EST FINI ? – 29/11/22 FRANZ-OLIVIER GIESBERT Écrivain, éditorialiste Auteur de "La belle époque" Dans le premier volume de son "Histoire intime de la Ve République", Franz-Olivier Giesbert racontait le redressement du pays sous l'impulsion du général de Gaulle, revenu au pouvoir en 1958. Pour ce deuxième tome, Franz-Olivier Giesbert revient sur les années 1970. Pour lui, l'urgence écologique, la désindustrialisation, la perte de l'autorité et des repères, le chômage, l'immigration... “Tous nos malheurs d'aujourd'hui ont commencé dans les années 70”. Franz-Olivier Giesbert déplore que la nouvelle génération n'ait pas “ce sentiment très fort que l'avenir est à vous”. Selon lui, “s'il y a un délitement de l'autorité, c'est qu'il y a des lois et tout le monde s'en fiche. On empile les nouvelles réformes mais on est systématiquement dans la communication”. Franz-Olivier Giesbert reviendra sur cette "belle époque" et sur l'ambiance politique actuelle

Highlights from Moncrieff
The Terminal Man

Highlights from Moncrieff

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 25, 2022 5:01


A man who lived for 18 years in Charles de Gaulle airport in Paris recently passed away. My next guest travelled to Paris in 2004 and spent three weeks with him, subsequently writing his autobiography ‘The Terminal Man'. Andrew Donkin is also the author of Illegal, a graphic novel co-written with Ireland's Eoin Colfer and he joined Sean on the show today...

Timeline (5.000 ans d'Histoire)

« La France n'est pas seule, […] elle a un vaste empire derrière elle. » C'est l'un des messages portés par le général de Gaulle lors de l'Appel du 18 juin 1940 passé sur les ondes de la BBC. Cette affirmation nuance la lecture de la défaite militaire française. Répondant au maréchal Pétain qui, la veille, soit le 17 juin, avait appelé, « le cœur serré, à cesser le combat, » le général choisissait l'espoir en rappelant le statut d'Empire de la France : une bataille a été perdue, mais pas la guerre. Tout l'empire n'a pas rendu les armes, au contraire, ses forces vives n'ont pas encore été utilisées au maximum de leurs capacités. Cette phrase est porteuse d'espoir : les Outre-mer peuvent et vont continuer le combat, au nom de la France. Les colonies sont ainsi pleinement intégrées au destin national, et elles vont se montrer à la hauteur de l'enjeu. Dans cet épisode nous allons vous présenter le rôle des soldats coloniaux pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, la place qu'ils ont occupé dans le dispositif militaire français et allié, ainsi que l'ampleur de leur engagement. BIBLIOGRAPHIE C-R. AGERON, C. COQUERY-VIDROVITCH, G. MEYNIER, J.THOBIE, Histoire de la France coloniale 1914-1990, Armand Colin, 2016, 654 pages ▪ dossier décolonisation française, « La fin de l'empire ». Ça m'intéresse Histoire, n°63, novembre/décembre 2020, ▪ L-R. ABENON, Petite histoire de la Guadeloupe, L'Harmattan, 1992, 238 p. ▪ Jean-Paul DELANCE, article « Retour sur le massacre des tirailleurs sénégalais en juin 40 dans l'Oise », 09/06/20, France 3 région ▪ A. NUGIER, P. NIEDENTHAL, M. BRAUER, « Influence de l'appartenance groupale sur les réactions émotionnelles au contrôle social informel », dans l'Année psychologique, 2009, p.61 à 81 ▪ Alexis LACROIX, « Des tirailleurs sénégalais face au nazisme » article dans Marianne du 11 au 17 septembre 2015, pages 70 à 72 ▪ Didier DAENINCKX, Galadio, édition Gallimard ▪ Dominique MAISON, dans la revue bimestrielle de l'Institut d'études démographique paru en novembre/décembre 1973 ▪ Morris J. MACGREGOR, Integration of the Armed forces, 1940-1965, Center of military history, US Army, 1981 ▪ Julien TOUREILLE, article « La Dissidence aux Antilles française : une mémoire à préserver (1945-2011) » ▪ Olivier WIEVIORKA, « Fallait-il débarquer en Afrique du Nord ? », article du magazine L'Histoire, mensuel 379, septembre 2012, ▪ Stéphane WEISS, « L'engagement de troupes nord-africaines et coloniales dans le Sud-ouest de la France en 1944-1945 », dans Guerres mondiales et conflits contemporains, 2013/3 (n° 251), pages 143 à 161 ▪ « Immigration : paroles de trop », la revue du GISTI, Plein droit, n°69, juillet 2006 ▪ Emmanuel BLANCHARD, doctorant en histoire « Quand les soldats coloniaux se révoltaient », dans Plein droit, 02/2006, n° 69, pages 36 à 40 ▪ Discours de Charles de Gaulle, www.gouvernement.fr ▪ Ministère des armées, service historique de la Défense, portail culturel https://www.defense.gouv.fr/actualites/articles/les-combattants-des-ex-colonies-dans-la-seconde-guerre-mondiale ▪ Ministère des Armée, sur le « Droit des conflits armés », https://www.defense.gouv.fr/sga/le-sga-en-action/droit-et-defense/droit-des-conflits-armes/droit-des-conflits-armes ▪ Musée de l'histoire de l'immigration, « les étrangers dans les guerres en France » https://www.histoire-immigration.fr/dossiers/les-etrangers-dans-les-guerres-en-france ▪ Fondation maréchal Leclerc de Hauteclocque 2ème Division Blindée – 2e DB – Division LECLERC | 2e DB - Général LECLERC - 2ème Division Blindée (2edb-leclerc.fr) ▪ Fondation Charles de Gaulle https://www.charles-de-gaulle.org/ ▪ Fondation de la France Libre https://www.france-libre.net/fl-empire-afrique/ ▪ Luc BRIAND, Aude DERAEDT, « Libération de Paris : pourquoi il n'y a (presque) pas de Noirs sur les photos ? », article de Libération du 20 août 2014, https://www.liberation.fr/photographie/2014/08/20/paris-libere-uniquement-par-des-soldats-blancs_1083150/ ▪ Encyclopédie du débarquement et de la Bataille de Normandie, « D day Overlord, » https://www.dday-overlord.com/bataille-normandie/forces ▪ le film Le blanchiment des troupes coloniales de Jean-Baptiste Dusséaux

Travels Through Time
Murray Pittock: Scotland Reborn (1967)

Travels Through Time

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 22, 2022 49:06


On 2 November 1967 Winnie Ewing shocked the political establishment when she won the Scottish seat of Hamilton for the Scottish National Party. As today's guest, Professor Murray Pittock explains, so began a month that would radically re-shape modern British politics. *** For British politics the 1960s was a testing time. While the country experienced its fabled cultural flowering, it simultaneously had to come to terms with its reduced place in the world. Decolonisation was going ahead at pace. Sterling was losing its power as a currency. In geo-politics Britain did not know where to turn: to the United States, or towards Europe and the EEC. In this episode Murray Pittock shows how Britain was forced to confront all of these issues within the space of one single month. November 1967 opened with a political shock, when the young politician Winnie Ewing won a bi-election for the Scottish National Party. During her campaign she made use of a gripping slogan: ‘Stop the World: Scotland Wants to Get On.' Here was an early sign of something to come. And as the SNP rose north of the border, more trouble was simmering to the south in Westminster. Soon the Chancellor of the Exchequer, James Callaghan, would be obliged to resign. And in Europe, too, Charles de Gaulle was poised to make matters still worse. Professor Murray Pittock is one of Scotland's foremost living historians. He is the Bradley Chair at the University of Glasgow, where he is also Pro-Vice Principal. He is the author of many books, the most recent of which is Scotland: The Global History: 1603 to the Present. Show notes Scene One: 2 November 1967: Winnie Ewing wins the Hamilton by-election a total surprise, with the victory slogan ‘Stop the World: Scotland wants to get on'. Scene Two: 18 November 1967: sterling devalued against the US $ by 14%; Chancellor of the Exchequer resigns. Scene Three: 27 November 1967: UK application to join EEC vetoed for a second time by de Gaulle. Memento: $1 Silver Certificate banknote People/Social Presenter: Violet Moller Guest: Professor Murray Pittock Production: Maria Nolan Podcast partner: Ace Cultural Tours Theme music: ‘Love Token' from the album ‘This Is Us' By Slava and Leonard Grigoryan Follow us on Twitter: @tttpodcast_ Or on Facebook See where 1967 fits on our Timeline

Nixon and Watergate
Episode 160 RICHARD NIXON and WATERGATE 1974 The Fall , The Relationship with Anatoly Dobrynin, and the current thoughts of Dr Henry Kissinger ( Tape Series 8 edition 2)

Nixon and Watergate

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 20, 2022 39:18


In this second edition of our look at the relationship Henry Kissinger and Richard Nixon had with Soviet Ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin , we take a little detour to listen to some of the current thoughts of Dr. Henry Kissinger, who is now 99 years old and out with yet another book. This time a book that chronicles the great examples of leadership he has seen up-close.  The book is titled "Leadership: Six Studies in World Strategies"  "In Leadership, Kissinger analyses the lives of six extraordinary leaders through the distinctive strategies of statecraft, which he believes they embodied. After the Second World War, Konrad Adenauer brought defeated and morally bankrupt Germany back into the community of nations by what Kissinger calls “the strategy of humility.” Charles de Gaulle set France beside the victorious Allies and renewed its historic grandeur by “the strategy of will.” During the Cold War, Richard Nixon gave geostrategic advantage to the United States by “the strategy of equilibrium.” After twenty-five years of conflict, Anwar Sadat brought a vision of peace to the Middle East by a “strategy of transcendence.” Against the odds, Lee Kuan Yew created a powerhouse city-state, Singapore, by “the strategy of excellence.” And, though Britain was known as “the sick man of Europe” when Margaret Thatcher came to power, she renewed her country's morale and international position by “the strategy of conviction.” " - From the book description for "Leadership"  Here is a link https://smile.amazon.com/dp/0593587065/ref=cm_sw_em_r_mt_dp_04W7PHVB27WHRSESNDP1 Then we get to hear both Dr Henry Kissinger and President Richard Nixon working with Ambassador Dobrynin in an example of the very leadership in which Dr. Kissinger chronicled in his new , outstanding book.  Two calls during the final days of the Vietnam War in 1972 - 1973. https://youtu.be/lGSEqGDNjfI.   Principles by Ray Dalio is the source of the two current interviews with Henry Kissinger and Ray Dalio from YouTube Questions or comments at , Randalrgw1@aol.com , https://twitter.com/randal_wallace , and http://www.randalwallace.com/Please Leave us a review at wherever you get your podcastsThanks for listening!!