Podcasts about Great Society

Political program launched by Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964–65

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Great Society

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Best podcasts about Great Society

Latest podcast episodes about Great Society

Resolve's Gestalt University
ReSolve Riffs with David Cervantes of Pinebrook on the Increasing Importance of Political Economy

Resolve's Gestalt University

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 23, 2023 76:09


Our guest this week was David Cervantes, founder of Pine Brook Capital Management. With a rich and diverse background within the investment industry, in the last few years David has dedicated his time to managing his family office and has been developing a macroeconomic framework that considers the objectives and incentives of policymakers as the primary economic drivers. Our conversation included topics such as: Empirical economic analyses and insights from the ‘school of hard knocks' Fundamentally, a process of elimination – determining first what not to do Less theory, more data Where his approach materially diverges from traditional economics Cognitive Perspective – treating models with respect, but never reverence Macroeconomics is basically ‘political economy in drag' A dynamic process of incentives and decisions made by political actors The role of ‘timing luck' (or misfortune) A stroll down history lane – from WWII and the Great Society to the present A closer look at the gargantuan US federal budget deficit Current backdrop – an ‘inflationary supernova' fueled by fiscal impulse The Fed's current reaction function Home prices, OER and how they affect CPI Why interest rate volatility matters significantly more than absolute levels How interest rate vol spills over into the risk premia continuum And much more This is “ReSolve's Riffs” – live on YouTube every Friday afternoon to debate the most relevant investment topics of the day, hosted by Adam Butler, Mike Philbrick and Rodrigo Gordillo of ReSolve Global* and Richard Laterman of ReSolve Asset Management Inc.   *ReSolve Global Inc. refers to ReSolve Asset Management SEZC (Cayman) which is registered with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission as a commodity trading advisor and commodity pool operator. This registration is administered through the National Futures Association (“NFA”). Further, ReSolve Global Inc. is a registered person with the Cayman Islands Monetary Authority.  

The Roundtable
Historians take on the biggest legends and lies about U.S. past in new book "Myth America"

The Roundtable

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 18, 2023 20:45


In "Myth America," Kevin M. Kruse and Julian E. Zelizer have assembled an all-star team of fellow historians to push back against this misinformation. The contributors debunk narratives that portray the New Deal and Great Society as failures, immigrants as hostile invaders, and feminists as anti-family warriors, among numerous other partisan lies.

Springfield's Talk 104.1 On-Demand
Nick Reed PODCAST 01.04.23 - On This Day In History...

Springfield's Talk 104.1 On-Demand

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 4, 2023 42:20


Hour 1 -  Good Monday morning! Here's what Nick Reed covers this hour:  Republicans failed three times on Tuesday to elect a House speaker. Missouri executed the "first known" transgender inmate on Tuesday night.  President Lyndon B. Johnson proposed a utopian new vision for the United States under a vastly expanded federal government, which he dubbed the Great Society, on this day in history, Jan. 4, 1965. 

CANTO TALK RADIO SHOW
GOP Speaker battle, more Twitter files released and Great Society 1965

CANTO TALK RADIO SHOW

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 4, 2023 15:00


GOP Speaker battle.......More Twitter files released..........Great Society 1965 LBJ...............and other stories Check our blog.........and follow our friend Carlos Guedes...........

Civil Discourse
The Department of Transportation

Civil Discourse

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 29, 2022 63:33


The next department in the series is also part of the Great Society, the Department of Transportation (DoT).  Aughie explains how the many subagencies of the department work together in various ways to support public transportation, from the Federal Aviation Administration to the Federal Highway Administration. Aughie also reminds listeners that this department is a particularly good example of cooperative federalism. Discussion ends with secretaries and criticisms of the department.

Dr. Duke Show
Part 4: The Republican Fight For Civil Rights And American Prosperity | Dr. Jake Jacobs

Dr. Duke Show

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 24, 2022 36:40


In Parts 1 and 2, we cover the development and early history of both the Democratic and Republican parties. We remind America that after winning one of the most contentious elections in American history, President Thomas Jefferson declared in his 1801 inaugural address, “We are all Republicans; we are all Federalists!" In Parts 3 and 4, we cover the good, the bad, and the ugly of both major American political parties, from the federal income tax and the New Deal, to the Great Society and the Reagan Revolution. Now more than ever, it is imperative that American citizens learn about our great republic under God!

The American Idea
The Great Society - A New History

The American Idea

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 23, 2022 52:12


Jeff sat down with Amity Shlaes to discuss her book, "The Great Society - A New History," and the implications of the welfare state as envisioned by Lyndon Johnson. In addition to some of LBJ's various remarks and addresses while in office, his Great Society speech was highlighted, along with the policies that stemmed from it and their impact on American political economy and public life. Jeff and Amity also explored LBJ and Vietnam, and how this era of American foreign policy paralleled and, to an extent, shared philosophical similarities with the idealism of the Great Society.Host: Jeff SikkengaExecutive Producer: Greg McBrayerProducer: Jeremy Gypton

A History Of Rock Music in Five Hundred Songs
Episode 158: “White Rabbit” by Jefferson Airplane

A History Of Rock Music in Five Hundred Songs

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 23, 2022


Episode one hundred and fifty-eight of A History of Rock Music in Five Hundred Songs looks at “White Rabbit”, Jefferson Airplane, and the rise of the San Francisco sound. Click the full post to read liner notes, links to more information, and a transcript of the episode. Patreon backers also have a twenty-three-minute bonus episode available, on "Omaha" by Moby Grape. Tilt Araiza has assisted invaluably by doing a first-pass edit, and will hopefully be doing so from now on. Check out Tilt's irregular podcasts at http://www.podnose.com/jaffa-cakes-for-proust and http://sitcomclub.com/ Erratum I refer to Back to Methuselah by Robert Heinlein. This is of course a play by George Bernard Shaw. What I meant to say was Methuselah's Children. Resources I hope to upload a Mixcloud tomorrow, and will edit it in, but have had some problems with the site today. Jefferson Airplane's first four studio albums, plus a 1968 live album, can be found in this box set. I've referred to three main books here. Got a Revolution!: The Turbulent Flight of Jefferson Airplane by Jeff Tamarkin is written with the co-operation of the band members, but still finds room to criticise them. Jefferson Airplane On Track by Richard Molesworth is a song-by-song guide to the band's music. And Been So Long: My Life and Music by Jorma Kaukonen is Kaukonen's autobiography. Some information on Skip Spence and Matthew Katz also comes from What's Big and Purple and Lives in the Ocean?: The Moby Grape Story, by Cam Cobb, which I also used for this week's bonus. Patreon This podcast is brought to you by the generosity of my backers on Patreon. Why not join them? Transcript Before I start, I need to confess an important and hugely embarrassing error in this episode. I've only ever seen Marty Balin's name written down, never heard it spoken, and only after recording the episode, during the editing process, did I discover I mispronounce it throughout. It's usually an advantage for the podcast that I get my information from books rather than TV documentaries and the like, because they contain far more information, but occasionally it causes problems like that. My apologies. Also a brief note that this episode contains some mentions of racism, antisemitism, drug and alcohol abuse, and gun violence. One of the themes we've looked at in recent episodes is the way the centre of the musical world -- at least the musical world as it was regarded by the people who thought of themselves as hip in the mid-sixties -- was changing in 1967. Up to this point, for a few years there had been two clear centres of the rock and pop music worlds. In the UK, there was London, and any British band who meant anything had to base themselves there. And in the US, at some point around 1963, the centre of the music industry had moved West. Up to then it had largely been based in New York, and there was still a thriving industry there as of the mid sixties. But increasingly the records that mattered, that everyone in the country had been listening to, had come out of LA Soul music was, of course, still coming primarily from Detroit and from the Country-Soul triangle in Tennessee and Alabama, but when it came to the new brand of electric-guitar rock that was taking over the airwaves, LA was, up until the first few months of 1967, the only city that was competing with London, and was the place to be. But as we heard in the episode on "San Francisco", with the Monterey Pop Festival all that started to change. While the business part of the music business remained centred in LA, and would largely remain so, LA was no longer the hip place to be. Almost overnight, jangly guitars, harmonies, and Brian Jones hairstyles were out, and feedback, extended solos, and droopy moustaches were in. The place to be was no longer LA, but a few hundred miles North, in San Francisco -- something that the LA bands were not all entirely happy about: [Excerpt: The Mothers of Invention, "Who Needs the Peace Corps?"] In truth, the San Francisco music scene, unlike many of the scenes we've looked at so far in this series, had rather a limited impact on the wider world of music. Bands like Jefferson Airplane, the Grateful Dead, and Big Brother and the Holding Company were all both massively commercially successful and highly regarded by critics, but unlike many of the other bands we've looked at before and will look at in future, they didn't have much of an influence on the bands that would come after them, musically at least. Possibly this is because the music from the San Francisco scene was always primarily that -- music created by and for a specific group of people, and inextricable from its context. The San Francisco musicians were defining themselves by their geographical location, their peers, and the situation they were in, and their music was so specifically of the place and time that to attempt to copy it outside of that context would appear ridiculous, so while many of those bands remain much loved to this day, and many made some great music, it's very hard to point to ways in which that music influenced later bands. But what they did influence was the whole of rock music culture. For at least the next thirty years, and arguably to this day, the parameters in which rock musicians worked if they wanted to be taken seriously – their aesthetic and political ideals, their methods of collaboration, the cultural norms around drug use and sexual promiscuity, ideas of artistic freedom and authenticity, the choice of acceptable instruments – in short, what it meant to be a rock musician rather than a pop, jazz, country, or soul artist – all those things were defined by the cultural and behavioural norms of the San Francisco scene between about 1966 and 68. Without the San Francisco scene there's no Woodstock, no Rolling Stone magazine, no Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, no hippies, no groupies, no rock stars. So over the next few months we're going to take several trips to the Bay Area, and look at the bands which, for a brief time, defined the counterculture in America. The story of Jefferson Airplane -- and unlike other bands we've looked at recently, like The Pink Floyd and The Buffalo Springfield, they never had a definite article at the start of their name to wither away like a vestigial organ in subsequent years -- starts with Marty Balin. Balin was born in Ohio, but was a relatively sickly child -- he later talked about being autistic, and seems to have had the chronic illnesses that so often go with neurodivergence -- so in the hope that the dry air would be good for his chest his family moved to Arizona. Then when his father couldn't find work there, they moved further west to San Francisco, in the Haight-Ashbury area, long before that area became the byword for the hippie movement. But it was in LA that he started his music career, and got his surname. Balin had been named Marty Buchwald as a kid, but when he was nineteen he had accompanied a friend to LA to visit a music publisher, and had ended up singing backing vocals on her demos. While he was there, he had encountered the arranger Jimmy Haskell. Haskell was on his way to becoming one of the most prominent arrangers in the music industry, and in his long career he would go on to do arrangements for Bobby Gentry, Blondie, Steely Dan, Simon and Garfunkel, and many others. But at the time he was best known for his work on Ricky Nelson's hits: [Excerpt: Ricky Nelson, "Hello Mary Lou"] Haskell thought that Marty had the makings of a Ricky Nelson style star, as he was a good-looking young man with a decent voice, and he became a mentor for the young man. Making the kind of records that Haskell arranged was expensive, and so Haskell suggested a deal to him -- if Marty's father would pay for studio time and musicians, Haskell would make a record with him and find him a label to put it out. Marty's father did indeed pay for the studio time and the musicians -- some of the finest working in LA at the time. The record, released under the name Marty Balin, featured Jack Nitzsche on keyboards, Earl Palmer on drums, Milt Jackson on vibraphone, Red Callender on bass, and Glen Campbell and Barney Kessell on guitars, and came out on Challenge Records, a label owned by Gene Autry: [Excerpt: Marty Balin, "Nobody But You"] Neither that, nor Balin's follow-up single, sold a noticeable amount of copies, and his career as a teen idol was over before it had begun. Instead, as many musicians of his age did, he decided to get into folk music, joining a vocal harmony group called the Town Criers, who patterned themselves after the Weavers, and performed the same kind of material that every other clean-cut folk vocal group was performing at the time -- the kind of songs that John Phillips and Steve Stills and Cass Elliot and Van Dyke Parks and the rest were all performing in their own groups at the same time. The Town Criers never made any records while they were together, but some archival recordings of them have been released over the decades: [Excerpt: The Town Criers, "900 Miles"] The Town Criers split up, and Balin started performing as a solo folkie again. But like all those other then-folk musicians, Balin realised that he had to adapt to the K/T-event level folk music extinction that happened when the Beatles hit America like a meteorite. He had to form a folk-rock group if he wanted to survive -- and given that there were no venues for such a group to play in San Francisco, he also had to start a nightclub for them to play in. He started hanging around the hootenannies in the area, looking for musicians who might form an electric band. The first person he decided on was a performer called Paul Kantner, mainly because he liked his attitude. Kantner had got on stage in front of a particularly drunk, loud, crowd, and performed precisely half a song before deciding he wasn't going to perform in front of people like that and walking off stage. Kantner was the only member of the new group to be a San Franciscan -- he'd been born and brought up in the city. He'd got into folk music at university, where he'd also met a guitar player named Jorma Kaukonen, who had turned him on to cannabis, and the two had started giving music lessons at a music shop in San Jose. There Kantner had also been responsible for booking acts at a local folk club, where he'd first encountered acts like Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions, a jug band which included Jerry Garcia, Pigpen McKernan, and Bob Weir, who would later go on to be the core members of the Grateful Dead: [Excerpt: Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions, "In the Jailhouse Now"] Kantner had moved around a bit between Northern and Southern California, and had been friendly with two other musicians on the Californian folk scene, David Crosby and Roger McGuinn. When their new group, the Byrds, suddenly became huge, Kantner became aware of the possibility of doing something similar himself, and so when Marty Balin approached him to form a band, he agreed. On bass, they got in a musician called Bob Harvey, who actually played double bass rather than electric, and who stuck to that for the first few gigs the group played -- he had previously been in a band called the Slippery Rock String Band. On drums, they brought in Jerry Peloquin, who had formerly worked for the police, but now had a day job as an optician. And on vocals, they brought in Signe Toley -- who would soon marry and change her name to Signe Anderson, so that's how I'll talk about her to avoid confusion. The group also needed a lead guitarist though -- both Balin and Kantner were decent rhythm players and singers, but they needed someone who was a better instrumentalist. They decided to ask Kantner's old friend Jorma Kaukonen. Kaukonen was someone who was seriously into what would now be called Americana or roots music. He'd started playing the guitar as a teenager, not like most people of his generation inspired by Elvis or Buddy Holly, but rather after a friend of his had shown him how to play an old Carter Family song, "Jimmy Brown the Newsboy": [Excerpt: The Carter Family, "Jimmy Brown the Newsboy"] Kaukonen had had a far more interesting life than most of the rest of the group. His father had worked for the State Department -- and there's some suggestion he'd worked for the CIA -- and the family had travelled all over the world, staying in Pakistan, the Philippines, and Finland. For most of his childhood, he'd gone by the name Jerry, because other kids beat him up for having a foreign name and called him a Nazi, but by the time he turned twenty he was happy enough using his birth name. Kaukonen wasn't completely immune to the appeal of rock and roll -- he'd formed a rock band, The Triumphs, with his friend Jack Casady when he was a teenager, and he loved Ricky Nelson's records -- but his fate as a folkie had been pretty much sealed when he went to Antioch College. There he met up with a blues guitarist called Ian Buchanan. Buchanan never had much of a career as a professional, but he had supposedly spent nine years studying with the blues and ragtime guitar legend Rev. Gary Davis, and he was certainly a fine guitarist, as can be heard on his contribution to The Blues Project, the album Elektra put out of white Greenwich Village musicians like John Sebastian and Dave Van Ronk playing old blues songs: [Excerpt: Ian Buchanan, "The Winding Boy"] Kaukonen became something of a disciple of Buchanan -- he said later that Buchanan probably taught him how to play because he was such a terrible player and Buchanan couldn't stand to listen to it -- as did John Hammond Jr, another student at Antioch at the same time. After studying at Antioch, Kaukonen started to travel around, including spells in Greenwich Village and in the Philippines, before settling in Santa Clara, where he studied for a sociology degree and became part of a social circle that included Dino Valenti, Jerry Garcia, and Billy Roberts, the credited writer of "Hey Joe". He also started performing as a duo with a singer called Janis Joplin. Various of their recordings from this period circulate, mostly recorded at Kaukonen's home with the sound of his wife typing in the background while the duo rehearse, as on this performance of an old Bessie Smith song: [Excerpt: Jorma Kaukonen and Janis Joplin, "Nobody Loves You When You're Down and Out"] By 1965 Kaukonen saw himself firmly as a folk-blues purist, who would not even think of playing rock and roll music, which he viewed with more than a little contempt. But he allowed himself to be brought along to audition for the new group, and Ken Kesey happened to be there. Kesey was a novelist who had written two best-selling books, One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest and Sometimes A Great Notion, and used the financial independence that gave him to organise a group of friends who called themselves the Merry Pranksters, who drove from coast to coast and back again in a psychedelic-painted bus, before starting a series of events that became known as Acid Tests, parties at which everyone was on LSD, immortalised in Tom Wolfe's book The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. Nobody has ever said why Kesey was there, but he had brought along an Echoplex, a reverb unit one could put a guitar through -- and nobody has explained why Kesey, who wasn't a musician, had an Echoplex to hand. But Kaukonen loved the sound that he could get by putting his guitar through the device, and so for that reason more than any other he decided to become an electric player and join the band, going out and buying a Rickenbacker twelve-string and Vox Treble Booster because that was what Roger McGuinn used. He would later also get a Guild Thunderbird six-string guitar and a Standel Super Imperial amp, following the same principle of buying the equipment used by other guitarists he liked, as they were what Zal Yanovsky of the Lovin' Spoonful used. He would use them for all his six-string playing for the next couple of years, only later to discover that the Lovin' Spoonful despised them and only used them because they had an endorsement deal with the manufacturers. Kaukonen was also the one who came up with the new group's name. He and his friends had a running joke where they had "Bluesman names", things like "Blind Outrage" and "Little Sun Goldfarb". Kaukonen's bluesman name, given to him by his friend Steve Talbot, had been Blind Thomas Jefferson Airplane, a reference to the 1920s blues guitarist Blind Lemon Jefferson: [Excerpt: Blind Lemon Jefferson, "Match Box Blues"] At the band meeting where they were trying to decide on a name, Kaukonen got frustrated at the ridiculous suggestions that were being made, and said "You want a stupid name? Howzabout this... Jefferson Airplane?" He said in his autobiography "It was one of those rare moments when everyone in the band agreed, and that was that. I think it was the only band meeting that ever allowed me to come away smiling." The newly-named Jefferson Airplane started to rehearse at the Matrix Club, the club that Balin had decided to open. This was run with three sound engineer friends, who put in the seed capital for the club. Balin had stock options in the club, which he got by trading a share of the band's future earnings to his partners, though as the group became bigger he eventually sold his stock in the club back to his business partners. Before their first public performance, they started working with a manager, Matthew Katz, mostly because Katz had access to a recording of a then-unreleased Bob Dylan song, "Lay Down Your Weary Tune": [Excerpt: Bob Dylan, "Lay Down Your Weary Tune"] The group knew that the best way for a folk-rock band to make a name for themselves was to perform a Dylan song nobody else had yet heard, and so they agreed to be managed by Katz. Katz started a pre-publicity blitz, giving out posters, badges, and bumper stickers saying "Jefferson Airplane Loves You" all over San Francisco -- and insisting that none of the band members were allowed to say "Hello" when they answered the phone any more, they had to say "Jefferson Airplane Loves You!" For their early rehearsals and gigs, they were performing almost entirely cover versions of blues and folk songs, things like Fred Neil's "The Other Side of This Life" and Dino Valenti's "Get Together" which were the common currency of the early folk-rock movement, and songs by their friends, like one called "Flower Bomb" by David Crosby, which Crosby now denies ever having written. They did start writing the odd song, but at this point they were more focused on performance than on writing. They also hired a press agent, their friend Bill Thompson. Thompson was friends with the two main music writers at the San Francisco Chronicle, Ralph Gleason, the famous jazz critic, who had recently started also reviewing rock music, and John Wasserman. Thompson got both men to come to the opening night of the Matrix, and both gave the group glowing reviews in the Chronicle. Record labels started sniffing around the group immediately as a result of this coverage, and according to Katz he managed to get a bidding war started by making sure that when A&R men came to the club there were always two of them from different labels, so they would see the other person and realise they weren't the only ones interested. But before signing a record deal they needed to make some personnel changes. The first member to go was Jerry Peloquin, for both musical and personal reasons. Peloquin was used to keeping strict time and the other musicians had a more free-flowing idea of what tempo they should be playing at, but also he had worked for the police while the other members were all taking tons of illegal drugs. The final break with Peloquin came when he did the rest of the group a favour -- Paul Kantner's glasses broke during a rehearsal, and as Peloquin was an optician he offered to take them back to his shop and fix them. When he got back, he found them auditioning replacements for him. He beat Kantner up, and that was the end of Jerry Peloquin in Jefferson Airplane. His replacement was Skip Spence, who the group had met when he had accompanied three friends to the Matrix, which they were using as a rehearsal room. Spence's friends went on to be the core members of Quicksilver Messenger Service along with Dino Valenti: [Excerpt: Quicksilver Messenger Service, "Dino's Song"] But Balin decided that Spence looked like a rock star, and told him that he was now Jefferson Airplane's drummer, despite Spence being a guitarist and singer, not a drummer. But Spence was game, and learned to play the drums. Next they needed to get rid of Bob Harvey. According to Harvey, the decision to sack him came after David Crosby saw the band rehearsing and said "Nice song, but get rid of the bass player" (along with an expletive before the word bass which I can't say without incurring the wrath of Apple). Crosby denies ever having said this. Harvey had started out in the group on double bass, but to show willing he'd switched in his last few gigs to playing an electric bass. When he was sacked by the group, he returned to double bass, and to the Slippery Rock String Band, who released one single in 1967: [Excerpt: The Slippery Rock String Band, "Tule Fog"] Harvey's replacement was Kaukonen's old friend Jack Casady, who Kaukonen knew was now playing bass, though he'd only ever heard him playing guitar when they'd played together. Casady was rather cautious about joining a rock band, but then Kaukonen told him that the band were getting fifty dollars a week salary each from Katz, and Casady flew over from Washington DC to San Francisco to join the band. For the first few gigs, he used Bob Harvey's bass, which Harvey was good enough to lend him despite having been sacked from the band. Unfortunately, right from the start Casady and Kantner didn't get on. When Casady flew in from Washington, he had a much more clean-cut appearance than the rest of the band -- one they've described as being nerdy, with short, slicked-back, side-parted hair and a handlebar moustache. Kantner insisted that Casady shave the moustache off, and he responded by shaving only one side, so in profile on one side he looked clean-shaven, while from the other side he looked like he had a full moustache. Kantner also didn't like Casady's general attitude, or his playing style, at all -- though most critics since this point have pointed to Casady's bass playing as being the most interesting and distinctive thing about Jefferson Airplane's style. This lineup seems to have been the one that travelled to LA to audition for various record companies -- a move that immediately brought the group a certain amount of criticism for selling out, both for auditioning for record companies and for going to LA at all, two things that were already anathema on the San Francisco scene. The only audition anyone remembers them having specifically is one for Phil Spector, who according to Kaukonen was waving a gun around during the audition, so he and Casady walked out. Around this time as well, the group performed at an event billed as "A Tribute to Dr. Strange", organised by the radical hippie collective Family Dog. Marvel Comics, rather than being the multi-billion-dollar Disney-owned corporate juggernaut it is now, was regarded as a hip, almost underground, company -- and around this time they briefly started billing their comics not as comics but as "Marvel Pop Art Productions". The magical adventures of Dr. Strange, Master of the Mystic Arts, and in particular the art by far-right libertarian artist Steve Ditko, were regarded as clear parallels to both the occult dabblings and hallucinogen use popular among the hippies, though Ditko had no time for either, following as he did an extreme version of Ayn Rand's Objectivism. It was at the Tribute to Dr. Strange that Jefferson Airplane performed for the first time with a band named The Great Society, whose lead singer, Grace Slick, would later become very important in Jefferson Airplane's story: [Excerpt: The Great Society, "Someone to Love"] That gig was also the first one where the band and their friends noticed that large chunks of the audience were now dressing up in costumes that were reminiscent of the Old West. Up to this point, while Katz had been managing the group and paying them fifty dollars a week even on weeks when they didn't perform, he'd been doing so without a formal contract, in part because the group didn't trust him much. But now they were starting to get interest from record labels, and in particular RCA Records desperately wanted them. While RCA had been the label who had signed Elvis Presley, they had otherwise largely ignored rock and roll, considering that since they had the biggest rock star in the world they didn't need other ones, and concentrating largely on middle-of-the-road acts. But by the mid-sixties Elvis' star had faded somewhat, and they were desperate to get some of the action for the new music -- and unlike the other major American labels, they didn't have a reciprocal arrangement with a British label that allowed them to release anything by any of the new British stars. The group were introduced to RCA by Rod McKuen, a songwriter and poet who later became America's best-selling poet and wrote songs that sold over a hundred million copies. At this point McKuen was in his Jacques Brel phase, recording loose translations of the Belgian songwriter's songs with McKuen translating the lyrics: [Excerpt: Rod McKuen, "Seasons in the Sun"] McKuen thought that Jefferson Airplane might be a useful market for his own songs, and brought the group to RCA. RCA offered Jefferson Airplane twenty-five thousand dollars to sign with them, and Katz convinced the group that RCA wouldn't give them this money without them having signed a management contract with him. Kaukonen, Kantner, Spence, and Balin all signed without much hesitation, but Jack Casady didn't yet sign, as he was the new boy and nobody knew if he was going to be in the band for the long haul. The other person who refused to sign was Signe Anderson. In her case, she had a much better reason for refusing to sign, as unlike the rest of the band she had actually read the contract, and she found it to be extremely worrying. She did eventually back down on the day of the group's first recording session, but she later had the contract renegotiated. Jack Casady also signed the contract right at the start of the first session -- or at least, he thought he'd signed the contract then. He certainly signed *something*, without having read it. But much later, during a court case involving the band's longstanding legal disputes with Katz, it was revealed that the signature on the contract wasn't Casady's, and was badly forged. What he actually *did* sign that day has never been revealed, to him or to anyone else. Katz also signed all the group as songwriters to his own publishing company, telling them that they legally needed to sign with him if they wanted to make records, and also claimed to RCA that he had power of attorney for the band, which they say they never gave him -- though to be fair to Katz, given the band members' habit of signing things without reading or understanding them, it doesn't seem beyond the realms of possibility that they did. The producer chosen for the group's first album was Tommy Oliver, a friend of Katz's who had previously been an arranger on some of Doris Day's records, and whose next major act after finishing the Jefferson Airplane album was Trombones Unlimited, who released records like "Holiday for Trombones": [Excerpt: Trombones Unlimited, "Holiday For Trombones"] The group weren't particularly thrilled with this choice, but were happier with their engineer, Dave Hassinger, who had worked on records like "Satisfaction" by the Rolling Stones, and had a far better understanding of the kind of music the group were making. They spent about three months recording their first album, even while continually being attacked as sellouts. The album is not considered their best work, though it does contain "Blues From an Airplane", a collaboration between Spence and Balin: [Excerpt: Jefferson Airplane, "Blues From an Airplane"] Even before the album came out, though, things were starting to change for the group. Firstly, they started playing bigger venues -- their home base went from being the Matrix club to the Fillmore, a large auditorium run by the promoter Bill Graham. They also started to get an international reputation. The British singer-songwriter Donovan released a track called "The Fat Angel" which namechecked the group: [Excerpt: Donovan, "The Fat Angel"] The group also needed a new drummer. Skip Spence decided to go on holiday to Mexico without telling the rest of the band. There had already been some friction with Spence, as he was very eager to become a guitarist and songwriter, and the band already had three songwriting guitarists and didn't really see why they needed a fourth. They sacked Spence, who went on to form Moby Grape, who were also managed by Katz: [Excerpt: Moby Grape, "Omaha"] For his replacement they brought in Spencer Dryden, who was a Hollywood brat like their friend David Crosby -- in Dryden's case he was Charlie Chaplin's nephew, and his father worked as Chaplin's assistant. The story normally goes that the great session drummer Earl Palmer recommended Dryden to the group, but it's also the case that Dryden had been in a band, the Heartbeats, with Tommy Oliver and the great blues guitarist Roy Buchanan, so it may well be that Oliver had recommended him. Dryden had been primarily a jazz musician, playing with people like the West Coast jazz legend Charles Lloyd, though like most jazzers he would slum it on occasion by playing rock and roll music to pay the bills. But then he'd seen an early performance by the Mothers of Invention, and realised that rock music could have a serious artistic purpose too. He'd joined a band called The Ashes, who had released one single, the Jackie DeShannon song "Is There Anything I Can Do?" in December 1965: [Excerpt: The Ashes, "Is There Anything I Can Do?"] The Ashes split up once Dryden left the group to join Jefferson Airplane, but they soon reformed without him as The Peanut Butter Conspiracy, who hooked up with Gary Usher and released several albums of psychedelic sunshine pop. Dryden played his first gig with the group at a Republican Party event on June the sixth, 1966. But by the time Dryden had joined, other problems had become apparent. The group were already feeling like it had been a big mistake to accede to Katz's demands to sign a formal contract with him, and Balin in particular was getting annoyed that he wouldn't let the band see their finances. All the money was getting paid to Katz, who then doled out money to the band when they asked for it, and they had no idea if he was actually paying them what they were owed or not. The group's first album, Jefferson Airplane Takes Off, finally came out in September, and it was a comparative flop. It sold well in San Francisco itself, selling around ten thousand copies in the area, but sold basically nothing anywhere else in the country -- the group's local reputation hadn't extended outside their own immediate scene. It didn't help that the album was pulled and reissued, as RCA censored the initial version of the album because of objections to the lyrics. The song "Runnin' Round This World" was pulled off the album altogether for containing the word "trips", while in "Let Me In" they had to rerecord two lines -- “I gotta get in, you know where" was altered to "You shut the door now it ain't fair" and "Don't tell me you want money" became "Don't tell me it's so funny". Similarly in "Run Around" the phrase "as you lay under me" became "as you stay here by me". Things were also becoming difficult for Anderson. She had had a baby in May and was not only unhappy with having to tour while she had a small child, she was also the band member who was most vocally opposed to Katz. Added to that, her husband did not get on well at all with the group, and she felt trapped between her marriage and her bandmates. Reports differ as to whether she quit the band or was fired, but after a disastrous appearance at the Monterey Jazz Festival, one way or another she was out of the band. Her replacement was already waiting in the wings. Grace Slick, the lead singer of the Great Society, had been inspired by going to one of the early Jefferson Airplane gigs. She later said "I went to see Jefferson Airplane at the Matrix, and they were making more money in a day than I made in a week. They only worked for two or three hours a night, and they got to hang out. I thought 'This looks a lot better than what I'm doing.' I knew I could more or less carry a tune, and I figured if they could do it I could." She was married at the time to a film student named Jerry Slick, and indeed she had done the music for his final project at film school, a film called "Everybody Hits Their Brother Once", which sadly I can't find online. She was also having an affair with Jerry's brother Darby, though as the Slicks were in an open marriage this wasn't particularly untoward. The three of them, with a couple of other musicians, had formed The Great Society, named as a joke about President Johnson's programme of the same name. The Great Society was the name Johnson had given to his whole programme of domestic reforms, including civil rights for Black people, the creation of Medicare and Medicaid, the creation of the National Endowment for the Arts, and more. While those projects were broadly popular among the younger generation, Johnson's escalation of the war in Vietnam had made him so personally unpopular that even his progressive domestic programme was regarded with suspicion and contempt. The Great Society had set themselves up as local rivals to Jefferson Airplane -- where Jefferson Airplane had buttons saying "Jefferson Airplane Loves You!" the Great Society put out buttons saying "The Great Society Really Doesn't Like You Much At All". They signed to Autumn Records, and recorded a song that Darby Slick had written, titled "Someone to Love" -- though the song would later be retitled "Somebody to Love": [Excerpt: The Great Society, "Someone to Love"] That track was produced by Sly Stone, who at the time was working as a producer for Autumn Records. The Great Society, though, didn't like working with Stone, because he insisted on them doing forty-five takes to try to sound professional, as none of them were particularly competent musicians. Grace Slick later said "Sly could play any instrument known to man. He could have just made the record himself, except for the singers. It was kind of degrading in a way" -- and on another occasion she said that he *did* end up playing all the instruments on the finished record. "Someone to Love" was put out as a promo record, but never released to the general public, and nor were any of the Great Society's other recordings for Autumn Records released. Their contract expired and they were let go, at which point they were about to sign to Mercury Records, but then Darby Slick and another member decided to go off to India for a while. Grace's marriage to Jerry was falling apart, though they would stay legally married for several years, and the Great Society looked like it was at an end, so when Grace got the offer to join Jefferson Airplane to replace Signe Anderson, she jumped at the chance. At first, she was purely a harmony singer -- she didn't take over any of the lead vocal parts that Anderson had previously sung, as she had a very different vocal style, and instead she just sang the harmony parts that Anderson had sung on songs with other lead vocalists. But two months after the album they were back in the studio again, recording their second album, and Slick sang lead on several songs there. As well as the new lineup, there was another important change in the studio. They were still working with Dave Hassinger, but they had a new producer, Rick Jarrard. Jarrard was at one point a member of the folk group The Wellingtons, who did the theme tune for "Gilligan's Island", though I can't find anything to say whether or not he was in the group when they recorded that track: [Excerpt: The Wellingtons, "The Ballad of Gilligan's Island"] Jarrard had also been in the similar folk group The Greenwood County Singers, where as we heard in the episode on "Heroes and Villains" he replaced Van Dyke Parks. He'd also released a few singles under his own name, including a version of Parks' "High Coin": [Excerpt: Rick Jarrard, "High Coin"] While Jarrard had similar musical roots to those of Jefferson Airplane's members, and would go on to produce records by people like Harry Nilsson and The Family Tree, he wasn't any more liked by the band than their previous producer had been. So much so, that a few of the band members have claimed that while Jarrard is the credited producer, much of the work that one would normally expect to be done by a producer was actually done by their friend Jerry Garcia, who according to the band members gave them a lot of arranging and structural advice, and was present in the studio and played guitar on several tracks. Jarrard, on the other hand, said categorically "I never met Jerry Garcia. I produced that album from start to finish, never heard from Jerry Garcia, never talked to Jerry Garcia. He was not involved creatively on that album at all." According to the band, though, it was Garcia who had the idea of almost doubling the speed of the retitled "Somebody to Love", turning it into an uptempo rocker: [Excerpt: Jefferson Airplane, "Somebody to Love"] And one thing everyone is agreed on is that it was Garcia who came up with the album title, when after listening to some of the recordings he said "That's as surrealistic as a pillow!" It was while they were working on the album that was eventually titled Surrealistic Pillow that they finally broke with Katz as their manager, bringing Bill Thompson in as a temporary replacement. Or at least, it was then that they tried to break with Katz. Katz sued the group over their contract, and won. Then they appealed, and they won. Then Katz appealed the appeal, and the Superior Court insisted that if he wanted to appeal the ruling, he had to put up a bond for the fifty thousand dollars the group said he owed them. He didn't, so in 1970, four years after they sacked him as their manager, the appeal was dismissed. Katz appealed the dismissal, and won that appeal, and the case dragged on for another three years, at which point Katz dragged RCA Records into the lawsuit. As a result of being dragged into the mess, RCA decided to stop paying the group their songwriting royalties from record sales directly, and instead put the money into an escrow account. The claims and counterclaims and appeals *finally* ended in 1987, twenty years after the lawsuits had started and fourteen years after the band had stopped receiving their songwriting royalties. In the end, the group won on almost every point, and finally received one point three million dollars in back royalties and seven hundred thousand dollars in interest that had accrued, while Katz got a small token payment. Early in 1967, when the sessions for Surrealistic Pillow had finished, but before the album was released, Newsweek did a big story on the San Francisco scene, which drew national attention to the bands there, and the first big event of what would come to be called the hippie scene, the Human Be-In, happened in Golden Gate Park in January. As the group's audience was expanding rapidly, they asked Bill Graham to be their manager, as he was the most business-minded of the people around the group. The first single from the album, "My Best Friend", a song written by Skip Spence before he quit the band, came out in January 1967 and had no more success than their earlier recordings had, and didn't make the Hot 100. The album came out in February, and was still no higher than number 137 on the charts in March, when the second single, "Somebody to Love", was released: [Excerpt: Jefferson Airplane, "Somebody to Love"] That entered the charts at the start of April, and by June it had made number five. The single's success also pushed its parent album up to number three by August, just behind the Beatles' Sgt Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band and the Monkees' Headquarters. The success of the single also led to the group being asked to do commercials for Levis jeans: [Excerpt: Jefferson Airplane, "Levis commercial"] That once again got them accused of selling out. Abbie Hoffman, the leader of the Yippies, wrote to the Village Voice about the commercials, saying "It summarized for me all the doubts I have about the hippie philosophy. I realise they are just doing their 'thing', but while the Jefferson Airplane grooves with its thing, over 100 workers in the Levi Strauss plant on the Tennessee-Georgia border are doing their thing, which consists of being on strike to protest deplorable working conditions." The third single from the album, "White Rabbit", came out on the twenty-fourth of June, the day before the Beatles recorded "All You Need is Love", nine days after the release of "See Emily Play", and a week after the group played the Monterey Pop Festival, to give you some idea of how compressed a time period we've been in recently. We talked in the last episode about how there's a big difference between American and British psychedelia at this point in time, because the political nature of the American counterculture was determined by the fact that so many people were being sent off to die in Vietnam. Of all the San Francisco bands, though, Jefferson Airplane were by far the least political -- they were into the culture part of the counterculture, but would often and repeatedly disavow any deeper political meaning in their songs. In early 1968, for example, in a press conference, they said “Don't ask us anything about politics. We don't know anything about it. And what we did know, we just forgot.” So it's perhaps not surprising that of all the American groups, they were the one that was most similar to the British psychedelic groups in their influences, and in particular their frequent references to children's fantasy literature. "White Rabbit" was a perfect example of this. It had started out as "White Rabbit Blues", a song that Slick had written influenced by Alice in Wonderland, and originally performed by the Great Society: [Excerpt: The Great Society, "White Rabbit"] Slick explained the lyrics, and their association between childhood fantasy stories and drugs, later by saying "It's an interesting song but it didn't do what I wanted it to. What I was trying to say was that between the ages of zero and five the information and the input you get is almost indelible. In other words, once a Catholic, always a Catholic. And the parents read us these books, like Alice in Wonderland where she gets high, tall, and she takes mushrooms, a hookah, pills, alcohol. And then there's The Wizard of Oz, where they fall into a field of poppies and when they wake up they see Oz. And then there's Peter Pan, where if you sprinkle white dust on you, you could fly. And then you wonder why we do it? Well, what did you read to me?" While the lyrical inspiration for the track was from Alice in Wonderland, the musical inspiration is less obvious. Slick has on multiple occasions said that the idea for the music came from listening to Miles Davis' album "Sketches of Spain", and in particular to Davis' version of -- and I apologise for almost certainly mangling the Spanish pronunciation badly here -- "Concierto de Aranjuez", though I see little musical resemblance to it myself. [Excerpt: Miles Davis, "Concierto de Aranjuez"] She has also, though, talked about how the song was influenced by Ravel's "Bolero", and in particular the way the piece keeps building in intensity, starting softly and slowly building up, rather than having the dynamic peaks and troughs of most music. And that is definitely a connection I can hear in the music: [Excerpt: Ravel, "Bolero"] Jefferson Airplane's version of "White Rabbit", like their version of "Somebody to Love", was far more professional, far -- and apologies for the pun -- slicker than The Great Society's version. It's also much shorter. The version by The Great Society has a four and a half minute instrumental intro before Slick's vocal enters. By contrast, the version on Surrealistic Pillow comes in at under two and a half minutes in total, and is a tight pop song: [Excerpt: Jefferson Airplane, "White Rabbit"] Jack Casady has more recently said that the group originally recorded the song more or less as a lark, because they assumed that all the drug references would mean that RCA would make them remove the song from the album -- after all, they'd cut a song from the earlier album because it had a reference to a trip, so how could they possibly allow a song like "White Rabbit" with its lyrics about pills and mushrooms? But it was left on the album, and ended up making the top ten on the pop charts, peaking at number eight: [Excerpt: Jefferson Airplane, "White Rabbit"] In an interview last year, Slick said she still largely lives off the royalties from writing that one song. It would be the last hit single Jefferson Airplane would ever have. Marty Balin later said "Fame changes your life. It's a bit like prison. It ruined the band. Everybody became rich and selfish and self-centred and couldn't care about the band. That was pretty much the end of it all. After that it was just working and living the high life and watching the band destroy itself, living on its laurels." They started work on their third album, After Bathing at Baxter's, in May 1967, while "Somebody to Love" was still climbing the charts. This time, the album was produced by Al Schmitt. Unlike the two previous producers, Schmitt was a fan of the band, and decided the best thing to do was to just let them do their own thing without interfering. The album took months to record, rather than the weeks that Surrealistic Pillow had taken, and cost almost ten times as much money to record. In part the time it took was because of the promotional work the band had to do. Bill Graham was sending them all over the country to perform, which they didn't appreciate. The group complained to Graham in business meetings, saying they wanted to only play in big cities where there were lots of hippies. Graham pointed out in turn that if they wanted to keep having any kind of success, they needed to play places other than San Francisco, LA, New York, and Chicago, because in fact most of the population of the US didn't live in those four cities. They grudgingly took his point. But there were other arguments all the time as well. They argued about whether Graham should be taking his cut from the net or the gross. They argued about Graham trying to push for the next single to be another Grace Slick lead vocal -- they felt like he was trying to make them into just Grace Slick's backing band, while he thought it made sense to follow up two big hits with more singles with the same vocalist. There was also a lawsuit from Balin's former partners in the Matrix, who remembered that bit in the contract about having a share in the group's income and sued for six hundred thousand dollars -- that was settled out of court three years later. And there were interpersonal squabbles too. Some of these were about the music -- Dryden didn't like the fact that Kaukonen's guitar solos were getting longer and longer, and Balin only contributed one song to the new album because all the other band members made fun of him for writing short, poppy, love songs rather than extended psychedelic jams -- but also the group had become basically two rival factions. On one side were Kaukonen and Casady, the old friends and virtuoso instrumentalists, who wanted to extend the instrumental sections of the songs more to show off their playing. On the other side were Grace Slick and Spencer Dryden, the two oldest members of the group by age, but the most recent people to join. They were also unusual in the San Francisco scene for having alcohol as their drug of choice -- drinking was thought of by most of the hippies as being a bit classless, but they were both alcoholics. They were also sleeping together, and generally on the side of shorter, less exploratory, songs. Kantner, who was attracted to Slick, usually ended up siding with her and Dryden, and this left Balin the odd man out in the middle. He later said "I got disgusted with all the ego trips, and the band was so stoned that I couldn't even talk to them. Everybody was in their little shell". While they were still working on the album, they released the first single from it, Kantner's "The Ballad of You and Me and Pooneil". The "Pooneil" in the song was a figure that combined two of Kantner's influences: the Greenwich Village singer-songwriter Fred Neil, the writer of "Everybody's Talkin'" and "Dolphins"; and Winnie the Pooh. The song contained several lines taken from A.A. Milne's children's stories: [Excerpt: Jefferson Airplane, "The Ballad of You and Me and Pooneil"] That only made number forty-two on the charts. It was the last Jefferson Airplane single to make the top fifty. At a gig in Bakersfield they got arrested for inciting a riot, because they encouraged the crowd to dance, even though local by-laws said that nobody under sixteen was allowed to dance, and then they nearly got arrested again after Kantner's behaviour on the private plane they'd chartered to get them back to San Francisco that night. Kantner had been chain-smoking, and this annoyed the pilot, who asked Kantner to put his cigarette out, so Kantner opened the door of the plane mid-flight and threw the lit cigarette out. They'd chartered that plane because they wanted to make sure they got to see a new group, Cream, who were playing the Fillmore: [Excerpt: Cream, "Strange Brew"] After seeing that, the divisions in the band were even wider -- Kaukonen and Casady now *knew* that what the band needed was to do long, extended, instrumental jams. Cream were the future, two-minute pop songs were the past. Though they weren't completely averse to two-minute pop songs. The group were recording at RCA studios at the same time as the Monkees, and members of the two groups would often jam together. The idea of selling out might have been anathema to their *audience*, but the band members themselves didn't care about things like that. Indeed, at one point the group returned from a gig to the mansion they were renting and found squatters had moved in and were using their private pool -- so they shot at the water. The squatters quickly moved on. As Dryden put it "We all -- Paul, Jorma, Grace, and myself -- had guns. We weren't hippies. Hippies were the people that lived on the streets down in Haight-Ashbury. We were basically musicians and art school kids. We were into guns and machinery" After Bathing at Baxter's only went to number seventeen on the charts, not a bad position but a flop compared to their previous album, and Bill Graham in particular took this as more proof that he had been right when for the last few months he'd been attacking the group as self-indulgent. Eventually, Slick and Dryden decided that either Bill Graham was going as their manager, or they were going. Slick even went so far as to try to negotiate a solo deal with Elektra Records -- as the voice on the hits, everyone was telling her she was the only one who mattered anyway. David Anderle, who was working for the label, agreed a deal with her, but Jac Holzman refused to authorise the deal, saying "Judy Collins doesn't get that much money, why should Grace Slick?" The group did fire Graham, and went one further and tried to become his competitors. They teamed up with the Grateful Dead to open a new venue, the Carousel Ballroom, to compete with the Fillmore, but after a few months they realised they were no good at running a venue and sold it to Graham. Graham, who was apparently unhappy with the fact that the people living around the Fillmore were largely Black given that the bands he booked appealed to mostly white audiences, closed the original Fillmore, renamed the Carousel the Fillmore West, and opened up a second venue in New York, the Fillmore East. The divisions in the band were getting worse -- Kaukonen and Casady were taking more and more speed, which was making them play longer and faster instrumental solos whether or not the rest of the band wanted them to, and Dryden, whose hands often bled from trying to play along with them, definitely did not want them to. But the group soldiered on and recorded their fourth album, Crown of Creation. This album contained several songs that were influenced by science fiction novels. The most famous of these was inspired by the right-libertarian author Robert Heinlein, who was hugely influential on the counterculture. Jefferson Airplane's friends the Monkees had already recorded a song based on Heinlein's The Door Into Summer, an unintentionally disturbing novel about a thirty-year-old man who falls in love with a twelve-year-old girl, and who uses a combination of time travel and cryogenic freezing to make their ages closer together so he can marry her: [Excerpt: The Monkees, "The Door Into Summer"] Now Jefferson Airplane were recording a song based on Heinlein's most famous novel, Stranger in a Strange Land. Stranger in a Strange Land has dated badly, thanks to its casual homophobia and rape-apologia, but at the time it was hugely popular in hippie circles for its advocacy of free love and group marriages -- so popular that a religion, the Church of All Worlds, based itself on the book. David Crosby had taken inspiration from it and written "Triad", a song asking two women if they'll enter into a polygamous relationship with him, and recorded it with the Byrds: [Excerpt: The Byrds, "Triad"] But the other members of the Byrds disliked the song, and it was left unreleased for decades. As Crosby was friendly with Jefferson Airplane, and as members of the band were themselves advocates of open relationships, they recorded their own version with Slick singing lead: [Excerpt: Jefferson Airplane, "Triad"] The other song on the album influenced by science fiction was the title track, Paul Kantner's "Crown of Creation". This song was inspired by The Chrysalids, a novel by the British writer John Wyndham. The Chrysalids is one of Wyndham's most influential novels, a post-apocalyptic story about young children who are born with mutant superpowers and have to hide them from their parents as they will be killed if they're discovered. The novel is often thought to have inspired Marvel Comics' X-Men, and while there's an unpleasant eugenic taste to its ending, with the idea that two species can't survive in the same ecological niche and the younger, "superior", species must outcompete the old, that idea also had a lot of influence in the counterculture, as well as being a popular one in science fiction. Kantner's song took whole lines from The Chrysalids, much as he had earlier done with A.A. Milne: [Excerpt: Jefferson Airplane, "Crown of Creation"] The Crown of Creation album was in some ways a return to the more focused songwriting of Surrealistic Pillow, although the sessions weren't without their experiments. Slick and Dryden collaborated with Frank Zappa and members of the Mothers of Invention on an avant-garde track called "Would You Like a Snack?" (not the same song as the later Zappa song of the same name) which was intended for the album, though went unreleased until a CD box set decades later: [Excerpt: Grace Slick and Frank Zappa, "Would You Like a Snack?"] But the finished album was generally considered less self-indulgent than After Bathing at Baxter's, and did better on the charts as a result. It reached number six, becoming their second and last top ten album, helped by the group's appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show in September 1968, a month after it came out. That appearance was actually organised by Colonel Tom Parker, who suggested them to Sullivan as a favour to RCA Records. But another TV appearance at the time was less successful. They appeared on the Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, one of the most popular TV shows among the young, hip, audience that the group needed to appeal to, but Slick appeared in blackface. She's later said that there was no political intent behind this, and that she was just trying the different makeup she found in the dressing room as a purely aesthetic thing, but that doesn't really explain the Black power salute she gives at one point. Slick was increasingly obnoxious on stage, as her drinking was getting worse and her relationship with Dryden was starting to break down. Just before the Smothers Brothers appearance she was accused at a benefit for the Whitney Museum of having called the audience "filthy Jews", though she has always said that what she actually said was "filthy jewels", and she was talking about the ostentatious jewellery some of the audience were wearing. The group struggled through a performance at Altamont -- an event we will talk about in a future episode, so I won't go into it here, except to say that it was a horrifying experience for everyone involved -- and performed at Woodstock, before releasing their fifth studio album, Volunteers, in 1969: [Excerpt: Jefferson Airplane, "Volunteers"] That album made the top twenty, but was the last album by the classic lineup of the band. By this point Spencer Dryden and Grace Slick had broken up, with Slick starting to date Kantner, and Dryden was also disappointed at the group's musical direction, and left. Balin also left, feeling sidelined in the group. They released several more albums with varying lineups, including at various points their old friend David Frieberg of Quicksilver Messenger Service, the violinist Papa John Creach, and the former drummer of the Turtles, Johnny Barbata. But as of 1970 the group's members had already started working on two side projects -- an acoustic band called Hot Tuna, led by Kaukonen and Casady, which sometimes also featured Balin, and a project called Paul Kantner's Jefferson Starship, which also featured Slick and had recorded an album, Blows Against the Empire, the second side of which was based on the Robert Heinlein novel Back to Methuselah, and which became one of the first albums ever nominated for science fiction's Hugo Awards: [Excerpt: Jefferson Starship, "Have You Seen The Stars Tonite"] That album featured contributions from David Crosby and members of the Grateful Dead, as well as Casady on two tracks, but  in 1974 when Kaukonen and Casady quit Jefferson Airplane to make Hot Tuna their full-time band, Kantner, Slick, and Frieberg turned Jefferson Starship into a full band. Over the next decade, Jefferson Starship had a lot of moderate-sized hits, with a varying lineup that at one time or another saw several members, including Slick, go and return, and saw Marty Balin back with them for a while. In 1984, Kantner left the group, and sued them to stop them using the Jefferson Starship name. A settlement was reached in which none of Kantner, Slick, Kaukonen, or Casady could use the words "Jefferson" or "Airplane" in their band-names without the permission of all the others, and the remaining members of Jefferson Starship renamed their band just Starship -- and had three number one singles in the late eighties with Slick on lead, becoming far more commercially successful than their precursor bands had ever been: [Excerpt: Starship, "We Built This City on Rock & Roll"] Slick left Starship in 1989, and there was a brief Jefferson Airplane reunion tour, with all the classic members but Dryden, but then Slick decided that she was getting too old to perform rock and roll music, and decided to retire from music and become a painter, something she's stuck to for more than thirty years. Kantner and Balin formed a new Jefferson Starship, called Jefferson Starship: The Next Generation, but Kantner died in January 2016, coincidentally on the same day as Signe Anderson, who had occasionally guested with her old bandmates in the new version of the band. Balin, who had quit the reunited Jefferson Starship due to health reasons, died two years later. Dryden had died in 2005. Currently, there are three bands touring that descend directly from Jefferson Airplane. Hot Tuna still continue to perform, there's a version of Starship that tours featuring one original member, Mickey Thomas, and the reunited Jefferson Starship still tour, led by David Frieberg. Grace Slick has given the latter group her blessing, and even co-wrote one song on their most recent album, released in 2020, though she still doesn't perform any more. Jefferson Airplane's period in the commercial spotlight was brief -- they had charting singles for only a matter of months, and while they had top twenty albums for a few years after their peak, they really only mattered to the wider world during that brief period of the Summer of Love. But precisely because their period of success was so short, their music is indelibly associated with that time. To this day there's nothing as evocative of summer 1967 as "White Rabbit", even for those of us who weren't born then. And while Grace Slick had her problems, as I've made very clear in this episode, she inspired a whole generation of women who went on to be singers themselves, as one of the first prominent women to sing lead with an electric rock band. And when she got tired of doing that, she stopped, and got on with her other artistic pursuits, without feeling the need to go back and revisit the past for ever diminishing returns. One might only wish that some of her male peers had followed her example.

america tv love music american new york history black church children chicago hollywood disney master apple uk rock washington mexico british san francisco west holiday washington dc arizona ohio spanish arts alabama spain tennessee detroit revolution strange north record fame island heroes jews nazis empire rev stone vietnam matrix ocean tribute southern california catholic beatles mothers cd crown cia philippines rolling stones west coast thompson oz elvis wizard finland rock and roll xmen pakistan bay area volunteers parks villains snacks garcia dolphins reports ashes turtles nest lives bob dylan purple big brother bands medicare san jose airplanes northern invention americana woodstock omaha lsd cream satisfaction ballad elvis presley pink floyd newsweek belgians republican party dino added californians marvel comics peter pan medicaid other side state department katz antioch grateful dead chronicle baxter alice in wonderland rock and roll hall of fame miles davis peace corps spence lovin family tree triumphs buchanan carousel mixcloud tilt charlie chaplin san francisco chronicle sly would you like frank zappa santa clara kt starship national endowment janis joplin headquarters ayn rand schmitt chaplin hippies slick monkees steely dan concierto bakersfield triad old west garfunkel rock music rca elektra runnin sketches buddy holly milne greenwich village white rabbit phil spector village voice get together haskell zappa byrds ravel spoonful levis jerry garcia david crosby heartbeats doris day jefferson airplane stranger in a strange land fillmore brian jones glen campbell george bernard shaw steve ditko bolero my best friend wyndham levi strauss all you need whitney museum lonely hearts club band superior court harry nilsson methuselah jacques brel judy collins sgt pepper ed sullivan show heinlein dryden tom wolfe buffalo springfield weavers bessie smith great society rca records robert heinlein objectivism altamont jefferson starship ken kesey run around bob weir this life john phillips acid tests holding company golden gate park sly stone aranjuez ricky nelson bill graham haight ashbury elektra records grace slick san franciscan ditko carter family bluesman john sebastian tennessee georgia family dog abbie hoffman colonel tom parker bill thompson mercury records town criers roger mcguinn tommy oliver balin jorma charles lloyd fillmore east smothers brothers rickenbacker merry pranksters van dyke parks gary davis one flew over the cuckoo mystic arts hot tuna john wyndham monterey pop festival milt jackson jorma kaukonen antioch college jackie deshannon we built this city dave van ronk mothers of invention echoplex cass elliot monterey jazz festival mickey thomas yippies fillmore west slicks moby grape roy buchanan ian buchanan wellingtons jimmy brown jack nitzsche quicksilver messenger service paul kantner kesey al schmitt marty balin fred neil kantner casady surrealistic pillow all worlds jack casady blues project bob harvey bobby gentry skip spence john hammond jr billy roberts jac holzman papa john creach tilt araiza
Dr. Duke Show
Part 3: The Democratic Fight For A Great Society & Civil Rights | Dr. Jake Jacobs

Dr. Duke Show

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 23, 2022 35:16


In Parts 1 and 2, we cover the development and early history of both the Democratic and Republican parties. We remind America that after winning one of the most contentious elections in American history, President Thomas Jefferson declared in his 1801 inaugural address, “We are all Republicans; we are all Federalists!" In Parts 3 and 4, we cover the good, the bad, and the ugly of both major American political parties, from the federal income tax and the New Deal, to the Great Society and the Reagan Revolution. Now more than ever, it is imperative that American citizens learn about our great republic under God!

The Ricochet Audio Network Superfeed
The American Idea: The Great Society – A New History (#46)

The Ricochet Audio Network Superfeed

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 23, 2022


Jeff sat down with author Amity Shlaes to discuss her book, “The Great Society – A New History,” and the implications of the welfare state as envisioned by Lyndon Johnson. In addition to some of LBJ’s various remarks and addresses while in office, his Great Society speech was highlighted, along with the policies that stemmed […]

Dr. Duke Show
Part 2: Early Republican Party History | Dr. Jake Jacobs

Dr. Duke Show

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 22, 2022 34:57


In Parts 1 and 2, we cover the development and early history of both the Democratic and Republican parties. We remind America that after winning one of the most contentious elections in American history, President Thomas Jefferson declared in his 1801 inaugural address, “We are all Republicans; we are all Federalists!" In Parts 3 and 4, we cover the good, the bad, and the ugly of both major American political parties, from the federal income tax and the New Deal, to the Great Society and the Reagan Revolution. Now more than ever, it is imperative that American citizens learn about our great republic under God!

Civil Discourse
The Department of Housing and Urban Development

Civil Discourse

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 22, 2022 70:28


In 1965, we got the next department, the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), as part of President Johnson's Great Society. Nia and Aughie discuss the needs of the nation to find ways toward homeownership, fair housing, and assistance to the working poor to mitigate the costs associated with housing. They also discuss the secretaries and the criticisms of the department.

Dr. Duke Show
Part 1: Early Democratic Party History | Dr. Jake Jacobs

Dr. Duke Show

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 21, 2022 28:08


In Parts 1 and 2, we cover the development and early history of both the Democratic and Republican parties. We remind America that after winning one of the most contentious elections in American history, President Thomas Jefferson declared in his 1801 inaugural address, “We are all Republicans; we are all Federalists!" In Parts 3 and 4, we cover the good, the bad, and the ugly of both major American political parties, from the federal income tax and the New Deal, to the Great Society and the Reagan Revolution. Now more than ever, it is imperative that American citizens learn about our great republic under God!

Commonwealth Club of California Podcast
Steve Phillips: How We Can Secure a Multiracial Democracy

Commonwealth Club of California Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 17, 2022 55:37


As America faces another election as a deeply divided country, Steve Phillips has strong views on what the United States needs to do to strengthen its multiracial democracy. For Phillips, understanding why the country is so divided requires recognizing that many of our divisions are historic in nature, resulting in a contest between democracy and white supremacy that is still left unresolved after the Civil War.  In his new book, How We Win the Civil War, Phillips pulls no punches on what he thinks the country must do to bridge its divides, particularly around issues related to race. Phillips advocates for increasing voter participation, ending what he says are racist immigration policies, and reviving the Great Society programs of the 1960s—all of them geared toward strengthening a new multiracial democracy and ridding our politics of white supremacy. Join us for a powerful conversation on race, history, politics and finally overcoming our divisions. SPEAKERS Steve Phillips Podcast Host, Founder, "Democracy in Color"; Author, How We Win the Civil War: Securing a Multiracial Democracy and Ending White Supremacy for Good; Twitter @StevePtweets In Conversation with Angela Glover Blackwell Founder in Residence, PolicyLink In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we are currently hosting all of our live programming via YouTube live stream. This program was recorded via video conference on November 3rd, 2022 by the Commonwealth Club of California. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

Nixon and Watergate
INFLATION!!! LBJ, Nixon, Ford, Carter, Reagan and Paul Volker, and a warning for 2023 (Special Edition)

Nixon and Watergate

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 5, 2022 72:47


INFLATION!! That is a word Americans are hearing a lot lately. A word that had all but slipped from memory as it has been nearly four decades since it haunted the very soul of America in the decade after the horrific war that so dominated our consciousness in South East Asia had ended. President Lyndon Johnson had tried to deliver "Guns and Butter" , trying to have it all as he fought a war in Vietnam, trying to stop the high water mark of Communism around the globe, while at the same time trying to build his "Great Society" here at home. The results were a decade of runaway inflation that four successive United States Presidents tried to tamp down with varied degree of success. Though success is probably not the correct description. It would take the appointment of one man, Paul Volker, to lead the Federal Reserve to finally create a strategy that would break the back of the inflation monster crippling the American Economy. However, his solution would end up breaking one American President and , while testing the faith of another, finally get inflation under control and lead to "Morning in America" and an unprecedented boom in our economy that may very well have been the foundation for a victory in the Cold War. This is that story and it carries with it a warning of what could lay in store for America in 2023 if the Biden Administration does not figure out a way to stop the reckless spending it, and the previous administration,  has so far embraced.  Produce it UpJames Curry pulls back the curtain on the news producer life. From handling diva...Listen on: Apple Podcasts Spotify Questions or comments at , Randalrgw1@aol.com , https://twitter.com/randal_wallace , and http://www.randalwallace.com/Please Leave us a review at wherever you get your podcastsThanks for listening!!

Working Capital The Real Estate Podcast
Money, Inflation and Policy with the Grump Economist John Cochrane | EP126

Working Capital The Real Estate Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 26, 2022 41:33


John Cochrane is an economist, specializing in financial economics and macroeconomics, the Rose-Marie and Jack Anderson Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution. Previously John was a Professor of finance at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business and before that at the Department of Economics. Josh is also an author of the Grumpy Economist blog.   In this episode we talked about: John's Background in Economics Interest Rates & Inflation Modern monetary theory  Milton Friedman Market outlook  Fiscal policy Macroeconomic Environment Useful links: https://www.johnhcochrane.com/ https://johnhcochrane.blogspot.com/   Transcription: Jesse (0s): Welcome to the Working Capital Real Estate Podcast. My name's Jessica Galley, and on this show we discuss all things real estate with investors and experts in a variety of industries that impact real estate. Whether you're looking at your first investment or raising your first fund, join me and let's build that portfolio one square foot at a time. Ladies and gentlemen, you're listening to Working Capital, the Real Estate podcast. I'm talking with John Cochran today. John is an economist and the Rosemary and Jack Anderson, senior fellow at the Hoover Institute.   He's a former professor of finance at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business, and the Department of Economics, and the author of a great fantastic blog that you should check out The Grumpy Economist. John, how you doing today?   John (45s): Good, thank you.   Jesse (47s): So we talked a little bit before the show, John, you know, the podcast itself, the listeners that we talk a lot about the kind of environment that we play in as entrepreneurs and real estate investors and that being the economy. And you have a up a book that, you know, I heard on another podcast the Fiscal Theory of the Price level, which will put a, a link to and despite the title and to scare anybody off. Maybe you could give a kind of an overview of first of all, maybe your background in economics and, and kind of the work you do, and then we could chat a little bit, a little bit about the book.   John (1m 22s): Great. Let's see. I'm, I'm economist and I've been thinking about money and inflation since 1982 and I've split my time between thinking about that and thinking about stocks and bonds. So money inflation, business cycle stocks and bonds and a whole bunch of other things. Being an economist is a wonderful thing because we, you can, you can jump from one thing to another and, and actually, you know, make real contributions in lots of places. The book is called The Fiscal Theory of the Price Level.   If you Google me and find my website, you'll find the book. You will also, the book is full of equations and designed to convince my fellow economists that they need to come over to this. There are some essays on the same website, which I re recommend. You start with, fiscal histories are particularly like no equations and tries to tell a different story about where inflation came from and where it's going in the US over the last, in the postwar period. The basic idea is where does inflation come from?   Not so much too much money chasing too few goods, but more importantly, too much overall government debt relative to what people think the government is willing and able to pay back. And if you're sitting on say, oh, 30 trillion of government debt and you think government is, is good for about 20 trillion of it, what you do is you try to get rid of that. It's terrible invest. What do you do with an overpriced investment? I think everybody understands this. What do you do with an overpriced house? You sell it. But if we all try to sell government debt, then the only thing we can do for it, it is, oh, buy houses.   And we've been put upward pressure on the price of goods and services. So that ultimately is where inflation comes from. That doesn't mean the Fed doesn't have a big role to play, so I won't bother you the equations, but interest rate policy still is quite important in figuring out where inflation will go. But it isn't everything and when people are, are, don't fundamentally trust the government, there's really not that much the Fed can do about it. The Fed can kind of smooth it out for a while, but there's not that much. So I'll, I'll stop there and we can see how deep you want to go into theory or into explaining the real world or into real estate.   Jesse (3m 34s): Yeah, I think what would be interesting is that from, you know, it wasn't too long ago, we were oh 7, 0 8, 0 9, it was a different environment from the financial crisis, but we had lower interest lowered interest rates to such a degree where people were starting to question the traditional, the traditional economic framework where we have interest rates at this low amount. We had quantitative easing, but we didn't seem to have any inflation. Maybe you could talk a little bit about, you know, what mechanisms were at play during that time and, and if there is a, you know, if there's a logical connection between that environment, you know, what past that and, and where we're at right now.   John (4m 13s): Yeah, so I don't buy there, there's a lot of blah blah about how the Fed kept interest rates absurdly low over 10 years and so forth. Really the Fed is not that powerful. The Fed cannot keep real interest rates low for actually 20, 30 years that they have been very low by historical standards that has to come from the real economy. The Fed can move things around for a year or two, but in the end, very low interest rates come from real factors and interest rates were low, inflation was low.   People were willing to hold the government's debt part that the fiscal situation in the US wasn't great, but there wasn't a lot of news about it. And I think at least not just 7, 8, 9, but also throughout the 2000 tens when interest rates remained low despite deficits. I think the people holding us treasuries say, Look, us is a great country and yes, the CBO reports are scary, but America will always do the right thing after we try everything else.   As Winston Churchill, I guess did not say, but he should have said, and you know, that fixing the long run fiscal problem in the US is not that hard. We just have to sit around and decide we want to do it. So sooner or later we'll do it. I think the, the five, no, why are we having inflation now? The government in the pandemic printed up $5 trillion of new money, well, it printed up three and, and borrowed another two and sent people checks. And that's, that is just massive.   And I, I think people are starting to question, is the government really good for it? And we're seeing that not just in the US and tumult the treasury market. We're seeing that in the uk. We may be starting to see that in Europe as well. Well, so I think that kind of explains the difference. Now, I'm, I'm telling stories, but at least there's plausible stories here.   Jesse (6m 5s): So when it comes to the understanding that in the entrepreneurial space and real estate and the greater economy that we, we go through cycles, we go through time of growth, we go through time of contraction, Is this just an artifact of, of just the modern economy that we're gonna have ebbs and flows and we're gonna have times where, you know, the, the getting's good and, and then times when it's not so not so great. Or is the, is the chief goal the ultimate goal to have some sort of normality that plays out for a longer period of time?   John (6m 36s): I think everyone's goal is normality that plays up for some period of time. And you're asking a deep question, which I won't answer, is how much of fluctuation, especially in, in real estate is, is natural to the economy? How much of it is a, you know, some pathology of the private economy that some government might be able to fix someday? And how much is induced by government policy? I would say for real estate investors batten down the hatches. We're on our way to a tough time. This one is pretty obviously induced by government policy and, and not just monetary policy and fiscal policy.   You know, we, we saw certainly in 2007, 2008, how the regulatory environment encouraged booms and busts. And I think our current regulatory environment makes matters worse rather than makes matters better, you know, subsidizing the boom and then pulling everything back in the bust. But it's certainly where we're heading now is, I think ask your parents and grandparents about the 1970s. I think it's fairly clear we have a burst of inflation that that comes from somewhere. I think it comes from the, you know, the massively overdone stimulus, but take your pick where it comes from.   You know, in the 1970s we had inflation that came from fiscal policy. Johnson wanted the Vietnam War and the Great Society, and then we had also oil price shocks. Ah, welcome to the 1970s. You know, get your flowered shirts and your bell-bottom jeans out cuz oil price shocks get things going. The fed is late to the game and then the fed slams on the brakes. Does that sound familiar? So I think it's fairly clear where we're going to go. Our fed has woken up and I think it's a, I can't really bet on where the economy's going, but I think, I'm pretty sure what the fed's gonna do.   As long as inflation remains high, the Fed is gonna keep raising rates 75 basis points a shot. And so we will see how, what I don't know is if that will lower inflation, how long that will lower inflation, but the fed's gonna keep raising rates. I think it's fairly clear that is going to cause an economic slowdown, if not a recession. I mean they're, what they're trying to do is add just enough recession to offset the boom. You know, you're trying to land a plane, they call soft landing. You're trying to land a plane while the engines are gone full tilt, which ain't that easy.   So they're trying to add enough and, and typically the fed fed adds more recession. So I, I think it's quite possible we head into recession, but the mechanism of what the fed's trying to do is raise interest rates. And that what does that hurt? That raising interest rates doesn't so much make you go out for burgers less often. And so often demand for restaurants raising interest rates is designed to to to lower interest sensitive spending. Okay. Unpack fed speak codes, that means you, Mr real estate, the design here is to raise interest rates, which lowers house prices, makes people less willing to sell houses, lower raises, mortgage rates makes it harder to buy houses.   So, you know, the whole point is to try to soften down a real estate boom. Not made any better by our country's ridiculous zoning planning and other bureaucracy that I, so I live in Palo Alto where it's just infuriating Yeah. Where house prices have been driven very, very high. Not so much by too much demand, but by just the refusal of the government to allow usli.   Jesse (9m 58s): So I was just speaking with you before the podcast. I was just coming back from San Diego. I live in Toronto and and Canada and, and I find that Ontario here is pretty similar in policy too. A lot of the California policies when it comes to real estate. I do wanna ask about a specific thing here on inflation, but before we do on that real estate, on the real estate topic, what we saw for the last few years was an extremely high, especially in our markets and the major markets in the states, an extremely high push on asset valuation, specifically in industrial and multi-res and low, low cap rates, which don't always follow interest rates, but you know, the spread is, is usually somewhat consistent.   I guess the question here is we do have inflation now we have a business real estate where we do pass on inflation typically to our customers, ie. Renters. But what do you think that the, and I I take asset values not just in real estate, but the stock market in general. I think the question often people have is how do we have the valuations going one way from the asset perspective in, in, but inflation hitting people in a different way on the consumer level like the, the interplay there.   John (11m 10s): Yeah, thank you. You put on my asset pricing hat. I mean one of the most fundamental things you have to understand with asset pricing is that when interest rates go up, values go down. When bond yields go up, bond prices go down. And so why are we seeing the stock market go down? Why are we seeing property values go down? You know, every asset, there's two things. There's the cash flow and there's the discount rate go, you know, back to school. Here we go.   Why? Because if an alternative investment can get you a higher rate of return, then you know you're gonna pay less for, you know, this, this whatever investment we're talking about a house or a stock or whatever. In some sense that's good news for very long run investors. When you see all asset valuations, stocks, bonds, real estate going down at the same time, what you're seeing that that effect is just the required rate of return going up, but it means the underlying cash flows are the same as they were before.   So unless you have to post margin Mr UK pension funds or you know, unless you're cash constrained in some sense, the long run investor can just wait it out. It means that those, you know, the dividends you'll get from your stocks haven't particularly gone down the, with the rents you'll get from your house or in fact going up and you know, you can have rising rents and lower property values. Well because the required rate of return goes up. So if you can just wait it out, those, those rents are there.   Now also the, the rents are rising. You know, you, we have to put our inflation hat back on. If you are not, if something isn't going up 10%, it's going down. That goes for everything. Anything that's not, you know, if your rent, if your rent is only going up 10% a year, then it's just treading water, relative inflation. If your wages are not going up 10 per nine, 10%, they're going down. Hello, this is to my boss.   So that, I think that's why it's possible both things they go opposite direction. Now, on top of that, we are I think heading into at least an economic slowdown, if not a recession. And that will bring, you know, pressure on, on the dividends and the cash flows, on the rents and so forth. And real estate is, I shouldn't be telling you about real estate, you know, way more than me, but location, location, location, yeah. So there's all sorts of low rents in, you know, Gary, Indiana or places downtown San Francisco. Places don't wanna be, people don't wanna be anymore.   So it depends on being in the right place, which is where people still wanna be and where unfortunately you're on the wrong side of this, where governments don't let competitors build apartment houses to, to lower their ends on.   Jesse (14m 2s): Yeah. And I think part of it, to me it seems it's the imperfect nature of especially real estate. You know, we can be as sophisticated as we want on the commercial side, but it, I think the stickiness of prices is, is just that very real aspect that the bid ask spread is still there. And owners don't want to admit that they're gonna have to write down to a certain extent these assets. No,   John (14m 25s): I must, this is one from an economist point of view, this is one of the most classic puzzles of real estate. Why is it in soft markets people clinging to yesterday's price rather than, you know, why don't, why don't we have just auctions? You know, I'm gonna say yeah, people keep hoping for it to turn around on, on the downside. And so trading volume falls when the prices are going down. There must be something about, you know, not willing to recognize Mark to market losses or,   Jesse (14m 53s): I I, yeah. I think it's part of the reason that so many investors I would take, take myself included, get into real estate, it's that I can't press a button and sell the thing. I think it's just the aspect that the the the cost, the, the selling costs is so great. But I I totally get what your, your point of view cuz we deal with in commercial real estate and we're supposed to be these sophisticated investors, pension funds, REITs and Yeah, I think that yeah, they just, they clinging to yester yesterday's or last year's price. I think that's, well   John (15m 23s): I know some of them like university endowments. Yeah. Have a cynical view. Why do university endowments like Stanford's invest in a lot of real estate and not just Vanguard total market portfolio and save themselves in van, in Stanford's case, $800 million a year on fees. Well, not marking at the market every year is, is very convenient for not saying, Oh we lost 20% of your money last year on occasion. But I dunno, that's, that's a pet theory that may be false.   Jesse (15m 51s): So, So John, there's a quote that I know you're, you're very familiar with and it's, i i I venture to guess it's somewhat of a misquote cause I don't think it takes the whole quote into account, but it's from Milton Freeman and it's that inflation is always an everywhere a monetary phenomenon. I think he was a little bit more specific, but that's usually the headline. What are your thoughts on that? Because I think you're, you're kind of proposing that fiscal seems to be an equation, part of the equation that, that the mon the mons have left out.   John (16m 23s): Yep. I think Friedman was 90% right and he was maybe 99% right in 1935 and 1965 and, and less so today, most of the episodes that you look at, he was deeply historical in fact based, he wasn't a big lots of equations theorist, but most of the episodes he looked at were cases where governments were printing up money to finance deficits and therefore causing inflation. You, you know, why is Argentina, Venezuela, Zimbabwe having inflation?   Not because their central bankers are too dumb to know what they're doing, but because they are, they they want to spend money and they can't tax it and they can't borrow it, so they print it. Now that is money in that case is just another form of government debt. So, you know, fiscal theory and monetary theory agree entirely. If the government is printing up money to finance a deficit, you get inflation. And that's, I think what we just saw. Now, the disagreement is, is much more subtle.   Suppose the government drops 5 trillion bucks from helicopters, you feel great, you go out and spend it, you create inflation. But suppose at the same time they tell you, Oh by the way our burglars went to your safe and took 5 trillion of treasury bills out of the safe. Or more realistically, you know, they send you a stimulus check for 10,000 thousand bucks, but they also say, Oh by the way, your taxes are going up 10,000 bucks today. Now will that cause inflation? What I've just done is I've, I've wiped out the question of, of wealth, the feeling that this stuff is, is yours to spend and we've just changed it to you have too much money and too few bonds, so the composition of your portfolio is a little off.   You have too many fives and tens and not enough twenties. Is that gonna make you go out and spend like crazy? Hmm, not so obvious. So in fact, the core monitor is prescription is that you can, all that matters is controlling the quantity of money. Don't worry about the quantity of bonds so that if you take in money and give out bonds or gi or take in a bonds and give out money, that's crucial for inflation. Whereas I think it's the overall quantity that that really matters. And, and you can see that's a much less obvious proposition.   Jesse (18m 42s): So his, his prescription, I think, you know, I think generally was that from, from a policy standpoint was that we have some percentage, I don't something similar to a Taylor rule where we are going to raise, raise kind of rates at a consistent percentage each year. I think, I think if I remember there was a, a video or quote, he said, just get a computer and replace the Fed. You know, what, what was, what was the perspective there? What was his, his intent and and what other policy mechanisms do you think like writing this book that, that we have at our disposal or the fed does?   John (19m 18s): Yeah, so to just, to, let me finish the last thought and and add to your question in Friedman was, was right, there's nothing logically wrong about what he said, but it's a world where money really matters. Where, where in Friedman's world you had to cash a check at a bank and get out cash on Friday if you wanted to eat dinner on a Saturday. So, so to let them use, there were no credit cards, there was no I iPhone and he was also thinking of a world where government, nobody worried about the US government paying back its debt.   So if you look at the footnotes, it was always, oh by the way, you know, this only holds if everyone trusts the government to pay back its debt. So there's a very real sense in which, you know, he gave a logically coherent theory for a different world. And we live in a different world. We live in a world where, where we have credit cards, where the money that matters reserves, pays interests. And where we're a little bit worried about Gartner, Now let's back to your, let me now answer your question. Friedman advocated that the Fed should just let the stock of money grow at 4% a year and just, you know, get rid of the huge building and the press conferences and the 15,000 economists and others just let money grow at fourth percent.   He did not argue that this was the best, a perfectly rational all seeing, you know, central planner could do. He just recognized that the Fed is run by humans and they're gonna get overenthusiastic and they're, they're, his analogy was, it's like a, a shower you'd turn on the hot and it would get too hot and turn on the cold and it would get too cold. Just leave it alone and it'll be okay because in his historical analysis, mo the Great Depression as well as many of the postwar sessions were caused by the Fed being too late to the party and then, you know, not just taking the punch bowl away, but, but you know, throwing ice on everybody or or whatever.   Now in 19 eight, the problem first problem with that is in 1980 the Fed did try to just control the money supply and we found out it didn't work. So controlling the money supply it, it led to a lot of volatility and I think even Friedman recognized it. But John Taylor came along and said, well the Fed doesn't have to control the money supply. It could be much more predictable. It can set interest. That's what our fed does. Our fed sets interest rates. It doesn't even pretend to control the money supply because that doesn't, we discovered the real world is the head of theory, the real world discovered controlling the money supply doesn't work.   And and theory is just now with, with my book and some others catching up. So John Taylor has, has this approach, well, okay, the Fed setting interest rates, but rather than sit around a table and, and burn the incense and wave the dead chickens and, and consult the astrologers and figure out what to do, Freedman was right. Being more predictable, not not just figuring out on a base would be much better for markets for everybody because as you know, as, as everyone is everybody's guess, all the volatility in the economy is guessing what the Fed is gonna do.   This is a deep point, you know, what is the financial press about all the time? Is it about how many, you know, the zoning sanity comes to the zoning council of Palo Alto or is it about people moving to, to Toronto is gonna drive no drive housing prices, It's all about what's the Fed gonna do, what's the Fed gonna do, what's the Fed gonna do? So you can tell right there that the Fed by making off the cuff decisions, is in, in in, is putting volatility in the economy. So Taylor came up with this Taylor rule raised interest rates systematically with inflation, which was designed to work like the money growth rule to make it very clear and transparent to stop us guessing all the time about what the Fed is going do.   It, it isn't, Taylor does not claim it's perfect. He doesn't claim that that the god that the Fed thinks it is couldn't do better. The all-knowing, all seeing perfectly rational economic planner of course could do better. He just recognizes the fed's human, it's a bureaucratic institution. It's, it's liable to group think it's gonna be late. And that expectations matter so much. Being clear and transparent about what you're gonna do is, is better than the current, just make it up as you go along.   So there's your, Sorry, you asked a question for a history of monetary economics and you got it.   Jesse (23m 49s): So there is no homo economists out there at the Fed.   John (23m 54s): Homo Bureaucratics is the best we can hope for and you know, we all criticize the Fed. I I I criticize the Fed and I think too harshly cuz I know most of the people at the Fed and, and let's just be clear, these are really good people, these are really smart people. The 1500 PhD economists, I think that's the number that they, as well as the ones at the Bank of Canada are really good, really smart people. There's no corruption here, but they didn't see the biggest inflation of, of your lifetime coming.   So they've got a whole, you know, staff of their, their mandate is inflation. They have a huge staff of economists, the best people in the world at it. They just couldn't see it coming. There are limits to what bureaucracy can do. So simple and transparent has some advantage. Not cuz people are bad or corrupt, it's just, you know, the best bureaucracy in the world can't, you know, we, we saw the Soviet Union fall apart for just that reason. Planning don't work.   Jesse (24m 54s): So I had a podcast, I think about a year ago now, two podcasts. One was a, the name is escaping me, but it was a professor from George Mason on the one hand. And on the other hand it was a bond trainer. A bond trader locally here. And we were talking about modern monetary theory and you know, for listeners, you know, look it up. I I hate to, I hate to do that, to have a huge explainer. But basically what I, you know, you can just tell by the nature of those two conversations or maybe not one was very, very much in favor of it, one was questioning its existence just high level.   Maybe you could, you could kind of get your view on what mon modern monetary theory ex expounds or tries to expound and, and has this last year or last two years, has that, has that been the nail in the coffin for them or has that been, has that bolstered their theory? How do you think that has played into what we've seen now as two second, you know, blurbs in the news that was this really to, from my perspective as a layperson, kind of a fad of economics for, for a while?   John (25m 60s): Yes, it was. If, if your listeners are interested, I wrote a review of Stephanie Kelton's book in the Wall Street Journal, which you can find either there or on my website, which goes into much more detail, modern monetary theory. What was a fad? And one way of noticing it's a fad is that they wrote popular books, Three quarters of Stephanie Kelton's book is about the wonderful ways the government can spend printed money and how desperately important it is to spend the money. Not, not so much why printing it won't cause inflation.   And it was a bunch of sort of, it's interesting, you look at the citations, they stop in the 1940s there was some ideas warmed over from the 1940s with zero contact with anything anybody has done since now maybe everything we've done since 1945 and economics has been wrong. You know, fields and the social sciences go off on fads before I think Kasey and economics was, was one big mistake too. But at least you have to, you know, if you wanna persuade people, you have to at least show that you know what they said and and why it's wrong.   And it did. It was superficially plausible. It, it, there were some ingredients you can take some good ingredients and, and, and just, just cuz the soup is rotten doesn't mean every ingredient was rotten. So they had one insight that, yeah, governments, they, one of their things was governments that borrow in their own currency don't have to default cuz they can just print up money to pay back the debt. Yeah, that's right. And if that causes inflation, they can just raise taxes to so soak up the money. Yeah, that's right. But they took that and and merged those with a whole bunch of things, you know, then the rotten parts of the soup go in to make, make the claim.   I think Kelton said there always is slack in the US economy. Now that's a quote. And the present tense of the verb is also a quote. And we just found out the end of slack in the US and Canadian economy. So we're done. There is not always slack in the US economy if you print up a lot of money and send it to people as Kelton, as Kelton asked, all the modern monitors said, print out money sent to people. Don't worry, there won't be any inflation. It's the clearest prediction you can ask anyone to make. They made it, boom, we printed up money, sent it to people and what do we get?   Inflation. So I, I hope that one goes on, on the dust bin of history, but it was never serious. And certainly you should look in, in today's media world, you have to learn to be an educated consumer and, and one way in which you're an educated consumer is to look at a theory and ask now of, you know, the theories that are, that are accepted by the mainstream are typically wrong and academia's full of all sorts of politically convenient theories.   But, you know, if it's completely out of the mainstream, you know, that does raise an alarm bell that you should, you should ask. And this one was, was one such. And, and if it's also, if you can see that it's all totally motivated by a political agenda, then that should also raise some alarm bells.   Jesse (29m 2s): So I have one of my favorite books here by Joseph Schumpeter recommend anybody that's never heard of Joseph Schumpeter, check out his work. I think, you know, you'll hear terms like creative destruction. One of his favorite quotes just on your point of, of politicians, I I always like was politicians are like bad horsemen who are so preoccupied with staying in the saddle that they can't bother to figure out where they're going. And you know, it's unfortunate that a lot of the, the policies that you know, that we're trying to get at here are, I guess, you know, tied up in, in the political process   John (29m 36s): If I could just, so it's fun to make fun of monitors, but I think we need need to recognize what a watershed moment inflation is for much more serious and well worked out economic ideas for 10 years. All of the worthies of economic policy, all of the government agencies, all the alphabet soup of international agencies, were talking about secular stagnation. That we just have lack of demand, that we need more fiscal stimulus. That the key to prosperity is to borrow or print money and hand it out.   You know, don't worry about the supply side of the economy whatsoever. Even Janet yell herself that our congressional testimony was asked about, Oh, should we run another one point whatever, $6 billion of government spending? And she said, don't worry about it. Interest costs are so low, interest rates are so low, you know, you can make the payments. I think what, you know, one of the, one of the greatest fallacies of real estate, let's get back to real estate, is don't worry, you know, as you look at the monthly payment, here's the big McMansion, Oh, but I don't have a job, don't worry about it.   Get this adjustable rate mortgage with the teaser. Look at the monthly payments you can afford. The monthly payments. Well Janet Yellen went up and said, we can afford the monthly payments. Don't, don't worry about going big. That has hit a brick wall of reality with inflation. And, and here these are all of the, you know, Larry Summers for example, who to his great credits saw the inflation coming before anyone else. But he had spent 10 years saying secular stagnation, our problem is lack of demand borrow. And, and we, it turns out that supply wall boom was a lot closer than we thought it was about like, you know, we, we were 1% away from the supply wall in the beginning.   It wasn't 10, 20, 30% away. So this just, this is a watershed, a bunch of ideas by very respectable people were totally wrong. And our economic challenge now is much harder. It's get the sand out of the gears. Increasing supply is not about throwing money on it, it's not about sending people checks. It's about fixing the zoning code. And can you rehab a commercial building in Manhattan to be apartments? No, because the zoning doesn't let you have bedrooms on the interior.   It's a great man and glaz parts, you know, you have to fix every single thing that's wrong in the economy. That is totally different. But that's where we are. So this is a big, big moment.   Jesse (32m 1s): Yeah. And even on the, the cane side of, you know, I don't the context of it, but the, the idea that markets can, markets can stay irrational longer than than they, than you can stay solvent. I think from the real estate perspective was just this idea where you saw very sophisticated investors buying prices at asset values where it just made no sense. There was negative leverage in some situations and just this idea that, that you there would just continue to be a hockey stick graph, especially here in, in this city and certainly in other ci major major markets in the states.   John (32m 33s): Well a fact of all such booms is you gotta ride the bubble while you can and you, you can make a lot of money buying, flipping, hoping to gut it doesn't crash before you can sell the darn thing. And that can go on for years and years. And if you just sit that out, if you say, oh, you know, properties overvalued stocks are valued, well, you know, three, four years go by and all your buddies are getting rich and you're sitting there, you know, if you go short losing money on your short positions, if you just sit it out, you know, playing golf while they're all getting rich through it's stuff to do.   Especially if you are, you know, working on someone else's behalf.   Jesse (33m 10s): So John, I just wanna be mindful of the time here. I do, I do have a question in chapter four in your book you talk about debt, government debt. And I wanted to kind of go a little bit more granular. I don't know the figures for the states offhand, but I know that Canadian household debt is, is debt to disposable income is is quite high. I believe it's 1.84 for every dollar, you know, Canadians have in consumer debt. What's your take on on that micro-economic aspect of, of the family debt within the family and then that impact into kind of this grander, you know, macroeconomic environment that we're in?   Is it something that you look at?   John (33m 50s): Well, I can offer some sort of general, So there's government debt which has to get paid back by raising taxes, but not raising tax is really by economic growth. Your only hope for the government paying back its debts is if they let the economy grow. Cause if, if you raise tax rates, that kills the economy. So you kill the tax base, you don't, you don't get a lot of taxes. Now private debt is a different matter. Let's remember, you know, your, your mortgage is is my pension. So everyone's liability is someone else's asset.   And it's funny how, you know, all of our economic policy, blah, blah, we simultaneously love and bemoan the same thing on the one hand, oh, you know, too much debt people can't pay back. On the other hand, not enough debt. Send more debt to my constituents so they can buy houses, which is it, you know, we want, government wants us to consume more, but it also wants us to save more and to pay more taxes. How's that happening? And, and you know, a lot financialization is great economies grow because entrepreneurs can borrow to finance new businesses because real estate developers can borrow to build apartments for the rest of us, they're doing us.   I don't know why they're so maligned. They do us a wonderful service. You wanna build your house on your own. How about somebody who knows what they're doing, do it, but they need to be able to borrow to do it. So debt that can be paid off is not so much a problem. Now problem comes in when debt can't be paid off, but risk in return. Guys, I think we need to get back to an economy where risk, we all understand if you buy Tesla stock and, and it turns out that hydrogen and and not batteries is the way of the future, or China shuts off the supply of batteries, you know you're gonna lose your, your money or you know, GM turns out to know what they're doing, you're gonna lose your, we all understand equity holders losing your money.   Now somehow, if you buy something called debt and, and you're getting a 5% return where everyone else is getting a 2% return, you're not supposed to lose money every now and then. So, you know, even debt is a great thing. Risky debt's a wonderful thing, you know, but cafe at em Thor, we need to understand as society that, that making risky loans is a great and wonderful thing, but you're gonna lose money every now and then and don't go crying to grandma government every time you lose your money. Now, you know, debt is, why do we worry about too much that we worry about if it turns into financial crisis?   And that's, you know, that's a problem. That's what the Nobel Prize just gave was given to Diamond and Member Yankee and felt that big about. Is that,   Jesse (36m 27s): Which I believe you, you just read or wrote a blog about, right? Yeah,   John (36m 31s): I just wrote a blog post about it, which is, you know, there's, we, we as a society need to get around, stop having financial crisis. Now that means the debt must be able to lose money when the, when it defaults in a way that isn't so incredibly painful for the society as a whole. And that I think is a failure of government regulation. We, you know, why do we regulate banks? Let's look at a bank's asset portfolios, the bank's asset and compare it to, I don't know, Tesla now, whose assets are more risky, whose cash flows are more risky, a bank or Teslas, you know, by, by three orders of magnitude.   Tesla Bank is, has a, has a portfolio of government guaranteed loans. I mean possibly, you know, yet where are all the regulators? The regulators are all looking at the bank. Now why is that answer? Because banks are leveraged up to the hilt and if they lose enough money to go under, they're, they're kind of big monopolies and, and they, our economy loses the capacity to, to make new debt. So why is that? We need to get the leverage out of the banks. And then you get to a financial system where people can default on debts and it doesn't bring the whole thing crashing down.   So debt's good, default is good, let it happen. Default is reorganization. We just need to not, you know, we kinda have a hostage here. The banks have taken the whole economy and and holding it hostage saying, you know, you government can't let anyone fail or else, and, and it's our political and even the Fed a financial crisis is not the possibility that somebody somewhere might lose money someday on some investment. No, you know, risk and return.   Entrepreneurial capitalism lose money. Financial crisis is when, when, when there's a run on short-term debt and that brings down the banking system. We, we can fix that.   Jesse (38m 26s): It's, you remind me of a, i we'll put a link to it. A really good, I dunno if it was an essay, but it was years ago, Thomas so wrote comparing the American Depression and the branch banking system that we have in Canada. Cuz you know, oftentimes people think Canadians, that we have these five large banks, which we do, or four depending on who you're asking. But we have an extensive branching system. And it was a, it's was interesting to see the difference of branching where it wasn't allowed in states during that time, I guess right after the depression.   But we'll put a link for anybody that's, that's interested. Now   John (39m 1s): This is great important and, and I, you know, I wanna say something. So something nice about Canada, Ben, this is what Ben Bernanke got the Nobel Prize for, he said in the US and the Great Depression. Why was the Great Depression so bad? Well, cause all the banks failed. Now why did the banks and then once the banks failed, not all the banks, sorry, I'm exaggerating. Many banks failed in many places. And when the banks failed, they closed down. And the people in those banks who knew in, you know, Lincoln, Nebraska, who was good for it and who wasn't, who knew how to make loans, they were unemployed.   Why did that not happen in Canada? Well, because, because there are many ways to stop a bank run. And one of them is if a local bank fails, somebody else can come in, a large national bank can come in and buy up the assets, keep the people who know how to make loans employed, you know, stiff the creditors, stiff the stockholders, but keep the operations going. But that needs, the US had had prohibitions on on branches, It had prohibitions on interstate banking. There was no way all the mechanisms of saving a bank and keeping the profitable parts going didn't exist.   And they did exist in Canada, which is why your Great Depression was a whole lot better than ours. Now that doesn't mean the only answer to this is to have a monopolized banking system with four big banks. That, that kept Canada out of a crisis in the Great Depression, but that also leads to a certain amount of financial sclerosis. And so I, I don't want to endorse crony capitalism as the only answer, but it did, it did work better in that circumstance,   Jesse (40m 35s): Economics, real estate and Canadian banking history. John, I think we covered it all today.   John (40m 40s): Thank you. It's a great pleasure.   Jesse (40m 42s): John, for individuals that that want to connect or reach out, where can we send them? We'll put a couple links in the show notes.   John (40m 50s): My website, john h cochran.com and my blog, The Grumpy Economist. And if you just Google John Cochran, I come up first.   Jesse (40m 60s): This is Working Capital. John, thanks for being a part of it.   John (41m 4s): Thanks. Great pleasure.   Jesse (41m 11s): Thank you so much for listening to Working Capital, the Real Estate podcast. I'm your host, Jesse for Galley. If you like the episode, head on to iTunes and leave us a five star review and share on social media. It really helps us out. If you have any questions, feel free to reach out to me on Instagram. Jesse for galley, F R A G A L E. Have a good one. Take care.  

Book Nook with Vick Mickunas
Book Nook: 'Desperately Searching for Higher Education Among the Ruins of the Great Society' by Barbara Fleming Ph.D.

Book Nook with Vick Mickunas

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 25, 2022 31:47


Vick Mickunas speaks with author Barbara Fleming Ph.D. about her book, Desperately Searching for Higher Education Among the Ruins of the Great Society.

DB Comedy Presents THE ELECTABLES
President 36 - Lyndon B. Johnson

DB Comedy Presents THE ELECTABLES

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 18, 2022 91:08


Are you getting used to Presidents genuinely full of contradictions? Because WOW do we have that with Lyndon Johnson - a warmongering civil rights crusader ... a liberal bully ... a crude and ruthless political operator whose heart broke by the time he left the Presidency ... a guy misunderstood when alive being reconsidered with the advantage of time. (But don't worry - it's funny as Hell, too!) LBJ is here for your Electable goodness!This episode's sketches were Written, Produced, and Performed by:Gina BuccolaSandy BykowskiJoseph FedorkoSylvia MannPaul MoultonPatrick J. ReillyAnd Tommy SpearsThis Episode's Historians: Dr. Chelsea Denault, James McRaeOriginal Music written and performed by Throop McClergAudio production by Joseph FedorkoSound effects procured at Freesound.orgDB Comedy Logo Designed by Adam L. HarlettELECTABLES logo and Presidential Caricatures by Dan PolitoTHE ELECTABLES concept was created by Patrick J. Reilly.CAST AND CREDITS COLD OPEN – Written by Paul Moulton          Dr. Nair - Tommy          Joe - JoeTHE LYNDON B. JOHNSON SCHOOL OF POLITICAL PERSUASION – Written by Joseph Fedorko            J.H. – Tommy            Jeremy – Patrick            Jade – Sandy            Jasmine - SylviaTHE BIGGEST JOHNSON – Written by Tommy Spears (including Music)            LBJ - Patrick             Announcer AND Louis C.K. AND Jason Matsoukas - Tommy             Walter Cronkite - Paul             Ladybird/Sarah Silverman – Sylvia            Humphrey/Andy Dick - JoeJOHNSON SAUSAGES – Written by Sandy Bykowski            Announcer - Patrick             Housewife - Sylvia             Jingle - TommyDANIEL IN THE LION'S DEN – Written by Paul Moulton            LBJ – Patrick            Hoover – Joe            Ellsberg - TommyLBJ AND JFK – Written By Sandy Bykowski            LBJ – Patrick            Ladybird – Sandy            JFK – Tommy            McNamara – Joe            Oswald – Sylvia            Crowds - CastContributions to DB Comedy are graciously accepted by going to the DB COMEDY donation page at https://fundraising.fracturedatlas.org/db-comedy, the nonprofit fiscal sponsor of DB COMEDY. Donations are tax-deductible to the fullest extent allowed by law.For more information on DB Comedy and THE ELECTABLES, visit DB Comedy's web site, dbcomedy.com, or DB Comedy's host page on Simplecast.com. Follow us on Facebook at DB Comedy. Join us on The Trident Network, and listen to us on World Perspectives Radio Chicago, on Live365.com and Hard Lens Media!Thanks for listening! Thanks for downloading! Don't forget to subscribe! And don't forget to like!! 

The History of Computing
Simulmatics: Simulating Advertising, Data, Democracy, and War in the 1960s

The History of Computing

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 14, 2022 27:43


Dassler shoes was started by Adolf Dassler in 1924 in Germany, after he came home from World War I. His brother Rudolph joined him. They made athletic shoes and developed spikes to go on the bottom of the shoes. By 1936, they convinced Jesse Owens to wear their shoes on the way to his gold medals. Some of the American troops who liked the shoes during World War II helped spread the word. The brothers had a falling out soon after the war was over. Adolph founded Adidas while Rudolph created a rival shoe company called Puma. This was just in time for the advertising industry to convince people that if they bought athletic shoes that they would instantly be, er, athletic. The two companies became a part of an ad-driven identity that persists to this day. One most who buy the products advertised hardly understand themselves. A national identity involves concentric circles of understanding. The larger a nation, the more concentric circles and the harder it is to nail down exactly who has what identity. Part of this is that people spend less time thinking about who they are and more time being told who they should want to be like. Woven into the message of who a person should be is a bunch of products that a person has to buy to become the ideal. That's called advertising.  James White founded the first modern advertising agency called ‘R. F. White & Son' in Warwick Square, London in 1800. The industry evolved over the next hundred or so years as more plentiful supplies led to competition and so more of a need to advertise goods. Increasingly popular newspapers from better printing presses turned out a great place to advertise. The growth of industrialism meant there were plenty of goods and so competition between those who manufactured or trafficked those goods. The more efficient the machines of industry became, the more the advertising industry helped sell what the world might not yet know it needed. Many of those agencies settled into Madison Avenue in New York as balances of global power shifted and so by the end of World War II, Madison Avenue became a synonym for advertising. Many now-iconic brands were born in this era. Manufacturers and distributors weren't the only ones to use advertising. People put out ads to find loves in personals and by the 1950s advertising even began to find its way into politics. Iconic politicians could be created.  Dwight D Eisenhower served as the United States president from 1953 to 1961. He oversaw the liberation of Northern Africa in World War II, before he took command to plan the invasion of Normandy on D Day. He was almost universally held as a war hero in the United States. He had not held public office but the ad men of Madison Avenue were able to craft messages that put him into the White House. Messages like “I like Ike.” These were the early days of television and the early days of computers. A UNIVAC was able to predict that Eisenhower would defeat Adlai Stevenson in a landslide election in 1952. The country was not “Madly for Adlai” as his slogan went.  ENIAC had first been used in 1945. MIT Whirlwind was created in 1951, and the age of interactive computing was upon us. Not only could a computer predict who might win an election but new options in data processing allowed for more granular ways to analyze data. A young Senator named John F. Kennedy was heralded as a “new candidate for the 1960s.” Just a few years later Stephenson had lambasted Ike for using advertising, but this new generation was willing to let computers help build a platform - just as the advertisers were starting to use computers to help them figure out the best way to market a product. It turns out that words mattered. At the beginning of that 1960 election, many observed they couldn't tell much difference between the two candidates: Richard Nixon and John Kennedy. Kennedy's democrats were still largely factored between those who believed in philosophies dating back to the New Deal and segregationists. Ike presided over the early days of the post-World War II new world order. This new generation, like new generations before and since, was different. They seemed to embrace the new digital era. Someone like JFK wasn't punching cards and feeding them into a computer, writing algorithms, or out surveying people to collect that data. That was done by a company that was founded in 1959 called Simulmatics. Jill Lepore called them the What If men in her book called If/Then - a great read that goes further into the politics of the day. It's a fascinating read. The founder of the company was a Madison Avenue ad man named Ed Greenfield. He surrounded himself with a cast of characters that included people from John Hopkins University, MIT, Yale, and IBM.  Ithiel de Sola Pool had studied Nazi and Soviet propaganda during World War II. He picked up on work from Hungarian Frigyes Karinthy and with students ran Monte Carlo simulations on people's acquaintances to formulate what would later become The Small World Problem or the Six Degrees of Separation, a later inspiration for the social network of the same name and even later, for Facebook. The social sciences had become digital. Political science could then be used to get at the very issues that could separate Kennedy from Nixon. The People Machine as one called it was a computer simulation, thus the name of the company. It would analyze voting behaviors. The previous Democratic candidate Stevenson had long-winded, complex speeches. They analyzed the electorate and found that “I Like Ike” resonated with more people. It had, after all, been developed by the same ad man who came up with “Melts in your mouth, not in your hands” for M&Ms. They called the project Project Microscope. They recruited some of the best liberal minds in political science and computer science. They split the electorate into 480 groups. A big focus was how to win the African-American vote. Turns out Gallup polls didn't study that vote because Southern newspapers had blocked doing so. Civil rights, and race relations in general wasn't unlike a few other issues. There was anti-Catholic, anti-Jew, and anti-a lot. The Republicans were the party of Lincoln and had gotten a lot of votes over the last hundred years for that. But factions within the party had shifted. Loyalties were shifting. Kennedy was a Catholic but many had cautioned he should down-play that issue. The computer predicted civil rights and anti-Catholic bigotry would help him, which became Kennedy's platform. He stood for what was right but were they his positions or just what the nerds thought? He gained votes at the last minute. Turns out the other disenfranchised groups saw the bigotry against one group as akin to bigotry against their own; just like the computers thought they would. Kennedy became an anti-segregationist, as that would help win the Black vote in some large population centers. It was the most aggressive, or liberal, civil-rights plank the Democrats had ever taken up.  Civil rights are human rights. Catholic rights are as well. Kennedy offered the role of Vice President to Lyndon B Johnson, the Senate Majority Leader and was nominated to the Democratic candidate. Project Microscope from Simulmatics was hired in part to shore up Jewish and African-American votes. They said Kennedy should turn the fact that he was a Catholic into a strength. Use the fact he was Catholic to give up a few votes here and there in the South but pick up other votes. He also took the Simulmatics information as it came out of the IBM 704 mainframe to shore up his stance on other issues. That confidence helped him out-perform Nixon in televised debates. They used teletypes and even had the kids rooms converted into temporary data rooms. CBS predicted Nixon would win. Less than an hour later they predicted Kennedy would win. Kennedy won the popular vote by .1 percent of the country even after two recounts. The Black vote hat turned out big for Kennedy. News leaked about the work Simulmatics had done for Kennedy. Some knew that IBM had helped Hitler track Jews as has been written about in the book IBM and the Holocaust by Edwin Black. Others still had issues with advertising in campaigns and couldn't fathom computers. Despite Stalin's disgust for computers some compared the use of computers to Stalinistic propaganda. Yet it worked - even if in retrospect the findings were all things we could all take for granted. They weren't yet. The Kennedy campaign at first denied the “use of an electronic brain and yet their reports live on in the Kennedy Library. A movement against the use of the computer seemed to die after Kennedy was assassinated.  Books of fiction persisted, like The 480 from Eugene Burdick, which got its title from the number of groups Simulmatics used. The company went on to experiment with every potential market their computer simulation could be used in. The most obvious was the advertising industry. But many of those companies went on to buy their own computers. They already had what many now know is the most important aspect of any data analytics project: the data. Sometimes they had decades of buying data - and could start over on more modern computers. They worked with the Times to analyze election results in 1962, to try and catch newspapers up with television. The project was a failure and newspapers leaned into more commentary and longer-term analysis to remain a relevant supplier of news in a world of real-time television. They applied their brand of statistics to help simulate the economy of Venezuela in a project called Project Camelot, which LBJ later shot down.  Their most profitable venture became working with the defense department to do research in Vietnam. They collected data, analyzed data, punched data into cards, and fed it into computers. Pool was unabashedly pro-US and it's arguable that they saw what they wanted to see. So did the war planners in the pentagon, who followed Robert McNamara. McNamara had been one of the Quiz Kids who turned around the Ford Motor Company with a new brand of data-driven management to analyze trends in the car industry, shore up supply chains, and out-innovate the competition. He became the first president of the company who wasn't a Ford. His family had moved to the US from Ireland to flee the Great Irish Famine. Not many generations later he got an MBA from Harvard before he became a captain in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II primarily as an analyst. Henry Ford the second hired his whole group to help with the company.  As many in politics and the military learn, companies and nations are very different. They did well at first, reducing the emphasis on big nuclear first strike capabilities and developing other military capabilities. One of those was how to deal with guerrilla warfare and counterinsurgencies. That became critical in Vietnam, a war between the communist North Vietnamese and the South Vietnamese. The North was backed by North Korea, China, and the Soviet Union, the South backed by the United States, South Korea, Australia. Others got involved but those were the main parties. We can think of McNamara's use of computers to provide just in time provisioning of armed forces and move spending to where it could be most impactful, which slashed over $10 billion in military spending. As the Vietnam war intensified, statistically the number of troops killed by Americans vs American casualties made it look computationally like the was was being won. In hindsight we know it was not.  Under McNamara, ARPA hired Simulmatics to study the situation on the ground. They would merge computers, information warfare, psychological warfare, and social sciences. The Vietnamese that they interviewed didn't always tell them the truth. After all, maybe they were CIA agents. Many of the studies lacked true scholars as the war was unpopular back home. People who collected data weren't always skilled at the job. They spoke primarily with those they didn't get shot at as much while going to see. In general, the algorithms might have worked or might not have worked - but they had bad data. Yet Simulmatics sent reports that the operations were going well to McNamara. Many in the military would remember this as real capabilities at cyber warfare and information warfare were developed in the following decades. Back home, Simulmatics also became increasingly tied up in things Kennedy might have arguably fought against. There were riots, civil rights protests, and Simulatics took contracts to simulate racial riots. Some felt they could riot or go die in in the jungles of Vietnam. The era of predictive policing had begun as the hope of the early 1960s turned into the apathy of the late 1960s. Martin Luther King Jr spoke out again riot prediction, yet Simulmatics pushed on. Whether their insights were effective in many of the situations, just like in Vietnam - was dubious. They helped usher in the era of Surveillance capitalism, in a way. But the arrival of computers in ad agencies meant that if they hadn't of, someone else would have.  People didn't take kindly to being poked, prodded, and analyzed intellectually. Automation took jobs, which Kennedy had addressed in rhetoric if not in action. The war was deeply unpopular as American soldiers came home from a far off land in caskets. The link between Simulmatics and academia was known. Students protested against them and claimed they were war criminals. The psychological warfare abroad, being on the wrong side of history at home with the race riots, and the disintegrating military-industrial-university complex didn't help. There were technical issues. The technology had changed away from languages like FORTRAN. Further, the number of data points required and how they were processed required what we now call “Big Data” and “machine learning.” Those technologies showed promise early but more mathematics needed to be developed to fully weaponize the surveillance everything. More code and libraries needed to be developed to crunch the large amounts of statistics. More work needed to be done to get better data and process it. The computerization of the social sciences was just beginning and while people like Pool predicted the societal impacts we could expect, people at ARPA doubted the results and the company they created could not be saved as all these factors converged to put them into bankruptcy in 1970.  Their ideas and research lived on. Pool and others published some of their findings. Books opened the minds to the good and bad of what technology could do. The Southern politicians, or Dixiecrats, fell apart. Nixon embraced a new brand of conservatism as he lost the race to be the Governor of California to Pat Brown in 1962. There were charges of voter fraud from the 1960 election. The Mansfeld Amendment restricted military funding of basic research in 1969 and went into effect in 1970. Ike had warned of the growing links between universities as the creators of weapons of war like what Simulmatics signified and the amendment helped pull back funding for such exploits. As Lepore points out in her book, mid-century liberalism was dead. Nixon tapped into the silent majority who countered the counterculture of the 1960s. Crime rose and the conservatives became the party of law and order. He opened up relations with China, spun down the Vietnam war, negotiated with the Soviet leader Brezhnev to warm relations, and rolled back Johnson's attempts at what had been called The Great Society to get inflation back in check. Under him the incarceration rate in the United States exploded. His presidency ended with Watergate and under Ford, Carter, Reagan, and Bush, the personal computer became prolific and the internet, once an ARPA project began to take shape. They all used computers to find and weigh issues, thaw the Cold War, and build a new digitally-driven world order. The Clinton years saw an acceleration of the Internet and by the early 2000s companies like PayPal were on the rise. One of their founders was Peter Thiel. Peter Thiel founded Palantir in 2003 then invested in companies like Facebook with his PayPal money. Palantir received backing from In-Q-Tel “World-class, cutting-edge technologies for National Security”. In-Q-Tel was founded in 1999 as the global technological evolution began to explode. While the governments of the world had helped build the internet, it wasn't long before they realized it gave an asymmetrical advantage to newcomers. The more widely available the internet, the more far reaching attacks could go, the more subversive economic warfare could be. Governmental agencies like the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) needed more data and the long promised artificial intelligence technologies to comb through that data. Agencies then got together and launched their own venture capital fund, similar to those in the private sector - one called In-Q-Tel. Palantir has worked to develop software for the US Immigration and Customers Enforcement, or ICE, to investigate criminal activities and allegedly used data obtained from Cambridge Analytica along with Facebook data. The initial aim of the company was to take technology developed for PayPal's fraud detection and apply it to other areas like terrorism, with help from intelligence agencies. They help fight fraud for nations and have worked with the CIA, NSA, FBI, CDC, and various branches of the United States military on various software projects. Their Gotham project is the culmination of decades of predictive policing work.  There are dozens of other companies like Palantir. Just as Pool's work on Six Degrees of Separation, social networks made the amount of data that could be harvested all the greater. Companies use that data to sell products. Nations use that data for propaganda. Those who get elected to run nations use that data to find out what they need to say to be allowed to do so. The data is more accurate with every passing year. Few of the ideas are all that new, just better executed. The original sin mostly forgotten, we still have to struggle with the impact and ethical ramifications. Politics has always had a bit of a ruse in a rise to power. Now it's less about personal observation and more about the observations and analyses that can be gleaned from large troves of data. The issues brought up in books like The 480 are as poignant today as they were in the 1950s.

The James Perspective
FULL EPISODE: #696 - The Morning Crew

The James Perspective

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 13, 2022 114:01


The Morning Crew discusses inflation; colonoscopies and AIDS; free markets; and the Great Society's contribution to emasculate men. 

The James Perspective
CLIP: From Episode #696 - The Great Society's Contribution to Emasculate Men

The James Perspective

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 13, 2022 24:12


The Morning Crew discusses the Great Society's contribution to emasculate men. 

Serve to Lead | James Strock
David Pietrusza | Podcast

Serve to Lead | James Strock

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 28, 2022 43:34


In our unsettled moment, there's a burst of interest in one of the United States' most consequential presidents: Franklin Roosevelt. In this episode of the Serve to Lead podcast, acclaimed presidential historian David Pietrusza discusses his highly readable and extensively researched new book, Roosevelt Sweeps Nation: FDR's 1936 Landslide and the Triumph of the Liberal Ideal. The Next Nationalism is a reader-supported publication. To receive new posts and support my work, consider becoming a free or paid subscriber.Critical Acclaim“A robust chronicle of Franklin Roosevelt's quest to stay in the White House. . . a brisk, spirited narrative, abundantly populated and bursting with anecdotes . . . A prodigiously researched and exuberantly told political biography/history.”—Kirkus Reviews (Starred Review )“Pietrusza . . . makes the most of his engrossing tale. . . .  a lively story that is rife with strong personalities and blood stirring incidents. . . . appealing.”– Library Journal“a sweeping yet minutely detailed chronicle of FDR's 1936 reelection campaign . . .an exhaustive and expert chronicle of a critical American election.”—Publishers Weekly“David Pietrusza's Roosevelt Sweeps Nation combines penetrating research with good illustrative anecdotes to bring the 1936 presidential election between FDR and Alf Landon into sharp focus. A marvelous and important history. Highly recommended!”—Douglas Brinkley, professor of history at Rice University, author of Rightful Heritage: Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Land of America.“David Pietrusza has done it again—another fascinating, easy-to-read book on a key moment in history. Franklin Roosevelt won a massive victory in 1936, cementing his New Deal permanently. Pietrusza brings FDR's era to life and shows us how it happened.”—Larry J. Sabato, Director of the University of Virginia Center for Politics“The 1936 election was not just another FDR victory, but an important turning point in the nation's history. The story David Pietrusza tells is riveting and the cast of characters is fascinating. Franklin Roosevelt was the most skillful American politician of the 20th century and this election was a decisive affirmation of his power and appeal.”—Ron Faucheux, political analyst “In the style and with the depth of research of David McCullough, David Pietrusza makes history come alive in his latest book ‘Roosevelt Sweeps Nation.' From religious characters like Father Divine and radio preacher Charles Coughlin, to political ones like Huey Long and Roosevelt himself, the book is a delightful and compelling read.”—Cal Thomas, Syndicated Columnist“Another great election year chronicle from [David Pietrusza] — such a colorful story & writing. Couldn't be juicier.”—Whit Stillman, Director and Academy Award Nominated Screenwriter “David Pietrusza is my favorite historian, and Roosevelt Sweeps Nation is Pietrusza at his best. Nobody can tell a better story than Pietrusza, who always shows you there's more to the story than you thought—that there is juicy stuff hidden in our history that nobody has bothered to suss out or that has long been forgotten. This is another page-turner you won't want to put down. At a time when Americans can use a reprieve from today's news, Roosevelt Sweeps Nation is just what the doctor ordered. And David Pietrusza is a national treasure.”—Matt Lewis, Senior Columnist, The Daily Beast “Roosevelt crafted an election strategy so strong that it has defined national campaigns of both parties ever since. Now historian David Pietrusza brings the stunning 1936 Roosevelt Sweep to life, with timely lessons for our current  challenges.”—Amity Shlaes, Author, Great Society.“all of [Pietrusza's] books are brilliant, but this is just phenomenal.”—John Rothmann, KGO Radio (San Francisco)About the AuthorAward-winning historian David Pietrusza has been called “a national treasure” and “the undisputed champion of chronicling American Presidential campaigns.” His books include studies of the 1920, 1932, 1936, 1948, and 1960 presidential elections and biographies of Theodore Roosevelt (Independent Publisher Book Awards Silver Medal, US History), gambler Arnold Rothstein (Edgar Award finalist) and Baseball Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis (Casey Award winner). Pietrusza has appeared on NPR, C-SPAN, MSNBC, The Voice of America, The History Channel, AMC, and ESPN. He has spoken at the JFK, FDR, Truman, and Coolidge presidential libraries, the National Baseball Hall of Fame, and various universities, museums, libraries, and festivals. A noted expert on baseball history, Pietrusza has served as editor-in-chief of Total Sports Publishing, co-editor of Total Baseball: The Official Encyclopedia of Major League Baseball, national president of the Society for American Baseball Research (SABR), and co-author with Ted Williams of Williams' pictorial autobiography.A former member of the Amsterdam (NY) City Council, he holds bachelor's and master's degrees in history from the University at Albany, is a Recipient of UAlbany's Alumni Association's Excellence in Arts & Letters Award, and a charter member of the Greater Amsterdam School District Hall of Fame.He served as a member of the New York State Commission for the Restoration of the Capitol.The Serve to Lead podcast is now on Substack. It can be accessed in the usual formats, including:Apple Podcasts | Amazon Audible | Amazon Music | Google Podcasts | iHeart | Spotify | Stitcher | Podchaser | TuneIn Image credits | Diversion Books; davidpietrusza.com. Get full access to The Next Nationalism at jamesstrock.substack.com/subscribe

American Compassion
Season 2 Coming Soon

American Compassion

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 26, 2022 3:00


How do politicians and leaders get things done in the face of opposition, and through the red tape of bureaucracy? And what kinds of people can meaningfully change the direction of an entire country? What personal qualities, strategies, and luck does it take to provide a safety net for people in a country like the United States? In Season 2 of American Compassion, we explore the ambitions, the toil, the compromises, and the visionaries behind The Great Society, Lyndon Baines Johnson's attempt to complete the New Deal, as the story of the American Safety Net Continues. 

The Remnant with Jonah Goldberg
Maternal Instincts

The Remnant with Jonah Goldberg

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 24, 2022 67:55 Very Popular


Coming to you from a thunderous Sioux Falls, today's Ruminant features a distinctly Goldbergian potpourri of rank punditry and eggheadery. Jonah begins by discussing the merits of the Letitia James lawsuit, his general distaste for enthusiasm, and Trump's cavalier treatment of classified materials. After a not-so-brief foray into the consequences of the left's pro-truth hypocrisy, things end on an esoteric note as Jonah contemplates pragmatism and the philosophical differences between the New Deal and the Great Society.Show Notes:- Eli Lake: “Framed and Guilty”- The Atlantic: “Separating Sports by Sex Doesn't Make Sense”- The Fair Jessica's review of The Frailty Myth- Chelsea Conaboy: “Maternal Instinct Is a Myth That Men Created”- Jonah: “Both Parties Are to Blame for the Immigration Crisis”- The Remnant with Nick Eberstadt

The Steve Gruber Show
Congressman Bill Huizenga, The Great Society failed

The Steve Gruber Show

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 16, 2022 8:30


Congressman Bill Huizenga is an American politician serving as the U.S. representative for Michigan's 2nd congressional district since 2011. The district covers much of Lake Michigan's western shore and many of Grand Rapids's suburbs, including Muskegon, Holland, Kentwood, and Grand Haven. The Great Society failed 

Throughline
Getting to Sesame Street

Throughline

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 15, 2022 49:46 Very Popular


In American history, schools have not just been places to learn the ABCs – they're places where socialization happens and cultural norms are developed. Arguments over how and what those norms are and how they're communicated tend to flare up during moments of cultural anxiety. Sesame Street was part of a larger movement in the late 1960s to reach lower income, less privileged and more "urban" audiences. It was part of LBJ's Great Society agenda. But Sesame Street is a TV show - not a classroom. And it was funded in part by taxpayer dollars. This story is about how a television show made to represent New York City neighborhoods – like Harlem and the Bronx – has sustained its mark in educating children in a divided country.

WCHV's Joe Thomas in the Morning Podcast
091522 @107wchv "Brandon sort of Ryhmes with Johnson, Doesn't It?"

WCHV's Joe Thomas in the Morning Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 15, 2022 33:02


The President held a party because... wait.. didn't inflation go UP? (Maybe James Taylor should have sung "Steamroller Blues") Joe takes us back to when the precedent for all this was created...and then the NEXT President Johnson who upped the ante.See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

The Comics Canon
Episode 169 – New Avengers (2013) Vol. 4: A Perfect World

The Comics Canon

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 14, 2022 69:18


We wrap up our selective two-part look back on Jonathan Hickman's New Avengers, as the Illuminati—the secret syndicate featuring Black Panther, Iron Man, the Sub-Mariner and other heavy hitters—are finally confronted with an impossible decision: to destroy an alternate Earth or watch their own world die! Can our conflicted cabal figure out a solution before going toe-to-toe with the Justice League—we mean the Squadron Supreme—we mean the Great Society, the greatest heroes of Earth 4,290,001? And can they possibly win that war of the worlds known as ... The Comics Canon? In This Episode: “Forever glass? That's ridiculous!” Doom's children's health PSA We entertain a surprise guest The Coldest City Barbarian Lynda Barry in The New York Times Magazine Sulu Grabbed My Ass ... Green Lantern: Rebirth Join us in two weeks as we prepare for the upcoming Black Adam movie with a look at JSA: Black Reign! Until then: Impress your friends with our Comics Canon merchandise! Rate us on Apple Podcasts! Send us an email! Hit us up on Twitter or Facebook! And as always, thanks for listening!

Why I'll Never Make It - An Actor’s Journey
Daryl Eisenberg and the Evolving Role of the Casting Director in Stage and Screen

Why I'll Never Make It - An Actor’s Journey

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 12, 2022 64:27


As noted in the previous episode, auditions are the backbone of this industry. It is the fundamental job of every actor to do as many jobs as we can and do each one to the best of our ability. But there is an important gatekeeper when it comes to submitting our self tapes or actually getting in the audition room, and that is the casting Director. You've heard from Actors and their experiences in front of the audition table. Well, now it's time to hear from the other side of that proverbial table and what goes in to casting, and the vital role they play in the production for the stage or screen. Daryl Eisenberg, along with fellow casting director Ally Beans, works to create a comfortable space for actors, so they can take risks and really show their full potential as artists. You'll hear Daryl's thoughts on how actors can make their mark in the audition room or on a self-tape, and then you'll get an in-depth, behind-the-scenes look at how she uses her position and expertise to make the audition process enjoyable and inclusive for artists on both sides of the table. Learn more about WINMI Podcast at whyillnevermakeit.com  Subscribe to WINMI and get access to Bonus Episodes on Supercast  Donate to the production efforts that make this podcast possible Follow Why I'll Never Make It on Instagram or Twitter Watch interviews on WINMI's YouTube channel Read the Final Five with Daryl Eisenberg on the WINMI Blog ---------- Why I'll Never Make It is an award-winning, top 25 theater podcast and is hosted by Off-Broadway actor and singer Patrick Oliver Jones. It is a production of WINMI Media, LLC. and is also a part of Helium Radio Network and a member of the Broadway Makers Alliance.  Background music in the episode is by John Bartmann (Public Domain) and Blue Dot Sessions (Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License).     Audition Stories of Diversity and Inclusion Covid certainly has changed the way we now audition, with self-tapes and Zoom auditions becoming the norm. But the summer of 2020 also changed the way we think about who is coming to the auditions and what that creative team looks like. In this week's bonus episode, Daryl shares a few of her own experiences as she advocates for more diversity on both sides of the table. You'll also hear how she works with fellow casting director Ally Beans, who is both partner and collaborator in the casting process. Bonus episodes like these are only available to monthly supporters of Why I'll Never Make It. So if you'd like to help this podcast as well, then please consider a monthly subscription and get access to bonus episodes like the Audition Stories.     CASTING OFFICES IN NYC Some of the biggest casting offices for stage and screen (like Eisenberg/Beans) reside in New York City, and at the top of the list is... The Telsey Office Formerly known as Telsey + Company, The Telsey Office is perhaps the best known casting office for commercials, film, television, and course, theatre. The company has bases in both New York City and Los Angeles. Recent Broadway: Waitress, MJ the Musical, Flying Over Sunset, Mrs. Doubtfire, Diana, West Side Story, Tina, The Sound Inside, Beetlejuice, Gary, Oklahoma!, Be More Chill, To Kill a Mockingbird, Network, The Cher Show, The Prom. Website: www.thetelseyoffice.com Contact: info@thetelseyoffice.com | 917-277-7520 Tara Rubin Casting Rubin began her company in 2001 after working for 15 years as a Casting Director at Johnson-Liff Associates. She is a graduate of Boston University and serves on the board of the Casting Society of America. Recent Broadway: Six, Ain't Too Proud, Summer, The Band's Visit, Prince of Broadway, Bandstand, Indecent, Miss Saigon, Dear Evan Hansen, A Bronx Tale, Cats, Disaster! Website: www.tararubincasting.com Contact: tararubincasting.info@gmail.com | 212-302-3011 Binder Casting Binder Casting was founded nearly 40 years ago by Jay Binder, who passed away in April 2022, and has been a part of RWS Entertainment Group since 2016. The office has cast 150+ Broadway, Off-Broadway, and National Touring productions, in addition to countless national and international projects spanning both stage and screen. Recent Broadway: The Lion King, In Transit, Dames at Sea, It Shoulda Been You, A Gentleman's Guide to Love and Murder, Nice Work if You Can Get It, Born Yesterday, White Christmas, Finian's Rainbow. Website: bindercasting.com Contact: info@bindercasting.com | 212-586-6777 Stewart/Whitley An award-winning office in New York City that delivers excellence and innovation in casting. Respect for the creative process: the artistic teams, actors and all who collaborate in it is paramount. Connecting creativity is at the cornerstone of what they do. Recent Broadway: Hadestown, The Lightning Thief, Natasha, Pierre and the Great Comet of 1812, Pippin, Chicago Website: www.stewartwhitley.com Contact: info@stewartwhitley.com | 212-635-2153 Wojcik Casting Team Wojcik/Seay Casting opened its doors in January of 2009 with the national non-union tour of Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat and has also been featured in Season 2 of the podcast. But Gayle Seay has since gone to become Artistic Director of Stages St. Louis, while Scott Wojcik continues to cast shows in and out of New York. Recent Broadway: Jesus Christ Superstar, Motown Website: wscasting.com Contact: info@wscasting.com Jim Carnahan, CSA Recent Broadway: Moulin Rouge!, Kiss Me, Kate, Tootsie, Burn This, The Ferryman, Head Over Heels, Travesties, Harry Potter and the Cursed Child, Angels in America, Farinelli and the King, Time and the Conways, 1984, Groundhog Day, The Price, The Cherry Orchard, Long Day's Journey Into Night, She Loves Me, Noises Off, Fun Home. Stephen Kopel, CSA Recent Broadway: Moulin Rouge!, Jagged Little Pill; Kiss Me, Kate; The Play That Goes Wrong; Beautiful; Sunday in the Park with George; Amélie; She Loves Me; Noises Off; Violet; The Glass Menagerie; Harvey; Once; Anything Goes Caparelliotis Casting Recent Broadway: The Minutes, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf, In the Height of the Storm, Ink, Hillary and Clinton, King Lear, The Waverly Gallery, The Nap, The Boys in the Band, Saint Joan. Daniel Swee, CSA Recent Broadway: Pass Over, The Great Society, To Kill a Mockingbird, Six Degrees of Separation, Oslo, The Present, The Heidi Chronicles, The Audience Cindy Tolan, CSA Recent Broadway: Company, The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time, Betrayal, Macbeth, Rodgers + Hammerstein's Cinderella. Other standouts on the theatre scene: Bass/Valle Casting Bob Cline Casting Franck Casting HBD Casting Jamibeth Margolis Casting Klapper Casting Laura Stanczyk Casting Michael Cassara Casting