Japanese multinational corporation
What does it sound like when you change your mind?That's the name of the book Seth Godin was about to publish when James interviewed him. He only printed 5,500 copies. And he's not printing anymore.He doesn't view a book as just pages surrounded by two covers. He makes a 3-dimensional object that's beautiful to look at and read.“It's not new,” he said on my podcast. “It's the best of the last four years of my work. And it's illustrated with hundreds of photos by Thomas Hawk, who's the most prolific and talented internet photographer.”The book weighs 18 pounds. And it's 800 pages long.I asked him about art and marketing… and he told me about life.A) START FROM THE BEGINNING“No business, no project, no novel ever started big,” Seth said.It started with fear, uncertainty, excitement, possibility. Tons of “what if's” that lead to real action. And real action halts the what if's. The "what if's" turn to "what is".Seth said, “Instead of saying, ‘I need to leap to the middle,' say, ‘I'm going to start with people who want to engage with me.'”All successes start with one person. That's it. One person, then two, then three.Success is a curve. We all know it. Don't try to cheat the curve.B) KNOW YOUR WORLDI asked Seth, “How do you know what the world wants to hear?”“Well, first of all, never the whole world,” he said. “You pick your world.”Where do you hurt? Where do you feel a knot? Can you loosen it up and ease the pressure?Can you create something for the people (or person) who want to love what you want to love?C) WHAT DO YOU CARE ENOUGH TO SAY?We talked about Facebook. And the Lays Potato Chip guy who re-designed the bag. His job was to make it sound crunchier.Kids had slamming competitions. Who could slam a soda the fastest? So Coke-A-Cola created a bottle with a mouthpiece meant to maximize chugging efficiency.They sold products. But it's the message that matters.I always say: message over money.Invention happens at the edges. Between heart and lungs, breath and vocal cords is the message. It's the thing you want to say. The thing you're afraid to say.“What really matters isn't what time you posted on Facebook,” Seth said. “What matters is, what did you care enough to say?D) ANYONE CAN LEAD…“'Purple Cow‘ says, ‘How do I sit in my office and make a thing that people talk about?'”“What ‘Tribes‘ says is ‘Now that anyone can stand up and lead (because anyone can have a media channel… because anyone can make a connection) will you choose to lead? And if you're going to lead, who will you lead? How will you connect with the people you're leading? That is marketing, but it's also life.”E) CULTURE BEATS EVERYTHING“No one has a Suzuki tattoo,” Seth said.“What's a Suzuki tattoo?” I asked.Then I got it. Harley Davidson makes half their revenue licensing its brand. T-shirts, jackets, etc.“If you're in the Harley tribe, you can't show up on a Suzuki,” he said.“Tribes aren't about the alpha to the omega. Leaders always go away. The alpha person dies or moves on. But the tribe doesn't. The tribe persists. Because culture beats everything. Scenes have a culture. Tribes have a culture. It's the culture that determines how an organization makes its choices, how a nation will evolve.”I've said this before. It doesn't matter who the president is. What matters is who you surround yourself with. Who's in your tribe? Who's in your heart?And if they're toxic to your creativity or well-being, detox now.“The Beatles didn't invent teenagers. I'm not saying we invent our tribe. We just show up to lead them.”I didn't invent the choose yourself community. The cubicle job did.F) SHOW UPI'll never say what other people should do. I just say what I like to do. I say what gets me past just getting by.“Half my blog posts are below average,” Seth said.I asked if he feels bad.Intellectually, I understand failure. But it still hurts. It can turn your life upside down. I lost everything more than once. And maybe you're reading this because you have to… or you're afraid of losing everything.“I'm talking about [creating] generous work with good intent… that didn't work.” That's the failure we need to show up for.“I show up,” Seth said.G) DON'T WRESTLE WITH INFINITYI didn't know what that meant.“I am almost done wrestling with infinity,” he said.We had half an hour left in the interview. I didn't interrupt.I couldn't.I was captivated. My mind expands when I'm seconds away from hearing someone's genius. My vision slows and the inside of my ears soften. It's like my body is creating room.“I made the book I wanted.”“I only printed 5,500 copies of the book. And there's not going to be a second printing. That's all there is.”He doesn't have to chase. He already broke even and the best part is he chose himself.“Now there's not an infinity of upside.”He didn't need approval from publishers, his boss, a network… He didn't write for a bestseller list. He was compelled. And he created.He made what he wanted to make. “Here's my definition of art,” he said. “Art is when a human being does something that might not work…”And my whole body nodded.He went on… changing my mind.Links and Resources:Seth's upcoming book “What Does It Sound Like When You Change Your Mind?”Read Seth's books:The New York Times, BusinessWeek, and Wall Street Journal bestseller, “Tribes: We Need You to Lead Us“A New York Times, USA Today, and Wall Street Journal bestseller, “The Dip: A Little Book That Teaches You When to Quit (and When to Stick)“A New York Times bestseller, “Linchpin: Are You Indispensable?““Purple Cow, Transform Your Business by Being Remarkable““All Marketers are Liars: The Underground Classic That Explains How Marketing Really Works–and Why Authenticity Is the Best Marketing of All““Permission Marketing: Turning Strangers into Friends and Friends into Customers“Join Seth's newsletter and get his latest blog posts at SethGodin.comSeth's “alt MBA” courseFollow Seth on Facebook + TwitterAlso by Seth Godin:The Icarus Deception““Poke the Box““We Are All Weird““Whatcha Gonna Do with That Duck?““V Is for Vulnerable““Meatball Sundae““Free Prize Inside““Unleashing The Ideavirus““Small Is The New Big““Survival Is Not Enough““The Big Red Fez“Also Mentioned:Thomas Hawk Photography ------------What to write and publish a book in 30 days? Go to JamesAltucherShow.com/writing to join James' writing intensive!What do YOU think of the show? Head to JamesAltucherShow.com/listeners and fill out a short survey that will help us better tailor the podcast to our audience!Are you interested in getting direct answers from James about your question on a podcast? Go to JamesAltucherShow.com/AskAltucher and send in your questions to be answered on the air!------------Visit Notepd.com to read our idea lists & sign up to create your own!My new book Skip the Line is out! Make sure you get a copy wherever books are sold!Join the You Should Run for President 2.0 Facebook Group, where we discuss why you should run for President.I write about all my podcasts! Check out the full post and learn what I learned at jamesaltucher.com/podcast.------------Thank you so much for listening! If you like this episode, please rate, review, and subscribe to “The James Altucher Show” wherever you get your podcasts: Apple PodcastsStitcheriHeart RadioSpotifyFollow me on Social Media:YouTubeTwitterFacebook
Fantasy Baseball Today Podcast
Bobby Miller had an impressive debut against the Braves (2:30). ... Where should Nathan Eovaldi be ranked after another complete game (9:30)? ... Is Seiya Suzuki a buy-high candidate (16:37)? ... Is it possible to sell-high on Harrison Bader (18:42)? ... Christopher Morel homered again (22:38)! ... The Blue Jays clobbered the Rays (27:25). ... Brayan Bello or Bobby Miller (32:05)? ... Should Lane Thomas and Matt McLain be rostered in more leagues (36:40)? ... News (43:38): Jacob deGrom will throw another bullpen Friday. ... Gerrit Cole is coming back down to earth in May (48:15). ... We wrap up with leftovers, bullpen updates and streamers (54:20). Fantasy Baseball Today is available for free on the Audacy app as well as Apple Podcasts, Spotify, Google Podcasts, Stitcher and wherever else you listen to podcasts. Get awesome Fantasy Baseball Today merch here: http://bit.ly/3y8dUqi Follow FBT on TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@fbtpod?_t=8WyMkPdKOJ1&_r=1 Follow our FBT team on Twitter: @FBTPod, @CTowersCBS, @CBSScottWhite, @Roto_Frank Join our Facebook group at https://www.facebook.com/groups/fantasybaseballtoday Sign up for the FBT Newsletter at https://www.cbssports.com/newsletters/fantasy-baseball-today/ For more fantasy baseball coverage from CBS Sports, visit https://www.cbssports.com/fantasy/baseball/ To hear more from the CBS Sports Podcast Network, visit https://www.cbssports.com/podcasts/ Subscribe to our YouTube channel: youtube.com/FantasyBaseballToday You can listen to Fantasy Baseball Today on your smart speakers! Simply say "Alexa, play the latest episode of the Fantasy Baseball Today podcast" or "Hey Google, play the latest episode of the Fantasy Baseball Today podcast." To learn more about listener data and our privacy practices visit: https://www.audacyinc.com/privacy-policy Learn more about your ad choices. Visit https://podcastchoices.com/adchoices
Life is full of surprises. There's the unwelcome kind, like when the doctor says "I have your test results. I'm afraid it's gonorrhea" and then there's the more pleasant kind, like this episode of the greatest Motorcycling Podcast On Earth when Simon Crafar returns to talk all things Moto GP. Crafar is one of the most respected analysts in the business which begs the question: Why would he be part of this nonsense not once, but twice? Apparently he likes the lads. So much so he even has Borries's books. (Hint, have YOU bought Borrie's books? Go to shocknawe (http://shocknawe.com.au) now and do it if you haven't already. Then come back and listen to Simon. It's the most sensible episode since the last time he was on.) IMPORTANT ANOUNCEMENT None of this would be possible without our magnificent sponsors. They support us, so it's only good manners you should support them. Visit their websites, try and buy their products, sign up for their newsletters, and tell them WE SENT YOU. And we would be really pleased if you bought Borrie's books. They're a great read, they make great gifts, and it helps him to feed his family. If he can feed his family he tends not to rob people. All four of his masterpieces are here (https://www.shocknawe.com.au/)… And our sponsors: APRILIA (https://www.aprilia.com/au_EN/) MOTO GUZZI (https://www.motoguzzi.com/au_EN/models/v85-tt/) SAVIC MOTORCYCLES (https://www.savicmotorcycles.com/) SC-PROJECT OCEANIA (https://sc-project.com.au/) WORLD ON WHEELS (https://www.worldonwheels.tours/) NOISEGUARD (https://www.noiseguard.com.au/) MADE IN GERMANY (https://www.mig.bike/) AGV HELMETS (https://agvhelmets.com.au/) BMW MOTORRAD (https://www.bmw-motorrad.com.au/en_AU/experience/100years.html?gclid=Cj0KCQjw2v-gBhC1ARIsAOQdKY04XmOqX-ba24NzjBob1t3aBtot2ful3cvZP1J7gvJjYq72_FbkMogaAvwVEALw_wcB) HARLEY-DAVIDSON (https://www.harley-davidson.com/au/en/index.html) HONDA (https://motorcycles.honda.com.au/) SUZUKI (https://www.suzukimotorcycles.com.au/) TRIUMPH (https://www.triumphmotorcycles.com.au/?gclid=Cj0KCQjw2v-gBhC1ARIsAOQdKY1NcQLH228uZBgdijtHZZ-pfZ9E5NwTo8oU8-c0P5IYix62Ccswr6oaAmUxEALw_wcB) GREY GUMS CAFÉ (https://www.facebook.com/GreyGumCafe/) RESPONSE REAL ESTATE (https://responsere.com.au/)
"Shattering Gender Roles: Shannon's Journey in 80s Racing"In this episode, we meet Wayne, an influential figure in the racing program PEP. Little did we know, he would become a game-changer for Shannon's racing aspirations. Wayne persuades Shannon's dad that a quad is a way to go, completely transforming Shannon's racing trajectory.As the sole female pro racer during that time, Shannon boldly jumps into the Pro class riding an 85 LT250. With Wayne's guidance, sponsorship opportunities start to pour in, including a support ride with American Suzuki. The program gains momentum and takes off.Despite facing male competitors who were less than thrilled about being defeated by her, Shannon holds her ground as she gets the chance to race in prestigious events like Suzuki promotions, Mickey Thompson stadium races, and the Golden State series. Her performance remained exceptional until a misstep during the press day at the LA Coliseum abruptly ended it all.Join us in this inspiring episode as we delve into Shannon's incredible journey, which shattered gender roles in ATV racing. Don't forget to subscribe, share, and support us on this captivating adventure. Thank you!Subscribe, share, and be part of Shannon's groundbreaking story in ATV racing. Together, let's continue breaking down barriers and challenging societal norms. We appreciate your support!
Freido is away on 'Big Business' but never fear, Boris and Tug are in complete control. And if you believe that, you must be a first time listener so welcome to the madness that is MotoPG, the Greatest Motorcycling Podcast on Earth that sometimes even talks about motorcycling. (When it's not bogged down in talk of choomlas and Borrie's books, which are good, and you should buy). If you've been here before you know what to expect. If you haven't, proceed with caution. You might love it. We do. IMPORTANT ANOUNCEMENT None of this would be possible without our magnificent sponsors. They support us, so it's only good manners you should support them. Visit their websites, try and buy their products, sign up for their newsletters, and tell them WE SENT YOU. And we would be really pleased if you bought Borrie's books. They're a great read, they make great gifts, and it helps him to feed his family. If he can feed his family he tends not to rob people. All four of his masterpieces are here (https://www.shocknawe.com.au/)… And our sponsors: TRIUMPH (https://www.triumphmotorcycles.com.au/?gclid=Cj0KCQjw2v-gBhC1ARIsAOQdKY1NcQLH228uZBgdijtHZZ-pfZ9E5NwTo8oU8-c0P5IYix62Ccswr6oaAmUxEALw_wcB) APRILIA (https://www.aprilia.com/au_EN/) MOTO GUZZI (https://www.motoguzzi.com/au_EN/models/v85-tt/) SAVIC MOTORCYCLES (https://www.savicmotorcycles.com/) SC-PROJECT OCEANIA (https://sc-project.com.au/) WORLD ON WHEELS (https://www.worldonwheels.tours/) NOISEGUARD (https://www.noiseguard.com.au/) MADE IN GERMANY (https://www.mig.bike/) AGV HELMETS (https://agvhelmets.com.au/) BMW MOTORRAD (https://www.bmw-motorrad.com.au/en_AU/experience/100years.html?gclid=Cj0KCQjw2v-gBhC1ARIsAOQdKY04XmOqX-ba24NzjBob1t3aBtot2ful3cvZP1J7gvJjYq72_FbkMogaAvwVEALw_wcB) HARLEY-DAVIDSON (https://www.harley-davidson.com/au/en/index.html) HONDA (https://motorcycles.honda.com.au/) SUZUKI (https://www.suzukimotorcycles.com.au/) GREY GUMS CAFÉ (https://www.facebook.com/GreyGumCafe/) RESPONSE REAL ESTATE (https://responsere.com.au/)
Mully & Haugh Show on 670 The Score
In the second hour, Mike Mulligan and David Haugh discussed Cubs outfielder Seiya Suzuki's struggles at the plate, as he has a .682 OPS and hasn't homered in nearly a month as he hits in the middle of the order. Later, Cubs pitching coach Tommy Hottovy joined the show to explain the strategy behind a few recent moves that we questioned.
In the latest episode of our series of in-depth conversations with paddock people, host Toby Moody sits down for a wide-ranging chat with former Suzuki MotoGP team principal (and current team principal of the Yamaha factory World Superbike squad) Paul Denning. They discuss the differences between managing teams in MotoGP and World Superbikes, as well as the subtle cultural differences between the different Japanese marques Denning has worked for. Denning also goes in to depth on securing the iconic Rizla sponsorship, the merits of Kenny Roberts Jr and John Hopkins as riders, and why things didn't work out for Ben Spies at Suzuki. He also talks at length about his star rider in WSB, Toprak Razgatlioglu, explaining what makes him so special before answering the question every fan wants to know about if and when he'll make the switch to MotoGP. Denning also explains what it was like to go from watching riders like Loris Capirossi on TV to becoming his boss, reveals which riders he came very close to signing to Suzuki, and reminisces on his standout moments in MotoGP, including Chris Vermeulen's victory at Le Mans in 2007. Follow The Race on Instagram, Twitter and Facebook Check out our latest videos on YouTube Download our app on iOS or Android Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices
What happens when a caller with one of our all-time favorite caller names(Harsha Pelimuhandiram) picks one of the worst vehicles ever made for his drive around the world? Check out this episode of the Best of Car Talk.
Get a "Heck Yes" with Carissa Woo Wedding Photographer and Coach
Happy Woo WednesdaysHot topic: Why you need a Great Website for ALL wedding prosGuess what: We added DONE FOR YOU copywriting services. DO you need a website and brand refresh?https://heckyesmedia.co/copywritingCindy is my team member/partner here at heck yes media. if you haven't heard, wWith my expertise coaching and with the magic of Cindy's writing, voila.It's about time for your website to work as hard as you do.Cindy Suzuki, founder of Copybento, helps new entrepreneurs write their own copy through the use of her “bento-box”-inspired copywriting resources. With over 7 years experience in sales and business development, a BA in English, and obsessive neurosis to break things down into easy-to-understand compartments, her guides and resources will appeal to anyone in need of copy that achieves clarity, conversion, and emotional storytelling. She proudly escaped her traditional 9-5 after feeling trapped and anxious and hopes to inspire others in a similar situation to restart, explore their untapped creativity, and build a life they're proud of. She is a mom of three who traveled across the country to make a home in Austin. She takes 1:1 clients on a limited basis. Follow Cindy on IG @copybento for copywriting tips, freebies, and inspiration.Connect with Cindyhttps://www.instagram.com/copybento/Connect with Carissahttps://www.instagram.com/carissawooFree mini masterclass - text "vendor list" to 310-582-5464DM me the word audit to get a FREE website audit
The Sick Podcast with Tony Marinaro
Max Van Houtte joins Tony Marinaro to talk all things Habs and NHL playoffs. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices
This week Ping is joined by one of the best guys in the sport Ron Heben. Ron has done it all from factory mechanic for some of the greats like Ricky Johnson and Mickey Diamond to team manager for Yamaha, Kawasaki, Suzuki and KTM. Ron isn't just limited to the dirt he's been heavily involved with road side of the industry as well.
What do women's pubic wigs have to do with the greatest sport in the world? Nothing, of course. But when the Greatest Motorcycling Podcast On Earth puts the two together you know that somewhow it must make sense. So press play and find out how. You won't regret it. (Actually, you might regret it but you won't know unless you try, will you? It's a conundrum, yes, but these are the things that make life interesting.) Now forget the philosophy, did you bitches buy Borrie's books yet? Shame and a pox on the house of every single one of you who hasn't. There's a special place in hell reserved for people who don't support the big man. It's the Serbian section and believe me when I tell you, if you're not Serbian you're going to have a hard time fitting in. And it's for eternity. So don't be one of those fools, go to shocknawe.com.au (https://www.shocknawe.com.au) now and start shopping. You won't regret it....(see above). Oh, and Dennis Savic joins the show to answer some of your questions about electric motorcycles. It's not funny (well it is a bit) but it's mostly informative and educational. IMPORTANT ANOUNCEMENT None of this would be possible without our magnificent sponsors. They support us, so it's only good manners you should support them. Visit their websites, try and buy their products, sign up for their newsletters, and tell them WE SENT YOU. And we would be really pleased if you bought Borrie's books. They're a great read, they make great gifts, and it helps him to feed his family. If he can feed his family he tends not to rob people. All four of his masterpieces are here (https://www.shocknawe.com.au/)… And our sponsors: SUZUKI (https://www.suzukimotorcycles.com.au/) TRIUMPH (https://www.triumphmotorcycles.com.au/?gclid=Cj0KCQjw2v-gBhC1ARIsAOQdKY1NcQLH228uZBgdijtHZZ-pfZ9E5NwTo8oU8-c0P5IYix62Ccswr6oaAmUxEALw_wcB) APRILIA (https://www.aprilia.com/au_EN/) MOTO GUZZI (https://www.motoguzzi.com/au_EN/models/v85-tt/) SAVIC MOTORCYCLES (https://www.savicmotorcycles.com/) SC-PROJECT OCEANIA (https://sc-project.com.au/) WORLD ON WHEELS (https://www.worldonwheels.tours/) NOISEGUARD (https://www.noiseguard.com.au/) MADE IN GERMANY (https://www.mig.bike/) AGV HELMETS (https://agvhelmets.com.au/) BMW MOTORRAD (https://www.bmw-motorrad.com.au/en_AU/experience/100years.html?gclid=Cj0KCQjw2v-gBhC1ARIsAOQdKY04XmOqX-ba24NzjBob1t3aBtot2ful3cvZP1J7gvJjYq72_FbkMogaAvwVEALw_wcB) HARLEY-DAVIDSON (https://www.harley-davidson.com/au/en/index.html) HONDA (https://motorcycles.honda.com.au/) GREY GUMS CAFÉ (https://www.facebook.com/GreyGumCafe/) RESPONSE REAL ESTATE (https://responsere.com.au/)
El Garaje Hermético de Máximo Sant
¡El mítico Suzuki Jimny ha vuelto! ¡Y por aclamación popular! Su historia ha estado muy ligada a España, donde lo fabricó Santana entre 1985 y 2009. Las estrictas normas de homologación europeas lo dejaron “fuera de juego”. Pero Suzuki se las ha arreglado para volver a importarlo… Algunos dicen que “con trampa”. Voy a matizar lo que os he dicho al comenzar: El Jimny vuelve, pero lo hace al mercado europeo, en otros nunca se fue. Y lo hace como vehículo comercial, por eso algunos dicen que con trampa. Reconozco que no soy imparcial con el Suzuki Jimny. He probado todas sus versiones desde los años 80 y hasta he tenido uno en mi casa (de tercera generación), que fue el primer coche de mi hijo. Es un TT muy bien hecho, económico, polivalente, tanto en uso fuera de carretera como en ciudad… y con un encanto especial. Sin embargo, la “ecológica” y restrictiva legislación europea lo prohibió en su última generación, privando a miles de aficionados de su “juguete de TT”. ¡Pero Suzuki ha conseguido importarlo de nuevo! Porque la gente de Suzuki España es muy imaginativa y ha encontrado un resquicio en la reglamentación, más permisiva en los vehículos comerciales. Con un par de ajustes, el nuevo Jimny encajaba como un guante en el grupo de los “Furgones N1”. Ahora se importa como vehículo de trabajo y transporte de mercancías. Esto tiene dos inconvenientes: No admite pasajeros atrás y el límite de velocidad es más bajo… pero sigue siendo el mismo de siempre. Cada generación me gusta más que la anterior. Esta cuarta generación del Jimny de 2018 recupera la silueta cuadrangular del primer Samurái y emula a otros famosos todoterrenos, como los Mercedes Klasse G o los Jeep Wrangler, pero en miniatura… algo típico de este modelo. La nueva carrocería de faros redondos y líneas angulosas cuenta con más superficie acristalada y también con grandes aletas de plástico que le dan un aspecto mucho más agresivo. Sigue teniendo chasis independiente de largueros pero ahora más reforzado. También suspensión de doble eje rígido con muelles y tracción total con reductora: todo lo que necesita un verdadero aficionado al “Off Road”. Detrás de los asientos delanteros lleva ahora una rejilla de metal que condena toda la parte trasera como espacio de carga. Antes se criticaba que el Jimny apenas tenía maletero: ¡ahora es enorme! El Jimny nació en Japón en 1971: el LJ10 (Light Jeep 10) “Jimny” era un mini-4x4 que se ajustaba a las pequeñas dimensiones de los “Kei-Cars” japoneses. Apenas tenía 25 CV de potencia en su motor bicilíndrico de dos tiempos y 360 cc, pero sólo pesaba 600 Kg. Como contamos en otro vídeo anterior “Mitos: Suzuki Santana, y el TT se democratizó”, le siguieron otras versiones cada vez más potentes, con 3 cilindros y el doble de cilindrada y, finalmente, con cuatro en el SJ410 de 1981. Suzuki decidió por fin vender su SJ410 “Samurai” por todo el mundo, pero para hacerlo en Europa necesitaba fabricarlo allí. Fue entonces llegó a un acuerdo con la empresa española Santana, de Linares, que había estado produciendo los Land Rover nacionales. Por eso en España se comercializó como “Suzuki Santana”. El motor tenía un litro de cilindrada y apenas 45 CV de potencia, pero iba bien en carretera y como un tiro fuera de ella. Con motores inicialmente de gasolina y más tarde diésel con hasta 64 CV de potencia, el SJ410 se convirtió en un icono de moda para la juventud de su tiempo, además de ser un coche apto para el trabajo rural. El nombre mundial de Jimny, se estrenó en 1998 con la “tercera generación” con una carrocería bien distinta. Yo tuve uno de esos y me encantaba. Respeto al primer Santana era más moderno y más cómodo. Se podía elegir entre el motor de 1.300 cc de 85 CV, o el Renault diésel de 86 CV. Era más confortable, más turismo y hasta tenía aire acondicionado. Pero bajo la redondeada carrocería que modernizaba su aspecto, estaba el chasis de siempre, con leves mejoras. El Jimny resultaba más agradable de conducir por carretera y conservaba intacta su capacidad todoterreno. La empresa Santana lo estuvo fabricando en España hasta 2009, saliendo de sus líneas de montaje nada menos que 215.803 unidades. Y, hasta el momento, ya se han vendido más de tres millones en todo el mundo. La cuarta generación -la actual- apareció en 2018, pero no se podía vender en Europa por su concepción clásica. Ni su nuevo motor de 1,5 litros cumplía las normas anticontaminantes… En España hubo listas de espera, pero la mayoría de los compradores de esas listas de espera acabaron … ¡desesperados! Y sin coche. Conclusión. El Suzuki Jimny es un juguete para andar por el campo. Sus ejes rígidos y la corta distancia entre ellos lo hacen duro para sus ocupantes, a los que sacude como una coctelera.
In this episode of Life Curious Women, host Ashley Nadine Lopez interviews Misasha Suzuki Graham, a graduate of Harvard College and Columbia Law School, she has been a practicing litigator for over 15 years, and is passionate about diversity, equity and inclusion in the legal profession as well as in her communities. She is a facilitator, writer, and speaker regarding issues of racial justice, especially with regards to children, the co-author of Dear White Women: Let's Get (Un)comfortable Talking About Racism, and the co-host of Dear White Women. Misasha, who is biracial (Japanese and White), is married to a Black man, and is the proud mom of two very active multiracial young boys. We get into: Her experience being biracial in this country led her to an interest in identity and justice. How reading the Supreme Court decisions in the Korematsu case led her to studying law. What inspired her and her co-founder/best friend to start the Dear White Women platform. Her experience being in white environments and passing by being biracial. Learning what was being said when white women thought there were no women of color in the space. How starting Dear White Women began as a way to help white women use their privilege to uproot systemic racism without centering themselves in the process. The importance of having difficult conversation about race and being anti-racist. Looking at racism as a systemic issue rather than an individual issue. Advice on how to start the uncomfortable conversations with adults and children. Follow Dear White Women on Instagram @DearWhiteWomenPodcast Check out Dear White Women online www.DearWhiteWomen.com -------------------------------------------------- Follow Life Curious Women on Instagram @LifeCuriousWomen Follow our host Ashley Nadine Lopez on Instagram @AshleyNadineLopez Don't forget to subscribe and sign up for our newsletter by DM'ing us on Instagram! --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/ashley-nadine-lopez/support
Danny Rockett, Avid Cubs fan, analyst, SonRanto show host and musician gives us an update on the Chicago Cubs.Cubs Pandemic Cub-mas song "Nobody is coming to townDivisional Games a Balancing Games actNew Balanced Schedule lessens Fans chance to face NL Central rivals awayRicketts ripping out the guts of the team (i.e. Yu Darvish)2023 Cubs roster reset with Dansby Swanson, Cody Bellinger, Seiya Suzuki, Trey Mancini, Hosmer & TorrensCubs missing something at First Base - need to look to the farmAAA opportunities looking at Mat "Mash" MervisFan favorites, Stroman & Ian HappFans that pull for the player instead of the "laundry" a result of analytics, gambling and fangraphs?Bullpens are fickleDrew Smyly - a curveball with results that are not being measured. And yetPitchers' arm health - not overworking can add longevity to the pitcher's careerMovement in Cubs pitcher rotation - Jameson Taillon, Asaad, Hayden Wesneski, Kyle HendricksNL Central outlookwhat about those PiratesA lot of .500 teams in CentralCardinals - Best Hitters, Brewers - Best Pitching, Cubs - strong workman approach, Pirates emerging, Cincinnati - got nothingJoe Maddon his legacy & futureWillson Contreras - had brought a great bat, he fired up the clubhouse & a fan favoriteDanny Rockett and the Wrigley Field Weather ReportSports journalism v Entertainer & Influencer Blending Cub fandom with Rock & RollBleacher Bunch Band RSN - Marquee - "State TV"WGN as the launching point for Cubs national appeal with Harry CarayIncrease in fans using radio as their primary source during Cubs gamesCubs poet, Sandra Marchetti Special thanks to Danny Rockett for the use of songs, "Nobody is Coming to Town" & "Rob Manfred Hates Baseball"Below is more information on Danny Rockett, the Son Ranto show & the Bleacher Bunch Band Son Ranto Show on Bleacher Bunch Networkhttps://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/bleacher-bunch-network-a-chicago-cubs-podcast/id1462808218?l=ru?l=ruWebsite is http://www.sonranto.comBleacher Bum Band https://open.spotify.com/artist/5wBhE7HmZNCiXaKrWq8ju9BaseballBiz On Deck can be found on iheartradio, Stitcher, Apple, Spotify& Google podcastsMark can be reached by DM on Twitter @TheBaseballBiz and on the website: https://www.baseballbizondeck.com/Please follow us like us and remark. Let us know your thoughts about the show.
EJ grew up learning to play classical piano with the Suzuki method, learning by ear instead of reading music. In high school, he started singing and writing songs and eventually formed a band with his brother called Foreign Figures. They toured the country together and even played in front of 20,000 at a festival headlined by Kesha. Each band member is currently pursuing different career opportunities while still making music and playing shows together. EJ grew up in a conservative, religious town, which caused him to suppress his feelings of being attracted to men. After college, he married a woman. After a year or so, the marriage fell apart and EJ came out to his family and friends. EJ now lives as a proud gay man with his partner and Cavapoo, making his living as a vocal coach and music artist.
Episode 185 of Tech Talk Taco Tuesday features Jimmy Lewis answering your questions about fork set up, clicker settings, and other hot topics brought up by our chat. Trevor Hunter called in on the Seat Concepts Hot Seat Hotline to answer some questions about the 2023 KX450X and the news about the 2024 KTM XC lineup. We also got Logan and Jimmy Tyler to call in to give us an update on Logan's dating life, and talk about some dirt bikes too. Taco Moto's Roost or Endo featured a great photo, a bike that made some people confused, and a very nostalgic Suzuki. This episode features some great info, great laughs, and you really should listen. Follow us! Facebook: www.facebook.com/dirtbiketest YouTube: www.youtube.com/channel/UCzev... Support Dirt bike Test by shopping through the Rocky Mountain ATV/MC link below: www.rockymountainatvmc.com/?utm_source…=influencer A big thanks to our viewers and especially to the sponsors that keep this show going: Yamaha (yamahamotorsports.com) @yamahamotousa Taco Moto (TacoMoto.co) @TACO MOTO CO Fasst Company (fasstco.com) @fasstcompany Seat Concepts (seatconcepts.com) @seatconcetps Bullet Proof Designs (bulletproofdesigns.com) @bulletproofdesigns SCOTT Sports (scott-sports.com) @scottmotosports Klim (www.klim.com) #klimlife @Klim DDC Delaney Drive Components (DDCRacing.net) Trail Tech (trailtech.net) @ridetrailtech Show them some love, tell them we sent you, and don't forget to share your favorite Motorcycle Podcast; Tech Talk Taco Tuesday
This week Dave is joined by KTM Factory Team Manager Ian Harrison. Ian got his start as Greg Albertyn's mechanic when Greg left South Africa for Europe. The two had instant success winning the 125 World Championship and then two 250 World Championships before coming the states. Ian has been Roger DeCosters right hand man and the two of them have racked up championship after championship with Suzuki and KTM.
Before we get on to this week's episode, did you bitches buy Borrie's books yet? The big man does nothing but give to you people, week in and week out, and he asks nothing in return. Except that you buy his books. Books which are filled with his blood, sweat and tears. And love. Every word a meticulously crafted gem, dragged from deep within his soul. If you haven't bought one of Borrie's books you should be ashamed of yourself and your life choices and do something about it immediately by going to shocknawe.com.au (https://www.shocknawe.com.au) and pressing the 'Add to Cart' button wherever you see it. Go now, before you even press play. And when you come back you can listen to this week's episode which we now don't have time to talk about. Except to say that it's up to the usual exacting standards you've come to expect of the Moto PG team. IMPORTANT ANOUNCEMENT None of this would be possible without our magnificent sponsors. They support us, so it's only good manners you should support them. Visit their websites, try and buy their products, sign up for their newsletters, and tell them WE SENT YOU. And we would be really pleased if you bought Borrie's books. They're a great read, they make great gifts, and it helps him to feed his family. If he can feed his family he tends not to rob people. All four of his masterpieces are here (https://www.shocknawe.com.au/)… And our sponsors: HONDA (https://motorcycles.honda.com.au/) SUZUKI (https://www.suzukimotorcycles.com.au/) TRIUMPH (https://www.triumphmotorcycles.com.au/?gclid=Cj0KCQjw2v-gBhC1ARIsAOQdKY1NcQLH228uZBgdijtHZZ-pfZ9E5NwTo8oU8-c0P5IYix62Ccswr6oaAmUxEALw_wcB) APRILIA (https://www.aprilia.com/au_EN/) MOTO GUZZI (https://www.motoguzzi.com/au_EN/models/v85-tt/) SAVIC MOTORCYCLES (https://www.savicmotorcycles.com/) SC-PROJECT OCEANIA (https://sc-project.com.au/) WORLD ON WHEELS (https://www.worldonwheels.tours/) NOISEGUARD (https://www.noiseguard.com.au/) MADE IN GERMANY (https://www.mig.bike/) AGV HELMETS (https://agvhelmets.com.au/) BMW MOTORRAD (https://www.bmw-motorrad.com.au/en_AU/experience/100years.html?gclid=Cj0KCQjw2v-gBhC1ARIsAOQdKY04XmOqX-ba24NzjBob1t3aBtot2ful3cvZP1J7gvJjYq72_FbkMogaAvwVEALw_wcB) HARLEY-DAVIDSON (https://www.harley-davidson.com/au/en/index.html) GREY GUMS CAFÉ (https://www.facebook.com/GreyGumCafe/) RESPONSE REAL ESTATE (https://responsere.com.au/)
Improvisation has not traditionally been part of most young classical musicians' training. But should it be?Research suggests that the answer may be yes, and that there are a number of benefits that improvisation could provide. Not just to our playing, but to our mental state on stage as well.Read the full article for all the nerdy details: Why Improvisation Should Be Part of Every Young Musician's TrainingBut...if you're new to improvising, where does one begin?Well, whether you're a complete newbie, or an experienced improviser who's been frustrated by inconsistencies or feeling inhibited under pressure, have your instrument handy and block off 45-60 minutes on Wednesday, April 26th, from 2pm-3pm Eastern (calculate that in your timezone here).Violinist (and childhood Suzuki buddy) Christian Howes will be teaching a live, free, play-along class where he'll share three approaches to improvisation that can work for you, and explain why other methods may not have worked before. You'll also learn (and experience) the difference between learning harmony and doing improvisation. And you'll get to do lots of playing the whole time (muted, of course)!Sign up for the free improv session here: Free, live, play-along improvisation workshop with Christian Howes====Why do things sound better at home than they do on stage? If you've been confused (and frustrated) by the inconsistency of your performances, I put together a FREE 4-minute quiz called the Mental Skills Audit, which will help you pinpoint your mental strengths and weaknesses, and figure out what exactly to adjust and tweak in your preparation for more consistently optimal performances. You can take the Mental Skills Audit online at bulletproofmusician.com/msa. It's 100% free, takes only 4 minutes, and you'll get a downloadable PDF with a personalized breakdown of where you stand in six key mental skill areas, plus curated articles that will help you adjust and tweak your preparation for more consistently optimal performances. Take the quiz here: bulletproofmusician.com/msa
Locked On Cubs – Daily Podcast On The Chicago Cubs
Seiya Suzuki could return to the Cubs as soon as Friday and he makes the lineup immediately better. Plus: Cubs/Dodgers preview and greediness over how well the Cubs could do on their first West Coast trip. Follow us on Twitter: @LockedOnCubs, @matt_cozzi, @SamOlbur Hit the feedback zone by sending us a text or leaving a voicemail: 312-834-4634 Support Us By Supporting Our Sponsors! RocketMoney Stop throwing your money away. Cancel unwanted subscriptions -- and manage your expenses the easy way -- by going to RocketMoney.com/lockedonmlb. HelloFresh Skip trips to the grocery store and count on HelloFresh to make home cooking easy, fun, AND affordable – that's why it's America's #1 meal kit! Go to HelloFresh.com/mlb60 and use code mlb60 for 60% off plus free shipping! eBay Motors For parts that fit, head to eBay Motors and look for the green check. Stay in the game with eBay Guaranteed Fit. eBay Motors dot com. Let's ride. Eligible items only. Exclusions apply. Gametime Download the Gametime app, create an account, and use code LOCKEDONMLB for $20 off your first purchase. Ultimate Pro Baseball GM To download the game just visit probaseballgm.com or look it up on the app stores. Our listeners get a 100% free boost to their franchise when using the promo LOCKEDON (ALL CAPS) in the game store. Built Bar Built Bar is a protein bar that tastes like a candy bar. Go to builtbar.com and use promo code “LOCKEDON15,” and you'll get 15% off your next order. FanDuel Make Every Moment More. Don't miss the chance to get your No Sweat First Bet up to ONE THOUSAND DOLLARS in Bonus Bets when you go FanDuel.com/LOCKEDON. FANDUEL DISCLAIMER: 21+ in select states. First online real money wager only. Bonus issued as nonwithdrawable free bets that expires in 14 days. Restrictions apply. See terms at sportsbook.fanduel.com. Gambling Problem? Call 1-800-GAMBLER or visit FanDuel.com/RG (CO, IA, MD, MI, NJ, PA, IL, VA, WV), 1-800-NEXT-STEP or text NEXTSTEP to 53342 (AZ), 1-888-789-7777 or visit ccpg.org/chat (CT), 1-800-9-WITH-IT (IN), 1-800-522-4700 (WY, KS) or visit ksgamblinghelp.com (KS), 1-877-770-STOP (LA), 1-877-8-HOPENY or text HOPENY (467369) (NY), TN REDLINE 1-800-889-9789 (TN) Learn more about your ad choices. Visit podcastchoices.com/adchoices
In the third hour, Laurence Holmes and Leila Rahimi were joined by Cubs general manager Carter Hawkins to discuss right fielder Seiya Suzuki rejoining the team this weekend for the series against the Dodgers, shortstop Dansby Swanson to returning on Friday night, left fielder Ian Happ's contract extension, and more.
On this episode we have the host of 301, Jay Springett, on to talk about Izumi Suzuki's proto-cyberpunk, character-based short story collection Terminal Boredom. This is a unique episode of Agitator, in that we actually talk about the book. As Jay puts it, it's “punk as f**k.” We talk about: Foghorn Leghorn, guests who listen to the show, Hit Parade of Tears, Suzuki's hand in inventing cyberpunk, her husband's jazz, SF Magazine, mothers becoming chairs, Black Mirror style, not believing what you see on TV, natural vs. artificial insemination, the GETOZ, cyberpunk vs. slice of life future fiction, sleeping with your phone, people who can't talk and drive, unlocking the formula of Suzuki's storytelling, entering people's dreams, sci-fi as a tool to find out what's wrong with society, nostalgic for a time when you could make money writing, Throw Away Your Books, Rally in the Streets, Endless Waltz, talking to people who are off Twitter, you can just turn shit off, where podcast traffic comes from, Kelby reads Izumi Suzuki's Wikipedia page, keypunch operators, Violence Without a Cause, IZUMI, this bad girl, getting offered a lot of money to narrate a controversial book, the prepper mindset, “it's not deepfakes to worry about, it's things being fake deep,” Holly Herndon's PROTO, getting job interviews with Chat GPT, the difference in Americans vs. British e-mail style, our favorite Suzuki stories, writing lessons we can take from Terminal Boredom, the benefit of translation, Murakami writing Norwegian Wood to become a bestseller, the invention of cell phone culture, figuring out the dumbest thing people can do with technology, primitive time travel, the Mandela Effect, and Cyberpunk 2077 with new ray tracing effects. Links: And Lately, the Sun, the solarpunk anthology with Jay's badass story (mentioned on the Patreon episode). Subscribe to the Agitator Patreon for even more thought-provoking conversation. The second part to this episode drops Monday! On that episode, we talk about: Voting on whether to drop the episodes all at once, listening to podcasts at 3x speed, LitRPGs, the Cradle series, SimLit, KickFlipLit, finding yourself fascinated by things you “shouldn't” like, Beware of Chicken, Travis Baldree's books, Scott McClanahan, prose doesn't always have to be amazing, The Corporation Wars, Alan Watt's The Book, Vedanta, people as expressions of the universe, David's Achille's Heel, being able to understand conspiracy theories, knowing when to privately understand something and play dumb, Victorian hollow earth books, the Flat Earth psyop, “thinking with” ideas, Boomers believing everything they see on the internet, Puffy Coat Pope drip, the dissociation of art with human effort, where do humans go from here?, and internet end times guy, talking in virtual reality, Dream's MSP roleplaying server, the way D&D reshaped people's relation to story, the popularity of “lore,” Hamlet on the Holodeck, Synthetic Worlds, hypertext novels, interactive fiction, the failure of “chat room” as a metaphor, Royal Road stories, fandoms influencing a story, protecting your potential vs. using it, the whirlpool element of writing, the fluoride stare you get when you talk about self-publishing, focusing on readers instead of prestige, getting over the idea of “selling out,” succeeding too soon, what we like about writing, getting the cover before you write the book, Rick Rubin's book as a bible, and the shift away from expertisism.
Muc-Off/FXR/ClubMx Yamaha's Enzo Lopes calls in to talk about his best season to date, what he needs to improve on, thoughts on factory team rumors, and more. Then Twisted Tea/HEP Motorsports Suzuki's Kyle Chisholm tells us about balancing trying to prepare for racing with testing and developing off the Suzuki for the team as well as if he notices any diminished abilities at his age. We wrap up with Monster Energy/Pro Circuit Kawasaki's fill-in rider, Carson Mumford, who tells us how the ride came about, his thoughts on the bike, and what he would tell a kid coming in today to watch out for. Thanks to Race Tech and Boyesen for being our presenting sponsors.
The Sick Podcast with Tony Marinaro
On this episode of The Sick Podcast, Georges Laraque joins Tony Marinaro to discuss Arber Xhekaj, if they would trade Suzuki and Caufield for Bedard, and much more. Later in the show, Eric Engels joins Tony to discuss all things Habs. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices
Dingers: A Chicago Cubs Fan Podcast
Welcome back to Dingers, the podcast where we break down all the latest baseball news and analysis!This week, we're recapping the team's exciting week against the Reds and Rangers, which included their first series win of the season.We'll be discussing a range of topics in this episode, including the return of Seiya Suzuki from injury and how it could impact the Cubs lineup. Suzuki is a key player for the team, and his presence could make all the difference as they continue to compete for a playoff spot. We'll also be taking a closer look at some of the team's recent signings, including Cody Bellinger and Eric Hosmer. Is it too early to say whether or not these signings have been a success? We'll examine their stats and performance so far this season to see how they stack up.There's also some concern around pitcher Jameson Taillon, who has struggled in his last few starts. We'll be discussing what might be causing his issues and what the team can do to help him get back on track. Finally, we'll be turning our attention to the farm system and taking a look at some of the promising young players who are making waves down in Iowa.We'll be talking about the impressive performances of Morel and Velazquez, who have been absolutely crushing the ball and making a case for a call-up to the big leagues.All this and more in the latest episode of Dingers – tune in now to catch up on all the latest baseball news and analysis!DINGERS is presented by OnTapSportsNet.comSubscribe: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6OPiZjNevj-P7W9_gj4X3g Talk #Cubs baseball on our facebook group: https://www.facebook.com/groups/188995809182063/Follow us on Twitter: @dingercubs Follow us on Instagram: @dingercubsTikTok: @dingercubsFind us on Facebook: www.facebook.com/dingercubs
We are happy to welcome Eri Hotta to The Hamilton Review Podcast! In this wonderful conversation, Eri and Dr. Bob discuss her book, Suzuki: The Man and His Dream to Teach the Children of the World. A must listen episode for parents, it was an honor to have Eri on the show and we hope you enjoy this great conversation. Eri Hotta is the author of Suzuki: The Man and His Dream to Teach the Children of the World and other English and Japanese-language books including Japan 1941: Countdown to Infamy, a history of the attack on Pearl Harbor. She has taught at the University of Oxford, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies in Tokyo. She was once a struggling yet passionate Suzuki parent to Josephine Buruma, who is now in high school and is a dedicated chamber musician doubling in violin and viola. Read more about Eri Hotta and purchase her book HERE. How to contact Dr. Bob: Dr. Bob on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UChztMVtPCLJkiXvv7H5tpDQ Dr. Bob on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/drroberthamilton/ Dr. Bob on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/bob.hamilton.1656
+Novi pobednik i velika pobeda novog formata.+Arbolino novi vodeći u Moto 2. Acosta proklizao.+Suzuki i Leopard slavili u Moto 3ZVANIČNA FANTASY LAP 76 F1 LIGA ZA 2023: https://fantasy.formula1.com/en/leagu...Kod za ligu: C18SDEXJP07https://www.instagram.com/nissan.rs/Domaćini: Srđan Erceg i Aleksandar Džankić#lap76#infinitylighthouse#motogp ------------------------------HUMANITARNI KUTAKPomozimo Anici!Slanjem SMS poruke: Upišimo 1454 i pošaljimo SMS na 3030Slanjem SMS poruke iz Švajcarske: Upišimo human1454 i pošaljimo SMS na 455Uplatom na dinarski račun: 160-6000001614978-71Uplatom na devizni račun: 160-6000001616335-74IBAN: RS35160600000161633574SWIFT/BIC: DBDBRSBGUplatom platnim karticama putem linka: E-doniraj (https://www.budihuman.rs/edonate/sr?u...)Uplatom sa vašeg PayPal naloga putem linka: PayPal (https://www.budihuman.rs/paypal/sr/do...)-----------------PODRŠKA ZA INFINITY LIGHTHOUSEUkoliko želite da podržite ekipu Infinity Lighthouse i sve što radimo, najbrže je kroz Patreon i YouTube članstvo.Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/infinitylight... YT: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQ2D...-----------------NAŠA PRODAVNICASvi koji žele da obogate svoju biblioteku prelepim delima o Formuli 1 i MotoGP-u ili se obuku u naše, zajedničke, boje, tu je naša zvanična prodavnica knjiga, majica i kačketa.️https://shop.infinitylighthouse.com https://shop.infinitylighthouse.com/m...https://shop.infinitylighthouse.com/k...https://shop.infinitylighthouse.com/k...PATREON I YOUTUBE MEMBERSHIP ️Podrška na Patreonu i YouTube-u nam veoma znači i pre svega hvala svim našim pokroviteljima, a ukoliko ste u mogućnosti i vi da nas podržite, pomoćićete nam da dalje napredujemo i razvija se naša, nadamo se zajednička, priča.NAŠE DRUŠTVENE MREŽE Instagram - https://instagram.com/infinitylighthouse Facebook - https://facebook.com/theinfinitylight...Twitter - https://twitter.com/infinitylighthsSPORTSKE VESTIhttps://sportsmagazin.rsMusic credit: Envato Elements Item/Cinematic HeroicAutor: Srđan ErcegDatum: 5. april 2023.Lokacija: Studio na kraju UniverzumaProdukcija: Infinity Lighthouse https://www.youtube.com/infinitylight...Website: https://infinitylighthouse.com/Zabranjeno je svako kopiranje i neovlašćeno preuzimanje video i/ili audio snimaka i postavljanje na druge kanale! Nije dozvoljeno koristiti materijal sa ovog kanala, bilo u celosti ili iz segmenata, bez licenciranja / plaćanja kako za komercijalnu, tako i za nekomercijalnu upotrebu.Svaka upotreba bez licenciranja za komercijalnu ili nekomercijalnu / privatnu upotrebu biće procesuirana. Za sve informacije o pravima, za upite o licenciranju i dobijanju dozvole za korišćenje možete nas kontaktirati putem naše zvanične email adrese.Copying, re-uploading and illegally distributing this copyrighted work is strictly prohibited! Label and copyright: Infinity Lighthouse ★ Support this podcast on Patreon ★
There is a very simple answer to all the questions we receive about the greatest motorcycling podcast on earth here at MotoPG HQ. That answer is: 'you'll have to listen'. For example, somebody will ask this week 'Where do you get these episode titles from?' and the answer is 'you'll have to listen'. 'Why is he called The Captain?' someone will say and the answer is 'you'll have to listen.' 'Why should Borrie's Poem legitimately be considered high art?' 'You'll have to listen'. You get the idea. So if the question this week is 'What happened in Argentina and why are Boris and the boys the only ones who can really tell me' then the answer is - you guessed it - 'you'll have to listen'. So now that you've got the hang of it, we surely don't need to tell you what to do next, do we? Oh, and visit our sponsors and buy stuff from them (there's a handy list with links below) and then go to our website and buy stuff from us. We're in this for the money bitches. YOUR money. So hand it over. IMPORTANT ANOUNCEMENT None of this would be possible without our magnificent sponsors. They support us, so it's only good manners you should support them. Visit their websites, try and buy their products, sign up for their newsletters, and tell them WE SENT YOU. And we would be really pleased if you bought Borrie's books. They're a great read, they make great gifts, and it helps him to feed his family. If he can feed his family he tends not to rob people. All four of his masterpieces are here (https://www.shocknawe.com.au/)… And our sponsors: HARLEY-DAVIDSON (https://www.harley-davidson.com/au/en/index.html) HONDA (https://motorcycles.honda.com.au/) SUZUKI (https://www.suzukimotorcycles.com.au/) TRIUMPH (https://www.triumphmotorcycles.com.au/?gclid=Cj0KCQjw2v-gBhC1ARIsAOQdKY1NcQLH228uZBgdijtHZZ-pfZ9E5NwTo8oU8-c0P5IYix62Ccswr6oaAmUxEALw_wcB) APRILIA (https://www.aprilia.com/au_EN/) MOTO GUZZI (https://www.motoguzzi.com/au_EN/models/v85-tt/) SAVIC MOTORCYCLES (https://www.savicmotorcycles.com/) SC-PROJECT OCEANIA (https://sc-project.com.au/) WORLD ON WHEELS (https://www.worldonwheels.tours/) NOISEGUARD (https://www.noiseguard.com.au/) MADE IN GERMANY (https://www.mig.bike/) AGV HELMETS (https://agvhelmets.com.au/) BMW MOTORRAD (https://www.bmw-motorrad.com.au/en_AU/experience/100years.html?gclid=Cj0KCQjw2v-gBhC1ARIsAOQdKY04XmOqX-ba24NzjBob1t3aBtot2ful3cvZP1J7gvJjYq72_FbkMogaAvwVEALw_wcB) GREY GUMS CAFÉ (https://www.facebook.com/GreyGumCafe/) RESPONSE REAL ESTATE (https://responsere.com.au/)
"Wu Hsin" (meaning No Mind) was a fictitious character created by Roy Melvyn to create and structure a series of pith teachings and pointers to the Absolute, based on key non-duality teachings. Roy Melvyn (1947- 2017 ) was born in Brooklyn, New York, to Eastern European immigrant parents. It wasn't until the 1980s that his interest in spirituality and religion began to blossom and his investigations into the Western religions began. By the late 90s, he was writing about the more mystical aspects of Eastern meditative pursuits, exploring the writings of Dogen, Jiddu Krishnamurti, both Shunryu and D. T. Suzuki and Ramana Maharshi among others. These pointers were taken from the book: "Solving Yourself".
The Steve Matthes Show on RacerX
Former factory Honda and Suzuki rider and 2-time 125SX champion for Pro Circuit talks about his career both here and in Europe, winning two world titles, coming to the USA, Mitch Payton, his Honda years and why he left, his sons Enduro career and much more.
A History Of Rock Music in Five Hundred Songs
Episode 164 of A History of Rock Music in Five Hundred Songs looks at "White Light/White Heat" and the career of the Velvet Underground. This is a long one, lasting three hours and twenty minutes. Click the full post to read liner notes, links to more information, and a transcript of the episode. Patreon backers also have a twenty-three minute bonus episode available, on "Why Don't You Smile Now?" by the Downliners Sect. Tilt Araiza has assisted invaluably by doing a first-pass edit, and will hopefully be doing so from now on. Check out Tilt's irregular podcasts at http://www.podnose.com/jaffa-cakes-for-proust and http://sitcomclub.com/ Errata I say the Velvet Underground didn't play New York for the rest of the sixties after 1966. They played at least one gig there in 1967, but did generally avoid the city. Also, I refer to Cale and Conrad as the other surviving members of the Theater of Eternal Music. Sadly Conrad died in 2016. Resources No Mixcloud this week, as there are too many songs by the Velvet Underground, and some of the avant-garde pieces excerpted run to six hours or more. I used a lot of resources for this one. Up-Tight: The Velvet Underground Story by Victor Bockris and Gerard Malanga is the best book on the group as a group. I also used Joe Harvard's 33 1/3 book on The Velvet Underground and Nico. Bockris also wrote one of the two biographies of Reed I referred to, Transformer. The other was Lou Reed by Anthony DeCurtis. Information on Cale mostly came from Sedition and Alchemy by Tim Mitchell. Information on Nico came from Nico: The Life and Lies of an Icon by Richard Witts. I used Draw a Straight Line and Follow it by Jeremy Grimshaw as my main source for La Monte Young, The Roaring Silence by David Revill for John Cage, and Warhol: A Life as Art by Blake Gopnik for Warhol. I also referred to the Criterion Collection Blu-Ray of the 2021 documentary The Velvet Underground. The definitive collection of the Velvet Underground's music is the sadly out-of-print box set Peel Slowly and See, which contains the four albums the group made with Reed in full, plus demos, outtakes, and live recordings. Note that the digital version of the album as sold by Amazon for some reason doesn't include the last disc -- if you want the full box set you have to buy a physical copy. All four studio albums have also been released and rereleased many times over in different configurations with different numbers of CDs at different price points -- I have used the "45th Anniversary Super-Deluxe" versions for this episode, but for most people the standard CD versions will be fine. Sadly there are no good shorter compilation overviews of the group -- they tend to emphasise either the group's "pop" mode or its "avant-garde" mode to the exclusion of the other. Patreon This podcast is brought to you by the generosity of my backers on Patreon. Why not join them? Transcript Before I begin this episode, there are a few things to say. This introductory section is going to be longer than normal because, as you will hear, this episode is also going to be longer than normal. Firstly, I try to warn people about potentially upsetting material in these episodes. But this is the first episode for 1968, and as you will see there is a *profound* increase in the amount of upsetting and disturbing material covered as we go through 1968 and 1969. The story is going to be in a much darker place for the next twenty or thirty episodes. And this episode is no exception. As always, I try to deal with everything as sensitively as possible, but you should be aware that the list of warnings for this one is so long I am very likely to have missed some. Among the topics touched on in this episode are mental illness, drug addiction, gun violence, racism, societal and medical homophobia, medical mistreatment of mental illness, domestic abuse, rape, and more. If you find discussion of any of those subjects upsetting, you might want to read the transcript. Also, I use the term "queer" freely in this episode. In the past I have received some pushback for this, because of a belief among some that "queer" is a slur. The following explanation will seem redundant to many of my listeners, but as with many of the things I discuss in the podcast I am dealing with multiple different audiences with different levels of awareness and understanding of issues, so I'd like to beg those people's indulgence a moment. The term "queer" has certainly been used as a slur in the past, but so have terms like "lesbian", "gay", "homosexual" and others. In all those cases, the term has gone from a term used as a self-identifier, to a slur, to a reclaimed slur, and back again many times. The reason for using that word, specifically, here is because the vast majority of people in this story have sexualities or genders that don't match the societal norms of their times, but used labels for themselves that have shifted in meaning over the years. There are at least two men in the story, for example, who are now dead and referred to themselves as "homosexual", but were in multiple long-term sexually-active relationships with women. Would those men now refer to themselves as "bisexual" or "pansexual" -- terms not in widespread use at the time -- or would they, in the relatively more tolerant society we live in now, only have been in same-gender relationships? We can't know. But in our current context using the word "homosexual" for those men would lead to incorrect assumptions about their behaviour. The labels people use change over time, and the definitions of them blur and shift. I have discussed this issue with many, many, friends who fall under the queer umbrella, and while not all of them are comfortable with "queer" as a personal label because of how it's been used against them in the past, there is near-unanimity from them that it's the correct word to use in this situation. Anyway, now that that rather lengthy set of disclaimers is over, let's get into the story proper, as we look at "White Light, White Heat" by the Velvet Underground: [Excerpt: The Velvet Underground, "White Light, White Heat"] And that look will start with... a disclaimer about length. This episode is going to be a long one. Not as long as episode one hundred and fifty, but almost certainly the longest episode I'll do this year, by some way. And there's a reason for that. One of the questions I've been asked repeatedly over the years about the podcast is why almost all the acts I've covered have been extremely commercially successful ones. "Where are the underground bands? The alternative bands? The little niche acts?" The answer to that is simple. Until the mid-sixties, the idea of an underground or alternative band made no sense at all in rock, pop, rock and roll, R&B, or soul. The idea would have been completely counterintuitive to the vast majority of the people we've discussed in the podcast. Those musics were commercial musics, made by people who wanted to make money and to get the largest audiences possible. That doesn't mean that they had no artistic merit, or that there was no artistic intent behind them, but the artists making that music were *commercial* artists. They knew if they wanted to make another record, they had to sell enough copies of the last record for the record company to make another, and that if they wanted to keep eating, they had to draw enough of an audience to their gigs for promoters to keep booking them. There was no space in this worldview for what we might think of as cult success. If your record only sold a thousand copies, then you had failed in your goal, even if the thousand people who bought your record really loved it. Even less commercially successful artists we've covered to this point, like the Mothers of Invention or Love, were *trying* for commercial success, even if they made the decision not to compromise as much as others do. This started to change a tiny bit in the mid-sixties as the influence of jazz and folk in the US, and the British blues scene, started to be felt in rock music. But this influence, at first, was a one-way thing -- people who had been in the folk and jazz worlds deciding to modify their music to be more commercial. And that was followed by already massively commercial musicians, like the Beatles, taking on some of those influences and bringing their audience with them. But that started to change around the time that "rock" started to differentiate itself from "rock and roll" and "pop", in mid 1967. So in this episode and the next, we're going to look at two bands who in different ways provided a model for how to be an alternative band. Both of them still *wanted* commercial success, but neither achieved it, at least not at first and not in the conventional way. And both, when they started out, went by the name The Warlocks. But we have to take a rather circuitous route to get to this week's band, because we're now properly introducing a strand of music that has been there in the background for a while -- avant-garde art music. So before we go any further, let's have a listen to a thirty-second clip of the most famous piece of avant-garde music ever, and I'll be performing it myself: [Excerpt, Andrew Hickey "4'33 (Cage)"] Obviously that won't give the full effect, you have to listen to the whole piece to get that. That is of course a section of "4'33" by John Cage, a piece of music that is often incorrectly described as being four minutes and thirty three seconds of silence. As I've mentioned before, though, in the episode on "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag", it isn't that at all. The whole point of the piece is that there is no such thing as silence, and it's intended to make the listener appreciate all the normal ambient sounds as music, every bit as much as any piece by Bach or Beethoven. John Cage, the composer of "4'33", is possibly the single most influential avant-garde artist of the mid twentieth century, so as we're properly introducing the ideas of avant-garde music into the story here, we need to talk about him a little. Cage was, from an early age, torn between three great vocations, all of which in some fashion would shape his work for decades to come. One of these was architecture, and for a time he intended to become an architect. Another was the religious ministry, and he very seriously considered becoming a minister as a young man, and religion -- though not the religious faith of his youth -- was to be a massive factor in his work as he grew older. He started studying music from an early age, though he never had any facility as a performer -- though he did, when he discovered the work of Grieg, think that might change. He later said “For a while I played nothing else. I even imagined devoting my life to the performance of his works alone, for they did not seem to me to be too difficult, and I loved them.” [Excerpt: Grieg piano concerto in A minor] But he soon realised that he didn't have some of the basic skills that would be required to be a performer -- he never actually thought of himself as very musical -- and so he decided to move into composition, and he later talked about putting his musical limits to good use in being more inventive. From his very first pieces, Cage was trying to expand the definition of what a performance of a piece of music actually was. One of his friends, Harry Hay, who took part in the first documented performance of a piece by Cage, described how Cage's father, an inventor, had "devised a fluorescent light source over which Sample" -- Don Sample, Cage's boyfriend at the time -- "laid a piece of vellum painted with designs in oils. The blankets I was wearing were white, and a sort of lampshade shone coloured patterns onto me. It looked very good. The thing got so hot the designs began to run, but that only made it better.” Apparently the audience for this light show -- one that predated the light shows used by rock bands by a good thirty years -- were not impressed, though that may be more because the Santa Monica Women's Club in the early 1930s was not the vanguard of the avant-garde. Or maybe it was. Certainly the housewives of Santa Monica seemed more willing than one might expect to sign up for another of Cage's ideas. In 1933 he went door to door asking women if they would be interested in signing up to a lecture course from him on modern art and music. He told them that if they signed up for $2.50, he would give them ten lectures, and somewhere between twenty and forty of them signed up, even though, as he said later, “I explained to the housewives that I didn't know anything about either subject but that I was enthusiastic about both of them. I promised to learn faithfully enough about each subject so as to be able to give a talk an hour long each week.” And he did just that, going to the library every day and spending all week preparing an hour-long talk for them. History does not relate whether he ended these lectures by telling the housewives to tell just one friend about them. He said later “I came out of these lectures, with a devotion to the painting of Mondrian, on the one hand, and the music of Schoenberg on the other.” [Excerpt: Schoenberg, "Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte"] Schoenberg was one of the two most widely-respected composers in the world at that point, the other being Stravinsky, but the two had very different attitudes to composition. Schoenberg's great innovation was the creation and popularisation of the twelve-tone technique, and I should probably explain that a little before I go any further. Most Western music is based on an eight-note scale -- do, re, mi, fa, so, la, ti, do -- with the eighth note being an octave up from the first. So in the key of C major that would be C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C: [demonstrates] And when you hear notes from that scale, if your ears are accustomed to basically any Western music written before about 1920, or any Western popular music written since then, you expect the melody to lead back to C, and you know to expect that because it only uses those notes -- there are differing intervals between them, some having a tone between them and some having a semitone, and you recognise the pattern. But of course there are other notes between the notes of that scale. There are actually an infinite number of these, but in conventional Western music we only look at a few more -- C# (or D flat), D# (or E flat), F# (or G flat), G# (or A flat) and A# (or B flat). If you add in all those notes you get this: [demonstrates] There's no clear beginning or end, no do for it to come back to. And Schoenberg's great innovation, which he was only starting to promote widely around this time, was to insist that all twelve notes should be equal -- his melodies would use all twelve of the notes the exact same number of times, and so if he used say a B flat, he would have to use all eleven other notes before he used B flat again in the piece. This was a radical new idea, but Schoenberg had only started advancing it after first winning great acclaim for earlier pieces, like his "Three Pieces for Piano", a work which wasn't properly twelve-tone, but did try to do without the idea of having any one note be more important than any other: [Excerpt: Schoenberg, "Three Pieces for Piano"] At this point, that work had only been performed in the US by one performer, Richard Buhlig, and hadn't been released as a recording yet. Cage was so eager to hear it that he'd found Buhlig's phone number and called him, asking him to play the piece, but Buhlig put the phone down on him. Now he was doing these lectures, though, he had to do one on Schoenberg, and he wasn't a competent enough pianist to play Schoenberg's pieces himself, and there were still no recordings of them. Cage hitch-hiked from Santa Monica to LA, where Buhlig lived, to try to get him to come and visit his class and play some of Schoenberg's pieces for them. Buhlig wasn't in, and Cage hung around in his garden hoping for him to come back -- he pulled the leaves off a bough from one of Buhlig's trees, going "He'll come back, he won't come back, he'll come back..." and the leaves said he'd be back. Buhlig arrived back at midnight, and quite understandably told the strange twenty-one-year-old who'd spent twelve hours in his garden pulling the leaves off his trees that no, he would not come to Santa Monica and give a free performance. But he did agree that if Cage brought some of his own compositions he'd give them a look over. Buhlig started giving Cage some proper lessons in composition, although he stressed that he was a performer, not a composer. Around this time Cage wrote his Sonata for Clarinet: [Excerpt: John Cage, "Sonata For Clarinet"] Buhlig suggested that Cage send that to Henry Cowell, the composer we heard about in the episode on "Good Vibrations" who was friends with Lev Termen and who created music by playing the strings inside a piano: [Excerpt: Henry Cowell, "Aeolian Harp and Sinister Resonance"] Cowell offered to take Cage on as an assistant, in return for which Cowell would teach him for a semester, as would Adolph Weiss, a pupil of Schoenberg's. But the goal, which Cowell suggested, was always to have Cage study with Schoenberg himself. Schoenberg at first refused, saying that Cage couldn't afford his price, but eventually took Cage on as a student having been assured that he would devote his entire life to music -- a promise Cage kept. Cage started writing pieces for percussion, something that had been very rare up to that point -- only a handful of composers, most notably Edgard Varese, had written pieces for percussion alone, but Cage was: [Excerpt: John Cage, "Trio"] This is often portrayed as a break from the ideals of his teacher Schoenberg, but in fact there's a clear continuity there, once you see what Cage was taking from Schoenberg. Schoenberg's work is, in some senses, about equality, about all notes being equal. Or to put it another way, it's about fairness. About erasing arbitrary distinctions. What Cage was doing was erasing the arbitrary distinction between the more and less prominent instruments. Why should there be pieces for solo violin or string quartet, but not for multiple percussion players? That said, Schoenberg was not exactly the most encouraging of teachers. When Cage invited Schoenberg to go to a concert of Cage's percussion work, Schoenberg told him he was busy that night. When Cage offered to arrange another concert for a date Schoenberg wasn't busy, the reply came "No, I will not be free at any time". Despite this, Cage later said “Schoenberg was a magnificent teacher, who always gave the impression that he was putting us in touch with musical principles,” and said "I literally worshipped him" -- a strong statement from someone who took religious matters as seriously as Cage. Cage was so devoted to Schoenberg's music that when a concert of music by Stravinsky was promoted as "music of the world's greatest living composer", Cage stormed into the promoter's office angrily, confronting the promoter and making it very clear that such things should not be said in the city where Schoenberg lived. Schoenberg clearly didn't think much of Cage's attempts at composition, thinking -- correctly -- that Cage had no ear for harmony. And his reportedly aggressive and confrontational teaching style didn't sit well with Cage -- though it seems very similar to a lot of the teaching techniques of the Zen masters he would later go on to respect. The two eventually parted ways, although Cage always spoke highly of Schoenberg. Schoenberg later gave Cage a compliment of sorts, when asked if any of his students had gone on to do anything interesting. At first he replied that none had, but then he mentioned Cage and said “Of course he's not a composer, but an inventor—of genius.” Cage was at this point very worried if there was any point to being a composer at all. He said later “I'd read Cowell's New Musical Resources and . . . The Theory of Rhythm. I had also read Chavez's Towards a New Music. Both works gave me the feeling that everything that was possible in music had already happened. So I thought I could never compose socially important music. Only if I could invent something new, then would I be useful to society. But that seemed unlikely then.” [Excerpt: John Cage, "Totem Ancestor"] Part of the solution came when he was asked to compose music for an abstract animation by the filmmaker Oskar Fischinger, and also to work as Fischinger's assistant when making the film. He was fascinated by the stop-motion process, and by the results of the film, which he described as "a beautiful film in which these squares, triangles and circles and other things moved and changed colour.” But more than that he was overwhelmed by a comment by Fischinger, who told him “Everything in the world has its own spirit, and this spirit becomes audible by setting it into vibration.” Cage later said “That set me on fire. He started me on a path of exploration of the world around me which has never stopped—of hitting and stretching and scraping and rubbing everything.” Cage now took his ideas further. His compositions for percussion had been about, if you like, giving the underdog a chance -- percussion was always in the background, why should it not be in the spotlight? Now he realised that there were other things getting excluded in conventional music -- the sounds that we characterise as noise. Why should composers work to exclude those sounds, but work to *include* other sounds? Surely that was... well, a little unfair? Eventually this would lead to pieces like his 1952 piece "Water Music", later expanded and retitled "Water Walk", which can be heard here in his 1959 appearance on the TV show "I've Got a Secret". It's a piece for, amongst other things, a flowerpot full of flowers, a bathtub, a watering can, a pipe, a duck call, a blender full of ice cubes, and five unplugged radios: [Excerpt: John Cage "Water Walk"] As he was now avoiding pitch and harmony as organising principles for his music, he turned to time. But note -- not to rhythm. He said “There's none of this boom, boom, boom, business in my music . . . a measure is taken as a strict measure of time—not a one two three four—which I fill with various sounds.” He came up with a system he referred to as “micro-macrocosmic rhythmic structure,” what we would now call fractals, though that word hadn't yet been invented, where the structure of the whole piece was reflected in the smallest part of it. For a time he started moving away from the term music, preferring to refer to the "art of noise" or to "organised sound" -- though he later received a telegram from Edgard Varese, one of his musical heroes and one of the few other people writing works purely for percussion, asking him not to use that phrase, which Varese used for his own work. After meeting with Varese and his wife, he later became convinced that it was Varese's wife who had initiated the telegram, as she explained to Cage's wife "we didn't want your husband's work confused with my husband's work, any more than you'd want some . . . any artist's work confused with that of a cartoonist.” While there is a humour to Cage's work, I don't really hear much qualitative difference between a Cage piece like the one we just heard and a Varese piece like Ionisation: [Excerpt: Edgard Varese, "Ionisation"] But it was in 1952, the year of "Water Music" that John Cage made his two biggest impacts on the cultural world, though the full force of those impacts wasn't felt for some years. To understand Cage's 1952 work, you first have to understand that he had become heavily influenced by Zen, which at that time was very little known in the Western world. Indeed he had studied with Daisetsu Suzuki, who is credited with introducing Zen to the West, and said later “I didn't study music with just anybody; I studied with Schoenberg, I didn't study Zen with just anybody; I studied with Suzuki. I've always gone, insofar as I could, to the president of the company.” Cage's whole worldview was profoundly affected by Zen, but he was also naturally sympathetic to it, and his work after learning about Zen is mostly a continuation of trends we can already see. In particular, he became convinced that the point of music isn't to communicate anything between two people, rather its point is merely to be experienced. I'm far from an expert on Buddhism, but one way of thinking about its central lessons is that one should experience things as they are, experiencing the thing itself rather than one's thoughts or preconceptions about it. And so at Black Mountain college came Theatre Piece Number 1: [Excerpt: Edith Piaf, "La Vie En Rose" ] In this piece, Cage had set the audience on all sides, so they'd be facing each other. He stood on a stepladder, as colleagues danced in and around the audience, another colleague played the piano, two more took turns to stand on another stepladder to recite poetry, different films and slides were projected, seemingly at random, onto the walls, and the painter Robert Rauschenberg played scratchy Edith Piaf records on a wind-up gramophone. The audience were included in the performance, and it was meant to be experienced as a gestalt, as a whole, to be what we would now call an immersive experience. One of Cage's students around this time was the artist Allan Kaprow, and he would be inspired by Theatre Piece Number 1 to put on several similar events in the late fifties. Those events he called "happenings", because the point of them was that you were meant to experience an event as it was happening rather than bring preconceptions of form and structure to them. Those happenings were the inspiration for events like The 14 Hour Technicolor Dream, and the term "happening" became such an integral part of the counterculture that by 1967 there were comedy films being released about them, including one just called The Happening with a title track by the Supremes that made number one: [Excerpt: The Supremes, "The Happening"] Theatre Piece Number 1 was retrospectively considered the first happening, and as such its influence is incalculable. But one part I didn't mention about Theatre Piece Number 1 is that as well as Rauschenberg playing Edith Piaf's records, he also displayed some of his paintings. These paintings were totally white -- at a glance, they looked like blank canvases, but as one inspected them more clearly, it became apparent that Rauschenberg had painted them with white paint, with visible brushstrokes. These paintings, along with a visit to an anechoic chamber in which Cage discovered that even in total silence one can still hear one's own blood and nervous system, so will never experience total silence, were the final key to something Cage had been working towards -- if music had minimised percussion, and excluded noise, how much more had it excluded silence? As Cage said in 1958 “Curiously enough, the twelve-tone system has no zero in it.” And so came 4'33, the piece that we heard an excerpt of near the start of this episode. That piece was the something new he'd been looking for that could be useful to society. It took the sounds the audience could already hear, and without changing them even slightly gave them a new context and made the audience hear them as they were. Simply by saying "this is music", it caused the ambient noise to be perceived as music. This idea, of recontextualising existing material, was one that had already been done in the art world -- Marcel Duchamp, in 1917, had exhibited a urinal as a sculpture titled "Fountain" -- but even Duchamp had talked about his work as "everyday objects raised to the dignity of a work of art by the artist's act of choice". The artist was *raising* the object to art. What Cage was saying was "the object is already art". This was all massively influential to a young painter who had seen Cage give lectures many times, and while at art school had with friends prepared a piano in the same way Cage did for his own experimental compositions, dampening the strings with different objects. [Excerpt: Dana Gillespie, "Andy Warhol (live)"] Duchamp and Rauschenberg were both big influences on Andy Warhol, but he would say in the early sixties "John Cage is really so responsible for so much that's going on," and would for the rest of his life cite Cage as one of the two or three prime influences of his career. Warhol is a difficult figure to discuss, because his work is very intellectual but he was not very articulate -- which is one reason I've led up to him by discussing Cage in such detail, because Cage was always eager to talk at great length about the theoretical basis of his work, while Warhol would say very few words about anything at all. Probably the person who knew him best was his business partner and collaborator Paul Morrissey, and Morrissey's descriptions of Warhol have shaped my own view of his life, but it's very worth noting that Morrissey is an extremely right-wing moralist who wishes to see a Catholic theocracy imposed to do away with the scourges of sexual immorality, drug use, hedonism, and liberalism, so his view of Warhol, a queer drug using progressive whose worldview seems to have been totally opposed to Morrissey's in every way, might be a little distorted. Warhol came from an impoverished background, and so, as many people who grew up poor do, he was, throughout his life, very eager to make money. He studied art at university, and got decent but not exceptional grades -- he was a competent draughtsman, but not a great one, and most importantly as far as success in the art world goes he didn't have what is known as his own "line" -- with most successful artists, you can look at a handful of lines they've drawn and see something of their own personality in it. You couldn't with Warhol. His drawings looked like mediocre imitations of other people's work. Perfectly competent, but nothing that stood out. So Warhol came up with a technique to make his drawings stand out -- blotting. He would do a normal drawing, then go over it with a lot of wet ink. He'd lower a piece of paper on to the wet drawing, and the new paper would soak up the ink, and that second piece of paper would become the finished work. The lines would be fractured and smeared, broken in places where the ink didn't get picked up, and thick in others where it had pooled. With this mechanical process, Warhol had managed to create an individual style, and he became an extremely successful commercial artist. In the early 1950s photography was still seen as a somewhat low-class way of advertising things. If you wanted to sell to a rich audience, you needed to use drawings or paintings. By 1955 Warhol was making about twelve thousand dollars a year -- somewhere close to a hundred and thirty thousand a year in today's money -- drawing shoes for advertisements. He also had a sideline in doing record covers for people like Count Basie: [Excerpt: Count Basie, "Seventh Avenue Express"] For most of the 1950s he also tried to put on shows of his more serious artistic work -- often with homoerotic themes -- but to little success. The dominant art style of the time was the abstract expressionism of people like Jackson Pollock, whose art was visceral, emotional, and macho. The term "action paintings" which was coined for the work of people like Pollock, sums it up. This was manly art for manly men having manly emotions and expressing them loudly. It was very male and very straight, and even the gay artists who were prominent at the time tended to be very conformist and look down on anything they considered flamboyant or effeminate. Warhol was a rather effeminate, very reserved man, who strongly disliked showing his emotions, and whose tastes ran firmly to the camp. Camp as an aesthetic of finding joy in the flamboyant or trashy, as opposed to merely a descriptive term for men who behaved in a way considered effeminate, was only just starting to be codified at this time -- it wouldn't really become a fully-formed recognisable thing until Susan Sontag's essay "Notes on Camp" in 1964 -- but of course just because something hasn't been recognised doesn't mean it doesn't exist, and Warhol's aesthetic was always very camp, and in the 1950s in the US that was frowned upon even in gay culture, where the mainstream opinion was that the best way to acceptance was through assimilation. Abstract expressionism was all about expressing the self, and that was something Warhol never wanted to do -- in fact he made some pronouncements at times which suggested he didn't think of himself as *having* a self in the conventional sense. The combination of not wanting to express himself and of wanting to work more efficiently as a commercial artist led to some interesting results. For example, he was commissioned in 1957 to do a cover for an album by Moondog, the blind street musician whose name Alan Freed had once stolen: [Excerpt: Moondog, "Gloving It"] For that cover, Warhol got his mother, Julia Warhola, to just write out the liner notes for the album in her rather ornamental cursive script, and that became the front cover, leading to an award for graphic design going that year to "Andy Warhol's mother". (Incidentally, my copy of the current CD issue of that album, complete with Julia Warhola's cover, is put out by Pickwick Records...) But towards the end of the fifties, the work for commercial artists started to dry up. If you wanted to advertise shoes, now, you just took a photo of the shoes rather than get Andy Warhol to draw a picture of them. The money started to disappear, and Warhol started to panic. If there was no room for him in graphic design any more, he had to make his living in the fine arts, which he'd been totally unsuccessful in. But luckily for Warhol, there was a new movement that was starting to form -- Pop Art. Pop Art started in England, and had originally been intended, at least in part, as a critique of American consumerist capitalism. Pieces like "Just what is it that makes today's homes so different, so appealing?" by Richard Hamilton (who went on to design the Beatles' White Album cover) are collages of found images, almost all from American sources, recontextualised and juxtaposed in interesting ways, so a bodybuilder poses in a room that's taken from an advert in Ladies' Home Journal, while on the wall, instead of a painting, hangs a blown-up cover of a Jack Kirby romance comic. Pop Art changed slightly when it got taken up in America, and there it became something rather different, something closer to Duchamp, taking those found images and displaying them as art with no juxtaposition. Where Richard Hamilton created collage art which *showed* a comic cover by Jack Kirby as a painting in the background, Roy Lichtenstein would take a panel of comic art by Kirby, or Russ Heath or Irv Novick or a dozen other comic artists, and redraw it at the size of a normal painting. So Warhol took Cage's idea that the object is already art, and brought that into painting, starting by doing paintings of Campbell's soup cans, in which he tried as far as possible to make the cans look exactly like actual soup cans. The paintings were controversial, inciting fury in some and laughter in others and causing almost everyone to question whether they were art. Warhol would embrace an aesthetic in which things considered unimportant or trash or pop culture detritus were the greatest art of all. For example pretty much every profile of him written in the mid sixties talks about him obsessively playing "Sally Go Round the Roses", a girl-group single by the one-hit wonders the Jaynettes: [Excerpt: The Jaynettes, "Sally Go Round the Roses"] After his paintings of Campbell's soup cans, and some rather controversial but less commercially successful paintings of photographs of horrors and catastrophes taken from newspapers, Warhol abandoned painting in the conventional sense altogether, instead creating brightly coloured screen prints -- a form of stencilling -- based on photographs of celebrities like Elvis Presley, Elizabeth Taylor and, most famously, Marilyn Monroe. That way he could produce images which could be mass-produced, without his active involvement, and which supposedly had none of his personality in them, though of course his personality pervades the work anyway. He put on exhibitions of wooden boxes, silk-screen printed to look exactly like shipping cartons of Brillo pads. Images we see everywhere -- in newspapers, in supermarkets -- were art. And Warhol even briefly formed a band. The Druds were a garage band formed to play at a show at the Washington Gallery of Modern Art, the opening night of an exhibition that featured a silkscreen by Warhol of 210 identical bottles of Coca-Cola, as well as paintings by Rauschenberg and others. That opening night featured a happening by Claes Oldenburg, and a performance by Cage -- Cage gave a live lecture while three recordings of his own voice also played. The Druds were also meant to perform, but they fell apart after only a few rehearsals. Some recordings apparently exist, but they don't seem to circulate, but they'd be fascinating to hear as almost the entire band were non-musician artists like Warhol, Jasper Johns, and the sculptor Walter de Maria. Warhol said of the group “It didn't go too well, but if we had just stayed on it it would have been great.” On the other hand, the one actual musician in the group said “It was kind of ridiculous, so I quit after the second rehearsal". That musician was La Monte Young: [Excerpt: La Monte Young, "The Well-Tuned Piano"] That's an excerpt from what is generally considered Young's masterwork, "The Well-Tuned Piano". It's six and a half hours long. If Warhol is a difficult figure to write about, Young is almost impossible. He's a musician with a career stretching sixty years, who is arguably the most influential musician from the classical tradition in that time period. He's generally considered the father of minimalism, and he's also been called by Brian Eno "the daddy of us all" -- without Young you simply *do not* get art rock at all. Without Young there is no Velvet Underground, no David Bowie, no Eno, no New York punk scene, no Yoko Ono. Anywhere that the fine arts or conceptual art have intersected with popular music in the last fifty or more years has been influenced in one way or another by Young's work. BUT... he only rarely publishes his scores. He very, very rarely allows recordings of his work to be released -- there are four recordings on his bandcamp, plus a handful of recordings of his older, published, pieces, and very little else. He doesn't allow his music to be performed live without his supervision. There *are* bootleg recordings of his music, but even those are not easily obtainable -- Young is vigorous in enforcing his copyrights and issues takedown notices against anywhere that hosts them. So other than that handful of legitimately available recordings -- plus a recording by Young's Theater of Eternal Music, the legality of which is still disputed, and an off-air recording of a 1971 radio programme I've managed to track down, the only way to experience Young's music unless you're willing to travel to one of his rare live performances or installations is second-hand, by reading about it. Except that the one book that deals solely with Young and his music is not only a dense and difficult book to read, it's also one that Young vehemently disagreed with and considered extremely inaccurate, to the point he refused to allow permissions to quote his work in the book. Young did apparently prepare a list of corrections for the book, but he wouldn't tell the author what they were without payment. So please assume that anything I say about Young is wrong, but also accept that the short section of this episode about Young has required more work to *try* to get it right than pretty much anything else this year. Young's musical career actually started out in a relatively straightforward manner. He didn't grow up in the most loving of homes -- he's talked about his father beating him as a child because he had been told that young La Monte was clever -- but his father did buy him a saxophone and teach him the rudiments of the instrument, and as a child he was most influenced by the music of the big band saxophone player Jimmy Dorsey: [Excerpt: Jimmy Dorsey, “It's the Dreamer in Me”] The family, who were Mormon farmers, relocated several times in Young's childhood, from Idaho first to California and then to Utah, but everywhere they went La Monte seemed to find musical inspiration, whether from an uncle who had been part of the Kansas City jazz scene, a classmate who was a musical prodigy who had played with Perez Prado in his early teens, or a teacher who took the class to see a performance of Bartok's Concerto for Orchestra: [Excerpt: Bartok, "Concerto for Orchestra"] After leaving high school, Young went to Los Angeles City College to study music under Leonard Stein, who had been Schoenberg's assistant when Schoenberg had taught at UCLA, and there he became part of the thriving jazz scene based around Central Avenue, studying and performing with musicians like Ornette Coleman, Don Cherry, and Eric Dolphy -- Young once beat Dolphy in an audition for a place in the City College dance band, and the two would apparently substitute for each other on their regular gigs when one couldn't make it. During this time, Young's musical tastes became much more adventurous. He was a particular fan of the work of John Coltrane, and also got inspired by City of Glass, an album by Stan Kenton that attempted to combine jazz and modern classical music: [Excerpt: Stan Kenton's Innovations Orchestra, "City of Glass: The Structures"] His other major musical discovery in the mid-fifties was one we've talked about on several previous occasions -- the album Music of India, Morning and Evening Ragas by Ali Akhbar Khan: [Excerpt: Ali Akhbar Khan, "Rag Sindhi Bhairavi"] Young's music at this point was becoming increasingly modal, and equally influenced by the blues and Indian music. But he was also becoming interested in serialism. Serialism is an extension and generalisation of twelve-tone music, inspired by mathematical set theory. In serialism, you choose a set of musical elements -- in twelve-tone music that's the twelve notes in the twelve-tone scale, but it can also be a set of tonal relations, a chord, or any other set of elements. You then define all the possible ways you can permute those elements, a defined set of operations you can perform on them -- so you could play a scale forwards, play it backwards, play all the notes in the scale simultaneously, and so on. You then go through all the possible permutations, exactly once, and that's your piece of music. Young was particularly influenced by the works of Anton Webern, one of the earliest serialists: [Excerpt: Anton Webern, "Cantata number 1 for Soprano, Mixed Chorus, and Orchestra"] That piece we just heard, Webern's "Cantata number 1", was the subject of some of the earliest theoretical discussion of serialism, and in particular led to some discussion of the next step on from serialism. If serialism was all about going through every single permutation of a set, what if you *didn't* permute every element? There was a lot of discussion in the late fifties in music-theoretical circles about the idea of invariance. Normally in music, the interesting thing is what gets changed. To use a very simple example, you might change a melody from a major key to a minor one to make it sound sadder. What theorists at this point were starting to discuss is what happens if you leave something the same, but change the surrounding context, so the thing you *don't* vary sounds different because of the changed context. And going further, what if you don't change the context at all, and merely *imply* a changed context? These ideas were some of those which inspired Young's first major work, his Trio For Strings from 1958, a complex, palindromic, serial piece which is now credited as the first work of minimalism, because the notes in it change so infrequently: [Excerpt: La Monte Young, "Trio for Strings"] Though I should point out that Young never considers his works truly finished, and constantly rewrites them, and what we just heard is an excerpt from the only recording of the trio ever officially released, which is of the 2015 version. So I can't state for certain how close what we just heard is to the piece he wrote in 1958, except that it sounds very like the written descriptions of it I've read. After writing the Trio For Strings, Young moved to Germany to study with the modernist composer Karlheinz Stockhausen. While studying with Stockhausen, he became interested in the work of John Cage, and started up a correspondence with Cage. On his return to New York he studied with Cage and started writing pieces inspired by Cage, of which the most musical is probably Composition 1960 #7: [Excerpt: La Monte Young, "Composition 1960 #7"] The score for that piece is a stave on which is drawn a treble clef, the notes B and F#, and the words "To be held for a long Time". Other of his compositions from 1960 -- which are among the few of his compositions which have been published -- include composition 1960 #10 ("To Bob Morris"), the score for which is just the instruction "Draw a straight line and follow it.", and Piano Piece for David Tudor #1, the score for which reads "Bring a bale of hay and a bucket of water onto the stage for the piano to eat and drink. The performer may then feed the piano or leave it to eat by itself. If the former, the piece is over after the piano has been fed. If the latter, it is over after the piano eats or decides not to". Most of these compositions were performed as part of a loose New York art collective called Fluxus, all of whom were influenced by Cage and the Dadaists. This collective, led by George Maciunas, sometimes involved Cage himself, but also involved people like Henry Flynt, the inventor of conceptual art, who later became a campaigner against art itself, and who also much to Young's bemusement abandoned abstract music in the mid-sixties to form a garage band with Walter de Maria (who had played drums with the Druds): [Excerpt: Henry Flynt and the Insurrections, "I Don't Wanna"] Much of Young's work was performed at Fluxus concerts given in a New York loft belonging to another member of the collective, Yoko Ono, who co-curated the concerts with Young. One of Ono's mid-sixties pieces, her "Four Pieces for Orchestra" is dedicated to Young, and consists of such instructions as "Count all the stars of that night by heart. The piece ends when all the orchestra members finish counting the stars, or when it dawns. This can be done with windows instead of stars." But while these conceptual ideas remained a huge part of Young's thinking, he soon became interested in two other ideas. The first was the idea of just intonation -- tuning instruments and voices to perfect harmonics, rather than using the subtly-off tuning that is used in Western music. I'm sure I've explained that before in a previous episode, but to put it simply when you're tuning an instrument with fixed pitches like a piano, you have a choice -- you can either tune it so that the notes in one key are perfectly in tune with each other, but then when you change key things go very out of tune, or you can choose to make *everything* a tiny bit, almost unnoticeably, out of tune, but equally so. For the last several hundred years, musicians as a community have chosen the latter course, which was among other things promoted by Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier, a collection of compositions which shows how the different keys work together: [Excerpt: Bach (Glenn Gould), "The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book II: Fugue in F-sharp minor, BWV 883"] Young, by contrast, has his own esoteric tuning system, which he uses in his own work The Well-Tuned Piano: [Excerpt: La Monte Young, "The Well-Tuned Piano"] The other idea that Young took on was from Indian music, the idea of the drone. One of the four recordings of Young's music that is available from his Bandcamp, a 1982 recording titled The Tamburas of Pandit Pran Nath, consists of one hour, thirteen minutes, and fifty-eight seconds of this: [Excerpt: La Monte Young, "The Tamburas of Pandit Pran Nath"] Yes, I have listened to the whole piece. No, nothing else happens. The minimalist composer Terry Riley describes the recording as "a singularly rare contribution that far outshines any other attempts to capture this instrument in recorded media". In 1962, Young started writing pieces based on what he called the "dream chord", a chord consisting of a root, fourth, sharpened fourth, and fifth: [dream chord] That chord had already appeared in his Trio for Strings, but now it would become the focus of much of his work, in pieces like his 1962 piece The Second Dream of the High-Tension Line Stepdown Transformer, heard here in a 1982 revision: [Excerpt: La Monte Young, "The Second Dream of the High-Tension Line Stepdown Transformer"] That was part of a series of works titled The Four Dreams of China, and Young began to plan an installation work titled Dream House, which would eventually be created, and which currently exists in Tribeca, New York, where it's been in continuous "performance" for thirty years -- and which consists of thirty-two different pure sine wave tones all played continuously, plus purple lighting by Young's wife Marian Zazeela. But as an initial step towards creating this, Young formed a collective called Theatre of Eternal Music, which some of the members -- though never Young himself -- always claim also went by the alternative name The Dream Syndicate. According to John Cale, a member of the group, that name came about because the group tuned their instruments to the 60hz hum of the fridge in Young's apartment, which Cale called "the key of Western civilisation". According to Cale, that meant the fundamental of the chords they played was 10hz, the frequency of alpha waves when dreaming -- hence the name. The group initially consisted of Young, Zazeela, the photographer Billy Name, and percussionist Angus MacLise, but by this recording in 1964 the lineup was Young, Zazeela, MacLise, Tony Conrad and John Cale: [Excerpt: "Cale, Conrad, Maclise, Young, Zazeela - The Dream Syndicate 2 IV 64-4"] That recording, like any others that have leaked by the 1960s version of the Theatre of Eternal Music or Dream Syndicate, is of disputed legality, because Young and Zazeela claim to this day that what the group performed were La Monte Young's compositions, while the other two surviving members, Cale and Conrad, claim that their performances were improvisational collaborations and should be equally credited to all the members, and so there have been lawsuits and countersuits any time anyone has released the recordings. John Cale, the youngest member of the group, was also the only one who wasn't American. He'd been born in Wales in 1942, and had had the kind of childhood that, in retrospect, seems guaranteed to lead to eccentricity. He was the product of a mixed-language marriage -- his father, William, was an English speaker while his mother, Margaret, spoke Welsh, but the couple had moved in on their marriage with Margaret's mother, who insisted that only Welsh could be spoken in her house. William didn't speak Welsh, and while he eventually picked up the basics from spending all his life surrounded by Welsh-speakers, he refused on principle to capitulate to his mother-in-law, and so remained silent in the house. John, meanwhile, grew up a monolingual Welsh speaker, and didn't start to learn English until he went to school when he was seven, and so couldn't speak to his father until then even though they lived together. Young John was extremely unwell for most of his childhood, both physically -- he had bronchial problems for which he had to take a cough mixture that was largely opium to help him sleep at night -- and mentally. He was hospitalised when he was sixteen with what was at first thought to be meningitis, but turned out to be a psychosomatic condition, the result of what he has described as a nervous breakdown. That breakdown is probably connected to the fact that during his teenage years he was sexually assaulted by two adults in positions of authority -- a vicar and a music teacher -- and felt unable to talk to anyone about this. He was, though, a child prodigy and was playing viola with the National Youth Orchestra of Wales from the age of thirteen, and listening to music by Schoenberg, Webern, and Stravinsky. He was so talented a multi-instrumentalist that at school he was the only person other than one of the music teachers and the headmaster who was allowed to use the piano -- which led to a prank on his very last day at school. The headmaster would, on the last day, hit a low G on the piano to cue the assembly to stand up, and Cale had placed a comb on the string, muting it and stopping the note from sounding -- in much the same way that his near-namesake John Cage was "preparing" pianos for his own compositions in the USA. Cale went on to Goldsmith's College to study music and composition, under Humphrey Searle, one of Britain's greatest proponents of serialism who had himself studied under Webern. Cale's main instrument was the viola, but he insisted on also playing pieces written for the violin, because they required more technical skill. For his final exam he chose to play Hindemith's notoriously difficult Viola Sonata: [Excerpt: Hindemith Viola Sonata] While at Goldsmith's, Cale became friendly with Cornelius Cardew, a composer and cellist who had studied with Stockhausen and at the time was a great admirer of and advocate for the works of Cage and Young (though by the mid-seventies Cardew rejected their work as counter-revolutionary bourgeois imperialism). Through Cardew, Cale started to correspond with Cage, and with George Maciunas and other members of Fluxus. In July 1963, just after he'd finished his studies at Goldsmith's, Cale presented a festival there consisting of an afternoon and an evening show. These shows included the first British performances of several works including Cardew's Autumn '60 for Orchestra -- a piece in which the musicians were given blank staves on which to write whatever part they wanted to play, but a separate set of instructions in *how* to play the parts they'd written. Another piece Cale presented in its British premiere at that show was Cage's "Concerto for Piano and Orchestra": [Excerpt: John Cage, "Concerto for Piano and Orchestra"] In the evening show, they performed Two Pieces For String Quartet by George Brecht (in which the musicians polish their instruments with dusters, making scraping sounds as they clean them), and two new pieces by Cale, one of which involved a plant being put on the stage, and then the performer, Robin Page, screaming from the balcony at the plant that it would die, then running down, through the audience, and onto the stage, screaming abuse and threats at the plant. The final piece in the show was a performance by Cale (the first one in Britain) of La Monte Young's "X For Henry Flynt". For this piece, Cale put his hands together and then smashed both his arms onto the keyboard as hard as he could, over and over. After five minutes some of the audience stormed the stage and tried to drag the piano away from him. Cale followed the piano on his knees, continuing to bang the keys, and eventually the audience gave up in defeat and Cale the performer won. After this Cale moved to the USA, to further study composition, this time with Iannis Xenakis, the modernist composer who had also taught Mickey Baker orchestration after Baker left Mickey and Sylvia, and who composed such works as "Orient Occident": [Excerpt: Iannis Xenakis, "Orient Occident"] Cale had been recommended to Xenakis as a student by Aaron Copland, who thought the young man was probably a genius. But Cale's musical ambitions were rather too great for Tanglewood, Massachusetts -- he discovered that the institute had eighty-eight pianos, the same number as there are keys on a piano keyboard, and thought it would be great if for a piece he could take all eighty-eight pianos, put them all on different boats, sail the boats out onto a lake, and have eighty-eight different musicians each play one note on each piano, while the boats sank with the pianos on board. For some reason, Cale wasn't allowed to perform this composition, and instead had to make do with one where he pulled an axe out of a single piano and slammed it down on a table. Hardly the same, I'm sure you'll agree. From Tanglewood, Cale moved on to New York, where he soon became part of the artistic circles surrounding John Cage and La Monte Young. It was at this time that he joined Young's Theatre of Eternal Music, and also took part in a performance with Cage that would get Cale his first television exposure: [Excerpt: John Cale playing Erik Satie's "Vexations" on "I've Got a Secret"] That's Cale playing through "Vexations", a piece by Erik Satie that wasn't published until after Satie's death, and that remained in obscurity until Cage popularised -- if that's the word -- the piece. The piece, which Cage had found while studying Satie's notes, seems to be written as an exercise and has the inscription (in French) "In order to play the motif 840 times in succession, it would be advisable to prepare oneself beforehand, and in the deepest silence, by serious immobilities." Cage interpreted that, possibly correctly, as an instruction that the piece should be played eight hundred and forty times straight through, and so he put together a performance of the piece, the first one ever, by a group he called the Pocket Theatre Piano Relay Team, which included Cage himself, Cale, Joshua Rifkin, and several other notable musical figures, who took it in turns playing the piece. For that performance, which ended up lasting eighteen hours, there was an entry fee of five dollars, and there was a time-clock in the lobby. Audience members punched in and punched out, and got a refund of five cents for every twenty minutes they'd spent listening to the music. Supposedly, at the end, one audience member yelled "Encore!" A week later, Cale appeared on "I've Got a Secret", a popular game-show in which celebrities tried to guess people's secrets (and which is where that performance of Cage's "Water Walk" we heard earlier comes from): [Excerpt: John Cale on I've Got a Secret] For a while, Cale lived with a friend of La Monte Young's, Terry Jennings, before moving in to a flat with Tony Conrad, one of the other members of the Theatre of Eternal Music. Angus MacLise lived in another flat in the same building. As there was not much money to be made in avant-garde music, Cale also worked in a bookshop -- a job Cage had found him -- and had a sideline in dealing drugs. But rents were so cheap at this time that Cale and Conrad only had to work part-time, and could spend much of their time working on the music they were making with Young. Both were string players -- Conrad violin, Cale viola -- and they soon modified their instruments. Conrad merely attached pickups to his so it could be amplified, but Cale went much further. He filed down the viola's bridge so he could play three strings at once, and he replaced the normal viola strings with thicker, heavier, guitar and mandolin strings. This created a sound so loud that it sounded like a distorted electric guitar -- though in late 1963 and early 1964 there were very few people who even knew what a distorted guitar sounded like. Cale and Conrad were also starting to become interested in rock and roll music, to which neither of them had previously paid much attention, because John Cage's music had taught them to listen for music in sounds they previously dismissed. In particular, Cale became fascinated with the harmonies of the Everly Brothers, hearing in them the same just intonation that Young advocated for: [Excerpt: The Everly Brothers, "All I Have to Do is Dream"] And it was with this newfound interest in rock and roll that Cale and Conrad suddenly found themselves members of a manufactured pop band. The two men had been invited to a party on the Lower East Side, and there they'd been introduced to Terry Phillips of Pickwick Records. Phillips had seen their long hair and asked if they were musicians, so they'd answered "yes". He asked if they were in a band, and they said yes. He asked if that band had a drummer, and again they said yes. By this point they realised that he had assumed they were rock guitarists, rather than experimental avant-garde string players, but they decided to play along and see where this was going. Phillips told them that if they brought along their drummer to Pickwick's studios the next day, he had a job for them. The two of them went along with Walter de Maria, who did play the drums a little in between his conceptual art work, and there they were played a record: [Excerpt: The Primitives, "The Ostrich"] It was explained to them that Pickwick made knock-off records -- soundalikes of big hits, and their own records in the style of those hits, all played by a bunch of session musicians and put out under different band names. This one, by "the Primitives", they thought had a shot at being an actual hit, even though it was a dance-craze song about a dance where one partner lays on the floor and the other stamps on their head. But if it was going to be a hit, they needed an actual band to go out and perform it, backing the singer. How would Cale, Conrad, and de Maria like to be three quarters of the Primitives? It sounded fun, but of course they weren't actually guitarists. But as it turned out, that wasn't going to be a problem. They were told that the guitars on the track had all been tuned to one note -- not even to an open chord, like we talked about Steve Cropper doing last episode, but all the strings to one note. Cale and Conrad were astonished -- that was exactly the kind of thing they'd been doing in their drone experiments with La Monte Young. Who was this person who was independently inventing the most advanced ideas in experimental music but applying them to pop songs? And that was how they met Lou Reed: [Excerpt: The Primitives, "The Ostrich"] Where Cale and Conrad were avant-gardeists who had only just started paying attention to rock and roll music, rock and roll was in Lou Reed's blood, but there were a few striking similarities between him and Cale, even though at a glance their backgrounds could not have seemed more different. Reed had been brought up in a comfortably middle-class home in Long Island, but despised the suburban conformity that surrounded him from a very early age, and by his teens was starting to rebel against it very strongly. According to one classmate “Lou was always more advanced than the rest of us. The drinking age was eighteen back then, so we all started drinking at around sixteen. We were drinking quarts of beer, but Lou was smoking joints. He didn't do that in front of many people, but I knew he was doing it. While we were looking at girls in Playboy, Lou was reading Story of O. He was reading the Marquis de Sade, stuff that I wouldn't even have thought about or known how to find.” But one way in which Reed was a typical teenager of the period was his love for rock and roll, especially doo-wop. He'd got himself a guitar, but only had one lesson -- according to the story he would tell on numerous occasions, he turned up with a copy of "Blue Suede Shoes" and told the teacher he only wanted to know how to play the chords for that, and he'd work out the rest himself. Reed and two schoolfriends, Alan Walters and Phil Harris, put together a doo-wop trio they called The Shades, because they wore sunglasses, and a neighbour introduced them to Bob Shad, who had been an A&R man for Mercury Records and was starting his own new label. He renamed them the Jades and took them into the studio with some of the best New York session players, and at fourteen years old Lou Reed was writing songs and singing them backed by Mickey Baker and King Curtis: [Excerpt: The Jades, "Leave Her For Me"] Sadly the Jades' single was a flop -- the closest it came to success was being played on Murray the K's radio show, but on a day when Murray the K was off ill and someone else was filling in for him, much to Reed's disappointment. Phil Harris, the lead singer of the group, got to record some solo sessions after that, but the Jades split up and it would be several years before Reed made any more records. Partly this was because of Reed's mental health, and here's where things get disputed and rather messy. What we know is that in his late teens, just after he'd gone off to New