Small non-cellular infectious agent that only replicates in cells
TWiV celebrates 900 episodes, Vincent gives the Richard R. Ernst lecture, and we discuss why inflammasome activation in infected macrophages drives severe COVID-19. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, Kathy Spindler, and Brianne Barker Subscribe (free): Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode Richard R. Ernst Lecture Infected macrophages drives severe COVID-19 (Nature) Timestamps by Jolene. Thanks! Weekly Picks Brianne – The Milky Way's Black Hole Comes to Light Kathy – River dolphins playing with anaconda Rich – Smallpox vaccination techniques; from knives and forks to needles and pins Alan – Vacuum Tubes: a Modern Aladdin's Lamp Vincent – Books by Pamela Jane Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees Send your virology questions and comments to email@example.com
In COVID-19 clinical update #114, Dr. Griffin discusses early treatment with ivermectin, procalcitonin not a reliable biomarker, vaccine in 6-11 year olds, FDA limits use of Janssen vaccine, does site of vaccine booster matter, sniffer dogs, monoclonals for hospitalized patients, risk assessment for public events, Paxlovid eligibility, and persistence of pediatric anosmia. Subscribe (free): Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode Effects of early treatment with Ivermectin (NEJM) Procalcitonin not a reliable biomarker (IDSA) Evaluation of vaccine in children 6 to 11 years (NEJM)) FDA limits use of Janssen vaccine (FDA) Recall of b cell memory on vaccination location (Science Immunology) Persistence screening using sniffer dogs (Journal of Clinical Trials) Tixagevimab/Cilgavimab for treatment of hospitalized patients (Lancet) Infection detection by canine olfaction (OFID) Diagnostic utility to differentiate patients (IDSA) Prevalence of anosmia in pediatric cases (Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal) Risk assessment for public events (University of Texas COVID-19 Modeling Consortium) PAXLOVID patient eligibility screening checklist (FDA) PAXLOVID drug interactions (IDSA) Contribute to ASTMH fundraiser at PWB Dr. Griffin's treatment guide (pdf) Letters read on TWiV 899 Timestamps by Jolene. Thanks! Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees Send your questions for Dr. Griffin to firstname.lastname@example.org
What's up to my celestial starfish and satiny scrotum frogs! (Yes- they are real. And I'm here for it.)Welcome back to the BNP everyone and thank you so much for listening! This episode is a wild one folks! We kick things off with some highly zany audio tidbits to get your mind a-kickin'. We then dive into the audio from this week's Barbarian Yak Fest, with the inimitable Dr. Sylvie Salinger! Dr. Sylvie and I chat about all sorts of salient topics, such as the psychological impact on young minds when they're told for two years that they are dirty disease vectors whose hugs can kill grandpa. That has caused deep trauma and existential fear among our youngsters, and it's going to take some time and real effort to remedy that damage. Next we visit the sketchy and shadowy world of the "Gain of Function Industrial Complex," a reckless and convoluted web of U.S. funded "research" Biolabs around the world, all busy cooking up every conceivable manner of dangerous and terrible biowarfare fuckery. Viruses don't usually just "jump species" willy-nilly in Nature, it takes them many years. These psychos are playing God and we are paying the price. Bat virus anyone? How about some migratory bird flus? Sounds like a good time. We look at who is benefiting from the continued funding of these villainous labs.Lastly, we dive into some more details around the current bird flu crisis that is decimating chicken stocks around the world. If you have chickens, treat them like gold! Few sources of protein are as clean and nutritious as a backyard hen's eggs.Subscribe to the Barbarian Yak Fest video show! Find us on Rumble here and on Rokfin here. Thanks! Won't you please rate, review and subscribe to the BNP wherever you listen to podcasts?Help me stay on the air by becoming a beloved patron at www.patreon.com/noetics. Signing up at any tier gets you a complimentary pangolin signed by former NIH chief Francis Collins! Act now: signed pangolins going fast!Or, make a one-time, small donation at: https://www.buymeacoffee.com/noetics! Check me out on IG @ barbarian_noetics!Email the pod at: email@example.comUntil next week,be exquisite to one another,and kind and compassionate towards yourself.One Love,Little Raven KAWWTRACKLIST FOR THIS EPISODE The Ventures - Hawaii 5-0 Dykotomi - Corvid CrunkJubilant Day Upbeat Lo Fi MixNormandy Beach Party - Chatting In The Garden Lo Fi MixTokyo Rose - Midnight ChaseBank of International Settlements Goon Augusten Carstens Speaks on Central Bank Digital Currencies (YIKES)When the Cash Is Over (BNP Original Edit)Hopeton Lewis - Grooving Out On Life Self Healing Collective - 528 Hz Talk With God (Binaural Beats)The Coasters - Yakety YakPuentes - Q'uantatitaH.E.R. - Lost Souls feat. DJ ScratchLINKSFood Distribution Fires: https://thefreethoughtproject.com/multiple-large-food-processing-distribution-plants-in-us-have-recently-exploded-or-burned-down/Ice Age Farmer (Food Sovereignty): https://www.iceagefarmer.com/Support the show
Dr. Stephen Johnston, Ph.D. (https://biodesign.asu.edu/stephen-johnston) is the Director for the Center for Innovations in Medicine, a Professor in the School of Life Sciences, and Director of the Biological Design Graduate Program at The Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University. Dr Johnston is also Founding CEO and Chairman of the Board Of Directors of Calviri (https://calviri.com/). The Center for Innovations in Medicine and Dr. Johnston's current work focuses on innovative solutions to fundamental problems in bio-medicine, and their organization brings together a unique group of interdisciplinary scientists to identify, analyze, and come up with inventive solutions for significant un-met medical needs. Current major translational sciences and technology development projects of Dr. Johnston include 1) Cancer Eradication: with a focus on developing a universal, preventative cancer vaccine, and 2) Health Futures: with an aim of producing a diagnostic system that allows continuous monitoring of the health status of healthy people - helping in the revolution to pre-symptomatic medicine. Dr. Johnston has broad experience in basic science, including cloning the Gal4 gene, showing that proteins have separable functional domains, and discovering the ATPases Associated proteins and their role in transcription. He was also co-inventor/innovator of pathogen derived resistance, organelle transformation, the gene gun, genetic immunization, Tobacco Etch Virus protease system, expression library immunization, linear expression elements, synbodies and immunosignaturing. Dr. Johnston is author of over 150 journal articles, has over 20 patents, and has garnered approximately $85M in grant support including large programs from DARPA, NIAID and NHLBI. Dr. Johnston has a B.S. in Molecular Biology and Ph.D. in Genetics and Plant Genetics/Plant Breeding, from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and did Postdoctoral work in Biochemistry at Penn State University Medical Center.
#LegallyClueless Ep165 Legally Clueless on Instagram: www.instagram.com/legallycluelessafrica/ Legally Clueless on TikTok: www.tiktok.com/@legallycluelessafrica Subscribe to the Legally Clueless YouTube channel here: www.youtube.com/c/LegallyCluelessYoutube Want to share your story on Legally Clueless? Fill out this form: forms.gle/wZrvMse7iYGX5pnYA How To Buy My Book, "Our Broken Silence": - Amazon link: shorturl.at/bdBF4 The song of the week is My Day by Tarrus Riley: https://youtu.be/xPg_e_3cK-E On #100AfricanStories Bright Gameli shares his story of falling in love with computers, making a computer virus when he was 7 years old, living in South Korea and getting into cybersecurity!
TWiV explains why the concept of herd immunity might not apply to COVID-19, and the observation that smallpox vaccination causes an increase in skin bacteria that promote pathology and influence the immune response. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Rich Condit, Kathy Spindler, and Brianne Barker Subscribe (free): Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode Herd immunity may not apply to COVID-19 (J Inf Dis) Smallpox vaccination increases skin bacteria (PLoS Path) The invinceable TWiV (TWiV 145) By the pricking of my thumbs… (TWiV 284) Letters read on TWiV 898 Timestamps by Jolene. Thanks! Weekly Picks Brianne – Bacteria and Me Coloring Book Kathy – Smarter 3D printing Rich – Big Ben Restoring the Worlds Most Famous Clock 2021 Vincent – Scientific review articles as antivaccine disinformation Listener Pick Suellen – Your Fantastic Mind Season 3 Ep 2: Long COVID and Making of a Brain Surgeon (Full Episode) Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees Send your virology questions and comments to firstname.lastname@example.org
In COVID-19 clinical update #113, Dr. Griffin discusses tocilizumab use in hospitalized Patients, IL-6 inhibitors and mortality, Baricitinib in hospitalized patients, post-infection neurological sequelae, comparative effectiveness of Pfizer and Moderna vaccines, phase 2/3 study of Paxlovid, infection relapse following Paxlovid, pre-hospital administration of Remdesivir, and hospitalization with different variants. Subscribe (free): Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode Timing of Tocilizumab Use in Hospitalized Patients (NIH) Interleukin-6 inhibitors reduce mortality (European Journal of Internal Medicine) Treatment Effect of Baricitinib on Hospitalized Patients (IDSA) Post Infection Neurological Sequelae (Res Square) Comparative Effectiveness of Pfizer and Moderna Vaccines (Nature Commun) Results from Phase 2/3 Study of Paxlovid (Pfizer) Infection Relapse Following Suppression by Paxlovid (Res Square) Update on Paxlovid Usage (FDA) Availability and Use of Treatments in Outpatients (CDC) Pre-Hospital Administration of Remdesivir (IDSA) Remdesivir and three other drugs for Hospitalized Patients (Lancet) Guidelines on Usage of Anticoagulants (Am Soc Hematol) Different Variants Hospitalization and Morality (Res Square) Contribute to FIMRIC fundraiser at PWB Dr. Griffin's treatment guide (pdf) Letters read on TWiV 897 Timestamps by Jolene. Thanks! Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees Send your questions for Dr. Griffin to email@example.com
Joining us on this episode is Dr. Jason Kindrachuk. Dr. Kindrachuk is an assistant professor in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the University of Manitoba. In addition to this, he is also Canada Research Chair in the molecular pathogenesis of emerging viruses. His research primarily focuses on the circulation, transmission, and pathogenesis of emerging viruses. Currently, Dr. Kindrachuk is investigating the many complexities of viruses and what measures we can take to control them. Listen now to explore topics like: Where viruses can exist in nature. How infectious diseases can spread through asymptomatic individuals. How recognizing the relationship between different viruses can help us combat future infections. Offer: This episode is sponsored by Bowmar Nutrition. To receive a 5% discount, use the code GENIUS5 at checkout. Go to BowmarNutrition.com to shop now! With the proper analysis, can we curb the spread of viruses before they go too far? Follow along on this conversational journey with Dr. Kindrachuk to find out now! To learn more about Dr. Kindrachuk and his work, you can visit umanitoba.ca. Episode also available on Apple Podcasts: http://apple.co/30PvU9C
Episode Notes Episode summary Guest info and links The host Margaret Killjoy can be found on twitter @magpiekilljoy or instagram at @margaretkilljoy. This show is published by Strangers in A Tangled Wilderness. We can be found at Tangled Wilderness You can support the show on Patreon. Referenced Texts: > Fitzpatrick's Dermatology, 9e > Taylor and Kelly's Dermatology for Skin of Color, 2e > Sanford Guide To Anti-Microbials > UpToDate: > UpToDate – Evidence-based Clinical Decision Support | Wolters Kluwer > Where there is no Doctor:Books and Resources - Hesperian Health GuidesHesperian Health Guides > CDC > American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons > Transcript Max on Taking Care of Medical Needs Margaret 00:15 Hello, and welcome to Live Like The Wold Is Dying, your podcast for what feels like the end times. I'm your host Margaret killjoy. I use she or they pronouns. And this week I'm talking to another medical practitioner. I'm talking to a nurse practitioner named Max, who is going to talk about how to access medical care when medical care doesn't want to give you access to medical care. And we'll be talking about the different ways that people source medications, and we'll be talking about the different diagnostic tools and kind of talk about what you can do to learn how to be your own doctor. Yeah, I hope you enjoy it. This podcast as a proud member of the Channel Zero network of anarchists podcasts. And here's a jingle from another show on the network. Ba-da-da-dah-dah-da. Channel Zero Jingle Margaret 02:18 Okay, so if you could introduce yourself with your name, your pronouns, and then I guess a little bit of your background as relates to the kind of stuff we're going to be talking about today. Max 02:27 Sure, my name is Max, I use he/him pronouns. I'm a medical provider, technically, I'm a nurse practitioner with a degree in family health care. I've been working in health care for about 15 years on the, on the East Coast, first doing primary care and working with LGBTQ+ folks, and now mostly doing HIV care in an infectious diseases environment. Margaret 02:56 Okay, so the reason I wanted to have you on the show is I wanted to talk about, I guess you could say like DIY allopathic health care, or maybe rather like accessing allopathic medical care without access to the allopathic medical system. And, I was wondering if you could kind of give a brief introduction to that, and also explain what allopathy is, for anyone who's listening who's not familiar with that term? Max 03:21 Sure. Allopathic is the word I think I'm going to use to describe the medical world I work in, I think about it, like how people talk about Western medicine. But I feel like there are so many different contributions to what we think of as Western medicine, from all over the world historically, and currently that it seems kind of like a dumb term. And I sort of reached out to some friends of mine who are in other kinds of health care, outside of this sort of what we think of as like this health care model and was like, "What's the best terminology?" and they're like, "Oh, "allopathic", that's what you should use," you know, and so I think, "all right, that's what I'm going to use for this." And for me, I think a lot about expertise, right? Like someone could learn to work on a bicycle outside of ever having to learn necessarily in a shop or in a school. And they could learn to work on their bicycle super super well, and they could learn to start working on other people's bicycles. And they could go on the internet and they could diagnose problems with bicycles and they could you know, become the person who lives next door who's really really good at fixing everybody's bicycles. And ultimately with experience that person can be an expert in bicycles right? That's that's something we allow people and there's something about allopathic medicine that just doesn't allow for that expertise outside of really rigid model, outside of schooling outside...it it police's its borders. So like, if you want to go and look something up about your own health care on the internet, the things that you find are are terrible, even the things that are supposed to be reliable, like something like Medscape or something like that, you know, it's like every, "Oh, you have a sore throat," you look up sore throat, and it gives you every possible thing that could ever possibly have ever caused a sore throat, including some kind of cancer, right Margaret 05:16 Yeah like if you look up, yeah. Max 05:17 Yeah. And if you...but if you look up how to fix a flat, there's not disclaimers about "Oh, you might cut off your tongue while fixing a flat, or run yourself over, or wear a helmet." You know, it's this...it's like, matter of fact, you're allowed to access the information. And I think that there's...it's a big problem when it comes to health care. And... Margaret 05:29 Well everyone has bicycles, but only some people have bodies. Max 05:42 No, no one has bodies. No one... Margaret 05:44 Yeah. But everyone has a bicycle. So it makes sense. Max 05:47 Everyone has a bicycle. Yeah. Margaret 05:49 Yeah. Sorry, I cut you off. Please continue. Max 05:51 No, it's fine. Makes total sense. I, I, I also think too, about a lot of the, you know, I think one of the things I think about in your show is that idea of like, you know, the prepper, and the fallout shelter, or like the little green anarchists like how that's not necessarily like a sustainable model in the, in the tradition, like, because we need each other, right. And I think one of the things that we need about each other is that we need all of each other. And I think this idea of being able to just go and live on the mountaintop and survive on your own is deeply ablest and assumes a lot about bodies and what bodies need and what people need to keep their bodies healthy. Margaret 06:29 Yeah, and it doesn't take into account that like even able-bodied people aren't always perpetually able-bodied, you know, like, speaking as someone who currently lives alone on a mountaintop...you know, I think about it a lot, right? Like, I'm like, if I fall on the ice, my dog isn't going for help. You know, and like, I could probably only do what I do with access to a cell phone. You know, like, realistically, I mean, sure people successfully live alone for long periods of time, without access to any of that, but people also unsuccessfully live alone without access to other people, too. So I agree with you. I am....Yeah, we do need each other even even, even when you choose to be mostly isolated, which actually come any kind of crisis. I'm not making this about me, I just got really self conscious thinking about the mountain top thing. You know, come any kind of crisis, I immediately don't want to be alone anymore. Like, be...living alone only make sense in the context of the entire, like, social infrastructure that we have set up, you know? Max 07:34 Oh, for sure. Oh, for sure. And it's like, as soon as you get a little bit hurt, and you're laying on the ground, and you're like, "Why did I do that thing that I just did that got me a little bit hurt?" you're like, "Will I be hurt forever. Will anybody findfind my corpse. Margaret 07:51 Okay, so, so and then. So, you're someone who does have access to a lot of the, you know, traditional allopathic medical world, right. And and what you're saying is that it's something that people can become more competent as individuals, whether they're, like specializing, or whether they're just like Jack-of-all-trades-ing their, you know, their health care. What does that...what does that look like? What are good places to start, either in the current context, or in a, you know, a crisis context in which we might be detached from social infrastructure? Like, what what should people learn? Max 08:28 I'm definitely not in the working in any kind of realm of right now, like, emergency, right? So this definitely isn't the like, 'how to, you know, stop somebody from bleeding and excessively' or... Margaret 08:41 We have that episode, actually, so. Max 08:43 Exactly, yeah. No, I've listened to it. And it was great. Um, but it's sort of more like, how do we access these things, so that so that people can become experts outside of a traditional model, right? And so I think about things like, like, sort of big three big things as like reliable sources, right? Where can you look up information and actually get information without being told that you're gonna, that you have cancer when you just have a sore throat, right. And, and then you have access to diagnostic tools, and things that help make diagnostics, and things that help sort of lay it out. And then because that's something that you...we use all the time. And then the final thing I think about is, and also in in that realm of tools, is medications, right? Like how do we get medicine? You know, like this, like medicine in pill form, medicine in injectable form, like how do we get those things outside of a doctor model? And then the final thing is just like, what makes someone an expert is experience. But so the big things I'm going to talk about, like are like what I'd like to talk about, I guess is sources, and tools. Tools, and in the sense of tools I think, you know, diagnostics, manuals and things like that, but diagnostic tools and, and medicines. Okay, so Margaret 10:09 This is exciting, I want to know these things, and then I'm going to ask you about fish antibiotics afterwards. Max 10:13 And then in the very most fundamental level, I think that everyone in the whole world who...should have a little index card that they keep on their person that says, you know, their name and emergency contact, what they're allergic to, if they have any medical conditions, if they take any medications, you know. It...or make, you know, or make that if you live with someone who's older, if you live with someone who's house bound, if you live with someone who's particularly vulnerable, help them do that, make them for that for them, and just have that on hand. Because that just simplifies every process. Margaret 10:50 I, I really liked that idea. And then like maybe people who have access to whoever in your neighborhood has a lamination machine, you know, make laminated cards for everyone. No, that makes sense. It's one of the questions I get the most, you know, because the traditional, as you kind of mentioned, the traditional prepper space is very ableist, and very focused on people who are not marginalized by society. And, and so a lot of people are like, well, you know, "I need a thyroid pill every day, or I'll die," or, you know, or "I don't want to go off antidepressants, I'd rather die," or, you know, whatever these things are. And I don't usually have good solid answers. So that was actually why when you reached out, I was so excited to talk to you. So I guess, do you want to start with sources? What are good sources, obviously, WebMD and Wikipedia, but... Max 11:41 I have a ton as they do about ways of sort of amassing medication, so we'll get to that. Margaret 11:46 Okay, cool. Yeah, yeah. Max 11:47 So, sources was like the first thing. If you can get health insurance right now. And I mean that in like...there are sometimes ways to get it. Like if you can access a lower income clinic, or you know, someone who's a social worker, or does case management, they can help you often get, like state assistance health insurance. And like if you're super sick, and you have a complex issue that would might involve...like, if you have a broken bone, or you worried that you might have legit pneumonia, you can absolutely always give fake information at an emergency room. Just be savvy about it... Margaret 12:24 Right, and obviously only do this.... Max 12:25 And if you have to get hospitalised... Margaret 12:27 Oh no, obviously, we're talking about fiction in this particular context, as we would never advocate for you to break the law, but yeah. Max 12:31 Yeah, absolutely fiction. Yeah, absolutely fiction and in... Margaret 12:33 In a post apocalyptic society that looks exactly like our current society. This is what you could tell. Max 12:37 Yeah, that's what we're, that's what we're talking about. And the only way to talk, you know, and in said society too, if you end up in a in a hospitalized situation, and you're what they consider to be indigent. They know they can't get blood from a stone. So they'll often sort of retroactively sign people up for medical coverage to cover that. This is all of course, assuming that someone is documented so I don't want to, I don't want to assume that. So that's on the baseline. But, so things that you could do diagnostic wise, right, we can learn and people can learn how to do physical exams. But I'm a big fan of, of, of some sources that people can access, there's this book called "Where There Is No Doctor", and everyone and their mother should ownthis book. You can get free PDFs of it, and tons and tons of languages, tons and tons and tons and tons of languages. And it is an incredibly useful thing. People should just get it for each other for like birthday presents, you know, and it pretty much shows you how to like diagnose and treat a wide variety of illnesses, even with explicit medication instruction. And it's just, it's just a really, really, really, really useful tool. There's also this thing, this online thing that most healthcare people have access to called "Up To Date." And if you know anyone in healthcare, and you know, in an in an in an alternate reality, where people can share things like you know, logins and things like that, you know, someone who might be willing to share that, you can use Up To Date to diagnose and treat everything. And what it is, is it's, it's, it's staffed by medical people who create, you know, pages about different illnesses, about different things that you might encounter, and gives you all the most quote unquote, "up to date" well referenced literature about whatever it is, you know, and they kind of grade like, "Okay, we give this a Grade A, we give this a Grade B" in terms of like, okay, this is a good intervention or not. And you it's, it's, I look at it all day long, and I've been doing healthcare for a long time. Another possible thing that one could do if one was in like a collective of people was you could all go in on it have an Up To Date. Margaret 15:06 How much does it cost? Or do you need to provide like medical license? Or? Max 15:09 I've not had to, to sign up for it? I mean, and I think it's, I think it's very worth it. But I think it's also like one of those kinds of things like, you know, a lot of subscription services where somebody's got login. And there's no way to sort of misuse it, you know. Margaret 15:29 it just, it drives me crazy how like, this exists, and that we can't access it. Like, I mean, obviously, some people can. And that's, that's wonderful. And I'm sure there's reasons or whatever, but it's just, it's very frustrating the idea that, like, we're all stuck with WebMD, you know, whereas like, actual doctors are able to like...it's not that they just magically know, all this information, you know, I mean, I've been going to a friend of mine for years as like my primary medical provider, basically. As soon as he started going to med school, you know, he just started answering everyone's medical questions for the community that he was in. And, you know, yeah, he spends all of his day like reading and stuff like that, and keeping up to date...it is a very clever name...about all this stuff. And it's amazing how much it changes. I don't know. I don't know, I sorry, I just got really frustrated, think about how that that exists, and I can't immediately access it, and I'm stuck, like, using things telling me I'll die of cancer. Max 16:30 And it's, it's...that's kind of one of the things I mean, like what else? What else? Where else? Is it so difficult maybe to to access, actual legitimate, you know, resources, if you have a friend, like who's in health care, and they're associated with a university or like a major hospital system, there are also sometimes these biomedical libraries online? Well, of course, there are there are biomedical libraries online, sorry. And, you know, you can look up to the very most current research on things papers wise, you know, and that's a fantastic, fantastic resource. If you know anybody with a login, who's...or is...who is a medical student, or even just a student period, most of them have an online acc... online access to really, really good current research. And ways of guiding care. And so that's another great tool. So you can actually be doing, you know, very, very current, you know, well documented smart health care for people, because they're these things exist. These these documents, these research papers, exist, we just, it's the access, right? It's, it's the access like 100%. Let's see.... Margaret 17:56 I mean, it's, it's ivory tower shit, it's like, it's the same as like, whenever I'm trying to research history. There's all kinds of papers written by historians, and they're all locked up behind these academic paywalls. And I basically have to like bug my friends in the academy being like, "Hey, can you pull this paper?" Or like, write the author's directly and be like, "Hey, you're the only person who's written about the blue spectacles worn by the nihilists in 1860s. Russia, can you tell me why they were blue? Can you just give me the paper?" You know, and I don't know. Sorry, as an aside, it just irritates me. I don't like this ivory tower thing. Max 18:28 It's ridiculous. It's so ridiculous. And you know, but it really, I think, probably a lot of people are only probably a couple of degrees, like, away from someone who might have one of these log-ons...logins. So I think we should just pressure the hell out of our friends and colleagues, and make sure that they you know, distribute... Margaret 18:48 Yeah. Max 18:49 equitably, equitably. The...one of the things I really use a lot is like dermatology guides. So if you have a bunch of friends and you want to go in on a little like Biomedical Library, you know, you know if you know someone who ever went to nursing school or anything like that, ask them if they have, you know, things like anatomy books and things like that. But if you can get Derm books, they're great. There's one called "Fitzpatrick's Dermatology". And it's just like the tome, and has, it has tons of color pictures, if you get an outdated one, just know that some of the recommendations in terms of things like antibiotics might be outdated, but...but what the rash is, and what it what it is, you know, is not...it hasn't changed. That book, though, has...centers I think white skin considerably. There's a book called "Taylor And Kelly's Dermatology For Skin Of Color" that's much much better in terms of, obviously, skin of color. It's very, very good book as well. The problem with both of these books is that they're not cheap. So it's totally worth finding old copies. But then again, just remembering that, you know, the "how to treat things" might have changed. Margaret 20:11 Okay, so the diagnostics are good, but the treatment... Max 20:15 Yeah, but the "what to do" has changed. Margaret 20:17 But once you diagnose it, then you can reference Up To Date or whatever to figure out a better.... Max 20:23 Absolutely. And just in terms of rashes, you know, rashes kind of can all look like each other, too. So that's that problem with rashes. Margaret 20:30 I mean, to be honest, like to just admit to everyone the main thing I've been going to medical care provider for many years, I, you know, i was a squatter, and I live in a van, I live in a cabin was was like, "Hey, what's this rash?" Max 20:43 What's this rash! Margaret 20:44 And usually the answer is shower more, and... Max 20:48 Dirt rash. Margaret 20:50 Yeah, and like, I think, ended up having to put anti-dandruff shampoo on various parts of my body at various points, and like leave it there for 10 minutes. Anyway, now that you all know more about me, then you need to...dermatology that that makes sense. Max 21:09 I love getting to tell patients to shower less that sometimes happens with eczema, Margaret 21:13 Oh, interesting. I haven't had that problem. I'm looking forward to having that problem. Max 21:24 So there's a thing called the "Sanford Guide To Anti-Microbials". They're little bitty books, if you can get a very, very up to date one, or like, like, current one. Sorry. That's a really useful thing. They're teeny. The CDC website is really, really useful when it comes to all manner of things like travel exposures, bacterial and viral illnesses, their STD stuff is great, their PrEP stuff, which is like a pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV, their PrEP guidelines are great and super, super accessible. And that's just free and available, and you just look it up. But just instead of looking at the...look at the "For Providers", you know, always just click on "For Providers." And then I really like the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeon website when it comes to like certain exercises for bones and joints. And then let's see, a lot of schools and universities will just have like"best practice guidelines, which are just the best ways to...like algorithms for diagnosing things. And then there's some, like online videos, there's this place I used to work....They... I used to refer a lot of my patients at this one practice to this place called Excel PT, Physical Therapy, and I love them because they have tons and tons and tons of free physical therapy videos on their website that are really really good. Like they're legitimate physical therapy exercises that people can go through and be put through. And I just really liked them because I feel like, I don't know it's not just a printout. It's...they're actually putting someone's body through the motions. They have them right up there and there's not like 50,000 disclaimers, like you're gonna...I don't know, I really I think they're super, super valuable. And I use them a lot with patients of mine who are uninsured who can't go to physical therapy. So, that's some of my...those are like my manuals, I love manuals anyways, in all manner of things. Margaret 23:37 Yeah, that's like the...sometimes people come over my house are sort of disappointed because I'm a fiction writer, and most of my shelves are just like...if I see a manual for how to do something at a used bookstore, I'll buy it. Max 23:47 Oh my gosh, totally. Every time. Margaret 23:51 I really don't see the world where I'm trapping small game. I just don't see it happening. I've been vegan for 20 some years, but... Max 23:59 I got this really good. It's like a guide. It's exactly that. I have to remember the name. I'll have to tell you later. We can cut this out of there. Margaret 24:07 Naw, we should leave that part in. Max 24:10 It's like a hunter-trapper manual. It's so good. Margaret 24:14 Good. Will we be able to put in the show notes all of the... wil you be able to send me the list and I could put this in top of the show note, so you don't have to dig through the trans, transcription to find these again. Anyone who's listening they'll be in the top of the show notes. Max 24:27 Absolutely. I will send you all of my, all of my bits and bobs. And then, I guess after after that comes to me like, diagnostic tools in terms of like physical things in like, you know everybody if you you know [have a] blood pressure cuff, pulse oximeter and stethoscope. Right. But you can use...if you get a microscope and you have slides...like a decent student microscope, you can actually diagnose a fair number of things. You know, if you can, you can learn how to Gram stain so you can figure out, you know a lot about bacteria. Margaret 25:08 What kind of stuff can you successfully diagnose yourself with this kind of thing. Max 25:12 Like with a microscope, for instance? Margaret 25:14 Yeah. Margaret 25:16 You can diagnose like a yeast infection or a fungal infection. If you have a microscope and something called potassium hydroxide, you can like...Trichomoniasis is like an STD. You can absolutely see Tric, like swim on a microscope slide. Um, you can, you know, if you look at a slide and there's like loss of white blood cells, and then also like little 'cock-eyes' , sometimes you can diagnose certain kinds of STDs. And then yeah, with a microscope slide and some some pH paper, you can diagnose bacterial vaginosis, yeast infections and Trichomoniasis for sure. For sure. Margaret 26:08 That's cool. Max 26:09 And then, yeah, it's really cool actually. It's fantastic. And it's old school and, you know, people miss things. And sometimes things don't look like how they should but there's tons of information about that online Margaret 26:22 There's a question and probably, you probably can't,but a friend of mine in med school saw his own chromosomes. And I assume that's more than a microscope. Max 26:33 Yeah, no. But, you know, a student microscope is going to be kind of more like bigger, bigger cells, things swimming across, you know, little fungal things that are growing. That kind of stuff. Margaret 26:46 Okay. Max 26:48 And then if you can get access to urine dipsticks, so which you can actually buy, I think just, I mean, I even I think I looked them up on Amazon, which I shouldn't have. But I did, just to see how easy they were to get, because there are in medical offices. They just have to be kept like in the little...they have to be kept in their little container that they're in because they have to be kept dark. But, those can be used to diagnose, you know, a urinary tract infection. And if there's sort of three things, or if there's little two major things going on on them, you know, if you see something like an increase in the white blood cells that are on the little strip, and you see something called leuk leukocyte, esterase, or leuk esterase, or nitrites on there, those things pretty much are indicative of of a UTI. So if someone has recurrent UTIs, they can actually like pee on a strip and be like, you know, this is this is legit, this just this isn't just me feeling like dehydrated or having coffee, too much coffee bladder or something like that. So it's kind of really useful. Also, if someone just has a ton of glucose on there, that you know, that's like a diabetes diagnosis. So that can be really useful. Having a glucometer is really useful, which tests their blood sugar levels because it can test to see if someone, you know if someone in somebody's community is diabetic, and they get too low or too high, or just in general, if you have someone that's not faring super hot, you can check their their blood glucose levels. The problem with glucometers is they're maddeningly proprietary. So you get them and like there's strips and there's the little finger stick things and they all go with the one has the ones and so it's really obnoxious because it's not like you can super easy cobble together a little glucometer setup. Margaret 28:44 That's basically to rip off diabetic people. Max 28:47 Oh, completely. It's just all...it's the dum dum dum dum, dum dum. You know, pregnancy tests. There's home HIV tests. Now we've got COVID test. Apparently, mine's coming from the government. I just finished and I just got it back a negative rapid covid just like two seconds before this. I was feeling kind of rundown. Yeah, I was feeling kind of rundown. So I was like, I should do this before I see my kiddo tomorrow. Yeah. And then now more and more, you can just order lab work for yourself. And I think it's really useful to know what you're going into before doing something like that. And all these things I'm talking about, you know, it should be for really big like, "I think I might have an STD," you know, or like, I think, you know, there's something, something isn't right with this very specific thing. But a lot of these sort of like LabCorp and Quest Diagnostics and things you can actually just go on and order your own tests. It's not cheap, but... Margaret 29:52 I went and got a bunch from Let's Get Checked. And I'm a little bit squeamish around blood and it was like, "Oh, it's a finger prick and I can handle a finger prick." What they don't tell you is that it's a finger prick and then milk the blood out of your finger. Max 30:05 Oh, I hate that, the word milking. Margaret 30:08 Yeah, and I literally couldn't do it. I like, tried. And then I was like making someone help me. And then they were like getting really stressed out because I was kind of freaking out of them. And I couldn't do it. So I have like, a fair amount of expensive tests sitting and waiting for me to figure out how to, and then, you know, I like I talked to them, and they're like, "Oh, you just got to make sure you take a shower first, and that you're all warmed up so that you can like..." and I'm like, "I will not milk blood from my finger." So I have...my squeamishness prevents me from accessing certain amongst these tests. Max 30:48 Well, some of them, you can order yourself and actually just bring to the lab. And they'll actually do a blood draw for you. So I learned that from... Margaret 30:57 Okay, okay. Max 30:58 Yeah. But they're not always, you know, I think the cost is always kind of an issue at the end of the day with some of these things. Margaret 31:08 Yeah, I like the idea that someone in like, someone in your crew can have a microscope and at least tell you if you have Tric. Max 31:15 Yeah, for sure. For sure. Especially if you know, the symptoms, and the and the test match up. Yeah, possibly all labs may be able to be ordered. But the thing is, I'm a big fan of like, not going looking for things unless there's an actual... I don't know, unless someone's having a problem in that they feel like it means that something has changed from their baseline to such a degree that it's causing them...like, things aren't going well. Margaret 31:48 Yeah. Max 31:48 You know? And if something I always tell people, if something's been there on your body for a long time, and it's unchanged, it's probably not anything. You know, like, it's probably just a... it's probably just your variation on a theme, or it's some kind of weird little cyst that's just always gonna be there. And if if it's causing sort of psychological distress, distress, or something, that's totally fine. Like, we can deal with it. But if it's not changing or getting worse or anything, it's probably nothing. That...nothing worrisome. It might be something but it's not going to be something worrisome. Margaret 32:23 Yeah. Max 32:24 Yeah. Margaret 32:25 You mentioned also in diagnostic tools, like physical exams, like, what are the kinds of physical exams that we should be learning how to administer on ourselves and our friends? Max 32:35 Well, I think just sort of knowing what your body is like, like know, from the get-go, like not to be totally "to our bodies, ourselves," but I think there's something really good about knowing what's there. You know, and, like self exams are good in terms of people think about, like, you know, chest self exams, testicular self exams, those kinds of things. I think if someone really wants to pursue be... you know, knowing about other people's bodies, you know, knowing knowing what, what to listen for, would you listen at someone's heart and things like that are important things, you know, to know. But I think just having kind of a sense of oneself and like, "Oh, something isn't right. Something really isn't right," is is kind of the most important part when it comes to physical exams. Margaret 33:25 So just knowing your baseline basically, and knowing... Max 33:27 Knowing your baseline and knowing when something wildly deviates from your baseline. Margaret 33:33 Okay. Which of course always says the fun, like aging thing where you're like, Oh, that's a new spot. Max 33:38 Oh, yeah, totally. Or that hurts so much. Margaret 33:41 Oh, actually, okay here's a diagnostic question: What should I look for? What should 'one' look for when they look at moles? To try and figure out whether or not they're worrisome? Max 33:52 Is it? Is it new? Is it irregular? Like very irregular. Not like a nice little round, nice, like continuous border, but does it look raggedy? Right? Is it, is it kind of just like a different pigmentation from your skin color? Or is it like, like really black? Or is it like, going to bleed easy? Is it kind of bumpity all over as opposed to kind of a continuous smooth thing? In my experience, things that are worrisome that turn out to be cancer, things look worrisome. They look really different. Usually. Not always, but usually, you know, you see something and you're like, "What is that?" That's not something that's been on your body before. And again, if it's something that's unchanged, really, mostly it's been there for a long time. It's not doing anything. It's just chillin with you. Margaret 34:55 So, one of the things I want to ask about, that you talked about briefly before we before we started recording is, is access to medications. Obviously, medications are something that it's, you know, there's there's probably two types of answers to this question or almost two questions. And one of them would be like, "What can you gain access to in a situation where law is no longer a thing?" Versus "What can you gain access to within the existing society?" Like, how can you gain access to different things? And those are maybe related questions, and maybe not, but I'm curious. Max 35:31 I think they're related. I think I need to preface it, okay. Something that's really important to me is anti-microbial stewardship. And it's, it's up there with, you know, all kinds of stewardship, right, like Earth stewardship, meaning like, we have access to drugs that treat microbes. We have overuse to them as a society, right. And now we have these things called multi-drug-resistant organisms. And the way we prevent more of that is not is by not taking medicine that we don't need. Okay. And by taking medicine, that makes sense for the organism. So that's my only little caveat that I'm putting out there. Margaret 36:18 No, that's interesting. The way of phrasing it as like, part of stewardship makes a lot of sense. Like, so what's involved in...I mean, like, you know, I remember, was a kid, we'd all be like, "Oh, don't use antimicrobial soap, or you'll make everything worse," you know, and I don't know, that was us being like, proud about being dirty, or whether that was legitimate and, like, like, so what else is involved? I mean, there's also the like, you know, always complete your round of antibiotics, so that you like, actually destroy it versus like, you know, almost killing it having come back worse, but like, what are... Max 36:53 That's kind of changed a little, they've actually shortend a lot of courses. Margaret 36:55 Oh, interesting. Max 36:56 Yeah. You know, it used to be these sort of like long drawn out courses. We just want to make sure that someone's using the right, right drug for the right critter, right. And that we're not just taking medicine because we don't feel good. Because, there's a lot of things that may make people not feel good, that doesn't even have anti whatever's towards it, like anti-microbials. Because it might not be bacterial it might be viral, there might not be anything to do for it. You know, like the vast majority of of those, those two, three weeks, sort of sinusitis, doom, "I'm so sick, and I'm never going to be a well person." That's all viral illnesses, you know, there's not anything we can really do for them. If it's multi-symptom, like that, like runny nose, and yucky eyes, and a cough, and chest, and I mean pre-COVID virus, right? Viruses present a lot similarly to each other. Right. And viral illnesses make us kind of have viral illnesses, which are usually multi-symptom. And a lot of viruses, we just kind of have to suck it up and do the soup and neti pot and be miserable for a while. Margaret 38:15 Okay. Max 38:16 But so that, you know, we can target anti-microbials like anti-biotics like specifically to certain to certain things, because we can diagnose them pretty specifically with certain tools, or, you know, we kind of really know that these symptoms always kind of equal "this" or whatever. But it's just something good to keep in mind going into things. I mean, everybody does dumb things. And everybody...sometimes I have definitely...many times I've written prescriptions for things that I wasn't 100% sure of, because I want to make someone well, and we don't have access to all the diagnostics and... Margaret 38:56 Right. So it's just your best guess or whatever. Max 38:59 Yeah. But, not everybody should be taking azithromycin if they feel bad, ya know? But so I think that's my only thing going into things. It's just, you know, we should be we should be conscientious of these things. Um, because we only, you know, we have the potential to create total havoc when it comes to critters, right. I mean, yeah. I guess I think about accessing medications or anything. So, where do you get medications in the world, right, if you don't have like a provider or prescriber? So, most medicines, if they're like a tablet form, do not readily expire. So most medication... Margaret 39:50 I've heard the efficacy drops a little bit. Max 39:53 Maybe, maybe a little, but it takes a lot for the efficacy to drop, drop, drop. I mean, I guess Have you opened up an old thing of meds and it just looked very, very strange? Maybe...but if it's still there, most of the time, most medications, they just don't have the money to keep studying them out and out and out and out and out expiration wise and they get to the point where they're like, "It's probably not expired..." Certain...like tetracycline, maybe it causes a dangerous situation. So, stay away from old tetracycline and Ranitidine. Margaret 40:32 And that's an anti-biotic? Max 40:34 Oh, yeah, so tetracycline is the antibiotic. And that, that could be dangerous if, if it's old, theoretically, but it's not prescribed, like all that anymore. And Ranitidine, which is like a stomach med that's been taken off the market, it's an antacid style medication, it has some cancer causing compounds that could have occurred, that most things like if they're a tablet, they don't expire. Like it's completely reasonable to hoard medication. Margaret 41:05 Okay, is there a way to get the doctor to give you like, longer prescriptions? Like I've heard that like, sometimes people struggle to be like, I want my ADHD meds more, you know, and people are like, nervous to give larger best perscriptions or whatever. Max 41:21 That's tricky because they're control...sometimes they're controlled. And I think with controlled meds, providers are super squeamish. Margaret 41:28 Okay. Okay. Max 41:29 Which sucks. But, some meds just keeping them you know, just if you have them in your house, and, you know, maybe you didn't take them, as long as it's not liquid medicine or emergency medicine. So, if it's like an epi pen, or insulin, you want those things to stay, obviously, like, you don't want them to be expired. Margaret 41:52 Okay. Max 41:53 But you know, but inhalers seem to be okay. And I always just say, if you have like old meds, antibiotics, et cetera, keep them. Someone may need them. Right? Do you have a relative that's passed from this mortal coil or whatever, and you know, you're cleaning out their space? Maybe there's something that they might have that someone needs? Max 42:18 You know, I shouldn't I mean, this is like that...my pharmacist friend is going to roll over in her not grave, but like, but we're always told not to tell people this, but we're talking about, you know, access, if someone doesn't have access to medicine that they need, you know, how do we get them access to medication. So this is sort of talking about, like, you know, worst case scenario, but, and then I always think about, you know, if someone, if you got a prescription of something, say, and you took it, and it gave you a rash all over, and the doctor said, "Don't take it anymore, you're allergic to it," or you're like, "Oh, I threw up and I never took that, again," save it, because that's almost a full course of the medicine. It's probably the you know...which is fantastic. You know, if you if you were taking something for something like, like for HIV, and you were on anti-retrovirals, and you switched regimens, because you were cured... like wanted to take something new, save your old meds. So, because as long as you're not resistant to your old meds, your previous med regimen still works. And you could go back to it, and you could save yourself, like a couple months of heartache if something went down. Margaret 42:18 Yeah. Margaret 43:34 Okay. So theoretically. This is okay...Wait, no, I don't want to give terrible medical advice on this show. Nevermind. Max 43:44 I'm not trying to either. That's, why I'm like..."ahhhh!" Margaret 43:48 Because I'm like, well, how could someone get a backstock of you know, someone who's HIV positive and wants to have access to their medication, despite disruptions in supply chains, and whatever. I dunno people can figure that out themselves. Max 43:59 You know, I think about this all the time, I think about this all the time, do you have a friend that would be willing to get meds prescribed for them? Even if they you know, do you have a friend with insurance that would be willing to, to say that they had X, Y and Z in the low stakes way? I mean, it starts to become high stakes if controlled substances are involved. Right? That's when things become dangerous for everyone involved. And you know, could be... Max 44:02 And that would be stuff like painkillers, Ritalin. I forget the name of the larger...SSRIs. Max 44:39 Not SSRIs. Margaret 44:41 Oh really, okay. Max 44:42 But benzodiazepines... Margaret 44:45 Oh, that's what I was thinking of, benzos. I dont' take medication. Max 44:48 Yeah, I think that you know, you have to you have to go and and, you know, get special scripts for and things. Those are the things that they... Margaret 44:56 The stuff with street value, basically. The stuff that's fun to take. Max 44:58 Exactly. Those are the things sprays thick eyebrows. Yeah, yeah. And, and, you know, and there's a lot of surveillance of, you know, but if if if you're someone who needs thyroid medication to live, you know, and you have someone, you know, if you have access to other ways of getting your same medication, you know, that's not a medicine that's necessarily going to raise eyebrows or some of the medications can be very expensive. Sometimes, you know, people can ask their providers to give them 90 day supplies of things. I...you know, I think we try to do that all the time. And I think a lot of people who do have chronic health conditions are very savvy about pre planning. Margaret 45:47 Okay. Max 45:47 When it comes to medications, otherwise, you can't go anywhere. Margaret 45:50 Yeah. So so what else? How else does one access medications? Max 45:56 I think I talked about partners like if you if you have a partner or a friend who has health insurance, and you don't. And then if you know, anyone who's traveling to countries with pharmacies that don't require prescriptions. So there's a you know, handfuls of countries where one can just go into a pharmacy and just purchase medication. Margaret 46:15 And is this something that's like, like, what's the legality of taking like, let's not let's, let's pretend like we're not taking other controlled substances, let's talk thyroid pills or whatever, right? If I, if I go to a country where I can just get thyroid pills over the counter, I actually don't know whether you can get thyroid pills over the counter or whether they require Medicare? Is this a good example? Max 46:34 It's a great example. Okay, let's talk about levothyroxine. Can you go in to a pharmacy in some countries and just buy it? Yes. Do you have someone in your life that needs it desperately? Maybe? Go and get it. Margaret 46:46 What? What's the law about bringing it back into the country, something that requires a medication [perscription] in another country, and in this country? Max 46:54 So I can't speak specifically to any law, but it's not something that I've ever heard of penalized. Margaret 46:59 Okay. Max 47:00 Because again, it's not, it does...There's not a control piece there. Max 47:04 Okay. And again, we're not telling anyone to break any laws, and people should make their own decisions. And if it turns out that this stuff is illegal, that would also map to being morally wrong, because obviously, the laws of our society are just and worth valuing. Margaret 47:04 Right. Max 47:04 It's not a scam. It's not a, you know, I think if you set up like a capitalist, Super Buyers Club kind of concept thing where, you know, you're bringing levothyroxine back into the United States and selling it for I don't know, I would be like, you're pretty savvy, but you know, that I don't think it would be...I mean, otherwise, I think if you're just bringing back amounts, that makes sense for like, a person, a single person to use, I don't think there would be any surveillance of that at all. Max 47:50 Especially when it comes to people's health. Margaret 47:52 Yeah, totally. Max 47:54 And you know, some countries, some countries have it more restrictive than we do like, right, like so in Ireland, like, if you go to Ireland bring birth control to Ireland. People can't get birth control, you know, i was staying in the, I was staying in the Netherlands with some friends years ago, and they had a kid who had pretty severe allergies, like, you know, and you can't buy over-the-counter Benadryl in in the Netherlands at least when I was visiting. So we would just always bring Benadryl to the Netherlands, especially children's Benadryl. Margaret 48:29 Yeah. Yeah, that's funny. Cuz that's like, what I mean, people give that for anxiety when they don't want to give benzos you know, I don't know about Benadryl, specifically, but things in that catergory. Max 48:45 Like hydroxyine and things. Yeah, for sure. It's just wild, though, what is and isn't sort of acceptable, over the counter and not over the counter and all that in, in different places that you visit and, and we should just, you know, be be trucking things around, because these aren't things that are they're not, they're not controlled medications. They're not, you know, medications that are necessarily going to get someone in trouble, Margaret 48:48 Right. So what about um, it's funny because like, the classic example in a prepper mindset is that preppers are very concerned about the health of their fish. And they're very concerned about their fish getting diseases. And since they're so worried about their fish, they stockpile fish anti-biotics for their fish. And with the possible use, if absolutely worse, came to worse of taking them as humans, because theoretically like veterinary medicine isn't as controlled. But obviously this then gets into like current horse medicine craze with ivermectin, Max 49:10 Oh, ivermectin. Margaret 49:16 Or even ketamine. I mean, you know, we're talking about like, the Right takes ivermectin and the Left takes ketamine where everyone wants horse drugs. Like, how useful is like, how useful are things like fish antibiotics, or even like other veterinary medicines for cross species application in an apocalypse? And that's not why you bought them. It just happens to be the apocalypse and you happen to have them? Max 50:21 Well, I mean, so ivermectin has its uses, right? Like we use it in people to treat like, I don't know, like, Strongyloidiasis. Like it's an anti parasitic, so it has its uses. I think it's sometimes about the preparation of things. Like is something, if you're giving it to your fish? Like, what how would you make it? I think it would be about figuring out how to make it so that it was in people. People form. In terms of dosage. Margaret 50:57 Right. Max 50:58 Right, and figuring out that kind of thing. And I think it depends on the antibiotic. Margaret 51:03 Okay. Max 51:04 Yeah. Margaret 51:04 So some of them will actually only be applicable to fish, whereas some of them might actually be applicable across species? Max 51:10 I think most of them should be applicable cross species, if it's something that is a drug that both species use. Margaret 51:18 Okay. Max 51:19 Like, so if I don't know what fish antibiotics are available? I wish I did. Because it I could say, "Oh, this, this amoxicillin could absolutely be used for fish and people. You know, I mean, I think it's more just about like, how do you figure out... because, you know, it's probably with the fish, it's probably like some kind of, like, drops that you put in the water? Or? Because, it can't imagine how you would give your fish their antibiotics. Margaret 51:44 I'm a bad prepper I should know this stuff. But I don't actually know a ton about bunkers, or fish antibiotics, or buying gold. Margaret 51:47 Is it flakes? Is it in flakes? Yeah. Max 51:54 But I mean, I think yeah, I mean, I think at the end of the day, we're going to have to find ways to access these things. You know, I think the big deal is going to be like, how are we going to eventually manufacture things that we... because we are going to need antibiotics, we are going to need anti-parasitics, and all these sorts of things. Margaret 52:15 Well, my general mindset around that, you know, people have asked me this a long time, people might ask it more about like, "How in an anarchist society, would you X, Y and Z," right? Like people will be like, well, "I need..." I'm just gonna use thyroid medication forever as my example just because like years ago, like 10 years ago, a friend of mine asked me this question directly, you know, and they were like, "Well, I need a thyroid pill every day. Or I'll die? How would an anarchist society make it?" And my answer has always been, or I don't know, however, we do it now, right? Because like, people and physical infrastructure will likely still exist in various ways through various types of crises. And the things that are more disrupted are the, the mechanisms of control and the organizational mechanisms that, you know, distribute these things, or even pay the people to make them, right, that kind of stuff could be disrupted. But by and large, you're still going to have people who know how to make antibiotics, and you're still gonna have, you know, the...the supply chain might get disrupted, which is a problem, right? But then even then, it's like, you know, well, there's people who know how to grow grain in the West and Midwest. And there's people who know how to load it onto trains, there's people who know how to drive those trains to the coasts to feed people, and we probably won't lose that. But we might lose the system that tells everyone to do those things. And I don't know whether it's a cheap out, but... Max 53:40 it's obviously like anarchists and BioPharm. Like, it's not like we're like in this universe, like where it's just, you know...there's all kinds of folks. I just sort of think about it, like, in terms of times of times have like interim times times of like crisis. How do we make sure that people have access to things? Which I think were gonna have to work on. Margaret 54:02 Yeah, no, that makes sense. Because, it's like, there is a difference between talking about disaster and talking about like an anarchist society or whatever. Max 54:09 Yeah. Margaret 54:10 Okay. So one of the things that you mentioned, kind of related to this, but in an actual like, apocalypse scenario, right every...I'm no longer being euphemistic. Although, of course, I was never been euphemistic. But, I'll be euphemistic if i includes zombies in this in this disaster, but whenever you watch a zombie movie, they like raid the pharmacy, right? Max 54:29 Which is such a good idea. Margaret 54:31 Yeah. So what would you raid like if you're in the apocalypse and like you are trying to set up your I guess, like clinic or you're trying to take care of people, while there's like nuclear fallout and zombies and, I don't know, roving militias, but different than the current roving militias, what are you looking for? Max 54:52 When a...you know in an apocalypse situation? I think about this so much I've had so many fun conversations with my peers. It's actually wonderful to work in an infectious diseases practice and ask everybody what they would bring, because it was one of the biggest, like conversations, like arguments that came up about anti-microbials, antibiotics that was just amazing. I don't think I would be thinking in terms of setting up a clinic, I think it would be very much in terms of like, "What can't I get?" and I would try to get broad spectrum antibiotics. So if I had to name them, I would get doxycycline, and levofloxacin, and or ciprofloxacin, and or a medication called amoxicillin. amoxicillin, amoxicillin clavulanate, because I can't talk today, I would get albuterol. And mostly, that's for selfish reasons, because I'm a little asthmatic. And also, because asthma. I would try to get prednisone, epinephrine, like epi pens, and some...anything for like pain and fever. Those would be like, really, really high up there on my list. But I would, if I had to have pick a single antibiotic, I would choose doxycycline, all the way, which is part of my big arguments with all my coworkers. But you know, everybody has their things. Margaret 56:26 They're not big doxy, they're not big doxy-fans? Max 56:29 All of them. Everyone is. They would all have it on their list, but everybody had it on different sections of their list. Margaret 56:36 Yeah, it was an interesting conversation. And then I think if, if things were a little more mellow, and had a little more time in there, I would start to grab stuff that was like, sort of more meaningful for just long term existence. Right? And I think about this in terms of my, my friends and my people and stuff, but um, you know, like queer folks and, and, and PAW's [Post Acute Withdrawl] folks and stuff, but, so I think, alright, I would, you know, maybe grab...let me see, do I have my list up even? Margaret 56:36 Okay. Margaret 57:13 In your bug-out bag is the like...you keep a laminated, like if you hit the store, this is what you get list. Max 57:23 Yeah, exactly...if you have 10 more minutes in the store you know... Margaret 57:27 If you brought the large bag put in.... Max 57:30 So like insulin, you know, requires refrigeration. But if you could get any kind of grab 70/30 cause you can keep the largest number of people, probably. I would grab testosterone and estradiol. Probably morphine, because it's really useful in a lot of different situations, and in cardiac situations. And then if I had to choose like two HIV meds, I would choose Biktarvy and Prezista, or probably Biktarvy and Prezcobix, cause that combination of medicine covers for a huge number of resistant HIV strains. And also, it's just, I would just have it and be like, "Here, let's keep people around for longer." Margaret 58:16 Yeah. Max 58:17 I don't know. Those are sort of, that's sort of my short list. I...honestly, if I was if I was raiding, a pharmacy, and...I would just grab everything that I could get my hand on. Seriously, because it all would come in handy at some point, you know, especially if it was antibiotic. Margaret 58:36 Yeah. Max 58:37 Or like something for giardiasis , that would also be something I would probably get on there. Margaret 58:42 I had giardia once, it was not my favorite thing that's ever happened to me. Max 58:45 It's not the...it's...I had it too. It's not fun. Margaret 58:48 Yeah. Which is why I'm such a big like filter water person. Because I definitely got it from unfiltered water at a big gathering once. Max 58:56 I got it from swimming in, from swimming in the river by my old house. Margaret 59:02 See, that's better because that's like a reasonable thing to do. Whereas, I should have known better, you know? Max 59:07 It wasn't...it was not that reasonable. Believe me it's a filthy river. Margaret 59:11 I'm Sorry. Max 59:13 It's okay, it was a blast, but i was like "Ooooh," Margaret 59:18 No pun intended? Max 59:20 Yeah, that's true, too. Margaret 59:24 Okay, but what...it seems like okay, you raid the pharmacy, it would just set up shop in the pharmacy. Just get like, you know, all your friends with rifles, defend the pharmacy and become a pharmacist. Max 59:35 That's true. I would be a terrible pharmacist. I have no precision in anything I do. Margaret 59:41 Yeah, okay. Max 59:42 I would bring in my pharmacist friends. Margaret 59:45 Okay. So you'd be the doctor at the pharmacy? Max 59:48 No, I don't know what I would do. If I didn't...I don't know, healthcare is like it's a job. But I like doing it also. I don't know, I'm sort of thinking about your friend who, who we're talking to, in the interview about working during COVID.... Margaret 1:00:11 Are you having feels about the working during COVID? Max 1:00:15 Big time. It's been a wild thing. Everyone's sad. Margaret 1:00:22 Yeah, Max 1:00:23 Yeah. But no, it's just more just sort of like, would I do health care if it wasn't my job? And I think I would, but I think I would do it in a totally different capacity. Margaret 1:00:37 How would you do differently if in a, in an anti-work environment where you didn't have to? Max 1:00:43 I would walk in the woods with people and talk about their health in a totally different way. Margaret 1:00:48 Yeah. Max 1:00:49 Yeah. You know, and, or visit them in their homes. And I would have a ton of time. And I would like get to know what they were doing in their lives in a way that I can't in like tiny little weird rooms, with a limited amount of time and that kind of thing. Margaret 1:01:12 I even just think about one time someone was doing some alternative healing with me, actually helped. I used have a chronic injury in my chest. And it's, it certainly wasn't the thing that cured it, but it helped. But as they're doing this thing, they're like, playing soft ambient music and like, you know, like, talking softly to me, and like, the lights are dim, and it's a very calm environment. And I'm like, "Why can't the dentist be this way?" You know? Like, why do you gotta go to the dentist, and it's not like, I don't know, like, someone's rubbing your feet and like telling you, everything's gonna be fine. You know? Max 1:01:55 I can't go to the dentist until...unless I'm like, high out of my mind on some kind of benzodiazepine. Like I can't, I have to literally kind of create like a, like a non remembering experience every time I go to the dentist. So like, I go to the dentist, and I'm like, "Do whatever you want." And then three years later, I go back and have the same experience. Margaret 1:02:24 Yeah. Max 1:02:25 Which is probably a self fulfilling prophecy of dentistry. Margaret 1:02:28 Yeah. Max 1:02:29 Yeah, but then it's always like a tooth removal. Margaret 1:02:32 With what you're talking about, about, you know, all the medical care providers being so tired. And obviously, this thing that I'm talking about doesn't solve like, COVID, right? But what you're talking about about wanting to help people become...gain expertise and control over their own bodies, it seems like that would help, you know, because it's like, like with the bike repair example, right? Like, I don't know, when I wrote a bike all the time, like I could, I could swap out the handlebars, I could tighten the brakes, I could patch a tire. Or I could patch a tube. But, I couldn't. But, I couldn't align the spokes. I could have learned to align the spokes, but like I, I didn't, you know, and I certainly wasn't building bikes. And every time I look at the derailleur, my head would break. And like, and so there's, there's always going to be a role for bike shops, even if everyone's good at bikes. And... Max 1:03:31 Right. Margaret 1:03:32 And so having, you know, crews of people who are specialized in allopathy, as the thing they do, the thing that they're most interested in, will always make sense. But like, just having more people able to do more of it on our own seems like it really just helps everyone. It doesn't help the people who want to make a ton of money off of things, or have a ton of control over how people live and what they do, you know. Max 1:04:01 Yeah, I think that's totally real. I think it will also alleviate things on patients. I think that when people know themselves and can come to their provider, with a sense of what's going on with their bodies and navigate the system in a way that feels a little bit more, I hate to be corny, but like empowered. Like, I think that's super legitimate. I think that one of the ways that healthcare just screws people over constantly, is that no one knows how to deal with it. They don't know what to ask for. They just they are in a little room and all of a sudden someone comes in tells them a bunch of stuff they're supposed to do gives them some papers and shews them out. Margaret 1:04:42 Yeah. Max 1:04:43 And it's there's nothing in there that that creates a relationship. There's nothing in there that creates...I don't know. I don't know. I think that people being in charge of their own bodies is is awesome. Margaret 1:05:00 Yeah, and it's, it's something that like, I had this realization about school, as well as like doctors or whatever. Like, at some point, especially with like higher education, if you go to college, it doesn't make any sense to me that the teachers like, are in charge of you. Because they're, they're literally people that you're hiring to teach you. Like, you're giving them money, and they're teaching you and that's cool. That's great. But they, they act like, "Oh, well, if you miss class, then you're in trouble." It's like, what trouble? Like, why? Why would this institution have any leverage over you?And Margaret 1:05:39 And that's kind of how I feel about the medical world is that like, it always helps me, and I'm actually almost lucky in that I've been, well, now I have regular insurance, but I was sort of underinsured for most of my adult life. And so I relied heavily on public health and clinics. And I actually found that people on public health they are way more tired, but they're also working there because they like care. And so they're like frazzled and annoyed, but they also like, fundamentally care more often, I also am more likely to end up at like LGBTQ clinics and things like that. And that also helps me. But it...the main thing that helps me is that I kind of remember I'm like, in there, and I'm like, the doctor is not in charge of me. Like, either I'm paying or the state is paying or whatever for service. It's like, it's like going to the bike repair shop, you know, like, you're like, if I go into the bike repair shop, and they just yell at me about how I'm riding my bike. I'm like, I mean, you could tell me that if I ride this bike this way, it's gonna get destroyed. And that makes sense. But you can't tell me I can't ride my bike that way. Like, I don't know. Max 1:05:39 Always true Max 1:06:46 Yeah. But like going on that metaphor, right, like, same thing, like, how many times have people gone to the bike shop and been treated shitty, and then left out feeling like, super demoralized? And like, they can't ride their bike? Margaret 1:07:02 Yeah, totally. Max 1:07:03 And Like I think about that too, like, there's so much of that. I don't know, it's that it's that it's the realm of expertise. And like, you know, it's like, once, once someone is like, in this certain space, they get to have all the power and authority. And I always tell people, like, if you're the doctor, and you don't like what's going on, just leave. Margaret 1:07:25 Yeah. Max 1:07:26 Just leave, like, unless you like, are in a bad way and are really, really, really sick. Like, if you're there to get get access to things or something and you're not being treated well just get out of there if things are not going well. Margaret 1:07:41 Yeah. Max 1:07:42 Because that's going to end up being a squirrely relationship. And there's some really bad doctors, there's some really bad nurse practitioners, there's some really bad everybody, but like, there's, you know, there's people that are unkind and not not good, and are just going to tell you what they think, is the matter with you before they've even met you. Margaret 1:08:01 Yeah, and, and, just like this, like sense of that, people thinking that they have power over you, because we have these institutions that sort of claim it, but it's like, you're, you're in charge of yourself. Like, I mean, there's, there's institutions that exist to try and stop you from being in charge of yourself, you know, like, there's a certain things that we could do that would then have other people throw us in prison or whatever, right? But like, that doesn't mean we're not in charge of ourselves. It just...Well, it does, but, you know, on th
With the prevalence of Leaf Roll Three, Red Blotch, and other viruses, accurate and timely detection of viruses in grapevines has never been more imperative. Alan Wei, Owner and Lab Manager at Agri-Analysis LLC in Davis California explains how his lab is using next generation sequencing (NGS) to find new viruses. Currently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the widely accepted method for testing for viruses. This process tests for one gene at time. Next generation sequencing allows labs to test multiple genes at a time and get results much faster. References: 20: Dr. Mark Fuchs | Red Blotch Virus in Grapevines 49: Stopping the Spread of Red Leaf Viruses 71: New Techniques to Detect Grapevine Leafroll Disease Agri-analysis LLC Donate: Juan Nevarez Memorial Scholarship Grape Program at Foundation Plant Services Leafroll 3 Virus (GLRaV3) AKA Grapevine Leafroll Disease in Washington Next Generation Sequencing (Deep Sequencing) PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) Testing Red Blotch Virus SIP Certified Sustainable Ag Expo November 14-16, 2022 Get More Subscribe wherever you listen so you never miss an episode on the latest science and research with the Sustainable Winegrowing Podcast. Since 1994, Vineyard Team has been your resource for workshops and field demonstrations, research, and events dedicated to the stewardship of our natural resources. Learn more at www.vineyardteam.org. Transcript Craig Macmillan 0:00 My guest today is Alan Wei, who's owner and lab manager of Agri Analysis LLC in Davis, California. Alan, thanks for being on the show. Alan Wei 0:10 Thank you very much, Craig, for hosting me. And I'm very delighted to be here. And I want to use this opportunity to say hello to listeners as well. Craig Macmillan 0:19 So Alan, I want to have you on the show, because I want to talk about anything that's new and exciting in the world of grapevine virology, and a lot of research and a lot of development in industry with labs like your own. So, what's what's what's happening out there, what's going on with detection of viruses these days? Alan Wei 0:36 There is a International conference on grapevine viruses that's held every three years. So last time was 2018, in Chile. And the second, the following time was supposed to be 2021 in Greece, and unfortunately, that was canceled due to the obvious reasons, and then was supposed to be happening this year. And by the way, is not happening, and it's postponed until next year. So as a result, we have not, the researchers in this field have not been able to meet to report the latest grapevine viruses. Just to mention something that in the literature, for example, there are two or three new DNA viruses being discovered and reported. In fact, in grapevines, but their practical consequences are known. So we probably don't want to get in too much into them. Craig Macmillan 1:33 Maybe not, but I think this is an interesting thing because for instance, red blotch, caught everybody by surprise. And so how are these new...how are these these new viruses, how are they found, if you are looking forward, you're looking for other things, what kind of technology they're using to find this new stuff? Alan Wei 1:49 Typically, they're found by deep sequencing, also known as NGS Next Generation Sequencing. Researchers are always trying to look for the frontiers of why viruses virology by applying these methods and find this new viruses, but their practical impact needs to be validated, study to further be before we alarm growers. And red blotch was found a similar way. With the exception that the red blotch phenomena, and the disease was known to growers for years without the assay and the way the branch was first reported, or discovered through NGS that was, you know, the "wow" moment to growers. Yeah, we do now know what is causing this read leaf in my vineyard. Craig Macmillan 2:43 Tell me a little bit more about NGS, it sounds like this is gonna be an important technology for us, this deep sequencing. Alan Wei 2:48 Yeah, definitely. Deep sequencing is very widely used in the research community. And, when was that, in December meeting hosted by FFPS, they reported that NGS is going to be accepted by regulators like APHIS as a alternative way of testing materials coming from overseas. Which means shortened time and rapid, faster deployment of foreign important materials in in this country, or practically to growers hands. Yeah, the technology is definitely upcoming, and we're looking to possibly deploy it for routine use. We need to hear more feedback before we really do it. Craig Macmillan 3:41 This is obviously a very complicated technology, but like in a sense, can you explain what it is? Alan Wei 3:48 PCR is the way that accepted method in testing viruses or microbial in general. Compared to PCR, which tests one gene at a time, NGS would allow you to test multiple genes at a time. Because through the use of small, small redundant primers, which amplify many sometimes millions of hundreds of millions of fragments of the gene, which can parallelize sequenced with that data, and coupled with information, analysis, informatics, you can extract new new information from your sample, including new viruses, new bacteria. Craig Macmillan 4:38 So essentially, I've got a sample of plant material. And I run it through this NGS process, and it comes back and says, hey, there's genetic material in here that doesn't belong here. This is not grapevine, or hey, visit genetic material that's associated with some virus or something like that. And that's the flag that I get. And I get it from the whole picture. I'm not doing it like like you say gene by looking at for specific genes, I'm getting a kickback, I'm saying hey, there's there's a variety of things or whatever genes we weren't, wouldn't even thought to look for. Alan Wei 5:10 Exactly, exactly. You're right. And then that gene can be not not only you find genes and not belong to the grapevine, which we considered as, you know, the background gene, by further analysis of that, that special gene, you can assign them to, to pathogens, basically, different types of pathogens. Craig Macmillan 5:30 Gotcha. Yeah, that definitely speeds up the process a lot and makes it possible to catch things in finer net than we ever would have been able to do before. So that's pretty exciting. Alan Wei 5:38 Yes, def definitely. Craig Macmillan 5:40 Coming to red blotch, this is continues to be, you know, a very hot topic, obviously, it continues to be an issue in the field and continues to be an issue in other places. Is there anything new that we've learned regarding the Red Blotch Virus in any realm, anything about how it moves, its symptomology, new means of detection, anything like that? Alan Wei 6:08 I have a list of articles that just simply published during the past a couple of years, and researchers from you know, several major universities have really dived deep into the physiology, the virology, their impact on wine quality, in aspect of, of a rather large virus. They're really fascinating. From a practical standpoint, though, the progress has been less because what was reported to us few years ago remain the same, which which you know, very well. Which means rogueing, you know, rogueing your infected vines as aggressively as possible. Sourcing for clean materials as diligently as possible to prevent any viruses infecting material being planted. And once they do present in your vineyard take them out as quickly as possible. And also, although we know the Threecornered Alfalfa Hopper is the vector for red blotch. And folks don't recommend you spray against this particular insect because it is not a very efficient transmitter of the virus. Grapevine is not its preferred host. So those information were already known through talks by various speakers in the past. Craig Macmillan 7:33 We were talking about spread. And this is something that is absolutely puzzling to me, in years of field checking, I had never once seen this Threecornered Alfalfa Hopper. But I have talked to people who have. And they apparently are very reclusive, they will move away from you, the signs of the damage and very subtle, they do this little kind of girdling thing in the leaves. I just feel like there's just kind of be another vector. I mean, just I just feel to kind of be another vector. I mean, is there is there anything new in that world? I mean, we've identified the one but it seems kind of mysterious. And I'm thinking about the spread at the Russell Ranch, that finish and plant services ranch where we've not only identified it, but they were able to see that was spreading, attributed to the Threecornered Alfalfa Hopper, correct me? Alan Wei 8:19 I completely agree with you. Yeah, we don't see too many of our tree hoppers in the field. Yet spread in Russell Ranch has been phenomenal. It's more like, more exponential increase year after year, since 2018. So it is a mystery. If some of you, listeners, went to the seminar by UC Davis in early December, particularly the presentation by Professor Kent Daane, then the entomologists have been looking at a number of potential hosts. But unfortunately, they either have not been proven yet or, most of them were disproven to be a potential host. So we're still in that regard., virtually in the context of Russell Ranch, it is a complete mystery. You would think through the very aggressive management by FPS, you know, any presence over vectors were eliminated. And any source of vectors were eliminated. We have but yet they see this exponential growth in terms of infected vines, which, which stopped Russell Ranch from operation, basically. Craig Macmillan 9:40 Yeah, exactly. And I was actually looking at a table for one of your publications earlier today, and it looks like it went from zero to exponential like there was no nothing was detected for a couple of years or two. Then blammo! And I've been thinking about the same thing happening in other vineyards, I'm familiar with. And obviously just underlines how big of a threat red blotch is because we don't understand, you know, a lot, there's a lot we don't understand about it. So that means you got to sample. That you should rogue vines when you see them. But also you got to be sampling. Are there any is there anything new in the way of sampling protocols? Because I know that the distribution of the virus varies quite a bit between different parts of the plant different times of year and whatnot. So it's easy to miss it. What's the what's the best recommendation these days, if I wanted to test some lines, asymptomatic vines for red watch? Alan Wei 10:31 Yeah, we still recommend growers to sample cane materials, because in our analysis, you know, relative concentration in different parts of the vine, the cane materials has highest concentration of virus tighter level. And we also suggest growers to consider combine cuttings from different vines to make a what's called a composite sample. Therefore, they can you know, cost, testing costs can be reduced, and their testing budget can be maximized. And of course, you know, the testing objectives dictate how high your sample. Sometimes growers want to test the individual vines to really zoom in to which vine is exactly is infected, that you can only do that by testing individual vines. But the composite testing gave you the first level of screening. To see if you composite ten vines into one sample, and the entire sample would be positive. But if you want to zoom in which vine, but you're gonna want to use positive so that you can take it out, then you will do individual testing after the first round over the course screen, if you will. Craig Macmillan 11:44 Yeah, so the strategy would be basically like test the vineyard. And then if you find that something, then you drill down, and you can get it down to decide kind of what area where the individual vines are. That's a very, very smart technique. It's a really great idea. How sensitive are the detection techniques these days? So like, if I've got a if I have 10 vines out of 1000, and I sample and I sampled 10 vines, and I hit one of them, one of the infected ones, is that enough to show up in in the in the analysis? Alan Wei 12:15 Yeah, definitely. So if there's only one out of 10 cuttings is positive, and that means practically you're diluting the by 10 times, it is very much detectable. Craig Macmillan 12:27 Is there a lower detection limit? Alan Wei 12:28 Yeah, when there's a theoretical detection limit, and then there's a practical detection limit. If we do a back of the envelope calculation, a PCR method would allow you to detect one copy without the problem. But then of course, practically, there are other considerations such as whether you know, the one copy, you can sample that one copy into your PCR tube to begin with, because you know, if there's a one copy per microliter, and the way you want to use a two microliter in a PCR mix, you may or may not be able to transfer that one copy from a sample to the PCR tube to begin with. And even if you do, there may be potential inhibitors that present in grapevine material that could potentially influence your sensitivity as well. So there's a practical detection limit, and there's their theoretical detection limit issues. But overall, you know, we have found the red blotch detection to be not a problem, because typically the virus titer is high enough to be detected, even if you compounded multiple vines or cuttings into one sample. Craig Macmillan 13:33 That's good. That's very, very useful, very, very useful. I would love to move on to kind of other viruses because it's red blotch is not the only game in town these days. Leaf Roll complexes and Leaf Roll viruses, there's still a problem correct? Alan Wei 13:44 Especially Leaf Roll Three is very much that the top of our problems still and because you know the vaccine is very well known. It's very prevalent. Inoculum widespread to the percentage of vines tested positive for Leaf Roll Three that are coming through our lab is roughly about 15 percent. So Leaf Roll Three is very much prevalent. There have been some really nice talks, organized before the pandemic was by the Lodi growers group. There are some talks from including from South Africa. Recently from Red Blotch symposium where there's some presentations on Leaf Roll Three as well. So Leaf Roll Three is very much a serious problem. And growers need to be very vigilant against the Leaf Roll Three from from new planting materials to management of existing vineyards. Craig Macmillan 14:37 So let's say I've got a vineyard and I'm seeing some symptoms. I'm seeing some red leaves or I'm seeing some bronzing or I'm seeing something, and I've looked at the nutritional situation, I've ruled out either toxicity or deficiency. So I'm not thinking hey, you know, maybe this is a virus issue. Can you take samples of vines and just bring them to a lab and say, please help me? Can you tell me what this might be? I know we just talked about the deep sequencing. Is that, I'm not gonna say that technology. But like if I brought you some material and I said this has got a problem, how would you go about diagnosing it? Alan Wei 15:14 Oh, definitely. That's what we do every day. Most of our work is focused on helping growers find out what is possible cause of a programmatic vine in their vineyard. They will send in the samples, either individual vines or composite samples. We have a panel, what's called a combo panel that covers the 11 viruses, 11 major viruses. Leaf Roll Roll 1, 2, 3, 4, and two or three viruses, and of course, Red Blotch, and Fan Leaf, Pierce's. And then also Pinot Gris virus. That is the most frequently requested a panel. And by doing that panel, we typically find out if it's a virus issue. Craig Macmillan 15:58 That's very useful. It's very, very good to know. In relation to grapevine viruses, or just diseases overall, what is the one thing you would recommend to the listeners that they should keep in mind? Alan Wei 16:08 I think that you already touched on this earlier. You know, one thing is, if they see problems in the vineyard, they should consider the sample and test to validate whether they're viruses or not. And if they're considering to plant new materials, they should be very vigilant to to ask questions of the nurseries, and also do their own independent homework. And the you will be interviewing Dr. James Samp in another session. He can tell you more about how he go about sourcing for cleaning materials for his clients, which are very quality conscious. Craig Macmillan 16:47 Yeah, we're really looking forward to that conversation, Much like I was looking forward to this one. You know, this reminds me of something. You hear the word tighter a lot. And I don't think I fully understand what it means. I know that it's important and seems to be coming up a lot. Can you explain the concept and why it's important and what it means for us practically? Alan Wei 17:09 Yeah, I'm so glad you brought this topic up. You know, you and I have been serving on AVF committee, Grant Review Committee for a number of years. And last week, we had our review meeting for this year, and the subject came up. You know, we can talk about different aspects of Red Blotch impact in wine quality, wine physiology, you know, readily and so on and so forth. If we want to contribute one single factor of all of this different symptomology, it would be the virus tighter level. The virus tighter means the number of particles in the vine. If the vine is only infected with a smaller number of particles, its response to the virus is going to be different than the vines that are infected with larger or large number of particles. In our experience, the virus level in different vines can be very much different. I'm not talking about different by you know, 50 percent, or two or three fold. I'm talking about several orders of magnitude. There is a poster right behind me, which you cannot see. But we did a measurement of three infected vines. One, with clean, non effective. Another one is chosen for medium Red Leaf symptom. Another one, it's very heavily Red Leaf symptom. And virus level, the obviously the non infected vine was zero. And then the mediumly infected vine was about one or 200. And then heavily infected vine, was one hundred thousand in relative copy numbers. So this tells you that you know, this virus kinda level concentration level in the vine, really affect symptomology as well as the vine performance and the barrel quality and obviously, eventually, wine quality. If we read the scientific literature, lots of studies report Red Blotch positive, Red Blotch negative, they did not talk about the virus tighter level. That's why we were so glad to see last week one of the research proposes to study the virus tighter level on different aspects of vine physiology and berry quality. I just think it was so so so important because the virus tighter will make it make a huge difference. Craig Macmillan 19:39 So we may be moving from a world of infected or not, to not, to more sick, less sick. Alan Wei 19:47 Yes, absolutely right. That is actually how we protect ourselves against the human viruses as well. You know, our vaccine does not completely protect us from infection. But it does protect us from viruses being propagated in high numbers in our body. Therefore, our symptoms of the infection in the individual is much less. And the ability for that individual to infect others are much less. Simply because of the lower virus tighter level in an infected person and similarly is true in grapevines. Craig Macmillan 20:24 So plants and animals are obviously very different organisms and where an animal has an immune system plants do not, they do not have an immune defense system. Is that correct? Alan Wei 20:35 Yes, you're right, correct. But they do have basic defense system against foreign organisms. One of them is the RNAi system. So speaking of that, you know, the simple symptomology in response to Red Blotch, and most of it is a total response, as a result of virus infection. The RNAi defense system gets activated. For example, the accumulation of the sugar of the raisin should be gradually, in a normal process, will be gradually moving towards the berries. But in Red Blotch, in fact, in vines, they are accumulated in leaves. Not moving toward the sugars. And the same for anthocyanins. That's why we see this red leaf. And those red color should be you know, in the berries, but they're not. They get stuck together, accumulating in leaves. It's fascinating. Unfortunately, we are still at the beginning of understanding all of this. Some reports are gradually coming out. Craig Macmillan 21:40 And so I want to make sure that I understand kind of how this works. So there's a grapevine that becomes infected. However way. The virus is very, very tiny bits of genetic material. Unlike, unlike a bacteria, which has a cell wall. Viruses don't have that they're just genetic material. The plant recognizes that somehow. And then RNA is the material that is produced from genes, the genes or have a have a sequence and then when that is reproduced that goes out into the world as RNA. Is that right? Alan Wei 22:17 Yes, the RNA is inside the host. And in response to a virus infection. And the defense mechanism get activated, which involves what is called enzymes. These RNA into smaller pieces, typically 20 nucleotide long. And they are, they are the what's called the interference RNA, or RNAi which inhibit the host from propagation inside the plant. Craig Macmillan 22:48 This is just, we need to wrap up for time, but I just have been thinking about this for years. And that is, where do these viruses come from? Where, how do they, how do they show up? What are these plant viruses? What? Are they jumping from other plants as a mutation of one into another? Or...do we know? Do I have any idea where these things come from? Because it seems like it's not just a question of finding it. Seems it's got to come from someplace. Alan Wei 23:14 Yeah, that's that's a really good question. I you know, you have biology, you have a load viruses, and obviously, RNA. Some viruses are readier to evolve, to change, to mutate. And that's why we see so many different mutants in the COVID virus family. And this is Red Blotch, is a DNA base virus, which have shown less mutation. And so far, we only seen two mutants, two clay types. And they practically they don't have much difference. As far as the, you know, the origin and the evolution. We need to have folks like Mark Fuchs to answer that. Craig Macmillan 23:55 At Cornell. Well, that's fantastic. That's that's our future. That's where, that's where we're going. Well, I think we've covered everything. Where can people find out more about you? Alan Wei 24:03 We have a website, agri-analysis.com. And then they could call us or email us anytime. We're here to help growers to build a better and clean vineyard so that they can make the best wine possible for the for their clients. Yes, sorry, Craig for the background noise. I think folks who are preparing samples as we speak. Craig Macmillan 24:26 I want to thank you Alan, our guest today has been Alan Wei, Owner and Lab Manager at Agri-analysis, David California. Thanks so much. This is really fascinating conversation. Alan Wei 24:35 Thank you very much Craig for hosting me. Continue to the great job. I'm so glad you're back at the Vineyard Team. You guys. You guys are wonderful team and doing great job. I'm very pleased to be here. Craig Macmillan 24:44 Thank you. I appreciate that. Transcribed by https://otter.ai
The next pandemic may arrive because of climate change. A paper in the journal Nature describes the situation of animals moving to different habitats, where they meet new animals and then share their viruses. New viruses could emerge and affect humans.
TWiV explains a study of how climate change is predicted to increase cross-species viral transmission risk, and increased memory B cell potency and breadth after a SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine boost. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, and Amy Rosenfeld Subscribe (free): Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode Climate change and viral zoonosis risk (Nature) COVID-19 mRNA boost effect on memory B cells (Nature) Letters read on TWiV 896 Timestamps by Jolene. Thanks! Weekly Picks Dickson – Toots Thilelemans Amy – Largest comet ever identified Vincent – Scientific review articles as antivaccine disinformation Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees Send your virology questions and comments to firstname.lastname@example.org
In COVID-19 clinical update #112, Dr. Griffin reviews seroprevalence of infection-induced antibodies, Moderna filing for vaccine authorization in young children, public health impact of vaccines in US, FDA approval of first treatment for young children, phase 2 data for Sabizabulin, and post infection inflammation. Subscribe (free): Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode Seroprevalence of Infection-Induced Antibodies (CDC) Authorization for Vaccine in Young Children Filed (Moderna) Public Health Impact of Vaccines in US (BMJ) FDA authorizes first approved treatment for children (FDA) Phase 2 Data for Sabizabulin (Veru Pharma) Clinical Characteristics of Post Infection Inflammation (The Lancet) Fact Sheet for Providers on Evusheld (FDA) Fact Sheet for Providers on Paxlovid (FDA) Provider Referral for EvuSheld (Northwell Health) Contribute to ASTMH fundraiser at PWB Dr. Griffin's treatment guide (pdf) Letters read on TWiV 895 Timestamps by Jolene. Thanks! Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees Send your questions for Dr. Griffin to email@example.com
What's Up With The Spike In Hepatitis Among Young Kids? This spring, there's been a strange spike in hepatitis cases among young children. Hepatitis can leave kids with stomach pain, jaundice, and a generally icky feeling. 169 cases have been recorded globally, and one death. A majority of these cases have been found in the United Kingdom, with the others in Spain, Israel, and the U.S. The sudden rise in cases is unusual, and physicians are trying to unlock the mystery of where this is coming from. Joining guest host Umair Irfan to talk about this story and other science news of the week, including the holdup over COVID-19 vaccines for kids under five years old, is Science Friday producer Kathleen Davis. COVID-19 Vaccines Are Some Divorced Parents' Newest Divide Heather and Norm have had their share of disagreements. Their separation seven years ago and the ensuing custody battle were contentious. But over the years, the pair has found a way to weather disputes cordially. They've made big decisions together and checked in regularly about their two kids, now ages 9 and 11. But the rhythm of give and take they so carefully cultivated came to an abrupt end last fall, when it came time to decide whether to vaccinate their kids against COVID-19 — Heather was for it; Norm was against. (WHYY News has withheld their last names to protect the privacy of their children.) In Pennsylvania, decisions about children's health must be made jointly by parents with shared legal custody, so the dispute went to court. And Heather and Norm weren't the only ones who couldn't come to an agreement on their own. In the months since the vaccine was approved for children, family court judges across the commonwealth have seen skyrocketing numbers of similar cases: Divorced parents who can't agree on what to do. Read the rest at sciencefriday.com. Why Sharing Viruses Is Good… For Science The COVID-19 pandemic has sparked an unprecedented era of global scientific collaboration. Just a few days after the SARS-CoV-2 virus was isolated, its genomic sequence was posted online and accessible to researchers around the world. Scientists quickly went to work trying to understand this brand new pathogen, and began to counter it with treatments and vaccines. But genetic sequences have their limits, and scientists also have to work with the real viruses. Sometimes there's no substitute for a specimen. Sharing pathogens across borders is where things get a lot more complicated. A web of international laws govern some, but not all aspects of how pathogens are shared and stored. Science isn't the only factor here—global politics shape responses to the tracking and detection of disease. What happens if countries are not on the friendliest terms with each other, or if they aren't up to the same safety standards? Could viruses be misused or mishandled, potentially escaping containment? There are some historical examples that could be instructive. And while the COVID-19 pandemic spurred cooperation between scientists, some governments downplayed or misled the world about the state of the pandemic. Does misinformation remain a threat, and if so, how can we prevent it? Guest host Umair Irfan talks with Amber Hartman Scholz, head of science policy at Leibniz Institute DSMZ German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures based in Braunschweig, Germany, to unpack the complex system of scientific virus sharing, and the importance of developing a better process. Transcripts for each segment will be available the week after the show airs on sciencefriday.com.
TWiV explains what is known about cases of acute, severe hepatitis of unknown origin in children, and discovery of an inhibitor of TMPRSS2 protease that blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Alan Dove, Kathy Spindler, and Brianne Barker Subscribe (free): Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode Severe hepatitis in children (WHO) TMPRSS2 inhibitor (Nature) Omicron less dependent on TMPRSS2 (TWiV 879) Letters read on TWiV 894 Timestamps by Jolene. Thanks! Weekly Picks Brianne – Apple AirTag Kathy – Dental art/sculpture/mobile/chandelier Alan – Vintage Radio and Communications Museum of Connecticut Vincent – For the Love of Enzymes by Arthur Kornberg Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees Send your virology questions and comments to firstname.lastname@example.org
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In this episode of the Brawn Body Health and Fitness Podcast, Dan is joined by Dr. Daniel Clark to discuss Virology, including what a virus is, how a virus spreads, unique "retroviruses" such as HIV and Hepatitis, Viral Protein Domains and other potential drug targets, and so much MORE! Dr. Daniel Clark is a Professor at Weber State University in Utah. Dr. Clark was Dan's first EVER college professor. Dr. Clark studies the pathogenesis, interactions, and treatments of various microbes (MRSA, Salmonella, the brain-eating amoeba Naegleria fowleri, malaria, herpes simplex virus) using microbiology and cell culture techniques with bioinformatics. He is currently studying MRSA, bacteriophage, Salmonella, CRISPR deletion of viral receptors, and Codon bias. For more on Dr. Clark and his work, you can visit his profile here: https://www.weber.edu/microbiology/DanielClark.html For the Research Article Dr. Clark and Dan (Dan and Dan!) worked together on, click here: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32455999/ To keep up to date with everything we are currently doing on the podcast, be sure to subscribe and follow @brawnbody on social media! This episode is brought to you by CTM band recovery products - the EXACT soft tissue recovery technology used by Dan. CTM Band was founded by Dr. Kyle Bowling, a sports medicine practitioner who treats professional athletes (and was a guest on the Brawn Body Podcast!). You can check out their website here: https://ctm.band/collections/ctm-band ... while you're there, be sure to use the coupon code "BRAWN10" for 10% off! This episode is also brought to you by Ice shaker! Use our affiliate link to help support future podcast episodes and development by clicking here: https://www.iceshaker.com?sca_ref=1520881.zOJLysQzKe Make sure you SHARE this episode with a friend who could benefit from the information we shared! Check out everything we do, including blog posts, fitness programs, and more by clicking here: https://linktr.ee/brawnbodytraining Liked this episode? Leave a 5-star review on your favorite podcast platform! --- This episode is sponsored by · Anchor: The easiest way to make a podcast. https://anchor.fm/app --- Send in a voice message: https://anchor.fm/daniel-braun/message Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/daniel-braun/support
Kartik, Denise, and Gorka join TWiV to discuss their finding that changes in the surface glycoprotein of South American yellow fever virus lead to reduced neutralization by antibodies induced by the vaccine, which is derived from an African isolate. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, and Brianne Barker Guests: Kartik Chandran, Denise Haslwanter, and Gorka Lasso Cabrera Subscribe (free): Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode Prometheus project (TWiV 578) Reduced neutralization of South American yellow fever virus (Cell Host Microbe) Letters read on TWiV 893 Timestamps by Jolene. Thanks! Weekly Picks Dickson – Earth Day and Earth Day History Brianne – XKCD: Family Reunion Vincent – Tokaido: A Journey (DVD) Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees Send your virology questions and comments to email@example.com
In COVID-19 clinical update #111, Dr. Griffin discusses vaccine coverage and mortality in Hong Kong, immune response to boosters in kids, hospitalization of kids, breath based diagnostic test, viral co-infections, bivalent mRNA vaccine, intramuscular Evusheld, and global long COVID. Subscribe (free): Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode Vaccine coverage and mortality, Hong Kong (MMWR) Kids behind on routine vaccinations (Politico) Immune response to booster, 5-11 year olds (Pfizer) Children and vaccination (AAP) Hospitalization of 5-11 year olds (MMWR) Test using breath samples (FDA) Influenza virus, adenovirus, RS virus co-infections (Lancet) Booster crystal ball (TWiV 890) Bivalent vaccine (Res Square) Bivalent vaccine in mice (bioRxiv) Intramuscular Evusheld (NEJM) Global PASC (J Inf Dis) Dr. Griffin's treatment guide (pdf) Letters read on TWiV 892 Timestamps by Jolene. Thanks! Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees Send your questions for Dr. Griffin to firstname.lastname@example.org
We discuss latent infections (infections that stick around for months and years) and how it impacts our health. How normal "aging" or hormonal things can really be undiagnosed latent infections. We discuss how the immune system is impacted and break down the different components of white blood cells. If you are having gut issues, mood issues, fatigue, not recovering well, chronic inflammation, low immune system working with your doctor to get to the root cause could be extremely beneficial. This episode was inspired by Barbell Shrugged episode: https://listen.stitcher.com/yvap/?af_dp=stitcher://episode/202512204&af_web_dp=https://www.stitcher.com/episode/202512204 If you want to take this work deeper, and apply it to your life we invite you to join us in the New Beginnings Program. We take this work apply it to your daily life, and practice it. Unwinding the beliefs that don't serve you and going to work creating ones that move your life to that place you want it to be. Click here for more information: https://www.kimberlyjarmancoaching.com/the-path-to-success-program/ If you are ready to jump in click here to schedule a complimentary consultation call: https://calendly.com/kimberlyjarmancoaching/free-consultation-call For more information about working with Dr. Carmen Jones ND https://www.drcarmenjones.com
Welcome to another episode of Merkaba Chakras. Today, we learn about the rediscovered ancient energy healing modality of targeting parasites, viruses, and disease with specific frequencies using inventor Royal Rife's, Rife machine. Today, the RIFE frequency technology is in practice with engineer, John White and his Spooky2 machine. John, welcome to Merkaba Chakras! Rokfin gets exclusive 1st preview for a week, then it goes to these other video sites. Please diversify where you get information by adding these platforms. https://rokfin.com/MerkabaChakras https://rumble.com/c/c-889303 https://www.bitchute.com/merkabachakras/ https://odysee.com/@merkabachakras:4 https://www.brighteon.com/channels/merkabachakras https://utreon.com/c/MerkabaChakras https://www.youtube.com/merkabachakras For more information on the Spooky2 RIFE machine, please visit their website: https://www.spooky2-mall.com/ Get 3% off the RIFE technology using coupon code: MerkabaChakras The referral link for Merkaba Chakras incentives: https://www.spooky2-mall.com/merkabachakras/ref/357/ https://www.frequencyheals.com/ https://www.spooky2academy.com/ RIFE & Sound Frequencies suggested as a DETOX protocol: https://healthfreedomdefense.org/covid-injection-detox-protocols/ To learn more about Von Galt's metaphysical work: https://merkabachakras.com/ Theme music, "Promised Land" copyrighted by the composer, Olive Musique, and authorized by https://www.premiumbeat.com/ #Detox, #RIFE, #Frequencies, #Spooky2Machine, #SoundHealing, #EnergyHealing, #JohnWhite, #Parasites, #Virus, #Disease, #EarthSchumannResonance, #EarthFrequencies, #BuddhistChantsMantras, #KwanYinChants, #ShivaChant, #ParallelRealities, #RealityShifts, #Multiverse, #BeyondSpirituality, #EscapeTheMatrix, #Samsara, #PreLifePlanning, #Reincarnation, #DimensionsParallelRealities, #GodConsciousness, #MerkabaChakrasPodcast, #VonGalt, #LaosAuthors, #Buddhism, #MetaphysicCourses, #Nirvana, #SpiritualEmptiness, #SourceCode, #MasterTeachers, #BuddhasBodhisattvas, #6thSenses, #Metaphysics, #NewEarth, #5thDimension, #Consciousness, #SpiritualAwakening, #CymaticsResearch --- Send in a voice message: https://anchor.fm/merkabachakras/message Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/merkabachakras/support
Dr. Steve Gangemi, The Sock Doc, is a natural health care doctor who founded and practices at Systems Health Care, an integrative wellness center in Chapel Hill, NC. Steve is also a longtime endurance athlete and is a wealth of knowledge for athletes looking to optimize wellness. On this episode: Introducing Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and other chronic viruses […] The post Sock Doc 17: Epstein-Barr Virus and More – Managing Chronic Viruses in Athletes and Living Your Best Life first appeared on Endurance Planet.
Welcome to Conversations on Sol Luckman Uncensored, sponsored by Snooze2Awaken.com, Resources for Lucidity. For more information about my work, including a lot of fantastic free content, check out www.CrowRising.com. I'm also on Telegram, where I'm sharing daily truth bombs at https://t.me/solluckman. If you appreciate what I'm doing here in interviewing some of the greatest minds (and hearts) in the Conscious Resistance, please take a second to subscribe to my channel and give this video some love. Today, I have the great honor of sharing my interview with a veritable ROCK STAR in the alternative health movement: Dr. Sam Bailey. Check out her website at https://drsambailey.com. Dr. Sam is a medically trained doctor with a stellar CV who makes health videos on questions from her viewers posted on her Odysee channel, (https://odysee.com/@drsambailey:c). She researches and covers common medical conditions, but also tackles controversial health issues. And she does so in the most engaging, and at times hilarious, manner imaginable. Dr. Sam is also coauthor of the amazing book VIRUS MANIA (affiliate link: https://amzn.to/3rI5iUv), which has played a HUGE role in waking people up to the nonexistence of contagious viruses and the multiple, systemic frauds of virology. I've embedded several of Dr. Sam's videos on my blog, including: Tobacco Mosaic “Virus”—The Beginning & End of Virology https://snooze2awaken.com/2022/04/18/tobacco-mosaic-virus-the-beginning-end-of-virology Dr. Sam Bailey: If Covid-19 Doesn't Exist, What Is Making People Sick? https://snooze2awaken.com/2022/02/06/dr-sam-bailey-if-covid-19-doesnt-exist-what-is-making-people-sick Dr. Sam Bailey: Gain of Function Garbage https://snooze2awaken.com/2022/02/10/dr-sam-bailey-gain-of-function-garbage Shedding, Vaccines & Graphene Machines https://snooze2awaken.com/2022/02/25/dr-sam-bailey-weighs-in-on-shedding-vaccines-graphene-machines and (my favorite) The Truth about Viruses https://snooze2awaken.com/2022/03/11/dr-sam-bailey-the-truth-about-viruses Additional Show Links: A Pair of Timely Videos from Dr. Amandha Vollmer: Watch the Snakes! Discernment Time Again, Truthers & the Deeper Snake Agenda Revealed https://snooze2awaken.com/2022/04/14/a-pair-of-timely-videos-from-dr-amandha-vollmer-watch-the-snakes-discernment-time-again-truthers-the-deeper-snake-agenda-revealed Challenging “SARS-CoV-2” https://snooze2awaken.com/2022/04/02/challenging-sars-cov-2 Speak It into Existence with Neville Goddard https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KNzBHVKoO_0&ab_channel=HowToManifestAnything Award-winning Dystopian Novel BEGUN BEFORE COVID Features Themes Involving a Viral Plandemic, Vaccine Bioweapons & Microchips, Depopulation, Race Wars & More https://snooze2awaken.com/2021/06/22/fictionalizing-the-future-award-winning-dystopian-novel-begun-before-covid-features-themes-involving-a-viral-plandemic-vaccine-bioweapons-microchips-depopulation-race-wars-more
Elke, Adam, and Gabor join TWiV to discuss their work on Lloviu virus, a filovirus, including recovery of infectious virus from a DNA copy of the genome and from Schreiber's bats in Hungary. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Rich Condit, Kathy Spindler, and Brianne Barker Guests: Elke Muhlberger, Adam Hume, and Gabor Kemenesi Subscribe (free): Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode Elke on TWiV 200 and Threading the NEIDL Infectious Lloviu virus from bats in Hungary (Nat Commun) Infectious Lloviu virus from DNA (PloS Path) Letters read on TWiV 891 Timestamps by Jolene. Thanks! Weekly Picks Brianne – APod Stars and Globules in the Running Chicken Nebula Kathy – BioRender Poster Builder Rich – The Sins of Our Fathers: An Expanse Novella (The Expanse) by James S. A. Corey Vincent – Baumgartner Restoration Listener Pick J – Time, Einstein, and the coolest stuff in the Universe Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees Send your virology questions and comments to email@example.com
This episode of TWiV is focused on COVID-19 vaccines and antibodies: who should get boosters, whether a variant matched mRNA vaccine is superior to a historical vaccine, and how the interval between vaccination and infection influences the quality of the antibody response. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Rich Condit, and Brianne Barker Subscribe (free): Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode What next for COVID-19 boosters? (NEJM) Boosting with historical or variant mRNA vaccines (Cell) Vaccination-infection interval determines antibody breadth (Cell Med) Letters read on TWiV 890 Timestamps by Jolene. Thanks! Weekly Picks Dickson – Webb Telescope's coldest instrument reaches operating temperature Brianne – Video of a CTL killing a tumor cell Rich – Our Unfinished Pandemic (On the Media Podcast) Vincent – Lý Thị Ca Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees Send your virology questions and comments to firstname.lastname@example.org
In COVID-19 clinical update #110, Dr. Griffin covers hospital admissions during variant outbreaks, viral load in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals, predictive capacity of symptoms in children, comparison of antigen tests, incidence of myocarditis after vaccination, steroids during replication phase, Paxlovid efficacy and safety, fluvoxamine, sabizabutin, colchicine, and prevalence of infection in Africa. Subscribe (free): Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode Hospital admissions during Omicron and Delta variant outbreaks (Lancet) Viral load in unvaccinated and vaccinated individuals (Nat Med) Predictive Capability of symptoms in children (Clin Inf Dis) Comparison of antigen tests (medRxiv) Incidence of Myocarditis after COVID19 and non-COVID19 vaccination (Lancet) Steroids during viral replication phase (Resp) Paxlovid efficacy and safety (Pfizer) Fluvoxamine & Outpatient Management (JAMA) Sabizabutin efficacy and safety (Veru) Colchicine and lack of benefit (Lancet) SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in Africa (medRxiv) Contribute to ASTMH fundraiser at PWB Dr. Griffin's treatment guide (pdf) Letters read on TWiV 889 33:35 Timestamps by Jolene. Thanks! Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees Send your questions for Dr. Griffin to email@example.com
Richard joins TWiV to discuss the SARS-CoV-2 antiviral drug Molnupiravir , including how it was discovered, its mechanism of action, whether it is a mutagen for cells, and the future of drugs for treatment of COVID-19. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Alan Dove, and Brianne Barker Guest: Richard Plemper Subscribe (free): Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode Richard on TWiV 636 Molnupiravir in ferrets (Nat Micro) Oral prodrug of Remdesivir in ferrets (Nat Commun) Letters read on TWiV 888 Timestamps by Jolene. Thanks! Weekly Picks Brianne – BioRender Poster Builder Alan – Hexbug cat toys Vincent – US Mint 2019 American Innovation Coin – PA – Polio Vaccine Listener Picks Sue – American Visionary Art Museum Frazer – Vaccine trial for killer elephant virus Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees Send your virology questions and comments to firstname.lastname@example.org
In episode 2 of our Public Podcast Series in conjunction with the American Society for Neurochemistry conference we meet with Drs. Jamie Smyth and Rachel Padget (your beloved communications director of BLoS) talk about what infection with SRAS-CoV-2 does to your body, why many people lose their sense of taste and smell, and what being a virologist has been like over the past two years.
by Saima Sidik • We can thank microbes for moving carbon to the depths of the ocean, but will our changing world mess with their good work? And should we intervene? The original story, along with photos, can be found on hakaimagazine.com.
The thawing of the permafrost in the Arctic is a major concern from the standpoint of the potential release of enormous amounts of carbon dioxide trapped in it. There are nearly 2,000 billion tons of carbon there, which is as much as humanity releases into the atmosphere in 50 years. But greenhouse gases are not […]
TWiV explains why this season's influenza vaccine is not protecting against mild to moderate disease caused by H3N2 virus, and that antibody-dependent entry of SARS-CoV-2 into monocytes is a major contributor to severe COVID-19. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Rich Condit, and Amy Rosenfeld Subscribe (free): Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode Seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (MMWR) Properties of a dominant H3N2 variant (bioRxiv) Scott Henley on influenza vaccine growth in eggs (TWiV 480) Fc receptor dependent entry of SARS-CoV-2 into monocytes (Nature) Timestamps by Jolene. Thanks! Weekly Picks Dickson – Ketanji Brown Jackson confirmed to US Supreme Court Amy – Some threats just keep coming in waves Rich – Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Vincent – Martijn Doolaard Listener Picks Ann – Immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccines Chris – Isoplexis Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees Send your virology questions and comments to email@example.com
In COVID-19 clinical update #109, Daniel Griffin discusses cardiac complications after infection or vaccination, long COVID in children, fourth vaccine dose in Israel, no need for fourth vaccine does in EU, dexamethasone dosing, immunomodulation therapy, MIS outcomes in children, US long COVID effort launched, and herd immunity. Subscribe (free): Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode Cardiac complications after infection or vaccination (MMWR) Long COVID in children (Future Med) Fourth vaccine dose in Israel (NEJM) No need for fourth vaccine dose (Eur Med Agency) Dexamethasone dosing (Intensive Care Med) Actemra priority review (Roche) Guidelines on anticoagulation therapy (American Soc Hematol) MIS outcomes in children (JAMA) Biden launches long COVID effort (USA Today) Herd immunity and COVID (J Inf Dis) Contribute to ASTMH fundraiser at PWB Dr. Griffin's treatment guide (pdf) Letters read on TWiV 886 Timestamps by Jolene. Thanks! Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees Send your questions for Dr. Griffin to firstname.lastname@example.org
On this week's show: A new measurement of the W boson could challenge physicists' standard model, and an abundance of marine RNA viruses Staff Writer Adrian Cho joins host Sarah Crespi to discuss a new threat to the standard model of particle physics—a heavier than expected measurement of a fundamental particle called the W boson. They chat about how this measurement was taken, and what it means if it is right. Next, Sarah talks about the microscopic denizens of Earth's oceans with Ahmed Zayed, a research scientist in the department of microbiology at Ohio State University, Columbus. They talk about findings from a global survey of marine RNA viruses. The results double the number of known RNA viruses, suggesting new classifications will be needed to categorize all this viral diversity. This week's episode was produced with help from Podigy. [Image: A. Mastin/Science; Music: Jeffrey Cook] [alt: illustration of three RNA viruses with podcast symbol overlay] Authors: Sarah Crespi; Adrian Cho Episode page: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abq3391 About the Science Podcast: https://www.science.org/content/page/about-science-podcast See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
In this episode you will learn: Oral Microbiome How to lead by example Digestive health Tim James is the founder and CEO of ChemicalFreeBody.com, a mission-based organization that is passionate about helping everybody to ignite their highest excitement in life by putting themselves and their health first. Tim discovered a new way to view health and nutrition when he visited a world-renowned health institute that specialized in detoxing & nutrition with his best friend Charles, who was being treated for cancer. Ever since, Tim has been striving for optimal health and has completely transformed his life and body, dropping nearly 40 lbs and successfully treating his own health problems! When Charles was considered cancer-free after 2 years, Chemical Free Body was born with the mission to share the power in taking responsibility for one's own well-being! It's a transformational journey, and individuals have to dig deep to find what works. Tim shares his knowledge with thousands of people to help themselves! The Beauty Wisdom podcast and the opinions of Holly Bilicki and her guests on the show and website should not be taken as medical advice. The content here is for informational purposes only, please always make sure to consult your healthcare professional for any medical questions.
In this episode of Genetics Unzipped, Dr Kat Arney is looking at the monkey in the mirror, investigating how flipped genetic switches and long-dead viruses make all the difference between our human faces and those of our closest primate relatives.Full show notes, transcript, music credits and references online at GeneticsUnzipped.com Follow us on Twitter @GeneticsUnzipThis episode of Genetics Unzipped was written and presented by Kat Arney with audio production by Sally Le Page.This podcast is produced by First Create the Media for the Genetics Society - one of the oldest learned societies in the world dedicated to supporting and promoting the research, teaching and application of genetics.
TWiV reveals an ACE2-dependent sarbecovirus from Russian bats that is not inhibited by anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, and a modified vaccinia virus Ankara vectored vaccine that protects nonhuman primates from Delta infection. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Rich Condit, and Brianne Barker Subscribe (free): Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode Sarbecovirus from Russian bat (bioRxiv) MVA vectored COVID vaccine (Sci Immunol) Letters read on TWiV 885 Timestamps by Jolene. Thanks! Weekly Picks Brianne – The Search for a Model Octopus That Won't Die After Laying Its Eggs Rich – Vaccine Pioneers and Opponents with Paul Offit (Podcast: Connected by Controversy by Chris White) and The Cutter Incident by Paul Offit Vincent – Simply Put: Vaccines Save Lives Listener Picks Rich – ‘Stolen' Charles Darwin notebooks left on library floor in pink gift bag Neva – Elin Thomas, UK textile artist Viki – History of English Podcast Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees Send your virology questions and comments to email@example.com
How do we simultaneously exist and heal ourselves in a world that is in crisis? How do we integrate traumas when they occur at a community level? How can we turn a crisis situation into an opportunity for healing? Today on the podcast, we are journeying into all of this and more as we explore all types of trauma; with the guidance, knowledge, and wisdom of Dr. Jimi Wollumbin. Dr. Jimi Wollumbin is a renowned expert in his field of traditional Chinese Medicine and has been practicing for over 20 years. He is the CEO and founder of One Health Organisation, a wellness-based charity that has distributed over ten metric tonnes of herbs and supplements to 100 locations across 13 countries for the past 15 years. Jimi is an incredible human whose life soul work is devoted to the holistic healing and reconnecting of all humanity. Over the past month, SuperFeast, and the entire Northern Rivers community of NSW, Australia, have experienced the worst flooding ever recorded in the history of this region. Thousands of people have been left homeless, heartbroken, and traumatised. Our hearts go out to all those who've been affected by these floods and suffered a tragic loss. It is true; that even a crisis like this allows us the opportunity to build resilience, strength, and experience growth. But what happens to the trauma left within us unhealed and unprocessed? Trauma cracks, leaks, and is passed on from person to person, through generations. Dr. Jimi explains: "It can not be walled off. You can't ignore it. The only way to heal trauma is to integrate it. When trauma heals, it becomes a rhizomatic resilience web built on love and connectivity". In this curative conversation, Dr. Jimi Wollumbin examines humanity's history of collective trauma and how these traumas are still affecting us today as a community in modern culture. Through metaphor and anecdote, Jimi illustrates the fragmented nature of trauma and compassionately explains how we can integrate our trauma wounds to become active conscious caretakers of any crisis, rather than adding to and further becoming a part of the problem. "We've all experienced trauma. All living systems have a component of resilience or anti-fragility. Communities, rainforests, humans; We all become more resilient from stressors. But only if we have time to repair, integrate, and reflect upon it. If someone continues to get trauma after trauma, after trauma, after trauma, after trauma, after trauma without integration, what happens? They break. But if you have challenge integration, assimilation, repair, repeat, that's like a gym workout". - Dr. Jimi Wollumbin Mason and Jimi discuss: -Survivors guilt. -Vicarious trauma. -Collective trauma. -Community trauma. -How trauma leaks. -Epigenetic switching. -The perpetrator model. -How to integrate trauma. -Victims, perpetrators and trauma. -How to deal with the effects of trauma. -Shamanic medicine, trauma and soul retrieval. -How do we live and heal in a world that is in crisis? Resources: Dr. Jimi Wollumbin Website Dr. Jimi Wollumbin Patreon Jimi Wollumbin Instagram Dr. Jimi Wollumbin Facebook Resources mentioned In the Podcast: The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine Microbes and Viruses with Jimi Wollumbin (EP#58) SuperFeast Podcast Check Out The Transcript Here: https://www.superfeast.com.au/blogs/articles/jimi-wollumbin-ep-155
Vincent and Amy explain how asthmatic bronchial smooth muscle increases rhinovirus replication in the bronchial epithelium, and mimicry of IL-17 by the ORF8 protein of SARS-CoV-2. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Amy Rosenfeld Subscribe (free): Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode Asthmatic bronchial smooth muscle and rhinovirus (Cell Rep) SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 mimics IL-17 (mBio) Letters read on TWiV 884 Timestamps by Jolene. Thanks! Weekly Picks Amy – Ben Franklin by Ken Burns Vincent – Thoughts on a second booster: Offit and Krause/Borio Listener Picks Philip – History of Clemson Blue Cheese Jack – Pipeline and A Special Report on Polio Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees Send your virology questions and comments to firstname.lastname@example.org
In COVID-19 clinical update #107, Daniel Griffin reviews vaccine booster doses, at-home testing, transmission in ferrets, improving indoor air quality, trials of BCG, ivermectin, and fluvoxamine, vaccination during pregnancy, mRNA vaccines and Fc functions, anti-platelet and aspirin therapy and a trial of prone positioning. Subscribe (free): Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode FDA authorizes second booster (FDA) Second booster and mortality (Res Square) Booster effectiveness vs hospitalization (MMWR) SARS-CoV-2 confections (Lancet) At-home testing (MMWR) Transmission study in ferrets (PLoS Path) Improving indoor air quality (EPA) BCG vaccine no effect on viral infections (Clin Inf Dis) Vaccination during pregnancy (JAMA) mRNA vaccines and different Fc functions (Sci Transl Med) Ivermectin clinical trial (NEJM) Fluvoxamine clinical trial (Lancet) Antiplatelet therapy (JAMA) Aspirin and in-hospital mortality (JAMA) Proning trial (Brit Med J) Contribute to ASTMH fundraiser at PWB 41:20 Letters read on TWiV 883 Timestamps by Jolene. Thanks! Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees Send your questions for Dr. Griffin to email@example.com
Vincent and Brianne review the need to better understand T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection to better inform public health decisions, and how IL-1 and IL-1ra are important regulators of the inflammatory response to RNA vaccines. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Brianne Barker Subscribe (free): Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode Understanding T cell responses during COVID-19 (Science Immunol) IL-1 and IL-1ra are keys to inflammation after RNA vaccination (Nature Immunol) Letters read on TWiV 882 Timestamps by Jolene. Thanks! Weekly Picks Brianne – Covid restrictions prevented dengue in hundreds of thousands of people in 2020 Vincent – Scotch Dual Lock 250 Reclosable Fastener Listener Picks Erin –JWT Preparation and Xploration Outer Space Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees Send your virology questions and comments to firstname.lastname@example.org
Vincent and Brianne review the need to better understand T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection to better inform public health decisions, and how IL-1 and IL-1ra are important regulators of the inflammatory response to RNA vaccines. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Brianne Barker Subscribe (free): Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode Understanding T cell responses during COVID-19 (Science Immunol) IL-1 and IL-1ra are keys to inflammation after RNA vaccination (Nature Immunol) Letters read on TWiV 882 Timestamps by Jolene. Thanks! Weekly Picks Brianne – Covid restrictions prevented dengue in hundreds of thousands of people in 2020 Vincent – Scotch Dual Lock 250 Reclosable Fastener Listener Picks Erin –JWT Preparation and Xploration Outer Space Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees Send your virology questions and comments to email@example.com
#40: Against a backdrop of an admittedly wild couple of years with COVID-19, lockdowns, masking, vaccines rushed to market, and statistics that have been shown to be wildly manipulated, perhaps one of the most confusing things are self-proclaimed experts who proclaim confidently that viruses simply don't exist.Now that I've had no less than three listeners wonder if that claim has any basis in fact, I think it's time we looked more deeply into it.As one of the most fascinating diseases I'm familiar with offers some great insight into this question, let's put the spotlight on rabies to answer this.Rabies has been plaguing mankind for centuries, long before viruses were even hinted at.As it's such a horrible, scary and usually fatal disease, and one that you're being told to repeatedly vaccinate against, we'll use rabies to see if a virus might be involved.Or is it simply “terrain” responsible for people dying in the 10's of thousands from rabies every year?