Strict with Yourself I've said it before and I'll say it again. Ryan Holiday is one of my favorite writers. We've featured a bunch of his books including The Obstacle Is the Way, The Daily Stoic, Ego Is the Enemy, and Stillness Is the Key. He's currently working on “The Stoic Virtue Series” in which he's creating a new book for each of the cardinal virtues of Stoicism: Courage, Temperance, Justice, and Wisdom. We briefly chatted about the first book in the series: Courage Is Calling. Today we're going to chat about an Idea from the second book in the series: Discipline Is Destiny. We're going to talk about an Idea that didn't make it into the Note. It's from a chapter called “Tolerant with Others. Strict with Yourself.” Ryan tells us: “'I am prepared to forgive everybody's mistakes,' Cato the Elder said, ‘except my own.' Ben Franklin, many generations later, would put forth an even better rule: ‘Search others for their virtues, thyself for thy vices.' Or as Marcus Aurelius put it, Tolerant with others, strict for yourself.” That's Today's +1. Let's be tolerant with others—looking for their VIRTUES and forgiving their mistakes. Let's be strict with ourselves—looking for our vices and getting to work on them. We have more than enough work to do on ourselves. Let's do it. TODAY.
The dynamic duo Anthony Bollotta and Alex Apostolidis are back with another dynamic duo, KALINA and KIANA (musicians, performers, producers, song writers). Get to know these two musicians who happen to be sisters, as they answer the 10 Quick Questions. Learn how these individual musicians blend their talents together as a partnership on their song writing, producing projects and performances. Listen in on how they balance while keeping a strict schedule to maintain a real life outside of their work and what success at corporate performance looks like...or might smell like?(lol) Moreover they speak on how their message, impact and influence affects their mission statement. ENJOY.Bollotta-FIDE could use your help. Please answer this survey: https://stats.blubrry.com/s-85335/getting_started/Book KALINA AND KIANA! inquire at firstname.lastname@example.orgSubmit ASK ANTHONY questions on the form at www.bollotta.com/podcastFollow @BollottaEntertainment on Instagram
“Tolerant of others, strict with yourself” Marcus Areulis Raise your standards, and work toward them, always looking up!If you would like to quit alcohol and unleash your full potential, then I have recorded a FREE workshop for you called, ‘7 steps to transform your relationship with alcohol'.Click this link or visit andyramage.com and click ‘free workshops'Let's do this!Andy
On today's episode, I'd like to discuss romance and the Jedi, especially how it has changed over the years. The High Republic novels seem to suggest that several hundred years before the Clone Wars, the Jedi were less uptight about romance. That has led me to theorize that the Jedi weren't always such sticklers, and that their dogmatic approach evolved over the years. Join me as we discuss. --- Send in a voice message: https://anchor.fm/pageturnerstheywerenot/message
This episode taught me a lot about strength, resiliency and courage. Penelope is a strong and determined woman and an incredibly inspiring and kind human being.Thank you, Penelope, for all the hard work, good vibes and bravery you teach women today. It was a pleasure meeting you, learning from you and sharing the mic with you!Meet PenelopeEverything starts with the way you see and accept yourself. And Penelope's mission through her work as a mindset and transformational coach is to help people understand that nothing is stopping them from creating the lifestyle they desire if they set their minds to it. As a mother of two, wife, coach, published author, and international speaker, she knows firsthand the effort needed when you try to balance everything. That's why it is so important to see your worth, believe in yourself, and decide that you can create the lifestyle you desire. Learn Morehttps://www.penelopemagoulianiti.com/https://www.penelopemagoulianiti.com/letstalkhttps://www.facebook.com/CreateTheLifeYouDesirehttps://www.instagram.com/penelope.magoulianiti/Audience Freebie: https://www.penelopemagoulianiti.com/giftGet the Goddess Diary https://www.thegoddessdiary.com Learn more about your host, Nelia, at https://neliahutt.comJoin the Free 5-Day Discover Your Passion Challenge at https://neliahutt.com/https://www.travellivegive.com. Helping you Discover Inner Peace through Giving!GET THE BOOK GIving My Heart Room To Breathe: https://amzn.to/3SaBLObBUY THE Ultimate I Deserve a Break Colouring Book: https://amzn.to/3Binyb6Email your comments, show ideas or connect at email@example.com.
Why did I want to talk with Kalan Kellerhals on the Knockin' Doorz Down podcast? I am your host Jason LaChance, and I spoke with Kalan because I was fascinated with his recovery path and the depths his addiction took him. We discuss his strict religious upbringing, how he felt sheltered and how the path that he was told to walk didn't leave him with the purpose he was told it would fulfill. With a familiar story of feeling like an outsider that leads him to the depths of despair in his full-blown opioid and heroin addiction to meeting his wife and finding a recovery path that has taken him to a life of purpose. Kalan's path is nonconventional, and not for everyone, but I wanted to speak with someone who took a nontraditional approach to recovery. We also talk about how the musician Jelly Roll has greatly inspired him. Kalan and his wife started Green Thumb Naturals. He say's, "More than likely I'm a lot like you…I have chronic pain as well as PTSD and severe anxiety. My doctors had me on a steady regimen of narcotic opioids and benzodiazepines to cope with the severe pain and anxiety." Although these drugs relieved physical pain, they left him depressed, lethargic, and always wanting more…Because the pain never truly went away. So, he started taking more. The more he took, the worse his depression and outlook on life became. He remembers thinking some horrible thoughts in those times of hopelessness and anguish. He recalls weeping for hours and crying out to his wife asking “Why does it have to be like this?” or “Things are never gonna get better!” It was in those hours of despair that Kalan decided he wanted to take his life back. He swapped his prescription meds for some CBD capsules and noticed nearly immediate pain relief. Not only did his pain levels change, but his outlook on life began to change in drastic ways. Not only did CBD help him step away from narcotic pharmaceuticals, but it also helped him quit drinking. This is when Greenthumb Naturals was born, with a desire to provide their products at an affordable price to those seeking the same relief and growth that he found. Kalan says, "we truly want to help people, and our customers can feel that love. We have a huge heart for our veterans, and donate to many vets each month at our local veteran's meeting – it's the highlight of my month! We are also proud to be helping many cancer patients with the side effects of treatment or with the pain and nausea that comes with the disease. To do what I'm doing for a living is truly a dream come true. Believe me, when I say – we're just getting started!" This is Kalan KellerHals in his own words on Knockin' Doorz Down. For 51FIFTY use the discount code KDD20 for 20% off! https://51fiftyltm.com/ For more information on Carlos Vieira's autobiography Knockin' Doorz Down, the Carlos Vieira Foundation, the Race 2B Drug-Free, Race to End the Stigma, and Race For Autism programs visit: https://www.carlosvieirafoundation.org/ For more information on Kalan Kellerhals visit https://www.greenthumbnaturals.com/s/stories/our-storyhttps://dennymwilson.com/ Listen to and Subscribe to the Knockin' Doorz Down podcast on all audio platforms and on YouTube for more amazing conversations of hope at prosperity at https://www.KDDPodcast.com and follow Knockin' Doorz Down on social media.
As people in Iran protest over the country's strict dress laws, another woman - this time from Sudan - looks back at how that country has policed women's dress. In 1991, a law was introduced in Sudan which was used to control how women acted and dressed in public. Amiera Osman Hamed was arrested and fined for wearing trousers in 2002.
Do you keep a daily routine? Is it strict? Is it unconventional? Is there a quirky twist? Let me know!Text me at 972-426-2640 so we can stay connected!Support me on Patreon!Twitter: @elliottspeaksInstagram: @elliottspeaks
For this episode of aBlogtoWatch Weekly, David is away on a secret trip where he has signed a strict non-disclosure agreement and can't tell anyone where he is going, so Ariel and Rick are joined by Simon from Escapement24 to talk about all of the new releases from this week in the world of watches. After briefly discussing NDA's and what type of agreement David might have signed, our hosts turn their attention to integrated bracelet sports watches, and how the widespread popularity of the genre is slightly puzzling given that no one actually wears a metal bracelet watch as their preferred timepiece while playing sports. From there, the conversation shifts to how it seems to be exclusively watches that remain highly desirable when they show heavy signs of age, and how the concept of desirable patina seems to be virtually non-existent within the traditional jewelry industry. Next, we get a bit of last week's show this week, as we circle back to note that Invicta is actually one of the brands that engrave its name on the side of watch cases, along with mentioning that the recent change in UK law that was going to make it an excellent place for Americans to purchase luxury watches has recently been reversed, meaning that there is no reason for us to book a flight to visit the AD. The discussion then shifts to all of the new watch releases from this week, starting with the TAG Heuer Formula 1 x Mario Kart Chronograph Tourbillon. After briefly contemplating the type of buyer this watch is intended to target, our hosts get into the details behind how our global economy makes it hard for brands to control their image within specific markets, along with how certain releases are simply intended for particular regions but end up getting seen by a global audience due to how everything is connected. Next, attention turns to the new Bremont releases and how the Supernova and its integrated bracelet fit into the rest of the brand's current lineup. Our hosts examine the Hublot Big Bang E FIFA World Cup Qatar 2022 smartwatch within the context of what responsibilities luxury brands have when it comes to the support of global issues. The show was supposed to end with reviews of three different chronographs at different price points from Timex, Tissot, and Longies. However, just as our hosts were just about to stop recording, Patek Philippe announced a handful of new watches, including the new Nautilus ref. 5811 in white gold. Show Notes 6:24 https://www.ablogtowatch.com/time-machines-tracing-the-predecessors-of-integrated-bracelet-design-with-the-zenith-defy-a3642/ 18:26 Last Weeks Show This Week 20:28 https://www.ablogtowatch.com/hands-on-debut-tag-heuer-unveils-limited-edition-formula-1-x-mario-kart-chronograph-and-tourbillon-watches-in-collaboration-with-nintendo/ 30:45 https://www.ablogtowatch.com/bremont-unveils-the-supernova-integrated-bracelet-watch/ https://www.ablogtowatch.com/bremont-debuts-the-fury-pilots-watch/ 36:03 https://www.ablogtowatch.com/hublot-big-bang-e-fifa-world-cup-qatar-2022-watch/ 45:10 https://www.ablogtowatch.com/watch-review-tissot-telemeter-1938-series/ https://www.ablogtowatch.com/the-timex-q-timex-chronograph-watch-is-the-q-youve-been-waiting-for/ https://www.ablogtowatch.com/longines-debuts-record-heritage-watch/ 52:06 https://www.ablogtowatch.com/patek-philippe-nautilus-5811-watch-debuts-as-the-white-gold-5811-1g-001/ --- Send in a voice message: https://anchor.fm/ablogtowatchweekly/message
For this episode of aBlogtoWatch Weekly, David is away on a secret trip where he has signed a strict non-disclosure agreement and can't tell anyone where he is going, so Ariel and Rick are joined by Simon from Escapement24 to talk about all of the new releases from this week in the world of watches. After briefly discussing NDA's and what type of agreement David might have signed, our trio of hosts turn their attention to integrated bracelet sports watches, and how the widespread popularity of the genre is slightly puzzling given that no one actually wears a metal bracelet watch as their preferred timepiece while playing sports. From there, the conversation shifts to how it seems to be exclusively watches that remain highly desirable when they show heavy signs of age, and how the concept of desirable patina seems to be virtually non-existent within the traditional jewelry industry. Next, we get a bit of last week's show this week, as we circle back to note that Invicta is actually one of the brands that engrave its name on the side of watch cases, along with mentioning that the recent change in UK legislature that was going to make it an excellent place for Americans to purchase luxury watches has recently been reversed, meaning that there is no reason for us to book a flight to visit the boutique.The discussion then shifts to all of the new watch releases from this week, starting with the TAG Heuer Formula 1 x Mario Kart Chronograph Tourbillon. After briefly contemplating the type of buyer this watch is intended to target, our hosts get into the details behind how our global economy makes it hard for brands to control their image within specific markets, along with how certain releases are simply intended for particular regions but end up getting seen by a global audience due to how everything is connected. Next, our hosts turn their attention to the new Bremont releases and how the Supernova and its integrated bracelet fit into the rest of the brand's current lineup, given the radical aesthetic departure it represents from the rest of Bremont's offerings. After briefly discussing Ariel's recent SUPERLATIVE podcast interview with watch industry author Pierre-Yves Donzé, our hosts examine the Hublot Big Bang E FIFA World Cup Qatar 2022 smartwatch within the context of what responsibilities luxury brands have when it comes to the support of global issues. Originally, the show was supposed to end with reviews of three different chronographs at different price points from Timex, Tissot, and Longies. However, just as our hosts were just about to stop recording, Patek Philippe announced a handful of new watches, including the new Nautilus ref. 5811 in white gold. Consequently, our hosts extend this week's episode by a few minutes to offer their initial thoughts on the next generation of Patek Philippe's internationally recognizable hype watch.Show Notes6:24https://www.ablogtowatch.com/time-machines-tracing-the-predecessors-of-integrated-bracelet-design-with-the-zenith-defy-a3642/18:26Last Weeks Show This Week20:28https://www.ablogtowatch.com/hands-on-debut-tag-heuer-unveils-limited-edition-formula-1-x-mario-kart-chronograph-and-tourbillon-watches-in-collaboration-with-nintendo/30:45https://www.ablogtowatch.com/bremont-unveils-the-supernova-integrated-bracelet-watch/https://www.ablogtowatch.com/bremont-debuts-the-fury-pilots-watch/36:03https://www.ablogtowatch.com/hublot-big-bang-e-fifa-world-cup-qatar-2022-watch/45:10https://www.ablogtowatch.com/watch-review-tissot-telemeter-1938-series/https://www.ablogtowatch.com/the-timex-q-timex-chronograph-watch-is-the-q-youve-been-waiting-for/https://www.ablogtowatch.com/longines-debuts-record-heritage-watch/52:06https://www.ablogtowatch.com/patek-philippe-nautilus-5811-watch-debuts-as-the-white-gold-5811-1g-001/
Strict meal plans are only useful if you can find all the ingredients at the price you need and you have no dietary restrictions, the right number of people to feed, and a family who all eat the same thing. We'll tell you how to write your own – and how to change it when you get to the shops if you need to. Hosted on Acast. See acast.com/privacy for more information.
Episode 028 of the Roogoodoo Podcast is part 2 or those Strict Parents! Tap in for the next half of madness! Did you break curfew or where you obedient?#Roogoodoo #Podcast #Caribbean #DemManSay #StrictParenting #Parenting@TheRoogoodooPodcast https://linktr.ee/roogoodoopodcast
Professor, former business school dean, expert on mistake proofing Episode page with video, transcript, and more My guest for Episode #186 of the My Favorite Mistake podcast is John Grout. He is the former dean of the Campbell School of Business at Berry College in Rome, Georgia. He's the current Chair of the Technology, Entrepreneurship, and Data Analytics Department and the David C. Garrett Jr. Professor of Business Administration. John has overseen the development, approval and implementation of Berry College's Creative Technologies program and Berry's makerspace, HackBerry Lab. Dr. Grout has researched mistake-proofing extensively and published numerous articles on mistake-proofing. In 2004, John received the Shingo Prize for his paper, “The Human Side of Mistake-Proofing” with Douglas Stewart. John has also consulted with a large variety of firms to mistake-proof their processes. Check out his website, www.MistakeProofing.com. He's also published “Mistake-Proofing the Design of Health Care Processes” a book that's freely available online. In this episode, John tells his favorite mistake story about using early mistakes to learn and then win a tower-building exercise, defeating a number of “A students” in the process. From John's story, what does that teach us about learning from mistakes — early and often — in a way that propels toward success? Why is this an entrepreneurship lesson (or a human lesson) and not just an engineering lesson? We also talk about questions and topics including: Surprisingly, it's the A students” who think they know how the world works Knowing vs. Experimenting? “It's all about the scientific method” — Lean Startup PDCA = Plan Do Check Adjust Others didn't observe and learn from your mistake? Spaghetti building – kindergartners vs. MBA TED talk — the god complex, trial and error Small tests of change = mistake mitigation method Chick-fil-A, ThedaCare, and rapid prototyping ThedaCare stories Adam Savage – Every Tool's a Hammer book How do you define mistakes? Strict definition vs common definition? mistakes — (strict definition) conscious deliberation that leads to selecting the wrong intention. (common definition) synonym for error. For example, the term mistake-proofing uses the common definition since mistake-proofing is used more to prevent slips than mistakes (using strict definition) Errors – breaks down then into mistakes vs slips Mistake – do what you intended to do Slips — right intent but not executed well How do you define “mistake proofing”?? Or Slip-Proofing How do we decide if mistakes or slips are preventable? “Different vocabularies” for each… Why are checklists the “weakest form of mistake proofing”? Some recent examples you've seen of mistake proofing in everyday life? Be careful signs… “How can I make this process fail? Make it fail in a benign way…” The language around “mistake proofing” or “error proofing” vs. — is it a mistake to say things like “fool proofing” or “idiot proofing”?? --- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/favorite-mistake/support
Join us for the AppleInsider show every Friday as we cover the latest Apple news and reviews for iPhone, iPad, Mac, Apple Watch and more. Tune in for special interview episodes and support the show monthly for an ad-free version and early access to episodes. Apple Podcasts: https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/homekit-insider/id1515834398 Spotify: https://open.spotify.com/show/6NdU3vOKmP6pMpViTfM2ij Overcast: https://overcast.fm/itunes1515834398/homekit-insider Google Podcasts: https://podcasts.google.com/feed/aHR0cHM6Ly9mZWVkcy5maXJlc2lkZS5mbS9ob21la2l0aW5zaWRlci9yc
Are you being too strict or too easy when it comes to your kid's tech use?Read the Plugged In review:https://www.pluggedin.com/tech-guide/If you've listened to any of our podcasts, please give us your feedback: https://focusonthefamily.com/podcastsurvey/
Episode 027 of the Roogoodoo Podcast is all about those Strict Parents! How was your childhood? Did your mother have you bag up? Apparently some of us have been outside for a long time!#Roogoodoo #Podcast #Caribbean #DemManSay #StrictParenting #Parenting@TheRoogoodooPodcast https://linktr.ee/roogoodoopodcast
durée : 00:04:26 - Le zoom de la rédaction - Apparu dans des vidéos cet été sur Tik Tok, ce terme a été repris par des milliers d'internautes. Les salarié·es qui revendiquent leur adhésion à cette philosophie décident de s'économiser, de faire uniquement les heures de leur contrat. Ils entendent ainsi repenser notre rapport au travail.
Reddit rSlash Storytime r amithejerk? where AITA for losing it on my husband for lying about an emergency to get me to leave my brother's wedding early? AITA for refusing to let my sister's boyfriend have the password to her safe while she's away? AITA for essentially telling my husband that the apparent “meaningful” name he was/is insisting on for our unborn son is utterly unfit? AITA for instituting a STRICT no plants or animals inside the house policy? AITA for the way I reacted to my parents open relationship and no longer paying rent AITA for my husbands aunts tree being cut down? AITA Because I made my parents homeless for getting rid of my dog AITA for not opening my room door to my step-sister when we were alone? AITA for going topless at a nude beach in front of friends? AITA For causing a scene on my father's birthday by telling my elderly parents that my brother isn't special because he was "gifted" as a child or change the fact that he's doing nothing with his life? AITA for refusing my coworker's apology and being nasty back? Hosted on Acast. See acast.com/privacy for more information.
In the last few years, we've seen ideas that were once on the far fringes of American political thought become some of the most important and frightening factors in our politics. Overturning elections. QAnon. "Alternative Electors." Strict originalist views on abortion. And now, using an obscure section of the Constitution to create a right-wing rewrite of the Constitution itself. Former US Senator Russ Feingold served nearly two decades in the United States Senate, and is the co-author of “The Constitution in Jeopardy" with Peter Prindiville. They both join us to explain this growing threat to the country.
Scott Galloway, Professor at NYU, cohost of the Pivot podcast and host of Prof G, returns to discuss taxes, regulations, French vacations, and his new book Adrift: America in 100 Charts. Plus, a Republican nominee under fire for not being under fire in Afghanistan, and DeSantis and Abbott have won the immigration issue, as they defined the game. Produced by Joel Patterson and Corey Wara Email us at firstname.lastname@example.org To advertise on the show, visit: https://advertisecast.com/TheGist Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices
Sheamus returns to After the Bell to discuss his instant classic Intercontinental Championship Match with Gunther at WWE Clash at the Castle, how he continues to thrive in WWE after all these years and his quest for the WWE Ultimate Grand Slam. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit podcastchoices.com/adchoices
Were you raised to believe to be Angry is Bad, or in my case "of the devil"?Todayʻs episode I talk about leaning into Sacred RAGE. Not Rage where we hurt, but where we burn away the SHAME that helps us HEAL. I share vulnerably my downloads about the word Patriarchy and what leaving a Strict religion has made me see.I talk about the damaging effects that shame and submissiveness have had on my life. How having an embodiment process allows us to Process on a deeper level.Allowing in SACRED RAGE dramatically opened me up to a new way of how I exist and relate to those I love and those I love to serve... you…You who feel healing is meant to go it alone. That is not how we are designed as women my sis. It is my hope this episode serves and connects in some way even if you never grew up as I did, that through my sharing, you will find the courage to explore your own barriers of shame that may be keeping you at a standstill.With so much love, I'm putting on a 2-hour LIVE Masterclass on 10/5/22: "A Sacred Shift" https://bit.ly/3LDKvKqSo much aloha to those of you who have been FEELING so much lately.xx, Uʻilani
James Leman (@the_carnivorist) nearly died after following a strict vegetarian for decades and then vegan diet for 5 years before finding an animal-based carnivore diet and resolving a host of health issues. He's endured multiple hospitalizations, autoimmune issues, anxiety, depression, and many other health problems before coming to this way of eating. Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/the_carnivorist/ This episode is brought to you by Optimal Carnivore. Do you struggle to eat organ meat? Optimal Carnivore was created by Carnivores for Carnivores. They created a unique organ complex from grass-fed animals in New Zealand. It includes 9 different organs - Liver, Brain, Heart, Thymus, Kidney, Spleen, Pancreas, Lung etc. Taking 6 capsules is the same as eating an ounce of raw organ meat from the butcher. Get 10% off your order by going to https://amzn.to/3hSXXtu and using the code: carnivore10 at checkout! (currently only shipping within the US) LMNT is offering a free sample pack along with any regular purchase when you use my custom link drinklmnt.com/carnivorecast . The LMNT Sample Pack includes 1 packet of every flavor. This is the perfect offer for 1) anyone who is interested in trying all of our flavors or 2) wants to introduce a friend to LMNT. Go to drinklmnt.com/carnivorecast to claim this awesome deal! What questions would you like answered or who would you like to hear from in the carnivore or research community? Let me know on Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook.
One of the scariest and most rewarding lifts - strict press! Putting ANYTHING over your head can be challenging, and now we want you to add a barbell and weight?But you do NOT have to start there. Listen to this episode and we will map it out for you.But - the wine! We taste Clos Apalta - one of the top wineries from Chile. Let's take a sip from this 99 point wine - heck yeah, I said that! Christine will let you know if an expensive wine is worth your buy in - what do you think her decision will be?More about Clos Apalta:https://www.closapalta.com/wine/clos-apalta/2017Set yourself up with Christine D"Angelo as a COACH on the 1st Phorm App! https://www.1stphorm.app/StineDFind Christine D'Angelo:Instagram: @christine_dangelo_ Facebook: @Christine Casiero D'AngeloFind Susan Pajak:Instagram: @winegirlgonewildFacebook: @Susan PajakPersonal Blog: winegirlgonewild.comFollow Workouts and Wine on INSTAGRAM @workoutsandwinepodcastAsk us all the questions, or drop us a note! We would love to hear from you:email@example.com
If you enjoy the My Crazy Family Podcast, PLEASE PRESS SUBSCRIBE! On Todays Episode: "My dad barely did time for molesting me" There are some intriguing members of this family tree! Dad and strict parents are purposefully playing mental games with his son. Share YOUR Crazy Family Story With Us Now!! Write in at http://www.crazyfampod.com Or call in 24/7 and share your story at 1-833-CRAY-FAM (1-833-272-9326)
Episode 289: Q&A: Where to Start? I Slipped! Do I Need to be Strict? Hello my friend. Today I am going to answer three listener questions that were written in to me. Feel free to write me your questions and maybe they will be selected for another podcast. Our first question is: I'm overwhelmed! There … Episode 289: Q&A: Where to Start? I Slipped! Do I Need to be Strict? Read More » The post Episode 289: Q&A: Where to Start? I Slipped! Do I Need to be Strict? appeared first on Real Weight Loss for Real Women.
Drea Knows Best never thought she would be a full time content creator. Coming from a Nigerian household, she had the conventional options of being a doctor, lawyer, or engineer. But one day, she decided to give it a try and bam! She is now an online sensation. In this video, we sit down to share the story of how she became a content creator and offer some advice for those who are thinking about making the switch. Follow me on IG, Tik Tok, and Youtube @maisvault Follow Drea on IG, Tik Tok, and Youtube @DreaKnowsBest
Chaque jour, écoutez le Best-of de l'Afterfoot, sur RMC la radio du Sport ! L'After foot, c'est LE show d'après-match et surtout la référence des fans de football depuis 15 ans ! Les rencontres se prolongent tous les soirs avec Gilbert Brisbois et Nicolas Jamain avec les réactions des joueurs et entraîneurs, les conférences de presse d'après-match et les débats animés entre supporters, experts de l'After et auditeurs. RMC est une radio généraliste, essentiellement axée sur l'actualité et sur l'interactivité avec les auditeurs, dans un format 100% parlé, inédit en France. La grille des programmes de RMC s'articule autour de rendez-vous phares comme Apolline Matin (6h-9h), les Grandes Gueules (9h-12h), Estelle Midi (12h-15h), Super Moscato Show (15h-18h), Rothen s'enflamme (18h-20h), l'After Foot (20h-minuit). RMC est une radio généraliste, essentiellement axée sur l'actualité et sur l'interactivité avec les auditeurs, dans un format 100% parlé, inédit en France. La grille des programmes de RMC s'articule autour de rendez-vous phares comme Apolline Matin (6h30-8h30), les Grandes Gueules (9h-12h), Estelle Midi (12h-15h), Super Moscato Show (15h-18h), Rothen s'enflamme (18h-20h), l'After Foot (20h-minuit).
L'émission qui dit tout haut ce que le monde du foot pense tout bas ! Cette année, l' « After Foot » fête ses 16 ans et propose un choc des générations ! Composée de ceux qui ont grandi avec l'After, la « Génération After » prendra les commandes de l'émission entre 20h et 22h. Avec Nicolas Jamain aux manettes, entouré de Kévin Diaz, Mathieu Bodmer, Walid Acherchour, Simon Dutin, Romain Canuti et Sofiane Zouaoui, cette nouvelle génération débattra avec passion, mais toujours en conservant les convictions et les codes de l'After. De 22h à minuit, place à la version originelle et historique de l'After autour de Gilbert Brisbois, Daniel Riolo, Stéphane Guy, et Florent Gautreau. Les soirs de Ligue des Champions, Jérôme Rothen rejoindra la bande pour les matchs du PSG et Mamadou Niang pour les matchs de l'OM. Nicolas Vilas sera aux commandes pour faire vivre les matchs dans l'After Live. Cette année, Thibaut Giangrande pilotera l' « After Foot » le vendredi et samedi. RMC est une radio généraliste, essentiellement axée sur l'actualité et sur l'interactivité avec les auditeurs, dans un format 100% parlé, inédit en France. La grille des programmes de RMC s'articule autour de rendez-vous phares comme Apolline Matin (6h30-8h30), les Grandes Gueules (9h-12h), Estelle Midi (12h-15h), Super Moscato Show (15h-18h), Rothen s'enflamme (18h-20h), l'After Foot (20h-minuit).
This week, we are joined by 2022 Strict Curl Champion, Eric "Tiny" Tovar! Eric discusses his origins in power lifting, and how he started lifting in the first place. How he uses lifting as therapy. Peter also shares a story of his cameo in a porn. Eric also talks about his hobby, of ghost hunting. Follow Eric's ghost adventures.
Learn Polish in a fun way with short Episodes. On this episode we talk about Nowy rok szkolny - New school year. Find all Graphics to freely Download https://www.facebook.com/learnpolishpodcast Start Your Own Podcast + Social Media & Donations https://bio.link/podcaster All other Social Media & Donations https://linktr.ee/learnpolish Spotify https://open.spotify.com/show/0ZOzgwHvZzEfQ8iRBfbIAp Apple https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/learn-polish-podcast/id1462326275 To listen to all Episodes + The Speaking Podcast + The Meditation Podcast + Business Opportunities please visit http://roycoughlan.com/ ===================================== 1st Episodes https://learnpolish.podbean.com/page/34/ ===================================== Now also on Bitchute https://www.bitchute.com/channel/pxb8OvSYf4w9/ Youtube https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC9SeBSyrxEMtEUlQNjG3vTA To get Skype lessons from Kamila or her team please visits http://polonuslodz.com/ -------------------------------------------------- In this Episode we discuss: Nowy rok szkolny - New school year We wrześniu dzieci wracają do szkoły - In September children go back to school Koniec wakacji - End of summer Lubiłeś chodzić do szkoły? - Did you like going to school? Przedmioty szkolne - School subjects Język polski, angielski, matematyka, historia - Polish, English, mathematics, history Jaki był Twój ulubiony przedmiot szkolny? - What was your favorite school subject? Lubiłem biologię, matematykę - I liked biology, math Umysł humanistyczny - Humanistic mind Umysł ścisły - Strict mind Co jest w tornistrze? - What's in the schoolbag? Książki, zeszyty, piórnik - Books, notebooks, pencil case Co jest w piórniku? - What's in the pencil case? Długopisy, kredki, ołówek, gumka, flamastry, drugie śniadanie - Pens, crayons, pencil, eraser, felt-tip pens, lunch Ocena - Mark Byłem dobrą uczennicą - I was a good student --------------------------------------------------------------- If you would like Skype lessons from kamila or her team please visit http://polonuslodz.com/ All Polish Episodes / Speaking Podcast / Meditation Podcast / Awakening Podcast/ Polish Property & business Offers - http://roycoughlan.com/ All Social Media + Donations https://linktr.ee/learnpolish Start your own Podcast https://bio.link/podcaster Please Share with your friends / Subscribe / Comment and give a 5* Review - Thank You (Dziekuje Bardzo :) ) #learnpolish #polishpodcast #learnpolishpodcast
Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation could help with cognitive depression Duke University, August 27 2022. An article appearing in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology: Heart Failure reported the outcome of a pilot study that found an association between supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA and reduced cognitive depression in heart failure patients. Cognitive depression is characterized by subjective symptoms such as pessimism and sadness, while somatic depression includes physical manifestations that include fatigue and sleep disturbances. The study included 108 patients with a major depressive disorder, chronic heart failure and low blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids. Participants received fish oil containing EPA and DHA, a high EPA supplement or a placebo daily for 12 weeks. Blood samples collected before and after treatment were evaluated for red blood cell EPA and DHA, the Omega-3 Index and other factors. Omega-3 values increased in both the EPA/DHA and EPA only groups, while the placebo group showed little change. Higher omega-3 Index values were associated with lower cognitive depression scores. Social functioning as evaluated by a general health survey significantly improved with EPA/DHA supplementation and showed a tendency toward improvement in the high EPA group. "This was a study in already depressed individuals, which meant the researchers are looking to high-dose (although it could have been higher) omega-3 supplements to improve depressive symptoms, like a drug," noted coauthor William S. Harris, PhD. "Generally, we think of the function of omega-3s as preventative rather than as treatment. If used as treatment, the dose must be fairly high (4 grams is a typical 'drug' dose) and blood levels must be measured.” Groundbreaking Study Shows Fasting Can Slow Aging, Rebuild Immune System University of Southern California, August 28, 2022 Cutting-edge research reveals that occasionally adopting a diet that mimics the effects of fasting may provide dramatic health benefits. “Fasting flips a regenerative switch essentially regenerating the entire immune system. It gives the OK for stem cells to go begin proliferating and rebuild the entire system,” said Prof Valter Longo, Professor of Gerontology and the Biological Sciences at the University of California. A study, led by USC's Dr. Valter, revealed that a “cycles of a four-day low-calorie diet that mimics fasting (FMD) cut visceral belly fat and elevated the number of progenitor and stem cells in several organs of old mice — including the brain, where it boosted neural regeneration and improved learning and memory,” according to USC News. Dr. Longo notes that strict fasting can be difficult for people to adhere to, and also has the potential to be dangerous, while pointing out that a fasting mimicking diet is much safer and easier. “Strict fasting is hard for people to stick to, and it can also be dangerous, so we developed a complex diet that triggers the same effects in the body,” said Longo, Edna M. Jones Professor of Biogerontology at the USC Davis School of Gerontology and director of the USC Longevity Institute. “I've personally tried both, and the fasting mimicking diet is a lot easier and also a lot safer.” The fasting mimicking diet cuts a person's daily caloric intake over the fasting period down to 34 to 54 percent of their daily average, with a specific balance of micronutrients, fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. In previous groundbreaking research, Longo has shown how fasting can protect immune and other cells from chemotherapy toxicity, while simultaneously starving out cancer cells. Fasting for seventy-two hours protected cancer patients against the toxic impact of chemotherapy: “The good news is the body got rid of the parts in the system which might be damaged or old and inefficient parts, during the fasting. If you start with a system heavily damaged by chemotherapy or aging, fasting cycles can generate, literally, a new immune system,” he said. “It's about reprogramming the body so it enters a slower aging mode, but also rejuvenating it through stem cell-based regeneration,” Longo said. “It's not a typical diet because it isn't something you need to stay on.” “If the results remain as positive as the current ones, I believe this FMD will represent the first safe and effective intervention to promote positive changes associated with longevity and health span, which can be recommended by a physician,” Longo told USC News. “We will soon meet with FDA officers to pursue several FDA claims for disease prevention and treatment.” “Micro-breaks” from tasks show promise in boosting wellbeing West University of Timioara (Romania), August 31, 2022 A review of 22 previously published studies suggests that taking micro-breaks—discontinuing a task for periods of 10 minutes or less—is generally associated with reduced fatigue and increased vigor. Patricia Albulescu of the West University of Timioara, Romania, and colleagues present these findings in the open-access journal PLOS ONE . Concerns are rising over the heavy workloads and long shifts faced by many employees currently in the work force. An increasing number of studies explore various aspects of employee energy management and recovery, often focused on recovery after the workday is over. However, the potential effects of recovery processes during the workday remain unclear. To improve understanding, Albulescu and colleagues conducted a meta-analysis of 22 studies from 19 manuscripts published within the last 30 years, all of which examined the potential benefits of taking micro-breaks from assigned tasks. Tasks varied between experiments and included work simulations, real work-related tasks, and non-work-related cognitive tests. Types of breaks varied as well, including physical breaks, relaxing activities, and more engaging activities, such as watching videos. Statistical analysis of the combined study results revealed an overall association between micro-breaks, higher levels of vigor, and lower fatigue in participants, suggesting that micro-breaks may contribute to wellbeing. These findings support micro-breaks as a potential strategy for boosting wellbeing in the workplace. However, when it comes to job performance, longer breaks may be needed for recovery from more cognitively demanding tasks. Future research could investigate longer breaks as well as address other remaining questions, such as optimal activities to engage in during a micro-break. Mindfulness training improves diabetes symptoms and blood sugar levels VA Healthcare System in Pittsburg, August 24, 2022 It's easy to let current circumstances in our lives dictate our thoughts and feelings. When a problem arises, if we get sick, we are quick to blame it on anything but ourselves. In this way, we are undermining the power of our own thoughts and intentions at work, in us and around us, guiding our present reality. Instead of letting negative circumstances and illness just happen to us, we should embrace the power of mindfulness, allowing ourselves to instead happen to the universe around us. The awareness of our bodily functions, our breathing, our thinking, our motives and the way we treat others helps us be mindful and aware, putting us in the driver seat of determining our paths through life. Research recently presented at the American Association of Diabetes Educators Annual Meeting & Exhibition showed that positive mindfulness training can help improve diabetes symptoms and blood sugar levels. The research was carried out on 28 veterans with type 1 and type 2 diabetes at the VA Healthcare System in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, as part of the Mindful Stress Reduction in Diabetes Education program (Mind-STRIDE). Diabetes-related stress falls significantly in veterans during mindfulness training and deep breathing meditation Veterans' glucose levels drop dramatically as diabetes-related distress falls 41 percent The changes over the course of the training were significant. Three months after mindfulness training, diabetes-related distress for all 28 veterans fell 41 percent! A1C levels dropped significantly, almost measuring under the ideal 7.0 range. They went from 8.3 before the mindfulness training to 7.3 after the classes. On top of that, veterans completed diabetes self-management goals with more efficiency after the training. They were better problem solvers, began to eat healthier, were more active and coped better with stress. An Oral Combination of Vitamins A, C, E, and Mg++ Improves hearing University of Castilla (Spain), August 28, 2022 According to news reporting originating in Albacete, Spain,research stated, "The increasing rate of age-related hearing loss (ARHL), with its subsequent reduction in quality of life and increase in health care costs, requires new therapeutic strategies to reduce and delay its impact. The goal of this study was to determine if ARHL could be reduced in a rat model by administering a combination of antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E acting as free radical scavengers along with Mg, a known powerful cochlear vasodilator (ACEMg)." The news reporters obtained a quote from the research from the University of Castilla, "Toward this goal, young adult, 3 month-old Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one was fed with a diet composed of regular chow ('normal diet,' ND); the other received a diet based on chow enriched in ACEMg ('enhanced diet,' ED). Auditory brainstem recordings (ABR) were performed at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 kHz at 3, 6-8, and 12-14 months of age. No differences were observed at 3 months of age, in both ND and ED animals. At 6-8 and 12-14 months of age there were significant increases in auditory thresholds and a reduction in the wave amplitudes at all frequencies tested, compatible with progressive development of ARHL. However, at 6-8 months threshold shifts in ED rats were significantly lower in low and medium frequencies, and wave amplitudes were significantly larger at all frequencies when compared to ND rats. In the oldest animals, differences in the threshold shift persisted, as well as in the amplitude of the wave II, suggesting a protective effect of ACEMg on auditory function during aging." According to the news reporters, the research concluded: "These findings indicate that oral ACEMg may provide an effective adjuvant therapeutic intervention for the treatment of ARHL, delaying the progression of hearing impairment associated with age." Scientists use 'sleep age' to infer long-term health Stanford University, September 1, 2022 Sleep age is a projected age that correlates to one's health based on their quality of sleep. So for instance, if you analyze the sleep characteristics of dozens of 55-year-olds and average them out, you'll have an idea of what sleep looks like at that age. For instance, someone who's 55 and sleeps soundly through the night with good quality REM cycles could, theoretically, might have a sleep age of 45. Sleep expert Emmanuel Mignot, MD, Ph.D., and his colleagues analyzed some 12,000 studies, each of which focused on an individual, that reported characteristics of their sleep—such as chin and leg movement, breathing and heartbeat. Their goal was to develop a system that assigns one's sleep age and, using machine learning, identifies the variations in sleep most closely linked to mortality. I spoke with Mignot, who has studied sleep for 30 years, about why sleep age is important, how it's calculated and what the study's findings imply about our health. Why study sleep age? When you sleep, you're disconnected from sensory inputs—you're, ideally, not being bothered by the noisy external world or bright lights. During sleep, it's not just the brain that's going through an automatic program, but heart rate and breathing also change, and variations in these can be early predictors of a health disturbance. We spend about a third of our lives sleeping, so it's a substantial component of our general well-being. It's well known that, in pretty much any disorder, sleep is one of the first things that is disturbed. For example, about five or 10 years before other symptoms appear in Parkinson's disease patients, a specific sleep disturbance occurs during which the patient violently acts out dreams, shouts or punches into a wall. What was the most important finding from the study? Our main finding was that sleep fragmentation—when people wake up multiple times throughout the night for less than a minute without remembering it—was the strongest predictor of mortality. Though we see a link in the data, how it contributes to mortality is unknown. This is different from a person realizing they were waking up, which happens during sleep disorders such as insomnia. Determining why sleep fragmentation is so detrimental to health is something we plan to study in the future. Can we measure our own sleep age? Can it be improved? The code is available for physicians and researchers, but the average person would likely have trouble running it through a computer. Regardless, it's not deterministic. There is enormous variation. Even if you have an older sleep age than your chronological age, it doesn't mean that your mortality risk is going to be higher. You see people chain smoking and drinking alcohol at 90 years old and you wonder, "How is this person surviving so long?" There is always huge natural variation. Going to bed and waking up at regular hours is a key to improving your sleep. This means not oversleeping but ensuring you're fully rested. It's a different amount for everyone and often the window varies slightly—for example, being a night owl versus an early bird. Getting solid light exposure—preferably with outside light—during the day, keeping the sleep environment dark at night, exercising regularly but not too close to bedtime, not drinking alcohol and caffeine around bedtime, and avoiding heavy nighttime meals all contribute to healthy sleep. And, of course, make sure any sleep disorder is treated. We found that people with older sleep ages compared to their actual age are at an increased risk of mortality, based on the sleep of patients who later died. From other studies, we know that poor sleep is found in a variety of conditions such as sleep apnea, neurodegeneration, obesity and chronic pain. How poor sleep causes, exacerbates or results from these conditions is unknown.
In this episode of the Norse Mentality, Andy and Ethan Buck discuss questions submitted by the listeners. Norse Fitness Website: www.norsefitness.co Follow Andy on IG: www.instagram.com/andrewclifflewis Follow Ethan on IG: www.instagram.com/iron_will_pt Follow Norse Fitness: www.instagram.com/norse_fitness www.facebook.com/norsefitness www.tiktok.com/@norsefitness www.youtube.com/norsefitness
Are you tired of following strict diets and spending hours at the gym? Do you feel that you're doing everything right, but you're still not losing weight? In this Ted talk episode, Ted reveals the step-by-step process on how his high achiever clients over 40 are losing up to 30 lbs in 4 months while growing their business or career. Get ready for a reality check — and a sigh of relief. Listen now!
Maybe the first question should be, how do christians relate to the ten commandments? Jesus said he came to fulfill and not abolish the law, so what does that really mean? Today we're taking a deep dive into the different perspectives and the mindset we should all have as we observe sabbath rest.
For Brandon, highlighting his energetic personality and company mission through Instagram and TikTok has been invaluable to the success of his business. In addition to being entertaining though, he also talks about the importance of providing true value to your followers—preferably for free via your content.Brandon also speaks on the power of collaborations with other individuals and companies in your space. In fact, he believes that partnering with other influential brands is the fastest way to grow as a business.Finally, Brandon explains his approach to continuing education, especially in the incredibly saturated fitness industry.Sponsors:Visit https://buildertrend.com/aft/ to get a 60-day money-back guarantee on your Buildertrend account!Pella Windows & Doors - https://www.pella.com/Events:Learn More/Register for Contractor Coalition Summit November 06-09 https://www.eventcreate.com/e/contractorcoalitionsummitTopics Discussed:[02:44] Why Brandon started his own business[08:00] The hard work that goes into building a successful business[10:58] Knowing your worth as an entrepreneur[15:34] Pricing your services[18:38] Building a community around your brand[26:24] The power of referrals[28:20] Expanding your list of services or auxiliary ventures beyond your core business[35:14] Viewing your peers as collaborators instead of as competition[37:57] Navigating the toxicity of social media and avoiding the comparison trap[43:59] Continuing education best practices[47:34] Setting yourself up for success by nailing the “new client phase”[53:18] Collaborating with other companies[55:36] Designing his unique kettlebells and what Brandon does for funConnect with Guest:Website - https://www.strictvisionathletics.com/Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/strict_vision_athletics/YouTube - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vxc3LKY01WQConnect with Brad Leavitt:Website - https://www.aftconstructionpodcast.com/Instagram - https://instagram.com/aft_constructionFacebook - https://www.facebook.com/aftconstructionHouzz - https://www.houzz.com/pro/aft-construction/aft-constructionPinterest - https://www.pinterest.ph/AFT_CONSTRUCTION/YouTube - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCzB4R_DHPVV1SPh7RUfR5jgKey Quotes by Brandon:To know what you're worth is probably one of the single most difficult facets of being an entrepreneur.Building a community is one of the most valuable things you can do, and that is something that is surprisingly inexpensive when it comes to a monetary amount. Now time-wise, it costs quite a bit.Give away as much as you possibly can for free for as long as you can. That entices people, because people hate being sold to, especially online.Never view your peers through the lens of competition.You're going to win the long game by being consistent, not by going viral.Collaborating with other companies is how you're going to grow the fastest, hands down.
Welcome back to the Bar Exam Toolbox podcast! Today, we're discussing the Establishment Clause and the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment, which pertain to the right to freedom of religion. In this episode, we discuss: Restrictions that the Establishment Clause and the Free Exercise Clause impose on the government Strict scrutiny analysis Lemon v. Kurtzman and the Lemon Test Going through two questions from previous California bar exams Resources: “Listen and Learn” series (https://barexamtoolbox.com/bar-exam-toolbox-podcast-archive-by-topic/bar-exam-toolbox-podcast-explaining-individual-mee-and-california-bar-essay-questions/#listen-learn) The Brainy Bar Bank: Streamlining Bar Study (https://barexamtoolbox.com/brainy-bar-bank/) California Bar Examination – Essay Questions and Selected Answers, February 2011 (https://juraxbar.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/February-2011-CBX.pdf) California Bar Examination – Essay Questions and Selected Answers, February 2014 (https://www.calbar.ca.gov/Portals/0/documents/admissions/gbx/February2014CBXSelectedAnswers_R.pdf) Podcast Episode 44: Tackling a California Bar Exam Essay: Constitutional Law (https://barexamtoolbox.com/podcast-episode-44-tackling-a-california-bar-exam-essay-constitutional-law/) Podcast Episode 76: Tackling an MEE Con Law Essay (https://barexamtoolbox.com/podcast-episode-76-tackling-an-mee-con-law-essay-question/) Download the Transcript (https://barexamtoolbox.com/episode-186-listen-and-learn-establishment-clause-and-free-exercise-clause-con-law/) If you enjoy the podcast, we'd love a nice review and/or rating on Apple Podcasts (https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/bar-exam-toolbox-podcast-pass-bar-exam-less-stress/id1370651486) or your favorite listening app. And feel free to reach out to us directly. You can always reach us via the contact form on the Bar Exam Toolbox website (https://barexamtoolbox.com/contact-us/). Finally, if you don't want to miss anything, you can sign up for podcast updates (https://barexamtoolbox.com/get-bar-exam-toolbox-podcast-updates/)! Thanks for listening! Alison & Lee
commander in charge of Huguang province, Prince Nikan. Meanwhile Qing princes Shang Kexi and Geng Jimao were dispatched to pacify Guangdong and Guangxi. Wu Sangui was ordered to pacify Sichuan, but was being tied down heavily in its northern sector, maybe he was fighting all the tigers. Wu had discovered that Sichuan was so devastated it made things ruinous for military campaigns. He lacked the resources to do much against the countless bandits armies and the newly emerged forces of Sun Kewangs which he referred to as a “poison overrunning the province”. The entire situation as Wu put it “Chengdu was a devastated ruin and all was empty around it. The dead and starving were everywhere and for hundreds of li there were no cooking fires but bandit gangs roamed allying with the ming freely. All of Sichuan is in the hands of bandits and their strategic situation has already improved greatly since their emergence. Without men or materiel where will I get the resources to recover land and extirpate [the bandits]?” Nonetheless in february of 1652, Wu and his subordinate Li Guohan made an offensive through the Jianmen “sword pass” all the way to Jiading. By april they captured Chongqing and by may northern Sichuan was considered fully pacified. Still Wu and Guohan had no illusions, the bandits and Ming defenses in the south remained dangerous, but the giddy young Qing Emperor assumed Sichuan as a whole was weakened and thought Wu would be able to assist Nikan in his mission. The young Qing emperor also sought to mass large armies to retake Yunnan and Guizhou after Sichuan was taken, quite a large order. A grandson of Nurhaci, Prince Nikan served with Prince Haoge in western China and held an assortment of administrative posts in the capital before he was appointed “Ding yuan da Jiangjun”, generalissimo in charge of pacifying the distant regions, following Kong Youdes death. Nikan proceeded into Huguang at the head of his army of 100,000. Like most Qing commanders, Prince Nikan was given orders to accept the surrender of anyone who submitted without a fight and that it was paramount to protect the people. Strict military regulations were to be enforced, forbidding the rape and pillaging of whom were supposed to be their subjects. Understandable, you can't go around abusing the people you want to govern after all. Nikan's army marched to Guangxi to do battle with Li Dingguo and he was promised aid from Xi'an. The Qing military operations were consuming more than half the Qing governments revenue and they knew they should be cautious and secure taxable lands before venturing deep into the southwest again. Nikans forces successfully defeated Li Dingguo's subordinates Ma Jinzhong at Yuezhou and Zhang Honggong at Changsha. Nikan pursued them west and encountered Li Dingguo's scouts near Hengzhou. Nikan defeated some of Li's forces at Hengzhou sending him on the run, but then Li set up an ambush near Qiyang where Nikan's army sustained heavy casualties. Nikan pushed forward, with his vanguard running into another ambush near Yongzhou. Li feigned a retreat and soon Nikans army was stretched out widely into 3 groupings. Li then personally led his forces brandishing a great sword on horseback into battle. Nikan fought bravely but was overwhelmed and speared off his mount. Li severed Nikans head from its corpse and paraded it around before falling back to Wugang. The Qing were absolutely shocked, Emperor Shunzhi screamed “ “In our dynasty's military history we've never suffered a loss like this!”. The Ming scholar and philosopher Huang Zongxi said of Li Dingguo's victory “it was the most complete Ming victory since the Wanli reign.”. The prefect of Guilin said of Li's victory ““The duke (Li) uses troops like a god. He's a little Zhuge [Liang]. His laws and regulations are clear and strict without committing the slightest mistake, and he combines the strong and weak in his brigades with all knowing their roles. Thus the people practically fight to join him.” The Qing licked their wounds and now put the veteran collaborator Hong Chengchou in charge of all operations in the far south. Even though Li had managed to kill Prince Nikan, he was unable to take advantage of the great victory because his subordinates Feng Shuangli and Ma Jinzhong were still working for Sun Kewang in secrecy, undermining him. Soon much of Huguang fell right back into the hands of the Qing and Feng sent word to Sun to stoke his jealousy “I fear that from now on, Dingguo will be hard to control”. Sun tried to remedy his relationship with Li by offering him the title of Prince of Xining, but Li refused stating “Investitures come from the Son of Heaven. How can one prince enfoeff another?” thus Li was making the argument that only Emperor Yongli could bestow someone as prince outraging Sun, kind of ironic also given the fact it was an argument Sun had made himself, haha. Sun was publicly praising Li's victories, while privately trying to destroy him. Sun sent countless letters summoning Li to “discuss strategy” but instead Li camped in Baoqing and ignored them. It turns out Li was being tipped off by Liu Wenxiu's son that Sun was probably trying to assassinate him. Li worried not just for his life, but for his family who were all in Yunnan. Now it should be noted Li Dingguo's armies success was primarily a result of his training programs and leadership. Li was an extremely capable military leader, he understood the limitations and strengths of his forces. For one thing he did not believe in sticking around in one place for too long, he knew the limitations of his logistics, such as a need for food. His experience as a bandit leader was of grave importance for the survival of his forces as most of their campaigns relied on moving into territories, securing resources and moving on. He also had a tendency to strike out fast without warning and leav before the Qing could consolidate on that position. Li made sure to build close ties with areas he led his forces into, trying to win over many, and this proved highly successful as unlike his former adoptive father, Li had always tried to limit atrocities. Li also heavily benefited from Yunnan specifically, he was running around with war elephants afterall, fearsome shock units, though very expensive to feed and maintain. It was said that the Qing feared Li and his “southern barbarian forces” as they were known. Estimates for the total troops available for the South Ming regime are most likely inflated but some sources claim Sun Kewang to have 800,000 men, Li Dingguo 400,000 and Liu Wenxiu 140,000. There is a breakdown of organizational structure as well when it comes to the South Ming armies. For mobile brigades (youji), each with a commander, consisting of 2 brigades (ying), which held around 1750 troops. Then there are 5 vice commanders (dusi) each with 350 troops, divided into 5 separate units of 70, further divided into 5 squads of 13. Now for a regular brigade each held 3000 troops with 10 battalions of 300, subdivided into 2 companies of 150 each. Lt's led platoons of 30 men, sergeants squads of 10. The South Ming regime were bolstered heavily by minority troops which themselves brought a variety of differing weaponry and military tactics. Its hard to gauge, but some modern scholars estimate there was a ratio of 1 gun per 15 soldiers overall, but other scholars argue they had even more. As already mentioned we see a heavy use of Elephant cavalry amongst Li Dingguo's forces, he also had unique firearms, repeating crossbows and specialized polearms. By the way if you ever have a chance to check out repeating crossbows going back to the ancient times of China, its worthwhile, they are awesome. There were the famous 3 eyed bird guns, western made cannons and much more. Li's force particularly liked using cavalry, favoring the mobility, but horses were in short supply for Yunnan and Sichuan. The war elephants were typically in the frontlines with men firing guns atop their backs, which sounds absolutely awesome. Li Dingguo's campaigns also came with horrifying consequences for the common folk, it is estimated up to a possibly million commoners were killed during the offensive in 1652 from war conditions and famine. Basically anywhere the Qing and Ming decided to do battle ruined the area, people were pressed into service, killed, pillaged, lost homes and farms and such leading to starvation, many refugees spread into other areas causing more and more problems. While northern Sichuan was being secured by the forces of Li Guoying and Wu Sangui, Sun Kewang decided to expand into northern Sichuan and sent Liu Wenxiu. The Qing attempted to hold Liu's forces back, but the elephant cavalry proved extremely effective and soon they were pushed back towards Baoning. A large reason the Elephant cavalry was so successful was because they simply spooked the Qing horses, though for anyone who knows their Mongol war history, you can already see how using war elephants might prove disastrous. While horses are indeed spooked by elephants, horses mounted archers can quite easily spook elephants back by pelting them with arrows and flanking them. Regardless from many of the sources I am reading, this seems to not become the case until later on. Liu Wenxiu soon took Chongqing, Chengdu with the aid of his elephants and heavy cannons, he now felt the time was right to march on the Qing stronghold of Baoning. Liu besieged Baoning with 50,000 troops while another Ming commander, Wang Fuchen built floating bridges to cross the Ling River to cut off the escape from Baoning. Wu Sangui argued with Li Guoying that they should retreat to Hanzhong, but Li felt abandoning Baoning would mean the loss of Sichuan completely and that was unacceptable. Li then instructed Wu to place his troops in a position from which they could not escape. This tactic is known as “deadly ground”, the idea was by putting the forces in a life or death situation they would perform at their best. Sure hate to be those forces. Wu Sangui was still looking to retreat, but his colleagues basically told him he would get executed for doing so in Beijing. Abandoning Baoning would set the Qing pacification back for years and thus it was imperative to make this stand. Baoning was quite a defendable city, it held rivers on 3 sides and a mountain on its 4th. The Ming tried to use that mountain to fire muskets into the city but the range was too far. Liu kept up the pressure on 3 sides of the city while guarding against any relief forces incoming from the north. It was an overly aggressive stance leaving Liu's forces thinly places about, but he had no choice but to take up an aggressive stance in the hopes of breaking the city faster since Liu did not have enough supplies for a long siege, neither did the Qing for that matter. It also seems Liu had his eyes fixated on the prize and may have been too eager. Afterall if he took Baoning it would mean he was the man who took all of Sichuan. It seems in his efforts to envelope Baoning Liu had left some gaps in his formations and Wu saw this. Liu had arrayed his 13 war elephant cavalry units in the front of the formation intending to use them as shock troops and to protect his more unarmored troops in the formations center. The problem was because the war elephants were in the front like this, the troops behind them could not see what was past the elephants, and elephants unlike horses dont move fast, thus the enemy would be able to maneuver quickly and the troops would not know where they would be hit in time. What made maters even worse was the fact these unarmored troops in the middle had their backs to the Ling River. Lius army consisted mostly of pikemen with rattan shields and some harquebusiers. They were arrayed on the 3 sides of the city, 4 ranks deep with elephants in front followed by pikemen and harquebusiers in the rear. The formation reassembled a crescent moon, stretching some 5 miles around the city. For those of you war gamers you can probably visualize the setup and see some of the issues. For example Liu would employ his elephants into a charge to smash the enemy's cavalry, then open the lines for pikemen to finish them off followed by harquebusiers to shoot straddlers, a good plan? Problem, elephants are quite slow, what if the cavalry simply run around them? Wu told Zhang that if they could open a gap in the enemy's lines they might be able to win. Liu commanded an attack and Wu feigned a retreat near the Guanyin Temple which drew the Ming in pursuit. The pursuit separated some of the formation exposing the unarmored troops in the middle of Liu's formation and Wu circled around the flanks concentrating fire up the weak middle. Next Wu's cavalry smashed into some Pikemen formations pushing the enemy closer to the Ling River. Then Wu led his force against Liu Wenxiu, charging at the elephants, but they did not break. So Wu feigned another retreat, goading Liu into a chaotic pursuit. As Liu charged, Wu's forces wheeled back around and hit them with a crossfire of arrows, remember what I said about Mongolian tactics. To make matters worse, Liu's hasty pursuit saw him leaving behind many of the shield bearers, and thus they had no counter to the arrow fire. Liu's forces began to rout and Liu himself was forced to escape by cutting a floating bridge at the head of nearly half his original force of 50,000. Now 10,000 of his men were on the other side of the Ling river, scrambling to get across and they were quickly slaughtered. The Elephants eventually panicked and scattered in their own right. Wu Sangui went on to claim his forces killed and captured more than 40,000 troops during the battle. Li Guoying claimed that no more than 1000 men managed to escape and that they had captured seals of authority, 3 elephants, over 2000 horses and a mountain of firearms. Liu would retreat all the way to Yunnan and be lambasted by Sun and demoted. Liu from then on would resent Sun and fell more into the fold of Li Dingguo. After the battle both Li Guoying and Wu Sangui sent forces wheeling around to pursue the Ming as they withdrew. Wu Sangui's forces eventually stopped at Chengdu wrecking multiple Ming armies. Li Guoying began to consolidate his power in Sichuan, defeating and cornering Ming loyalist forces across the north and west of Sichuan. Li would go as far as to claim north and western Sichuan were fully pacified to Beijing. Meanwhile the Ming court was still fawning over Li Dingguo like fangirls of a Kpop band and gave him the title of Prince of Xining, really pissing off Sun Kewang. This pushed Sun Kewang to begin a military campaign going east in autumn of 1652 seeking to raise his military profile, but at the same time Hong Chengchou was sent to Hunan to pacify it. Hong did not take an aggressive stance and opted instead to restore the prosperity of the region. Sun's campaign began with the capture of Chenzhou, where he smashed its east gate with his war elephants allowing his infantry to swarm into the city fighting bloody street to street warfare. Sun followed up the massacre, by executing tons of Qing officials and erecting piles of severed limbs to showcase it, so some old fashion Zhang Xianzhong stuff. Sun Kewang afterwards personally commanded his army to attack Baoqing alongside Feng Shuangli and Bai Wenxuan to his left and right. A veteran Qing commander named Tong Tulai held the city and upon seeing the banners of Sun Kewang in the middle formation order the concentration of his forces fire upon the center units. Both sides took equal and heavy casualties, but soon Sun Kewangs army broke and fled with Tong Tulai choosing not to pursue, probably learning a lesson from Prince Nikan's demise. Sun's defeat at Baoqing and Liu Wenxiu's defeat at Baoning convinced many that Sun Kewang was an incompetant military leader and that he had wasted over 3 years training his forces for nothing. Thus ironically Sun Kewangs efforts to eclipse his rival, Li Dingguo had resulted in the exact opposite, making Li look even better. Sun then began to see the Ming royal family and its ties to Li Dingguo as a threat and he would take a course of action that would effectively doom the South Ming regime. Despite the setbacks to the strategic position of the South Ming regime in 1653 not all was entirely lost. Emperor Yongli was in a secure and stable position for once and the regime held Yunnan, Guizhou and southern Sichuan firmly. Sun Kewang had brought many Dashun,Da Xi and other bandit groups under their sphere of influence and more importantly under the control of one leader. There was even the possibility that the South Ming regime could eventually link up with the naval resistance led by Koxinga in the southeast coast, someone we will talk about later. The military successes of Li Dingguo gave the South Ming regime a huge morale boost and shocked the hell out of the Qing. But beneath the surface of all of this, things were not well internally for the Ming loyalists. As we saw countless times with the bickering amongst different factions in the South Ming regime, here again it will occur. Sun was ambitious and jealous of his colleagues, he also shared grotesque traits of his former master Zhang Xianzhong. Emperor Yongli on the other hand was weak willed and a coward who consistently sought his personal safety over all other concerns. He was a mere puppet, content with just being a symbol. Li Dingguo had risen from a peasant leader to become a genuine Ming loyalist who was both brave and charismatic, earning the hearts of many. He did not have the administrative skill like Sun Kewang, but he was a capable military leader who could take territory. In essence the 3 men together made a formidable team, each having something of use, administrative skill for Sun, military capability for Li and a symbol of authenticity in Yongli. But this would never come into reality and the real losers of this game of thrones, would as always be the common people. Sun Kewang from the early days of just being a bandit leader showed a very notable tendency to be sensitive to any criticism and would attack anyone who he thought slighted him. Li Dingguo was well aware that Sun planned to kill him as early as 1652, yet despite this Li tried to get Sun to work together but it only made Sun more angry and dangerous. Thus by 1653 Li began to move his forces further away from Sun before he might be enveloped. Li left Yongzhou with less than 50,000 loyal troops to Longhu Pass which allowed the Qing quickly snatch up Yongzhou as a result. From there Li went east, skirmishing sometimes with Sun troops and attacking Qing controlled cities. Li's hope was if he managed to get closer to the eastern coast he might be able to join forces with Koxinga whom for his own part was open to the idea and trying his best to join up as well. In march of 1653, Li besieged Zhaoqing for weeks and despite heavy bombardments failed to take the city and was forced to move on and raid Guangxi. He attacked Guilin where he was wounded and forced to retreat when Qing relief forces came. As Li fought Qing forces in Guangdong and Guangxi throughout 1653, Sun Kewang dispatched Feng Shuangli to attack Li at Liuzhou. Li however, managed to ambush Feng's forces and sent him fleeing. There is a story that as Feng tried to ford a river fleeing, Li supposedly saved him from drowning and thus Feng gave his loyalty to Li and returned to Sun's camp waiting for the right moment to help Li defeat him. Li would take Guilin in late 1653 and the more actions he took the more Emperor Yongli's court saw him as a better alternative to Sun as a military protector. Soon Emperor Yongli offered Li the same rank as Sun Kewang if he could rescue him from Sun's house arrest situation. Li responded that he would be open to the idea of “escorting” Yongli to safety if he successfully took Guangdong. However, Ma Jixiang discovered these messages between Li and Yongli and gave word to Sun Kewang in January of 1654. Sun then accused Yongli of conspiring against him and initiated a plan to redistribute Li Dingguo's wives and concubines in Yunnan among the other high ranking officers, but there was general dissatisfaction amongst his ranks. Almost a full blown mutiny had occurred at one point and thus his devious plan never came to fruition. On May 6, Sun executed what he called the 18 gentlemen of Anlong for allegedly conspiring against him. Their ringleader, Wu Zhenmin strangled himself while the others were publicly flayed and decapitated. Its been awhile since we had this gruesome stuff eh? It turns out when Yongli was accused he denied the conspiracy and threw all the 18 gentlemen under the bus to save himself. In spring of 1654, Sun with 370,000 troops prepared for another eastern campaign while Li Dingguo had launched his own into Guangdong hoping as always to link up with the infamous Koxinga. Li managed to push all the way to Gaozhou, located in the southeast of the province. Next he besieged Xinhui just a bit south of Guangzhou. While he besieged Xinhui he asked Koxinga for assistance, but this never came to fruition and thus the siege lagged into 1655. Li's situation became very desperate, his men were soon reduced to eating their own horses. Then Qing reinforcements commanded by Shang Kexi arrived and despite Li having arrayed his cannons and elephants for defense the cannons allegedly were not working properly during the battle, allowing the Qing to take some high ground against him. Shang Kexi and his colleague Geng Jimao from the vantage point were able to outflank Li and cause his elephants to rout running through his own army causing massive chaos. Li had already lost countless thousand during the siege and the Qing attack simply broke them, they soon fled for their lives. Shang Kexi boasted “they scattered like rats before the might of the Qing”. Li fled back southwest with the remnants of his forces, around 10,000 men, with just 3 war elephants left and a possible 60-70 thousand refugees as he was pursued by the Qing. He was finally able to breathe when he destroyed a bridge behind himself stranding the Qing and managing to escape to Nanning. The Qing quickly grabbed up multiple cities and Li's eastern campaign had ended in complete failure. With just a single battle at Xinhui, over 3 years of Ming victories had been swept away. Meanwhile Sun had launched an assault on Changde in the summer of 1655, bringing with him Liu Wenxiu who had tried to retire in dismay from his major defeat, but Sun would not allow this. When his forces got close to Changde they were ambushed by Qing forces and had to make a fighting retreat, losing 6 subsequent battles to them. Many of Sun's forces fell to the Qing, starvation and disease. Feng Shuangli was wounded and some other 40 generals simply surrendered to the Qing in what became a catastrophic campaign. One thing made Hong Chengchou uneasy despite the great victories, the Ming forces under Sun seemed to be using riverine units to great effect. Thus Chengchou began to pressure the Qing to put more funding into naval capabilities. You see Sun and Li both had mastered using boats to move units quicker through river systems, as cavalry was scarce and their operations required fast mobility. The use of these riverine units alluded the Qing countless times as the Qing did not possess a great number of boats themselves nor plan to build too many. Throughout 1655 the Qing pushed through Guangxi defeating multiple bandit groups. Li Dingguo in the meantime was returning to Nanning in late 1655, but would soon flee when the Qing attacked the city in February of 1656. It became evident that Li Dingguo was edging closer and closer to Anlong to attempt a rescue of Emperor Yongli, prompting Sun Kewang to order the forceful movement of the emperor. He appointed his subordinate Bai Wenxuan for the task of moving the emperor, completely unaware that Bai was secretly working with Li Dingguo to relocate Emperor Yongli to Yunnan where Li had a powerbase. As Sun continued to campaign in eastern Sichuan, Li dingguo and Bai Wenxuan sent word to Emperor Yongli to try and convince the him to move to Yunnan. It was a major risk as Li only had 6000 troops under his control at the time and Sun had more than 50,000 garrisoning various places, many of which were in Yunnan. Li then tried to appeal to the Ming loyalism of the commanders scattered about, accusing Sun Kewang of quote “sinking to a depth from which he could not return to allegiance”. He also bribed the hell out of them. In turn Liu Wenxiu turned his back on Sun and made his way to join Li dingguo. Li then dispatched his subordinate Jin Tongwu to take Emperor Yongli to Yunnan in early 1656, but Sun Kewang sent some agents of his own to retrieve the emperor. So basically we are seeing a situation in which Li Dingguo and Sun Kewang are both trying to win the Ming loyalists to their respective side and portraying themselves as being the true savior of the Emperor. By the way if most of this story sounds oddly familiar to parts of the 3 Kingdoms stories its not a coincidence, all the characters were avid readers of those stories and were actively portraying the events as such. What ends up winning the day, was the cunning and deceptive alliance between Li dingguo and Bai Wenxuan, because despite all that was going on, it seems Sun still thought Bai Wenxuan was his loyal man helping move the emperor for him. At a crucial moment, Sun Kewang sent an army to apprehend the emperor and Bai Wenxuan stopped the force saying “The Son of Heaven is here. Kewang wants to be a murderous traitor. If you wish to do that which is right, how can you follow the commands of an evil murderer and thus counter the Way of Heaven?”. Meanwhile he was sending letters to Sun Kewang explaining that he would be delivering the Emperor to Guiyang in a few days and not to worry. This deception bought enough time for Li Dingguo and his smaller army to sneak into Anlong and convince 2 Ming commanders, Pang Tianshou and Ma Jixiang (yup Sun's spy loyal man) to switch their allegiances to him. Li dingguo consolidated the forces with those of Ben Wenxuan and they began to escort Emperor Yongli out of Anlong on February 20th. It is said the populace lined up the roads and wept for joy as Emperor Yongli entered Yunnan alongside Li Dingguo. The emperor quickly occupied Sun Kewangs former residence in Kunming and once he felt safe and comfortable he began to distribute new titles and office to all those who aided his escape. Li Dingguo and Liu Wenxiu were named the Princes of Jin and Shu. Despite all of the craziness, Li Dingguo still hoped to bring Sun Kewang back into the fold and sent Liu Wenxiu back to Guiyang as an envoy. However Emperor Yongli advised Liu not to go in person, remembering the execution of the 18 gentlemen of Anlong, so instead Liu wrote a letter in blood to Sun Kewang. Li even sent out Sun's servants and concubines and the deceptive Bai Wenxuan back to him in a show of good faith. Sun responded as you might guess, angrily, so he sent his own envoys in return as a sign of good faith. In truth he had sent spies such as Wang Ziqi and Zhang Hu, who to his delight sent back word quickly that Li Dingguo only had 20,000 troops. Thus Sun Kewang eagerly prepared for war against Li, not realizing many of his top commanders had changed their allegiances such as his subordinate, Zhang Hu, I guess he can be called a double agent. Bai Wenxuan for his part notified Li that peace was assuredly not an option. On top of this Sun had sent some agents throughout Guizhou and Yunnan to garrison positions and prepare for war which really tipped Li off. Li Dingguo and Liu Wenxiu each sent letters from Kunming to Koxinga hoping for cooperation but no responses came. During all of this, the Qing were consolidating their empire, especially in Sichuan. The skirmishes between Sun and Li had enabled the Qing to grab most of Southwest China. Yet Southern Sichuan was still extremely chaotic. Maimed people walked everywhere, corpses littered the fields, cannibalism was rampant and people were paying taxes to differing authorities. Sun Kewang still held considerable authority in Southern Sichuan. Li Guoying was promoted to governor general of Shaanxi and Sichuan in 1657 and the Qing hoped some martial law might speed up the pacification and end the nightmare that had reigned for over a decade at this point. Li Guoying pointing out that Sichuan contained a mishmash of refugees from all the ongoing wars. There were Eight banner troops, bandits, Ming loyalists, Dashun and Daxi remnants and all these groups made it very difficult to determine reliability and suitability for service under the Qing. Li Guoying thought increasing agricultural productivity would win over most and set to work doing so. Meanwhile Hong Chengchou was gathering forces and supplies in Huguang while promoting agricultural productivity. Thus both Li and Hong were running similar programs trying to win the hearts of the populace to their side. Now as I mentioned, the Qing took Nanning in 1656 and soon realized that Li Dingguo had slipped away to Anlong. The Qing commanders worried that their supply lines were stretched too thin and Hong Chengchou favored using Guilin as a main base of operations for enclosing the southwest. To Hong Chengchou the main threat was Emperor Yongli and his entourage because he held the most significant challenge to the Qing that of legitimacy. The Qing had word of the growing war between Li Dingguo and Sun Kewang and chose to allow Hong Chengchou to build up his forces and supplies for the time being and let the enemy rot a bit from within. The entire time the Ming were bickering, the Qing were amping up agricultural production in multiple provinces winning over more and more of the populace. In the summer of 1657 Sun and Li finally came after another. Sun with a 140,000 strong army marched upon Yunnan leaving Feng Shuangli to hold Guiyang. Li and Liu had around 50,000 troops and took up a position at Qujing building up wooden defenses there. By this point Li and Liu had persuaded many of Sun's subordinates to turncoat using every means possible, but despite this they still feared the upcoming clash. Sun arrayed his force into 36 brigades once he hit the Yunnan border and made his way to the nearest city, Jiaoshui. When the 2 armies came 10 miles from each other, Sun placed Bai Wenxuan in his vanguard which would prove a disastrous mistake. Turns out Sun's spies finally told him Bai Wenxuan was a turncoat, so Sun rightfully threw him in front, but unbeknownst to him Bai knew Sun knew and planned for this. Oh how the turntables? At the critical start of the battle Bai sent a signal and his troops wheeled around smashing into Sun's other commanders, aided by another turncoat general. Before Sun could respond, the turncoat units were eliminating his loyal units 1 by 1. Sun panicked and sought to withdraw, but 2 of his loyal subordinates Ma Bao and Ma Weixing both promised they would capture Bai and Liu vowing to quote “eat Bai's flesh for his betrayal. We outnumber them 10 to 1, when one person advances, we retreat. Are there no men among us?”. Thus Sun sent Mao Bao and another subordinate Zhang Sheng with 4000 troops to make a flanking maneuver while he drove straight into the vanguard himself. The outcome was catastrophic. Ma Weixing simply bolted away, Zhang fled towards Kunming hoping to switch sides and Ma Bao did not follow through because it turned out he was also a turncoat. There are even accounts that Ma Bao's men were firing blanks to look like they were helping. To make matters worse, Li Dingguo was fed intel provided by Bai Wenxuan and personally led his units to hit Sun's weakest spot. When Liu Wenxiu advanced, many of Sun's subordinate began to chant “Welcome, Prince Jin! Welcome Prince Jin!” as they cast off their uniforms and defected. Soon banners of Li and Liu were filling the battleground, Sun was being undone by his own army. Even though Sun's loyal forces still outnumbered the enemy 3-1 they quickly collapsed and Sun was forced to flee. Sun and just a few dozen followers fled through thick forests making their way to the nearest town which was named Puding…haha Puding, anyways of all people Ma Jinzhong was holding the town and he closed the gates on them. When Sun screamed at the gates he was the ruler of the realm, Ma retorted “The ruler of the realm left with an army of 160,000. Now there are only a few thousand. You are certainly bandits.” Next Sun and his followers ran to Guiyang with Liu hot on their heels. When Sun approached the gates of his old capital he found them barred by Feng Shuangli. Feng did however allow Sun to take his family and continue running and Sun also secretly ordered his followers to rape and kill the wife of Bai Wenxuan who was in Guiyangat the time. Soon Sun ran into an underling of Li Dingguo named Li Bengao. He said to Bengao “Bengao, is that my old companion? You've received my favor, but now you want to kill you ruler huh?” Bengao replied “As a court officer it is simple to know the duties of a lord and minister. Bengao does not kill his lord; I've come to kill the leader of bandits.”. But before Bengao could kill Sun, one of Sun's followers snuck up and shot Bengao dead with an arrow. Sun decided enough was enough and to defect to the Qing and did so at Baoqing on December 19th of 1657. He cut his hair in the Manchu fashion and was invested as the Prince of Yi, but would not live too much longer as he died of illness in 1660, some allege he was executed secretly for having dealings with the Koxinga regime in Taiwan. Speaking of Koxinga, fresh from his victory over Sun, Li Dingguo yet again sent another letter to Koxinga asking if they could join forces and attack Nanjing, but this never came to be. Li Dingguo had a short lived victory as he soon had to perform mop up operations against Sun's loyalists in Yunnan. Li reportedly lost upto 90% of his best commanders and troops simply cleaning up the remnants of Sun, leaving him with a terribly green force to resist the inevitable Qing invasion to come. To make matters worse Liu Wenxiu died of illness in late 1658. Li distrusted most of the commanders at his side as they had been Sun's former commanders and without Liu he simply had too much to do by himself. Remember how Li kept trying to bring Sun Kewang back into the fold, despite the man was trying to kill him? Well you can see why here, despite Li being an incredible military leader, when it came to governance and state building, he simply was not very good at it. He was used to mobile armies, wandering the provinces and plundering while on the move. Sitting idle and trying to build up forces, taxation, production, even defenses works was sort of not his forte. Before L iu had died, on his deathbed he told Li he should flee and establish a new base of operations in Shaanxi or maybe sail down the Yangtze to join Koxinga. The loss of Liu was a hard one, as Li trusted pretty much no other former commanders under Sun, apart from Bai Wenxuan who proved quite helpful. Regardless Li strove on preparing what defenses he could. 3 Qing armies advanced on Yunnan from 3 directions, planning to converge upon Kunming. Wu Sangui marched from Sichuan, Loto would march from Huguang, Jobeti from Guangxi and Hong Chengchou held overall command. At this time Hong Chengchou was quite old and his health was failing him so he could not take a field command. Just because he was old and ill did not mean he did not have some sneaky tricks however. Hong Chengchou sent a number of spies into Yunnan to gather intel and perform a misinformation campaign to lead Li Dingguo's forces to believe the Qing were much further away than they were. Wu Sangui's force departed Baoning and first came upon Chengdu which he described to be “a den of tigers, leopards, and bears”. The city was still a wasteland and it is estimated only 2% of the population was alive. Things proved to be just as bad in Chongqing, when Wu and his colleague Li Guohan approached the first things they saw were corpses and bones littering the roads. Unlike Chengdu, Wu's force was hampered at Chongqing by bandit armies, but the Qing artillery proved enough to break them after several battles. It is said the Qing artillery blasted from shorelines filling the river with the bodies of bandits. The Qing armies advanced through Sichuan, Guangxi and Guizhou battling bandit armies everywhere they went. The more they advanced however, the more easily bandits surrendered and defections began to pour in. Loto captured Guiyang from Ma Jingzhong and within 3 months nearly all of Guizhou fell to the Qing. By 1658 most of the Ming resistance in Huguang and Jiangxi had been smashed with only some large bandit groups holding out. Thus it was decided in 1658 to finally march on Yunnan. Despite the field commanders eagerness, Hong Chengchou advised them all that they had thus far taken mostly empty or under armed cities and they only had a month or so supplies left. He cautioned them that they should advance slowly. Emperor Shunzhi received reports from Hong Chengchou and likewise ordered them to delay their advances so they could recover somewhat and supply up. Alongside this Emperor Shunzhi stressed the necessity to win over the populace as they conquered ““establish order out of chaos and rescue the people.”. Despite these orders, many scholars point out that this stage of the war was quite bloody on the side of the Qing and many commoners suffered. Meanwhile Li Dingguo had sent Bai Wenxuan to guard the Qixing Pass with 40,000 troops, Wu Zisheng to guard the route from Anlong and other units to the Pan River in the east where he planned to make a base of operations. Li was looking for a place to break away, considering Sichuan or even Vietnam, but the Qing had taken their time to envelop Yunnan forcing him into a corner. Li mobilized the army to go east to defend the approaches to Yunnan and won a few minor battles killing more than 10,000 Qing troops. Despite the victories, the Qing numerical superiority simply overwhelmed Li's forces quickly and they soon had to pull back further into Yunnan. Li brought his forces to Shuanghekou and Jobtei climbed a nearby mountain to study Li's army formation, searching for signs of weakness. When the battle commenced, Li's forces launched a cannonade, but the wind suddenly blew all the smoke from the cannonade into his battle lines faces. On Top of the blinding effect the smoke lit tall grass on fire all amongst his army. His army had to pull back and in the disarray, allowing Jobtei to outflank Li catching him in a pincer forcing Li to flee. Li's army fled to Kunming destroying bridges as they did to delay the Qing forces. Meanwhile Wu Sangui had intel on an alternate route to get past Bai Wenxuans forces at Qixing Pass and managed to get behind him forcing Bai's force to flee to Zhanyi. The initial campaign to defend Yunnan was a colossal failure. Li lost an estimated 30-40 thousand men, most of them his few surviving veterans with whom held more than 10 years of experience fighting battles from Sichuan to Guangdong. 30 officers were gone, most of his war elephants were also gone and the Qing were now marching on Qujing. Li sent words back to Kunming urging Emperor Yongli to flee. Li would make it back to Kunming by January 5th 1659 and the court of Yongli began to plan their next place to make a stand. Li favored a retreat into Sichuan in the hope of joining some large bandit armies they had friendly connections with. Others in the court argued it was too dangerous and that there was little offensive potential in Sichuan. Many argued they should flee west through Yunnan into Burma. Others said they should flee into Vietnam and perhaps sail out to join Koxinga. But as they debated it turned out the Qing foresaw some of their actions and blocked the way into Vietnam and in the end the decision was made to flee west into Burma. The royal entourage was around 4300 men that departed Kunming. Li ordered everything that could not be carried to be torched, but the people lamented him for this and he soon changed his mind about the torching. Before leaving he told the people of Kunming “We have stayed in Yunnan for many years and we regard you people as a father regards his sons. But now national affairs have reached dire proportions and the court must move. You may share our hardships together. For I fear that when the Qing troops arrive, they will kill, loot, and rape, and it will be difficult to escape. If you do not flee with his majesty, you should each get far away quickly. Those who don't have only themselves to blame”. This drove the city's populace to abandon the city while weeping for the doom that was brought upon them. The march was a rough one, food became scarce and many died of starvation and disease. They eventually made it to Yongchang in early 1659 as the Qing hit Kunming and to their great surprise found it was fully intact and supplies were everywhere to be found. Li's change of heart on the torching would cost him greatly as the Qing forces recovered several months of supplies in Kunming. Meanwhile some of the Emperors entourage did not want to go west such as Ai Chengye who instead sought to establish ambushes for the Qing, hoping to join Li and the emperor later. Bai Wenxuan began to establish defenses between Dali and Yongchang to delay the Qing as well. It was decided to cover Emperor Yongli's flight, Bai would hold the rearguard while Li rode with the Emperors entourage. The Qing continued their advance as Bai Wenxuan tried to delay them but suffered multiple defeats and lost countless soldiers, officers and elephants. Meanwhile Li destroyed the bridge at Lancang River hoping to further delay the Qing, but the Qing were very efficient at building rafts and crossed each river with ease. The Qing would reach Yongchang in March of 1659 and proceed to plunder it heavily. Li and Bai held a council of war and Li argued they should try to fight a decisive battle in Yunnan, but Bai argued that Emperor Yongli's safety was more important. Regardless Li was adamant about fighting and set up multiple ambushes along the mountain range of Mount Mopan west of the Nu River. With only 6000 troops against around 12,000 of a Qing vanguard, Li felt he could do some damage. He split his forces into 3 groups stationed them in ambush sites to hit the vanguard of Wu Sangui. Wu Sangui's vanguard had been having a few easy days with no real excitement so he was marching with a loose formation into the mountain range not expecting an attack. The ambush signal was triggered and Wu immediately ordered a retreat as all hell broke loose and cannons and arrows rained down upon his men. Combat raged all over the mountain range and Li Dingguo got shrapnel into his face as he directed the battle. The fighting went on for half a day seeing corpses pill up on both sides like mountains. In the end Li made a fighting withdrawal. The Ming forces ended up losing a third of their total numbers while inflicting upto 10,000 casualties upon the Qing. After the battle Wu Sangui remarked that Li Dingguo and Bai Wenxuan were indeed great military commanders and they should tread lightly. The carnage in the mountains bought more time for Emperor Yongli to continue to move into Burma. Li and a few thousand troops fled south camping at Menggen inside Burma and Bai Wenxuan camped at Mubang. When Li and Bai entered Burma they took care not to attack any Burmese forces they were with the Emperor afterall. As for Emperor Yongli when the entourage entered the Burmese border, the royal party was disarmed by local border guards and apprehended. They were taken by boat over the Irrawaddy river to the capital city of Ava. By this time their entourage was nothing more than 1478 members of which only 600 or so were allowed to be on the boats, the rest had to walk it through thick jungle. Hundreds died to disease while trekking the jungles, some went south to Siam instead, others ended up being captured as slaves. Emperor Yongli's party made it to Ava, completely unaware Li and Bai were trying to find them and one of his court officials was sending word to them that Emperor Yongli had instead fled to Fujian. Over the next 2 years, Li and Bai under the believe that Emperor Yongli was kidnapped, and perhaps he was for all intensive purposes, began to make repeated rescue efforts. Meanwhile the Qing consolidated their position in Yunnan and their enormous occupational force was exacerbating the province, soon famine spread. For both the populace of Yunnan and the Qing forces the situation was growing quite dire. The costs for garrisoning Yunnan was estimated to exceed the entire military revenue for the empire, over 9 million taels of silver. The situation grew worse when Li Dingguo began to work with local chieftains to form rebellions against the Qing menace. The trouble of banditry and rebellions would plague the Qing in Yunnan for months far into 1661. While some Qing commanders like Wu Sangui pushed for apprehending Emperor Yongli as soon as possible, Hong Chengchou favored a gradual pacification of Yunnan before campaigning. Hong had seen the countless failures in Guangxi, Sichuan and Guizhou and understood the need to win the hearts of the populace so that victory would be less costly. Meanwhile back in Burma, Bai Wenxuan advanced towards Ava trying to rescue Emperor Yongli who he assumed had been kidnapped. This led the Burmese forces to treat both Bai and Li's small armies as threats. Bai and Li consolidated their armies and defeated a Burmese force killing several thousand. After defeating the Burmese force they negotiated a 3 day truce asking for the Burmese to hand over the emperor. After 3 days instead of handing him over the Burmese sent another army to attack them and they were swiftly defeated. When they demanded the Emperor be handed over again the Burmese commander said “Now how can we send [Yongli] to you? You have the temerity to attack our city, but the land and water [i.e., terrain] don't favor you. We can hold out for two to three years without fear.”. Thus they continued to march on Ava and besieged it, prompting the king of Burma to amass over 150,000 troops with 100 war elephants to defend the capital. The entire time Li and Bai both tried to write countless letters to the emperor failing countless times, but then one letter got through in 1661 and Yongli responded ““Use unorthodox troops to rescue me.”. Thus they did just that, they made a direct attack on the city preparing to cross the Irrawaddy to hit the walls of Ava. That night they opened fire with their heavy cannons and began building floating bridges. As you can imagine the Ming forces were outnumbered by something like 10 to 1 and certainly outgunned or better said out elephanted. Regardless of their numbers the Burmese using the cover of night, to cut the bridges to Ava forcing the Ming forces to pull back. Then in april of 1661 a Burmese army of 150,000 with apparently 1000 war elephants showed up and gave battle, that number has to be inflated, 1000 war elephants what is this the siege of Minas Tirith? Anyways it is said, Li Dingguo went forth to the front of battle with a large sword and grabbed an elephants tusk as he hacked its trunk off. The elephant fled afterwards making Li the largest bad ass I've ever heard of, and that poor elephant. It is also said Bai Wenxuan managed to perform a rear flank attack killing thousands and drove the Burmese army back, which must of been incredible given the disparity of numbers, 10,000 guys managed to defeat an army of 150,000 and 1000 elephants, yeah. The Ming proceeded to continue building the fleet of boats and rafts after the battle and besieged Ava yet again. The Burmese sent word they would release Yongli if the siege was lifted, I am pretty confused writing about this one, its as if the Burmese army was a paper army or something. I mean this Ming force is 10,000 or less how are they managing to defeat the capital of Burma?. Regardless the Burmese did not hand over the emperor and instead began to construct more defenses in Ava. Meanwhile the Qing sent letters to Li and Bai to defect to the Qing as they were mobilizing their own assault on Burma to grab Yongli. In june of 1661 the King of Burma, Pindale was executed and replaced by his brother, Pye Min who assumed a more aggressive stance against the Ming forces. For his enthronement there was a “water spirit” ceremony and an official of Yongli's court, Mu Tianbo was chosen to be sacrificed. Mu Tianbo fought ferociously, killing a few guards before being executed. After this Emperor Yongli lost all hope and lamented “The Dowager Empress is sick again and it looks like I will be unable to go back [to China] because the Tartars are coming to kill me. So please return the Dowager Empress's bones to her old home. Now it's obvious that I've been duped by traitorous ministers. If only I had invested Bai Wenxuan as a Prince of the Blood and Ma Bao as a secondary prince and followed the counsel of the meritorious officials, then I wouldn't have these regrets. Still playing the part of the Son of Heaven, he also expressed regret at the fate of his loyal subjects in Yunnan, who were reportedly suffering at the hands of Wu Sangui and Hong Chengchou.” When Bai and Li heard of the execution they panicked and launched one final attack on Ava. This time they tried to use their 16 boats to get across to the city, but their force was driven back after only 3 days of combat and they lost 11 boats in the process. Now Li and Bai lamented in despair for their situation was very dire. Since the Ming had entered Burma the Burmese government began opening up talks with the Qing hoping to curry favor. This facilitated the Qing march into Burma with a 100,000 strong force in 1661. The Qing immediately sought to separate the forces of Li and Bai as they advanced towards Ava. The Qing had already sent word to the Burmese King that if Yongli was not handed over immediately, Ava would be besieged. As the Qing closed in, Emperor Yongli sent a letter to Wu Sangui begging for his life, but Wu ignored it. When the Qing arrived at Ava, the Burmese told Emperor Yongli Li Dingguo was taking him away to safety as they delivered the emperor straight into the hands of the Qing. Emperor Yongli was brought to Kunming and executed on may 19th 1662 on a small hill overlooking Green Lake. Yongli and his wife were strangled and their ashes were poured around the Lotus Pond in Kunming. Wu Sangui allegedly felt remorse for not trying to save Emperor Yongli, though his story is not quite done. Li Dingguo and Bai Wenxuan fled north trying to decide their next move, but they knew they stood no chance against the Qing force. Wu Sangui surrounded their camp and Bai lamented “I've disappointed my emperor, and I've let down Prince Jin.”. Bai then surrendered to Wu Sangui's subordinate Ma Bao who happened to be an old friend of his. Li Dingguo was given false word that Emperor Yongli escaped, but required him for rescue. By this point Li had only 5000 or so men and could do little to nothing. Li fled east, hoping as you guessed it, to jin Koxinga, the man I keep naming but never speak much about. Li tried to flee to Vietnam and slipped past the Qing who were much more preoccupied moving Emperor Yongli back to Kunming. Despite the fact Li Dingguo evaded the Qing menace, as he fled through the thick Burmese jungles he was stricken, as were his men with disease. On his death bed just as he got word that Emperor Yongli had been executed, Li Dingguo died on August 10th 1662. He died telling his remaining son to never submit to the Qing and he would be remembered as one of the great loyalist heroes in Chinese history. 10700 I would like to take this time to remind you all that this podcast is only made possible through the efforts of Kings and Generals over at Youtube. Please go subscribe to Kings and Generals over at Youtube and to continue helping us produce this content please check out www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals. If you are still hungry after that, give my personal channel a look over at The Pacific War Channel at Youtube, it would mean a lot to me. The last pretender to the Dragon throne, Emperor Yongli has been executed and adoptive offspring of Zhang Xianzhong have fallen likewise. Yunnan and the rest of south China is being consolidated into the Qing empire, all that remains is a few bandit groups, or was that all? I've mentioned his name countless times, but one problem still remains for the Qing, Koxinga over in Taiwan.
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