Any individual living physical entity
“Everybody gets opportunities. It's a matter of recognizing them.” -Lars Langhout Palm oil has been causing havoc in the food industry for years. It has been a major cause of deforestation, with the production causing large areas of forest to be cleared to make way for palm oil plantations. This has been a major contributor to climate change as well as animal cruelty and exploitations. As a result, many companies have pledged to remove palm oil from their products. But palm oil is also a versatile and cost-effective ingredient that is hard to replicate. With no viable alternatives, the food industry has been at a standstill, unable to provide its consumers with the products they desire. However, recent scientific discoveries in the field of food technology have paved the way for the first truly palm oil-free food products. The most exciting thing about plant-based food is not the taste or texture, but the fact that it has the ability to revolutionize the food industry by replacing the need for palm oil in food production. With these products finally on the market, the food industry has a new direction and purpose. Founded in 2020 by Lars Langhout, NoPalm Ingredients seeks to create a better alternative to palm oil. Its mission revolves around three critical goals— local, circular, and sustainable. Thanks to their non-GMO and vegan-friendly microbial oil, the need for palm oil is replaced, not only in the food industry but also in its use in cosmetics and detergents. At the Fi Global Startup Challenge held last year, NoPalm Ingredients was named the Most Innovative F&B Ingredient or Processing Technology. In this episode, Lars explores the scope of the problems caused by palm oil production and the future with no palm alternatives. He talks about what microbial oil is made from, how it is processed, as well as how it can be applied in different industries. Justine and Lars also talk about the steps needed to make an impact, recognizing opportunities that come, determining the right time to make a move, ideas on raising funds, and the new trend about alternative fats. Meet Lars: After a career in strategy consulting, Lars took the plunge to have a positive impact on the climate. Inspired by the likes of Irving Fain (Bowery Farming) and fellow CBS alumni Ethan Brown (Beyond Meat), Lars founded NoPalm Ingredients to replace the need for palm oil altogether. As CEO, Lars is responsible for all commercial aspects of NoPalm Ingredients Website Facebook Instagram LinkedIn Connect with NextGen Purpose: Website Instagram YouTube Linkedin Facebook Episode Highlights: 01:16 The Issue with Palm Oil 07:08 Prerequisites to Making an Impact 11:00 When to Make a Move 13:46 The Future with NoPalm Oil 16:01 Raising Funds 20:15 New Trend— Alternative Fats 22:00 The Microbial Oil Advantage
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants use the energy from sunlight to turn water and carbon dioxide into biomass and ultimately the foods we and other organisms eat. Scientists at the University of California Riverside and the University of Delaware have found a way to create food from water and carbon dioxide without using […]
You've probably heard of GMOs before, they are a hot topic of debate for many reasons. Genetically modified foods can be scary to think about, but they also may not be as sinister as some people believe. Join us as we break down some of the facts and misconceptions about GMOs with both the pros and the cons. We also discuss the food industry in general and shed some light into the recent food factory fires that the media has been covering.
Marine protected areas are sections of the ocean where governments place limits on human activity. They are intended to provide long-term protection to important marine and coastal ecosystems. MPAs are important because they can protect depleted, threatened, rare, and endangered species and populations. In January 2020, the Republic of Palau in the western Pacific Ocean […]
In 1973, evolutionary biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky wrote that “nothing in biology makes sense except in light of evolution.” Almost 50 years later, an increasing number of scientists are asking whether evolution makes any sense in light of what we now know from biology. A recent long-form essay in The Guardian signals just how urgent the problem has become for the most dominant theory in the history of the sciences. In it, author Stephen Buranyi, gives voice to a growing number of scientists who think it's time for a “new theory of evolution.” For a long time, descent with slight modifications and natural selection have been “the basic” (and I'd add, unchallengeable) “story of evolution.” Organisms change, and those that survive pass on traits. Though massaged a bit to incorporate the discovery of DNA, the theory of evolution by natural selection has dominated for 150 years, especially in biology. The “drive to survive” is credited as the creative force behind all the artistry and engineering we see in nature. “The problem,” writes Buranyi, is that “according to a growing number of scientists,” this basic story is “absurdly crude and misleading.” For one thing, Darwinian evolution assumes much of what it needs to explain. For instance, consider the origin of light-sensitive cells that rearranged to become the first eye, or the blood vessels that became the first placenta. How did these things originate? According to one University of Indiana biologist, “we still do not have a good answer. The classic idea of gradual change, one happy accident at a time,” he says, “has so far fallen flat.” This scientific doubt about Darwin has been simmering for a while. In 2014, an article in the journal Nature, jointly authored by eight scientists from diverse fields, argued that evolutionary theory was in need of a serious rethink. They called their proposed rethink the “Extended Evolutionary Synthesis,” and a year later, the Royal Society in London held a conference to discuss it. Along with Darwinian blind spots like the origin of the eye, the Extended Synthesis seeks to deal with the discovery of epigenetics, an emerging field that studies the inherited traits not mediated by DNA. Then there are the rapid mutations that evade natural selection, a fossil record that appears to move in “short concentrated bursts” (or “explosions”), and something called “plasticity,” which is the ability we now know living things have to adapt physically to their environments in a single generation without genetically evolving. All of these discoveries—some recent, others long ignored by mainstream biology—challenge natural selection as the “grand theory” of life. All of them hint that living things are greater marvels and mysteries than we ever imagined. And, unsurprisingly, all of these discoveries have been controversial. The Guardian article described how Royal Society scientists and Nobel laureates alike boycotted the conference, attacking the extended synthesis as “irritating” and “disgraceful,” and its proponents as “revolutionaries.” As Gerd Müller, head of the department of theoretical biology at the University of Vienna helpfully explained, “Parts of the modern synthesis are deeply ingrained in the whole scientific community, in funding networks, positions, professorships. It's a whole industry.” Such resistance isn't too surprising for anyone who's been paying attention. Any challenges to the established theory of life's origins, whether from Bible-believing scientists or intelligent design theorists, have long been dismissed as religion in a lab coat. The habit of fixing upon a dogma and calling it “settled science” is just bad science that stunts our understanding of the world. It is a kind of idolatry that places “science” in the seat of God, appoints certain scientists as priests capable of giving answers no fallible human can offer, and feigns certainty where real questions remain. The great irony is that this image of scientist-as-infallible-priest makes them seem like the caricature of medieval monks charging their hero Galileo with heresy for his dissent from the consensus. As challenges to Darwin mount, we should be able to articulate why “settled science” makes such a poor god. And we should encourage the science and the scientists challenging this old theory-turned-dogma, and holding it to its own standards. After all, if Darwinian evolution is as unfit as it now seems, it shouldn't survive.
CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:58).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 8-1-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the weeks of August 1 and August 8, 2022. This is a revised repeat of an episode from August 2015. SOUNDS – ~4 sec – call from Great Egret then from Great Blue Heron. In this episode, we feature two mystery sounds, and a guest voice, to explore two striking birds—striking in looks, and striking in how they hunt. Have a listen for about 30 seconds, and see if you can guess these two long-necked, long-legged wading birds. SOUNDS AND GUEST VOICE – ~30 sec – Voice: “At once he stirs and steps into the water, wading with imperial self-possession on his three-pronged, dragonish feet. The water could not tremble less at the passage of his stilt legs as he stalks his dinner. His neck arches like the bending of a lithe bow, one of a piece with the snapping arrow of his beak.” If you guessed, egret or heron, you're right! The first call was from a Great Egret and the second from a Great Blue Heron. The guest voice was Alyson Quinn, reading part of her “Lesson from an Egret,” inspired by a September 2007 visit to the Potomac River. The word “egret” derives from an old German word for “heron,” a fitting origin for the many similarities between these two big birds. The Great Egret and the Great Blue Heron are the two largest of 12 North American species of herons, egrets, and bitterns. The Great Egret is strikingly white, while the Great Blue has only a partially white head over a bluish-gray body. But a white subspecies of the Great Blue, called the Great White Heron, occurs in Florida. Great Egrets and Great Blues both typically feed in shallow water, taking fish, amphibians, and other prey by waiting and watching quietly, then quickly striking with their long, sharp beaks. The two species also share a history of having been widely hunted for their long plumes in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the impact on their populations helped lead to nationwide bird-conservation efforts and organizations. Distinctive looks, behavior, and history make these two “Greats” a memorable and meaningful sight along Virginia's rivers, ponds, marshes, and other areas. Thanks to Lang Elliott for permission to use this week's sounds, from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs, and thanks to Alyson Quinn for permission to share her “Lesson from an Egret,” which gets this episode closing words. GUEST VOICE – ~18 sec – “I want to be more like the egret, with the patience to be still without exhaustion, to never mind the idle currents or be dazzled by the glamour of light on water; but, knowing the good thing I wait for, to coil my hope in constant readiness, and to act in brave certitude when it comes.” SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment. For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624. Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close this episode. In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 277, 8-10-15. The sounds of the Great Egret and the Great Blue Heron were taken from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs-Eastern Region CD set, by Lang Elliott with Donald and Lillian Stokes (Time Warner Audio Books, copyright 1997), used with permission of Lang Elliott, whose work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/. Excerpts of “Lesson from an Egret” are courtesy of Alyson Quinn, from her blog “Winterpast” (September 21, 2007, post), available online at http://www.winterispast.blogspot.com/, used with permission. Ms. Quinn made the recording after a visit to Algonkian Regional Park, located in Sterling, Va. (Loudoun County), part of the Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority. More information about the park is available online at https://www.novaparks.com/parks/algonkian-regional-park. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode. More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES (Except as otherwise noted, photographs are by Virginia Water Radio.) Upper two images: Great Egret along the New River near Parrott, Va. (Pulaski County); photos by Robert Abraham, used with permission. Third image: Great Blue Heron in a marsh at Wachapreague, Va. (Accomack County), October 5, 2007. Bottom image: Great Blue Heron in a stormwater pond on the Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg, July 28, 2015. EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT GREAT EGRETS AND GREAT BLUE HERONS The following information is excerpted from the Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “Fish and Wildlife Information Service”: Great Egret “Life History” entry, online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040032&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19202; and Great Blue Heron “Life History” entry, online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040027&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19202. Great Egret Physical Description“Large, heavy, white heron with yellow-orange bill, black legs, long, slender neck, and long plumes extending beyond tail….” Behavior“Male selects territory that is used for hostile and sexual displays, copulation and nesting. Adjacent feeding areas vigorously defended, both sexes defend. …Migration occurs in fall and early spring along coast; winters further south than Virginia. …Foraging: alone in open situations; prefers fresh or brackish waters, openings in swamps, along streams or ponds; wader: stalks prey; known to participate in the 'leap-frog' feeding when initiated by cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis). Prey are taken in shallow waters; prey usually includes insects, fish, frogs (adults and tadpoles), small birds, snakes, crayfish, and many others. Nesting: in trees or thickets, 3-90 ft. above water in willows, holly, red cedar, cypress, and bayberry on dry ground in marshes.” Population Comments“Dangerously near extermination in early part of [20th] century due to plume hunting; population comeback hampered by loss of habitat, exposure to DDT and other toxic chemicals and metals. …[Predators include] crows and vultures….” Great Blue Heron Physical Description“Large grayish heron with yellowish bill, white on head, cinnamon on neck, and black legs,” Behavior“Territoriality: known to have feeding territory in non-breeding seasons, defended against members of same species. Range: breeds from central Canada to northern Central America and winters from middle United States throughout Central America; in Virginia, is a permanent resident of the Coastal Plain. …Foraging: stands motionless in shallow water waiting on prey; occasionally fishes on the wing along watercourses, meadows and fields far from water. They also take frogs, snakes, insects, and other aquatic animals. Nesting: predominately in tall cedar and pine swamps, but may also be found on the ground, rock ledges, and sea cliffs; nests on platform of sticks, generally in colonies….” Aquatic/Terrestrial Associations“Salt or fresh shallow waters of lakes, ponds, marshes, streams, bays, oceans, tidal flats, and sandbars; feeds in surf, wet meadows, pastures, and dry fields.” SOURCES Used for Audio Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “All About Birds,” online at http://www.allaboutbirds.org. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Birds of the World,” online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/home (subscription required). Alice Jane Lippson and Robert L. Lippson, Life in the Chesapeake Bay, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2006. Merriam-Webster Dictionary:“Egret,” online at https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/egret;“Heron,” online at https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/heron. National Audubon Society, “History of Audubon and Science-based Bird Conservation,” online at http://www.audubon.org/content/history-audubon-and-waterbird-conservation. Oxford Dictionaries/Oxford University Press:“Egret,” online at http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/egret;“Heron,” online at http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/heron. Chandler S. Robbins et al., A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, St. Martin's Press, New York, 2001. Stan Tekiela, Birds of Virginia Field Guide, Adventure Publications, Inc., Cambridge, Minn., 2002. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/:Great Blue Heron entry, online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040027&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19202;Great Egret entry, online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040032&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19202;“List of Native and Naturalized Fauna in Virginia, August 2020,” online (as a PDF) at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/virginia-native-naturalized-species.pdf.The Waterbird Society, online at https://waterbirds.org/. Joel C. Welty, The Life of Birds, W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Penn., 1975. For More Information about Birds in Virginia and Elsewhere Chesapeake Bay Program, “Birds,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/all/birds/all. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin Photo ID.” The application for mobile devices allows users to submit a bird photograph to get identification of the bird. Information is available online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and the Audubon Society, “eBird,” online at https://ebird.org/home. Here you can find locations of species observations made by contributors, and you can sign up to contribute your own observations. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, “Animal Diversity Web,” online at https://animaldiversity.org. Virginia Society of Ornithology, online at http://www.virginiabirds.org/. The Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth. Xeno-canto Foundation, online at http://www.xeno-canto.org/. This site provides bird songs from around the world. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html). See particularly the “Birds” subject category. Following are links to some other episodes on birds in the family of herons, egrets, night-herons, and bitterns.Episode 118, 7-9-12 – Summertime sampler of birds, including Great Blue Heron. Episode 127, 9-10-12 – Green Heron. Episode 235, 10-13-14 – Black-crowned Night Heron.Episode 381, 8-14-17 – Midnight sounds near water, including Great Blue Heron.Episode 430, 7-23-18 – Marsh birds in Virginia, including Great Blue Heron and Least Bittern.Episode 478, 6-24-19 – Little Blue Heron.Episode 603, 11-15-21 – Fall bird migration, including Green Heron and Snowy Egret. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post.2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-4: Living Systems and Processes1.5 – Animals, including humans, have basic life needs that allow them to survive. 2.5 – Living things are part of a system. 3.4 – Adaptations allow organisms to satisfy life needs and respond to the environment. 3.5 – Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems support a diversity of organisms. 4.2 – Plants and animals have structures that distinguish them from one another and play vital roles in their ability to survive. 4.3 – Organisms, including humans, interact with one another and with the nonliving components in the ecosystem. Grades K-5: Earth ResourcesK.11 – Humans use resources.1.8 – Natural resources can be used responsibly.3.8 – Natural events and humans influence ecosystems.4.8 – Virginia has important natural resources.
Erik and the boys each drink a single beer. Earn 1.4% on your cash today. Visit https://wealthfront.com/SuperMega to get started. Our listeners get 10% off their first month at https://BetterHelp.com/supermega Learn more about your ad choices. Visit podcastchoices.com/adchoices
All music used with permission by Organ-Ism Moon River - Mancini Full House - Sanborn Until It's Time For You To Go - Sainte-Marie Subindo - DelFierra Pocket Change - Smith You Are So Beautiful - Preston Southside - Smith Four legendary Cleveland area sidemen got together to jam - and from those jam sessions decided to form Organism in 2007 and they've been making terrific music ever since. Featuring Howie Smith on saxophone – David Thomas on organ-Bob Ferrazza on guitar and Bill Ransom on drums the group has performed and toured with legendary performers such as Dizzy Gillespie – Art Farmer and Fathead Newman. From a January 16th - 2022 performance here's Organism – Live at the Bop Stop. This program is recorded at the Robert Conrad Studios at the Bop Stop in Cleveland, Ohio with additional production by Graham Rosen and editing for WOBC and WNPA provided by Dr. Pete Naegele and for our podcast and other affiliates by Shawn Gilbert and Carsen Gilbert at GilAzar media. The Executive Producer is Daniel Peck. For extended version of all our shows, our Live at The Bop Stop podcast can be found on your favorite podcast app. Want to Support The Bop Stop? Donate here! Contact us here
Phytoplankton, also known as microalgae, are the base of the marine food web and also play a key role in removing carbon dioxide from the air. They are eaten by primary consumers like zooplankton, small fish, and crustaceans. Phytoplankton, like land plants, absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and use photosynthesis to grow. Then they […]
The future of our pharmaceuticals are from down under.... the surface of course!Coral reefs are the new tropical rainforests when it comes to drug research. When you think about it, how else do you protect yourself when you are a sea sponge, you can't move, don't have any spines or spikes and are free game for any of the thousands of species living nearby? Well chemistry of course! Turns out some of this chemistry may help with the future of our pharmaceuticals!In today's episode we chat with Dr. Marc Slattery from the University of Mississippi all about his work trying to uncover the future of pharmaceuticals from reefs around the world.For more information on the future of drugs from the sea and Dr. Marc Slattery's research click here. To watch his Ted talk "Drugs from the Sea: What do we lose when Coral reefs die?" click here.Interested in helping our coral reefs? Here are a couple organisations doing great work in Coral Reef Conservation, Restoration and Research!The Coral Reef Alliance As one of the largest global NGOs focused exclusively on protecting coral reefs, the Coral Reef Alliance (CORAL) has used cutting-edge science and community engagement for nearly 30 years to reduce direct threats to reefs and to promote scalable and effective solutions for their protection.Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology works on coral reefs, tropical marine ecosystems that protect coastlines, support tourism, and provide nutrition to many island nations. Our focus is on defining biological traits that drive the differences in performance among corals and reefs.The Coral Restoration Foundation We are actively restoring coral reefs on a massive scale, educating others on the importance of our oceans, and using science to further coral research and coral reef monitoring techniques. The Coral Reef Research Foundation is based in Palau and does original research to acquire the knowledge needed to understand and make intelligent decisions related to conservation, climate change and resource management.The Mote Marine Laboratory Coral Reef Restoration Program in Florida, US develops and applies science-based strategies with the goal of restoring depleted coral reefs in our lifetime. Specifically, Mote researchers are working to optimize restoration using diverse coral genotypes (genetic varieties), prioritizing native genetic varieties that can resist SCTLD and other stressors such as increased water temperatures and ocean acidification.
Alien: Isolation is the sort of game that attracts a certain type of Alien obsessive: packed with lore, overflowing with aesthetic detail, and completely unrelenting in its difficulty and terror, Isolation is an extraordinary achievement in game design that continues to enthrall Alien fans eight years after its release. Andy Kelly is a video game journalist who has written extensively about Alien: Isolation from the very beginning. Along the way, he's amassed a wealth of interviews, behind-the-scenes insights, and level design knowledge that has culminated, finally, in his writing the definitive Alien: Isolation companion. In this episode, Andy takes Patrick and Christian behind the curtains for a deeper look at this incredible game, and lets us know what we can look forward to when the book is eventually published. To support the book's creation on Unbound, visit https://unbound.com/books/perfect-organism/. And be sure to follow Andy on Twitter @ultrabrilliant so you never miss an update along the way! // Apple Podcasts: bit.ly/perfectorganismitunes // For more on this and our other projects, please visit www.perfectorganism.com. // If you'd like to join the conversation, find us on our closed Facebook group: Building Better Worlds // To support the show, please consider visiting www.perfectorganism.com/support. We've got some great perks available! // And as always, please consider rating, reviewing, and sharing this show. We can't tell you how much your support means to us, but we can hopefully show you by continuing to provide better, more ambitious, and more dynamic content for years to come.
CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (5:30).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments Images Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 7-15-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the weeks of July 18 and July 25, 2022. SOUNDS – ~6 sec Those sounds of shorebirds and Chesapeake Bay waves open an episode on the condition of that bay, which we last explored in an August 2020 episode. We set the stage with the instrumental opening of a song whose title calls to mind some colors of the Chesapeake region's waters, lands, sky, and creatures. Here's about 30 seconds of “The Deep Blue Green,” by Andrew VanNorstrand. MUSIC – ~31 sec – instrumental In June 2022, the University of Maryland's Center for Environmental Science issued its latest annual Chesapeake Bay and Watershed Report Card, for conditions in 2021. For the report's first part, to assess Bay waters, the report compares the status of several physical, chemical, and biological indicators to established goals, in order to generate condition scores ranging from zero to 100%. Combining the indicator scores, the overall score for 2021 was 50, an increase from the 45 score for 2020 data; the report characterized the 50 score as “moderate health” and gave it a letter grade of C. The score when the Report Card started in 1986 was 48; the highest score since then was 55 in 2002, and the lowest was 36 in 2003. For the report's second part, the overall watershed assessment, the report for 2021 looked at three categories of indicators: ecological, societal, and economic. These resulted in a score of 56, characterized as “moderate health” and given a letter grade of C+. This was the first year that three categories of indicators were used for the watershed assessment, so the results aren't directly comparable to previous years. Besides the Maryland center's annual report, several other Bay condition reports are regularly available. These include the Chesapeake Bay Program's annual “Bay Barometer” report; the Bay Program's “Chesapeake Progress” Web site, with updates on progress toward the goals of the 2014 Chesapeake Bay Agreement; the Chesapeake Bay Foundation's biennial “State of the Bay” report; and reports by various groups on specific Bay areas, such as the James River Association's “State of the James” reports. All depend on data gathered by various sources, including universities; governmental agencies at the federal, state, and local levels; and non-governmental organizations. The Chesapeake Bay is the United States' largest estuary. Monitoring its condition is a large part of decades-old efforts to improve and sustain this irreplaceable water body. Thanks to Andrew VanNorstrand for permission to use “The Deep Blue Green.” We close with about 50 seconds of another musical selection, created for our previous episode on Chesapeake Bay conditions. Here's “Chesapeake Bay Ballad,” by Torrin Hallett, a graduate student at the Yale School of Music. MUSIC – ~51 sec – instrumental SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment. For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624. Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this episode. In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The waves sound was recorded by Virginia Water Radio at the Chesapeake Bay on Kent Island, Maryland, June 22, 2010. The shorebirds sound was taken from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife National Digital Library, http://digitalmedia.fws.gov/cdm/; the specific audio file was “Shore birds close,” online at https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/audio/id/66/rec/8. “The Deep Blue Green,” from the 2019 album “That We Could Find a Way to Be,” is copyright by Andrew VanNorstrand, used with permission. More information about Andrew VanNorstrand is available online at https://greatbearrecords.bandcamp.com/. This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 504, 12-23-19. “Chesapeake Bay Ballad” is copyright 2020 by Torrin Hallett, used with permission. Torrin is a 2018 graduate of Oberlin College and Conservatory in Oberlin, Ohio; a 2020 graduate in Horn Performance from Manhattan School of Music in New York; and a 2021 graduate of the Lamont School of Music at the University of Denver. He is currently a graduate student at the Yale School of Music. More information about Torrin is available online at https://www.facebook.com/torrin.hallett. Thanks very much to Torrin for composing the piece especially for Virginia Water Radio. This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 604, 11-22-21. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode. More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGES (Unless otherwise noted, photographs are by Virginia Water Radio.) View of the Chesapeake Bay looking downstream from the Bay Bridge-Tunnel (between Virginia Beach and Northampton County), October 7, 2007.View of the Chesapeake Bay looking upstream from Sandy Point State Park in Anne Arundel County, Maryland, March 21, 2010.Summary charts for Chesapeake Bay waters (upper) and watershed (lower) from the “Chesapeake Bay & Watershed 2021 Report Card” (covering data through 2021; published in June 2022), University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science. Images accessed from the report PDF, online at https://ecoreportcard.org/site/assets/files/2560/2021-chesapeake-bay-watershed-report-card.pdf, as of 7-18-22. SOURCES Used for Audio Chesapeake Bay Foundation, “State of the Bay,” online at https://www.cbf.org/about-the-bay/state-of-the-bay-report/. Chesapeake Bay Program, online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/. Specific pages used were the following:“Slight improvements in Bay health and new economic data added in 2021 Chesapeake Bay Report Card,” June 7, 2022, news release by Caroline Grass;“Bay Barometer,” April 2021 (for 2019-20 data), online (as a PDF) at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/documents/Bay_Barometer_2019-2020_Web.pdf;“Chesapeake Bay Watershed Agreement” (signed June 16, 2014), online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/what/what_guides_us/watershed_agreement;“Chesapeake Progress,” online at https://www.chesapeakeprogress.com/;“The Estuary,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/the_estuary_system.Jeremy Cox and Timothy Wheeler, “Maryland, Virginia clamp down on crab harvests; cuts imposed as crab population hits record-low,” Bay Journal, June 30, 2022. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, “2022 Blue Crab Winter Dredge Survey,” online at https://dnr.maryland.gov/fisheries/Pages/blue-crab/dredge.aspx.Maryland Department of Natural Resources, “Eyes on the Bay,” online at http://eyesonthebay.dnr.maryland.gov/.See http://eyesonthebay.dnr.maryland.gov/eyesonthebay/whatsitmean.cfmfor “Data Available for Viewing” (dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, turbidity, algal blooms, and temperature).See http://eyesonthebay.dnr.maryland.gov/eyesonthebay/links.cfmfor links to other Bay water-quality data and information sources.University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, online at https://www.umces.edu/.The “Chesapeake Bay & Watershed Report Card” is online at https://ecoreportcard.org/report-cards/chesapeake-bay/; note links for “Bay Health,” “Watershed Health,” and “Indicators.”A June 6, 2022, news release on the report of 2021 data is online https://www.umces.edu/news/chesapeake-bay-health-score-held-steady-in-2021.A PDF of the report of 2021 data is online at https://ecoreportcard.org/site/assets/files/2560/2021-chesapeake-bay-watershed-report-card.pdf. Virginia Institute of Marine Science, “How big is the [Chesapeake] bay?” Online at https://www.vims.edu/bayinfo/faqs/estuary_size.php. For More Information about the Chesapeake Bay and its ConditionChesapeake Bay Program, “Discover the Chesapeake,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover. Alice Jane Lippson and Robert L. Lippson, Life in the Chesapeake Bay, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md., 2006. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, “Chesapeake Bay Map,” online at https://coastalscience.noaa.gov/products/vmrc-chesapeake-bay-map/.Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, “Chesapeake Bay,” online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/water/chesapeake-bay. Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS):“Bay Info,” online at https://www.vims.edu/bayinfo/index.php;“SAV Program: Monitoring and Restoration,” online at https://www.vims.edu/research/units/programs/sav/index.php;“Virginia Coastal and Estuarine Observing System,” online at http://vecos.vims.edu/. Virginia Marine Resources Commission, online at https://mrc.virginia.gov/links.shtm. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html). See particularly the “Rivers, Streams, and Other Surface Water” subject category. The previous episode on Chesapeake Bay conditions was Episode 537, 8-10-20, Following are links to some other episodes on the Chesapeake Bay. Bay Barometer and other reports – Episode 305, 2-29-16.Bay Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), Phase II Watershed Implementation Plan – Episode 115, 6-18-12.Bay TMDL, Phase III Watershed Implementation Plan – Episode 475, 6-3-19.Chesapeake Bay Commission – Episode 496, 10-28-19.Estuaries introduction – Episode 326, 7-25-16.Oysters and nitrogen (Part 1) – Episode 279, 8-24-15.Oysters and nitrogen (Part 2) – Episode 280, 9-7-15.“Smart” buoys – Episode 538, 8-17-20.Submerged aquatic vegetation (“Bay grasses”) – Episode 325, 7-18-16.Winter birds of the Chesapeake Bay area – EP565 – 2/22/21. Following are other music pieces composed by Torrin Hallett for Virginia Water Radio, with episodes featuring the music.“A Little Fright Music” – used in Episode 548, 10-26-20, on water-related passages in fiction and non-fiction, for Halloween; and Episode 601, 10-31-21, connections among Halloween, water, and the human body.“Beetle Ballet” – used in Episode 525, 5-18-20, on aquatic beetles.“Corona Cue” – used in Episode 517, 3-23-20, on the coronavirus pandemic. “Flow Stopper” – used in Episode 599, 10-18-21, on “Imagine a Day Without Water.”“Geese Piece” – used most recently in 615, 2-7-22, on Brant.“Ice Dance” – “Ice Dance” – used most recently in Episode 606, 12-6-21, on freezing of water.“Lizard Lied” – used in Episode 514, 3-2-20, on lizards. “New Year's Water” – used most recently in Episode 610, 1-3-22, on water thermodynamics and a New Year's Day New River wade-in.“Rain Refrain” – used most recently in Episode 559, 1-11-21, on record rainfall in 2020.“Runoff” – in Episode 585, 7-12-21 – on middle schoolers calling out stormwater-related water words.“Spider Strike” – used in Episode 523, 5-4-20, on fishing spiders.“Tropical Tantrum” – used most recently in Episode 580, 6-7-21, on the 2021 Atlantic tropical storm season preview.“Tundra Swan Song – used in Episode 554, 12-7-20, on Tundra Swans.“Turkey Tune” – used in Episode 343, 11-21-16, on the Wild Turkey.“Wade in the Water” (arrangement) – used most recently in Episode 616, 2-14-22. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-4: Living Systems and Processes2.5 – Living things are part of a system.3.5 – Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems support a diversity of organisms.4.3 – Organisms, including humans, interact with one another and with the nonliving components in the ecosystem. Grades K-5: Earth and Space Systems3.7 – There is a water cycle and water is important to life on Earth.4.7 – The ocean environment.Grades K-5: Earth Resources 1.8 – Natural resources can be used responsibly, including that most natural resources are limited; human actions can affect the availability of natural resources; and reducing, reusing, and recycling are ways to conserve natural resources.3.8 – Natural events and humans influence ecosystems.4.8 – Virginia has important natural resources. Grade 66.6 – Water has unique physical properties and has a role in the natural and human-made environment.6.8 – Land and water have roles in watershed systems.6.9 – Humans impact the environment and individuals can influence public policy decisions related to energy and the environment. Life ScienceLS.6 – Populations in a biological community interact and are interdependent.LS.8 – Change occurs in ecosystems, communities, populations, and organisms over time.LS.9 – Relationships exist between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.LS.11 – Populations of organisms can change over time. Earth ScienceES.6 – Resource use is complex.ES.8 – Freshwater resources influence and are influenced by geologic processes and human activity.ES.10 – Oceans are complex, dynamic systems subject to long- and short-term variations. BiologyBIO.2 – Chemical and biochemical processes are essential for life.BIO.7 – Populations change through time.BIO.8 – Dynamic equilibria exist within populations, communities, and ecosystems. 2015 Social Studies SOLs Grades K-3 Geography Theme1.6 – Virginia climate, seasons, and landforms.2.6 – Major rivers, mountains, and other geographic features of North America and other continents.3.6 – Major rivers, mountains, and other geographic features of North America and other continents. Grades K-3 Economics Theme2.8 – Natural, human, and capital resources.3.8 – Understanding of cultures and of how natural, human, and capital resources are used for goods and services. Grades K-3 Civics Theme3.12 – Importance of government in community, Virginia, and the United States. Virginia Studies CourseVS.1 – Impact of geographic features on people, places, and events in Virginia history.VS.10 – Knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia. United States History to 1865 CourseUSI.2 – Major land and water features of North America, including their importance in history. United States History: 1865-to-Present CourseUSII.9 – Domestic and international issues during the second half of the 20th Century and the early 21st Century. Civics and Economics CourseCE.6 – Government at the national level.CE.7 – Government at the state level.CE.8 – Government at the local level.CE.10 – Public policy at local, state, and national levels. World Geography CourseWG.2 – How selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth's surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.WG.3 – How regional landscapes reflect the physical environment and the cultural characteristics of their inhabitants.WG.4 – Types and significance of natural, human, and capital resources. Government CourseGOVT.7 – National government organization and powers.GOVT.8 – State and local government organization and powers.GOVT.9 – Public policy process at local, state, and national levels.GOVT.15 – Role of government in Va. and U.S. economies, including examining environmental issues and property rights.Virginia's SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/. Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade. Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade. Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten. Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade. Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade. Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade. Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school. Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school. Episode 524, 5-11-20 – on sounds by water-related animals, for elementary school through high school. Episode 531, 6-29-20 – on various ways that animals get water, for 3rd and 4th grade. Episode 539, 8-24-20 – on basic numbers and facts about Virginia's water resources, for 4th and 6th grade. Episode 606, 12-6-21 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
How do polar regions impact our climate? What microorganisms are hiding beneath the surface? How come polar tourism has increased so much in the past few years? and What jobs can you do to help our planet that are not science? Emily Chen joins us today taking a break from her PHD work at the Ocean Institute in Poland to discuss her passions for mixing social and hard sciences. She is an advocate for collaborative thinking in face of the wicked problems of marine conservation and climate change. She shares her experience on her academic journey, the fascinating project she is working on and some insights into polar science.
The future of our pharmaceuticals are from down under.... the surface of course!Coral reefs are the new tropical rainforests when it comes to drug research. When you think about it, how else do you protect yourself when you are a sea sponge, you can't move, don't have any spines or spikes and are free game for any of the thousands of species living nearby? Well chemistry of course! Turns out some of this chemistry may help with the future of our pharmaceuticals!And then to our crabbiest ally that you never knew about! The fact that we rely on Horseshoe crab blood to test all of our internal medical devices and vaccines is stunning! And the fact that we are affecting the environment in such a drastic fashion yet have a synthetic alternative that we can turn to is wild. Yet we still remain crab vampires in the name of healthcare! For more information on the future of drugs from the sea and Dr. Marc Slattery's research click here. To watch his Ted talk "Drugs from the Sea: What do we lose when Coral reefs die?" click here.For more information about the Horseshoe Crab Recovery Coalition Click here. Check out Dr. Larry Niles blog about his work right here.The Aquatic Bisophere Project The ABP is establishing a conservation Aquarium in the Prairies to help tell the Story of Water.
On this week's episode we journey to a continent rarely featured on This Paranormal Life: Antartica. One could be forgiven for thinking the snowy tundra couldn't possibly be home to any paranormal phenomena, but deep underneath the surface of the ice lies an evil beyond scientific understanding, and one that Rory and Kit must now investigate - Organism 46-B.Support us on Patreon.com/ThisParanormalLife to get access to weekly bonus episodes!Buy Official TPL Merch! - thisparanormallife.com/storeFollow us on Twitter, Instagram, and YouTubeJoin our Secret Society Facebook CommunityAdvertise on This Paranormal Life via Gumball.fmResearch by Amy GrisdaleEdited by Louis BlatherwickIntro music by www.purple-planet.com
CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:22).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImageExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 6-30-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the weeks of July 4 and July 11, 2022. This is a repeat of a 2016 episode celebrating the July 4th holiday. The episode features Virginia Tech master's degree graduate Kriddie Whitmore as a guest voice. SOUNDS - ~ 4 sec – Gray Treefrogs and fireworks. This week, for Independence Day episode, we drop in on a most unusual July 4th conversation: two Gray Treefrogs, surrounded by fireworks, are debating U.S. water history. Sound unimaginable? Well, just have a listen. SOUNDS - ~2 sec – Frogs and fireworks. Frog 1 – There those humans go again, shootin' off their fireworks and makin' it hard for us frogs to hear each other's calls! What's all the ruckus about, anyway? Frog 2 - Why, it's July 4th! They're celebrating this country's Declaration of Independence in 1776 from Great Britain. I think it's cool—at least it's a break from hearing YOU guys calling every evening. Frog 1 – And just why are YOU so excited about the birthday of this big, bustling, human country? Seems to me that it's been nothing but trouble for aquatic habitats and creatures like us since those first ships came over here from that Europe place. Everywhere we try to hop, there's polluted rivers and lakes, lost wetlands and other habitats, and hot, dry pavement. Frog 2 – Well, yeah, you're right, partly. This country's waters have had a pretty hard history. And we amphibians have had the worst of it in some cases and places, with this permeable skin we have. But you're forgetting about some positive things. The humans' Congress passed the Clean Water Act in 1972, and a bunch other important acts, too. And right here in this state, Virginia, the constitution says it's the Commonwealth's policy to protect its atmosphere, lands, and waters from pollution, impairment, or destruction. Frog 1 - Have all those things done any good? Frog 2 – Well, not always or everywhere. Just in Virginia, hundreds of water bodies are impaired and need expensive clean-up programs. For instance, I've got cousins living near that Chesapeake Bay, and they tell me every year it's some things good, other things fair, and still others needing a ton of work. But many rivers and lakes certainly are in better shape than they were 40 or 50 years ago; the Potomac River's one example. Those humans have many competing interests, so sometimes what they do isn't so good for water, or lands, or creatures like us. But other times, it is. People have learned a lot over the years about using and managing natural resources more sustainably, and all kinds of people work hard trying to do that. Frog 1 - Yeah, I guess you're right. You know, it's not easy being a frog, but I guess it's pretty tough being a person, too. Frog 2 – Now that's a pretty realistic call! SOUNDS - ~3 sec – fireworks.Frog 2 – Hey, there's the fireworks finale. And that sounds like the Air Force Concert Band playing one of my favorites, “The Washington Post,” by John Philip Sousa. Let's have a quick listen, then we better get back under cover. All the humans will be coming back from the fireworks soon. Both frogs – Happy July 4th!MUSIC - ~ 14 sec – instrumental. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment. For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624. Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close this episode. In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode replaces Episode 323, 7-4-16, and Episode 427, 7-2-18. Virginia Water Radio thanks Kriddie Whitmore, a 2016 master's degree graduate in Forestry from Virginia Tech, for participating as the guest voice in this episode. Thanks also to Jennifer Gagnon, Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Conservation, for reviewing a draft of the episode. This episode's frog and fireworks sounds were recorded Blacksburg, Va., around 9:30 p.m. on July 4, 2015. This episode's music was an excerpt of “The Washington Post,” written by John Philip Sousa in 1889, and performed here by the United States Air Force Concert Band on their 2001 album “I Am An American,” accessed online at http://www.allmusic.com/album/i-am-an-american-mw0002256231, as of 6-29-22. Information about “The Washington Post” is available from the United States Marine Band, “Sousa-The Washington Post” (3:30 video), online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mxrh1CrMmTY; and “The President's Own/John Philip Sousa,” online at http://www.marineband.marines.mil/About/Our-History/John-Philip-Sousa/. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode. More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGE (Unless otherwise noted, photographs are by Virginia Water Radio.) Gray Treefrog (Hyla versicolor) on the deck of a residence in Blacksburg, Va., Sep. 23, 2009. EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT CONSERVATION IN THE VIRGINIA CONSTITUTION Following are the four sections of Article XI, “Conservation,” of the Virginia Constitution, as accessed at the Virginia Legislative Information System, online at https://law.lis.virginia.gov/constitution/article11/, on June 30, 2022.Section 1. Natural resources and historical sites of the Commonwealth.To the end that the people have clean air, pure water, and the use and enjoyment for recreation of adequate public lands, waters, and other natural resources, it shall be the policy of the Commonwealth to conserve, develop, and utilize its natural resources, its public lands, and its historical sites and buildings. Further, it shall be the Commonwealth's policy to protect its atmosphere, lands, and waters from pollution, impairment, or destruction, for the benefit, enjoyment, and general welfare of the people of the Commonwealth. Section 2. Conservation and development of natural resources and historical sites. In the furtherance of such policy, the General Assembly may undertake the conservation, development, or utilization of lands or natural resources of the Commonwealth, the acquisition and protection of historical sites and buildings, and the protection of its atmosphere, lands, and waters from pollution, impairment, or destruction, by agencies of the Commonwealth or by the creation of public authorities, or by leases or other contracts with agencies of the United States, with other states, with units of government in the Commonwealth, or with private persons or corporations. Notwithstanding the time limitations of the provisions of Article X, Section 7, of this Constitution, the Commonwealth may participate for any period of years in the cost of projects which shall be the subject of a joint undertaking between the Commonwealth and any agency of the United States or of other states. Section 3. Natural oyster beds. The natural oyster beds, rocks, and shoals in the waters of the Commonwealth shall not be leased, rented, or sold but shall be held in trust for the benefit of the people of the Commonwealth, subject to such regulations and restriction as the General Assembly may prescribe, but the General Assembly may, from time to time, define and determine such natural beds, rocks, or shoals by surveys or otherwise. Section 4. Right of the people to hunt, fish, and harvest game. The people have a right to hunt, fish, and harvest game, subject to such regulations and restrictions as the General Assembly may prescribe by general law.SOURCES Used for Audio Chesapeake Bay Program, online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/; and “Slight improvements in Bay health and new economic data added in 2021 Chesapeake Bay Report Card,” June 7, 2022, news release, online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/news/blog/slight_improvements_in_bay_health_and_new_economic_data_added_in_2021_chesa.Commonwealth of Virginia, Constitution of Virginia, “Article XI Conservation,” accessed online at https://law.lis.virginia.gov/constitution/article11/. John D. Kleopfer and Chris S. Hobson, A Guide to the Frogs and Toad of Virginia, Special Publication Number 3, Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (now Department of Wildlife Resources), Richmond, Va., 2011. Bernard S. Martof, et al., Amphibians and Reptiles of the Carolinas and Virginia, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1980. Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, “Water Quality Monitoring in the Potomac Estuary,” online at http://www.mwcog.org/environment/water/potomacestuary.asp.Thomas V. Cech, Principles of Water Resources: History, Development, Management, and Policy, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y., 2003.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency:“National Aquatic Resources Surveys,” online at https://www.epa.gov/national-aquatic-resource-surveys;“Summary of the Clean Water Act,” online at https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-clean-water-act.Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, “Water Quality Assessments/Integrated Report,” online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/water/water-quality/assessments/integrated-report.Zygmunt J. B. Plater et al., Environmental Law and Policy: Nature, Law, and Society, West Publishing Co., St. Paul, Minn., 1998. For More Information about Amphibians in Virginia and Elsewhere AmphibiaWeb, https://amphibiaweb.org/index.html. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, “Animal Diversity Web,” online at https://animaldiversity.org. J.C. Mitchell and K.K. Reay, Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Virginia, Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries/Richmond (1999); available online (as a PDF) at https://www.virginiaherpetologicalsociety.com/atlases/mitchell-atlas.pdf, courtesy of the Virginia Herpetological Society. (Herpetology is the study of amphibians and reptiles.) Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries):“A Guide to Virginia's Frogs and Toads,” online at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wildlife/frogs-and-toads/;“A Guide to the Salamanders of Virginia,” online at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wildlife/salamanders/;“Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/(the Gray Treefrog entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=020007&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19173);“List of Native and Naturalized Fauna in Virginia, August 2020,” online (as a PDF) at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/virginia-native-naturalized-species.pdf;“Virginia is for Frogs,” online at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wildlife/virginia-is-for-frogs/;“Wildlife Information,” online at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wildlife/information/. Virginia Herpetological Society, “Frogs and Toads of Virginia,” online at https://www.virginiaherpetologicalsociety.com/amphibians/frogsandtoads/frogs_and_toads_of_virginia.htm. For More Information about Federal Environmental and Natural Resources LawsCornell University Law School/Legal Information Institute:“Environmental Law,” online at https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/environmental_law; “Natural Resources,” online at https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/natural_resources. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “Laws and Regulations,” online at https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations. The section for the Clean Water Act is online at https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-clean-water-act; the section for the Endangered Species Act is online at https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-endangered-species-act; the section for the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is online at https://www.epa.gov/nepa. For More Information about Virginia Natural Resources Laws Virginia Secretary of Natural Resources Web site, online at http://naturalresources.virginia.gov/. See the “Agencies” link to access the various Virginia state agencies involved with resources regulation and management. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html). See particularly the “Amphibians” and “History” subject categories. Following is the link to another episode on Gray Treefrogs.Episode 528, 6-8-20. Following are links to other episodes done for July 4th. Episode 168, 7-1-13 – Water and the Revolutionary War.Episode 220, 6-30-14 – Water origins of Virginia Declaration signers.Episode 273, 7-6-15 – The Great Road on the Virginia Peninsula.FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-4: Living Systems and ProcessesK.7 – Plants and animals have basic needs and life processes.1.5 – Animals, including humans, have basic life needs that allow them to survive.2.5 – Living things are part of a system.3.5 – Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems support a diversity of organisms.4.3 – Organisms, including humans, interact with one another and with the nonliving components in the ecosystem. Grades K-5: Earth and Space Systems3.7 – There is a water cycle and water is important to life on Earth. Grades K-5: Earth ResourcesK.11 – Humans use resources.1.8 – Natural resources can be used responsibly, including that most natural resources are limited; human actions can affect the availability of natural resources; and reducing, reusing, and recycling are ways to conserve natural resources.3.8 – Natural events and humans influence ecosystems.4.8 – Virginia has important natural resources. Grade 66.6 – Water has unique physical properties and has a role in the natural and human-made environment.6.8 – Land and water have roles in watershed systems.6.9 – Humans impact the environment and individuals can influence public policy decisions related to energy and the environment. Life ScienceLS.9 – Relationships exist between ecosystem dynamics and human activity. Earth ScienceES.6 – Resource use is complex.ES.8 – Freshwater resources influence and are influenced by geologic processes and human activity.ES.10 – Oceans are complex, dynamic systems subject to long- and short-term variations. Biology&