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    Today in the Word Devotional

    Have you ever prayed desperately for something you cared deeply about and received a resounding “no” as your answer? If so, you are in good company. The Apostle Paul prayed for a “thorn in my flesh” to be removed (2 Cor. 12:8–11). Even Jesus prayed, “Take this cup from me” (Mark 14:36). David understood there would be consequences for his sin. The prophet Nathan had told him that his son would die (2 Sam. 12:14). But David “pleaded with God for the child” (v. 16). He fasted and prayed for seven nights. David’s concern for his child contrasts sharply with his indifference at the death of Uriah (2 Sam. 11:25). Even though David had changed, his request was not granted. David overheard his attendants whispering and discovered the truth that his son had died. Children in ancient Israel were named on the eighth day, which is likely why the child is not named in this passage (Lev. 12:3). David joined the ranks of the many parents who have suffered the indescribable pain of losing a child. David’s response surprised everyone. He “went into the house of the Lord and worshiped” and then ended his fast (v. 29). His reason for this was that he now had the answer to his request. He knew he would not be reunited with his child until his own death (v. 23). It can be hard at times to understand why our requests are not granted. David accepted God’s authority over life and death. This passage ends with the birth of another son, Solomon. One child cannot replace another, but the birth of Solomon served as a reminder of God’s love and grace (vv. 24–25). It demonstrated there was still hope for the future. >> God is worthy of our worship even when His answer to our prayers is no. While we may not understand why, we can be certain that God understands our pain. In Christ, God has entered into our pain and can empathize with us (Heb. 4:15).

    Yung Daddy
    #11 - Urban Podcast

    Yung Daddy

    Play Episode Listen Later Aug 15, 2022 45:53


    Support the pod:https://www.patreon.com/levferFollow Lev:https://www.instagram.com/levfer/https://twitter.com/thelevfershowFollow Ben:https://www.instagram.com/callahancomedyhttps://twitter.com/notbencallahanLeave us a five star rating or tag and share us to your social media story! It makes us feel good.The Lev Fer Show is a comedy podcast hosted by NYC comedian Lev Fer. Lev has been on the Showtime series Ray Donovan and various popular comedy podcasts. He can be seen regularly performing at The Stand comedy club.Support the show

    Lets Go Blues Radio - St. Louis Blues Hockey Podcast
    Se10, Ep52: Talking Goalie, Injuries & PHF with Amanda Leveille

    Lets Go Blues Radio - St. Louis Blues Hockey Podcast

    Play Episode Listen Later Aug 11, 2022 50:56


    RockinThatIDLife.com - For 10% OFF, Email Dustin at rockinthatidlife@gmail.com & tell him "Lets Go Blues sent me!" CenterIceBrewery.com - St. Louis brewed hockey-themed beer! Join our Discord Server! www.LetsGoBlues.com/discord One of our best friends of the show and Minnesota Whitecaps starting goalie Amanda Leveille rejoins the show. Goalie injuries and how to cope What do goalies do in the summer? Worst goal Lev has ever given up? Whitecaps making summer moves AND MORE!

    Daniel Ramos' Podcast
    Episode 358: 10 de Agosto del 2022 - Devoción para la mujer - ¨Sin miedos ni cadenas¨

    Daniel Ramos' Podcast

    Play Episode Listen Later Aug 9, 2022 4:33


    ================================================== ==SUSCRIBETEhttps://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNpffyr-7_zP1x1lS89ByaQ?sub_confirmation=1================================================== == DEVOCIÓN MATUTINA PARA MUJERES 2022“SIN MIEDOS NI CADENAS”Narrado por: Sirley DelgadilloDesde: Bucaramanga, ColombiaUna cortesía de DR'Ministries y Canaan Seventh-Day Adventist Church  10 DE AGOSTO¿QUIÉN ES LA MÁS BELLA DEL REINO?“No había brillo en los ojos de Lea, pero Raquel tenía una hermosa figura y una cara bonita” (Gén. 29:17, NTV). ¿No te parece un poco cruel este versículo? ¿Realmente hacía falta dejar tan en claro que Raquel era hermosa y Lea no? Aunque no nos guste admitirlo, Dios no hizo a todas las mujeres igualmente bellas. Dios no reparte la belleza, o la inteligencia o el talento musical de forma equitativa. Algunas tienen más que otras. Me imagino a Lea mirándose al espejo y diciendo: “¡Esto no es justo, Dios! ¿Por qué no me hiciste más bella?” Sin embargo, como escribe Heather Creekmore en su artículo “Rachel And Leah”, “Dios no se disculpa por eso, ni agrega un versículo adicional [en la Biblia] acerca de la gran personalidad de Lea”. La verdad es que, aunque nos gusta ser bellas, Dios puede cumplir su propósito en nuestras vidas sin importar nuestra apariencia. Lea pasó la mayor parte de su matrimonio compitiendo con Raquel por el amor y la atención de Jacob. Podemos ver esto a través de los nombres que les dio a sus hijos. Rubén significa: “El Señor se ha dado cuenta de mi sufrimiento, y ahora mi esposo me amará”. Simeón significa: “El Señor oyó que yo no era amada y me ha dado otro hijo”. A su tercer hijo, Lea lo llamó Leví, pensando: “Ciertamente esta vez mi esposo sentirá cariño por mí, ya que le he dado tres hijos” (Gén. 29:31-35, NTV). Finalmente, con la llegada de su cuarto hijo, pareciera que algo había cambiado en el corazón de Lea. Ella se da cuenta de que cumplir el propósito de Dios para su vida es más importante que su apariencia y menos frustrante que intentar obtener la atención de un hombre. A su cuarto hijo, Lea lo llama Judá, diciendo: “¡Ahora alabaré al Señor!” Y fue justamente Judá quien formó parte de la genealogía del Mesías. “¿Es posible que algunos reciban gran belleza física como parte del plan de Dios para sus vidas, y otros no, y que eso realmente no importe?”, pregunta Heather. “Tal vez Dios no se disculpará con nosotros por no hacer a Lea tan hermosa como a Raquel, porque realmente no importa cómo se vea. Él sabe cómo la usará para lograr sus propósitos y esto, solamente esto, le traerá una gran satisfacción”. La bruja malvada del cuento de Blancanieves no podía tolerar que existiera una mujer más bella que ella. Su envidia la encegueció con respecto a todas las oportunidades y talentos que ya tenía. La historia habría sido completamente diferente si ella hubiera aceptado que no necesitaba ser la mujer más bella del reino para cumplir con su propósito. Señor, ayúdame a aceptar mi cuerpo y la medida de belleza que me has dado. Quiero dedicar mi vida para servirte y cumplir tus propósitos.

    Yung Daddy
    #10 - Daphnique Springs

    Yung Daddy

    Play Episode Listen Later Aug 8, 2022 56:11 Very Popular


    Leave a five star rating and share us to your story!Follow Daphnique:https://www.instagram.com/iamdspringshttps://twitter.com/iamdspringsFollow Lev:https://www.instagram.com/levfer/https://twitter.com/thelevfershowFollow Ben:https://www.instagram.com/callahancomedyhttps://twitter.com/notbencallahanLeave us a five star rating or tag and share us to your social media story! It makes us feel good.The Lev Fer Show is a comedy podcast hosted by NYC comedian Lev Fer. Lev has been on the Showtime series Ray Donovan and various popular comedy podcasts. He can be seen regularly performing at The Stand comedy club.Support the show

    Daniel Ramos' Podcast
    Episode 358: 09 de Agosto del 2022 - Devoción matutina para Adultos - ¨Nuestro maravilloso Dios¨

    Daniel Ramos' Podcast

    Play Episode Listen Later Aug 8, 2022 4:29


    ================================================== ==SUSCRIBETEhttps://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNpffyr-7_zP1x1lS89ByaQ?sub_confirmation=1================================================== == DEVOCIÓN MATUTINA PARA ADULTOS 2022“NUESTRO MARAVILLOSO DIOS”Narrado por: Roberto NavarroDesde: Chiapas, MéxicoUna cortesía de DR'Ministries y Canaan Seventh-Day Adventist Church 09 DE AGOSTO«CUANDO EL PUEBLO DE DIOS ORA... »«En aquel mismo tiempo, el rey Herodes echó mano a algunos de la iglesia para maltratarlos. Mató a espada a Jacobo, hermano de Juan, y al ver que esto había agradado a los judíos, procedió a prender también a Pedro». Hechos 12: 1-3SI, AL IGUAL QUE YO, A VECES TE DESANIMA ver cómo aumenta la maldad en nuestro mundo; y si alguna vez te sientes tentado a pensar que Dios no responde a tus oraciones, entonces conviene que leas en la Biblia el capítulo 12 del libro de los Hechos de los apóstoles.Nuestro versículo para hoy nos presenta a Herodes Agripa ---el nieto de Herodes el Grande- empeñado en destruir a la naciente iglesia cristiana. * Para agradar a los judíos, este malvado rey ya ha matado a Jacobo, el hermano de Juan, y ahora ha encarcelado a Pedro, con el objeto de juzgarlo después de la Pascua. Y para que no escape, ha colocado una férrea guardia integrada por cuatro grupos de cuatro soldados cada uno.Humanamente, no hay nada que se pueda hacer para liberarlo. Nada excepto orar. Y esto fue, precisamente, lo que la iglesia hizo: «Así que Pedro estaba custodio en la cárcel, pero la iglesia hizo sin cesar oración a Dios por él» (vers. 5). Sin cesar, es decir, «intensamente». Según el Comentario bíblico adventista, la palabra griega es la misma que se usa para describir la oración de Jesús en el Getsemaní. *La escena es por demás significativa. Mientras los poderes terrenales arremeten contra los hijos de Dios, ¿qué hace la iglesia? Ora intensamente. Y en el momento oportuno, Dios interviene. Mientras Pedro dormía, «se presentó un ángel del Señor y una luz resplandeció en la cárcel; y tocando a Pedro en el costado, lo despertó, diciendo: “Levántate pronto". Y las cadenas se le cayeron de las manos» (vers. 7). El apóstol, libre de sus cadenas, se dirigió a la casa de Juan Marcos , donde estaban orando por él. Entonces sucede un hecho por los demás curiosos. Cuando la joven que le abrió la puerta avisó a los creyentes que afuera estaba Pedro, le dijeron que estaba loca. Cuando finalmente lo vieron, «quedaron pasmados» (vers . 15-16, NVI). ¡Qué increíble! ¡El milagro por el que oraban estaba ante sus ojos, y no lo creían!¿Alguna selección? Por lo menos dos. La primera es que, aunque este mundo parezca estar fuera de control, Dios sigue siendo el Soberano del universo. La segunda lección es que: «No hay nada que parezca más impotente que el alma que siente su insignificancia y confía plenamente en Dios, y en realidad no hay nada que sea más invencible» (Profetas y reyes, cap. 13, p. 116 ). Padre celestial, ayúdame a creer que ningún poder terrestre podrá prevalecer contra tu iglesia; ya confía en que siempre moraré «bajo la sombra del Omnipotente».*Este Herodes Agripa es padre del rey Agripa ante quien testificó el apóstol Pablo (Hechos 25 y 26). **Comentario bíblico adventista, t. 6. pág. 268. 

    What the Hell Happened to Them?
    Back Door to Hell

    What the Hell Happened to Them?

    Play Episode Listen Later Aug 8, 2022 43:17


    Podcast for a deep examination into the career and life choices of Jack Nicholson. Patrick's trip to San Diego Comic Con sends unintended ripples out through the multiverse. Joe missed his plane and was unable to meet up with Patrick and Lev there. What panels did he miss? Find out on this week's episode of 'What the Hell Happened to Them?' Email the cast at whathappenedtothem@gmail.com Disclaimer: This episode was recorded in July 2022. References may feel confusing and/or dated unusually quickly. 'Back Door to Hell' is available on DVD: https://www.amazon.com/Back-Door-Hell-Jimmie-Rodgers/dp/B000EHSVUK/ref=sr_1_1?crid=4YJL2PQ2ECXC&keywords=back+door+to+hell&qid=1659135861&s=movies-tv&sprefix=back+door+to+hell%2Cmovies-tv%2C190&sr=1-1 Music from 'Some Kind of Nature' by Gorillaz (feat. Lou Reed)   Artwork from BJ West   quixotic, united, skeyhill, vekeman, jack, nicholson, syzygy, back, door, hell, heck, backdoor, phillipines, war, army, radio, DC, rock, dwayne, johnson

    Calvary Orthodox Presbyterian Church

    passage: Lev 14:1-57, service: Evening Worship

    Thinking on Scripture with Dr. Steven R. Cook
    Deuteronomy 28:15-46 - God's Curses for Disobedience

    Thinking on Scripture with Dr. Steven R. Cook

    Play Episode Listen Later Aug 7, 2022 74:03


    Deuteronomy 28:15-46 - The Lord's Cursings      Having already presented God's blessings for obedience (Deut 28:1-14), Moses turned to the cursing section of the covenant, saying, “But it shall come about, if you do not obey the LORD your God, to observe to do all His commandments and His statutes with which I charge you today, that all these curses will come upon you and overtake you” (Deut 28:15). The responsibility fell upon Israel to abide by the terms of the covenant. They were to abide by “all His commandments and His statutes”, and failure to do so would bring God's curses. Earl Radmacher states: "A curse is the opposite of a blessing. It wishes or prays for ill or injury on a person or an object. God cursed the serpent and the ground after the sin of Adam and Eve (Gen 3:14, 17). Jeremiah, in despair, cursed the man who brought news of his birth (Jer 20:14, 15). The seriousness of God's covenant with His people is illustrated by the threat of a curse on any who violate it (Deut 28:60, 61)."[1]      The curses would reverse all God's blessings and would overtake His people wherever they were. Moses wrote: "Cursed shall you be in the city and cursed shall you be in the country. 17 Cursed shall be your basket and your kneading bowl. 18 Cursed shall be the offspring of your body and the produce of your ground, the increase of your herd and the young of your flock. 19 Cursed shall you be when you come in and cursed shall you be when you go out" (Deut 28:16-19).      What follows in Deuteronomy 28:20-68 spelled out God's curses in specific detail and were intended to produce a healthy fear in the Israelite who might be tempted to turn away from the Lord and His clear directives. Moses informed his people that the curses would pursue them in stages until they were destroyed (Deut 28:20-22, 24, 45, 48, 51, 61). Daniel Block states, “By means of a seemingly endless catalogue of secondary agents of doom, Moses warns that Yahweh will marshal every conceivable agent of destruction against His people.”[2] God is offering a theological understanding of Israel's circumstances and experiences should they break their covenant with Yahweh and not abide by His directives.      Moses gave an overarching summary statement of all God would do to Israel if they pursued evil and forsook Him. Moses said, “The LORD will send upon you curses, confusion, and rebuke, in all you undertake to do, until you are destroyed and until you perish quickly, on account of the evil of your deeds, because you have forsaken Me” (Deut 28:20). The word send translates the Hebrew verb שָׁלַח shalach which in this passage means to “send out, forth, send on a mission.”[3] The form of the verb is intensive (Piel), which means the curse will be relentless in its pursuit. God's judgment would come because of Israel's choice to forsake the Lord and to pursue a life of evil deeds. According to Craigie, “The root cause of the disaster would be forgetfulness; the people would forget God, and in forgetting God they would forget his commandments. Having forgotten the commandments of God, the people would inevitably commit evil deeds and bring upon their own heads disaster. God sends the curse (v. 20a), but man invites it by his deeds (v. 20b).”[4]      At the beginning of the judgments, Moses said, “The LORD will make the pestilence cling to you until He has consumed you from the land where you are entering to possess it” (Deut 28:21). The pestilence (דֶּבֶר deber) could be something like bubonic plague, which afflicted both people and animals with fever and delirium. This might explain Moses' next statement, saying, “The LORD will smite you with consumption and with fever and with inflammation and with fiery heat and with the sword and with blight and with mildew, and they will pursue you until you perish” (Deut 28:22). Blight and mildew refer to attacks on crops, which God brought upon His people during times of judgment (see Amos 4:9; Hag 2:17). Daniel Block states: "In verse 22 Moses becomes more specific, listing seven afflictions with which Yahweh will strike his people. The catalogue of seven afflictions expresses Yahweh's sovereignty over all agents of death and destruction. The first four entries elaborate on deber in verse 21 and specify diseases at Yahweh's disposal: wasting disease, fever, inflammation, and scorching heat. The fifth refers to the sword (ḥereb), which functions as shorthand for Israel's defeat by enemy armies (cf. vv. 25–26), and the last two refer to crop diseases."[5]      The judgments would include a severe drought upon the Land. Moses said, “The heaven which is over your head shall be bronze, and the earth which is under you, iron. 24 The LORD will make the rain of your land powder and dust; from heaven it shall come down on you until you are destroyed” (Deut 28:23-24). A bronze sky and iron earth is a picture of impenetrable material which would frustrate the farmer. And the Lord, rather than sending rain that would soften the earth, would only send “powder and dust” upon the land. Eugene Merrill states, “As impervious as these metals are to water and tools, so both the heavens and the earth would be in the day of calamity. The rains would not leak through the skies, nor would the earth be able to be broken up to receive the farmer's seed. Instead, the heavens would rain down dust, which would only exacerbate an already hopeless situation on the earth.”[6]      Moving to a picture of military defeat, Moses said, “The LORD shall cause you to be defeated before your enemies; you will go out one way against them, but you will flee seven ways before them, and you will be an example of terror to all the kingdoms of the earth. 26 Your carcasses will be food to all birds of the sky and to the beasts of the earth, and there will be no one to frighten them away” (Deut 28:25-26). Israel would always have enemies, but rather than know victory, God would cause them to know only defeat. Israel, going out against their enemy “one way” speaks of a planned attack. Fleeing seven ways meant their efforts would fail, as they would scramble to “flee seven ways” from the battle. Israel's choice to separate themselves from God meant they forfeited the Lord's protection against hostile forces. According to Craigie, “Disobedience to the law of God separated the people from him, and in this state of separation they could not expect to experience the presence of God in the midst of their army; without God in the midst of Israel's army, defeat was inevitable.”[7] Not only would Israel be an example of terror to surrounding kingdoms, but their dead bodies would be food for wild animals. Merrill states, “Israel would, in fact, become a field of corpses, a banquet for winged and four-footed scavengers that would be free to eat their fill (v. 26). The irony of the contrast between Israel's feeding off the land (vv. 4–5, 8, 11) and being itself a food supply for carnivorous beasts is inescapable.”[8]The wise Israelite understood, “the nearness of God is my good; I have made the Lord GOD my refuge” (Psa 73:28).      Moving from military defeat, Moses then describes various skin diseases that would inflict the nation. Moses said, “The LORD will smite you with the boils of Egypt and with tumors and with the scab and with the itch, from which you cannot be healed” (Deut 28:27). Concerning the boils, Earl Kalland states, “The ‘boils of Egypt' are doubtless the boils of the sixth plague, which so discomfited the Egyptian magicians, as well as all other Egyptians, that they could no longer stand before Moses (Ex 9:9–11). This may have been a form of leprosy known in Egypt.”[9] The reference to tumors (עֹפֶל ophel) could mean hemorrhoids, much like what afflicted the Philistines when they took possession of the Ark (1 Sam 5:6). The scab (גָּרָב garab) was something that irritated the skin, perhaps a rash of some sort. Interestingly, such a skin disease would disqualify a priest from service (Lev 21:18-21), as well as an animal from being sacrificed (Lev 22:20-22). The itch (חֶרֶס cheres) referred to some eruptive disease.      All of this would have great psychological and social impact on the Israelites, as Moses continued, saying, “The LORD will smite you with madness and with blindness and with bewilderment of heart; 29 and you will grope at noon, as the blind man gropes in darkness, and you will not prosper in your ways; but you shall only be oppressed and robbed continually, with none to save you” (Deut 28:28-29). Their mental, emotional, and social condition would make it impossible to function on a daily basis. They would become like a “blind man” who cannot see his way clearly to do anything, and the result will be that they “will not prosper” in any of their activities. Furthermore, there would be none to help, as those around them would only oppress and rob them, and there would be “none to save” them from their troubles. Eugene Merrill writes: "The inclusion of blindness between two states of emotional or psychological disorder suggests that this loss of vision was not physical but metaphorical (cf. Psa 146:8; Isa 29:18; 35:5; 42:7, 16; 43:8; 56:10). The groping about in midday like a blind man (v. 29a) is a simile qualified in the next line, “You will be unsuccessful in everything you do.” The blindness, then, was the incapacity to think clearly or form intelligent judgments. It would lay the ones under the curse open to all kinds of exploitation including oppression…and robbery (v. 29b). Having broken fellowship with the Lord, they would have no one to deliver them from their insanity and its consequences."[10] Peter Craigie adds: "In broad daylight, the cursed blind man gropes around. He cannot see and does not know how to make himself prosperous, but he can be seen by others; his fumbling ineptitude makes him an easy prey for robbers. Having brought about his sad state through disobedience to the law of God, he is now at the mercy of those who live outside the law, and there is no one to offer help. His fellows are equally cursed, and he has gone too far from God to call for his deliverance."[11]      Having turned away from the Lord, Israel would no longer enjoy His protections, and this meant what was precious to them would be vulnerable to attack and harm. These included attacks on one's spouse, home, business, children, and safety from one's enemies. Moses said: "You shall betroth a wife, but another man will violate her; you shall build a house, but you will not live in it; you shall plant a vineyard, but you will not use its fruit. 31 Your ox shall be slaughtered before your eyes, but you will not eat of it; your donkey shall be torn away from you, and will not be restored to you; your sheep shall be given to your enemies, and you will have none to save you. 32 Your sons and your daughters shall be given to another people, while your eyes look on and yearn for them continually; but there will be nothing you can do. 33 A people whom you do not know shall eat up the produce of your ground and all your labors, and you will never be anything but oppressed and crushed continually. 34 You shall be driven mad by the sight of what you see." (Deut 28:30-34)      Here is a picture of harm by one's enemies, frustration by helplessness, and eventual despair of soul and madness of mind by the sight of what they will see. They would have no control over their lives but would be perpetual victims of their enemies who take possession of their wives and mistreat them. The fruit of their ground and livestock would be eaten by another, and their children would be forcibly taken and sold into slavery while they looked on in helplessness, and there would be nothing they could do to stop it. The end result was mental madness by what they saw happening to them. All of this was the result of their walking away from the Lord's protections.      Revisiting the motif of boils previously mentioned (Deut 28:27), Moses said, “The LORD will strike you on the knees and legs with sore boils, from which you cannot be healed, from the sole of your foot to the crown of your head” (Deut 28:35). This disease would cover the whole body, but emphasis seems to be given to the knees, legs, and soles of one's feet, which would make normal activities very difficult, thus exacerbating one's efforts to work.      The judgments also anticipated a time in the future when Israel would have a king over them. Moses said, “The LORD will bring you and your king, whom you set over you, to a nation which neither you nor your fathers have known, and there you shall serve other gods, wood and stone. 37 You shall become a horror, a proverb, and a taunt among all the people where the LORD drives you” (Deut 28:36-37). If Israel turned away from God and refused to serve Him, they would fall victim to slavery in godless nations who served dumb idols of wood and stone. Eugene Merrill states, “Deportation does, however, imply submission, a condition contrary to the exaltation of Israel described in the list of blessings. Rather than being a nation set “high above all the nations” (v. 1), God's people would lose their children to another nation (v. 32) and would themselves go off into ignominious captivity (v. 36).”[12] Israel's fallen condition would serve as a horror and proverb to other nations.      Deuteronomy 28:36 describes how God will bring His people and their king into captivity in a foreign land. Because Israel did not have a king until nearly four centuries after Moses gave the law, it is argued by liberal scholars that Deuteronomy is actually a late book, written around the seventh or fifth centuries B.C. These liberal scholars—who operate on antisupernaturalistic presuppositions—reject the Bible as divinely inspired and treat it as a humanistic book and the events described therein as history rather than prophecy (Lat. vaticinium ex eventu = after the event). However, because the Bible is supernaturally inspired by God, these prophetic statements are not a problem, as God had promised Israel would have a king (Gen 17:6, 16; 35:11; Deut 17:14-20).      Returning to the judgments, Moses stated that all their efforts at labor and production would be met with futility. Moses said: "You shall bring out much seed to the field but you will gather in little, for the locust will consume it. 39 You shall plant and cultivate vineyards, but you will neither drink of the wine nor gather the grapes, for the worm will devour them. 40 You shall have olive trees throughout your territory but you will not anoint yourself with the oil, for your olives will drop off. 41 You shall have sons and daughters but they will not be yours, for they will go into captivity. 42 The cricket shall possess all your trees and the produce of your ground." (Deut 28:38-42)      Again, we have a picture of fruitless labor by the Israelite farmer. Frustration would come as locusts and worms would be used by the Lord to destroy their crops. Even their sons and daughters—who often helped with farming—would be taken away into captivity, further exacerbating their ability to farm. Daniel Block states: "The catalogue of futility curses involves the entire range of ancient Palestinian agricultural activity: fields of grain (v. 38), vineyards (v. 39), olive groves (v. 40), and fruit trees (v. 41). The crop failures are caused by little creatures that Yahweh will send to devour and despoil the crops before they can be harvested. “Locusts” (v. 38) are grass-eating insects that fly in vast swarms and devour everything in sight. “Worms” (v. 39) refers to fruit grubs that attack the grapes. The meaning of “swarms of locusts” (v. 42) is uncertain, but it probably refers to a species of beetle that kills vegetation by attacking leaves or stems."[13]      Israel would also experience social and economic decline, as Moses said, “The alien who is among you shall rise above you higher and higher, but you will go down lower and lower. 44 He shall lend to you, but you will not lend to him; he shall be the head, and you will be the tail” (Deut 28:43-44). The alien (גֵּר ger) was the one who originally came to Israel to be elevated and blessed, but his low position would become the new standard, not because he was lifted up, but because Israel was brought down to a lower position. Israel would experience economic slavery by being the borrower rather than the lender.      Moses continued, “So all these curses shall come on you and pursue you and overtake you until you are destroyed, because you would not obey the LORD your God by keeping His commandments and His statutes which He commanded you. 46 They shall become a sign and a wonder on you and your descendants forever” (Deut 28:45-46). The curses would pursue (רָדָף radaph – to pursue, chase, persecute) and overtake (נָשַׂג nasag) Israel like a relentless hunter who is tireless in his pursuit to catch and destroy the hunted animal. All of this would happen because Israel refused to walk with the Lord and to keep His commandments. Peter Craigie states, “Disobedience to the word of God would result inevitably in disaster…For a sign and for a wonder—the disasters that would befall the Israelites, if they were disobedient to God, would serve to illustrate the ways of God to other nations, who would be prompted to ask questions when they saw the plight of the Israelites.”[14]   [1] Earl D. Radmacher, Nelson's New Illustrated Bible Commentary, 263. [2] Daniel I. Block, The NIV Application Commentary: Deuteronomy, ed. Terry Muck (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2012), 652. [3] Francis Brown, Samuel Rolles Driver, and Charles Augustus Briggs, Enhanced Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977), 1019. [4] Peter C. Craigie, The Book of Deuteronomy, The New International Commentary on the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1976), 342. [5] Daniel I. Block, The NIV Application Commentary: Deuteronomy, 653. [6] Eugene H. Merrill, Deuteronomy, vol. 4, The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1994), 359. [7] Peter C. Craigie, The Book of Deuteronomy, The New International Commentary on the Old Testament, 343. [8] Eugene H. Merrill, Deuteronomy, vol. 4, The New American Commentary, 360. [9] Earl S. Kalland, “Deuteronomy,” in The Expositor's Bible Commentary: Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 & 2 Samuel, ed. Frank E. Gaebelein, vol. 3 (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1992), 172. [10] Eugene H. Merrill, Deuteronomy, vol. 4, The New American Commentary, 361. [11] Peter C. Craigie, The Book of Deuteronomy, The New International Commentary on the Old Testament, 345. [12] Eugene H. Merrill, Deuteronomy, vol. 4, The New American Commentary, 362. [13] Daniel I. Block, The NIV Application Commentary: Deuteronomy, 657. [14] Peter C. Craigie, The Book of Deuteronomy, The New International Commentary on the Old Testament, 347.

    God’s Word For Today
    22.187 | The Holy Spirit Descended at Pentecost | Acts 2:1-4| God's Word for Today with Pastor Nazario Sinon

    God’s Word For Today

    Play Episode Listen Later Aug 5, 2022 13:42


    Acts 2:1-4 ESV When the day of Pentecost arrived, they were all together in one place. 2 And suddenly there came from heaven a sound like a mighty rushing wind, and it filled the entire house where they were sitting. 3 And divided tongues as of fire appeared to them and rested on each one of them. 4 And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues as the Spirit gave them utterance. THE HOLY SPIRIT DESCENDED AT PENTECOST Their patient waiting upon Jesus' promise for the baptism with the Holy Spirit paid off (Acts 1:4–5] The Holy Spirit arrived from heaven with a sound like a mighty rushing wind. What's described here is a sound, not a sensation. They heard the sound of wind but they didn't feel a blast of fast-moving air, did they? The “rushing” and “mighty” sound descriptions suggest the power of wind as always understood to be under God's control. In the Old Testament, He often appeared as some form of wind. For example, He answered to Job from a whirlwind (Job 38:1), to Ezekiel, a stormy wind (Ezekiel 1:4), as a low whisper to Elijah (1 Kings 19:12). And, He filled the room when Solomon dedicated his temple (1 Kings 8:10–11). The word translated as "Spirit" is pneuma, which may meant ‘breath or wind'. However here, the "Holy Spirit" is a person and one of the three members of the Trinity. Let's recall that the Spirit is the power that can make us be born anew in Christ. Jesus described to Nicodemus the work of the Spirit, saying, "The wind blows where it wishes, and you hear its sound, but you do not know where it comes from or where it goes. So it is with everyone who is born of the Spirit" (John 3:8). Jesus did the work required to reconcile us to God with His sacrifice on the cross. On the other hand, it is the Holy Spirit who indwells those who believe. Moreover, He equips them to further spread that good news – by emboldening believers in their preaching (Acts 4:31), affirming their teaching (Acts 6:10), preparing hearts of people (Acts 8:29,13:2), leading them in what to say (Acts 15:28), and guiding believers (Acts 16:6–7). The Spirit descent during the day of the "Pentecost” signaled the start of the church age. Pentecost is derived from the Greek word for "fiftieth." It falls seven weeks and one day [50 days] after the Sabbath that occurs during the weeklong Feast of Unleavened Bread. It is also called the "Feast of Weeks" because that same period is seven weeks or "a week of weeks." It is given in the Mosaic Law in Lev 23:15–21 and Deut 16:9–12. Thus after Passover, Pentecost is the next major feast for which Jews from all over the Roman Empire will come to Jerusalem in order to bring first of their grain as a free-will offering. On this Pentecost, Jerusalem offers a kind of free-will offering to God. Amazingly, three thousand people believe in Jesus during this day (Acts 2:41). -------------------- Visit and FOLLOW Gospel Light Filipino on YouTube, Facebook and Instagram

    New Covenant Church Sermons
    8/7/22 - Exod. 20:7 - Proper Respect Command (3rd Commandment) - David Rountree

    New Covenant Church Sermons

    Play Episode Listen Later Aug 5, 2022 47:33


    Sermon by Dr. David Rountree on 08-07-2022 at New Covenant Church in Anderson, SC. Scripture Passage: Exodus 20:7 Outline: Proverbs 29:20; Eph. 4:29; James 3:6 1. Speaking of God or for God Lightly and Irreverently - Psalm 8:1 2. Speaking of God or for God Without His Authority - Matthew 6:9, 10 3. Speaking of God or for God Without Faith in Him - 1 John 5:10; Rom. 10:14 4. Speaking of God or for God Without Living for God - Col. 3:17 5. Speaking of God or for God Without Considering Punishment - Exod. 20:7; Lev. 24:10-16; Acts 4:12; Rom. 10:13; Phil. 2:9 www.ncchurch.net

    El está esperando por ti ❤️❤️❤️
    El comer carne no te da derecho a torturar la también creación de Dios❤️

    El está esperando por ti ❤️❤️❤️

    Play Episode Listen Later Aug 5, 2022 3:36


    Dios dijo a Pedro. Levántate, mata y come, pero nunca dijo tortura, maltrata y abusa de mi creación. ❤️❤️❤️

    Academia Bíblica Valdeci Fidelis
    ADM Marabá Paulista Ministração da palavra livro de Ruth 4. Edinéia Santana

    Academia Bíblica Valdeci Fidelis

    Play Episode Listen Later Aug 4, 2022 47:57


    No primeiro chá da mulher para Mulheres organizado pela igreja Assembléia de Deus Ministério Madureira em Marabá Paulista, pastoreada pelo casal líderes Pr João Rezende e missionária Neide, teve como Preletora a Advogada membro do Ministério Madureira Dra Edinéia Santana com uma linda exposição do texto bíblico Antigo Testamento. Ruth foi escrito em 1312 a.C., A herança de Boaz de conforme as escriturasVendo conteúdos adulto, vídeos fotos diz Boaz subiu a porta, e se assentou ali: ali era onde os negócios se concluíam nas cidades neste tempo ou melhor naqueles tempos. E eis que passava aquele parente mais próximo (que estava mais perto como parente de Noemi do que Boaz). Do qual havia falado Boaz, e lhe disse: Ei fulano, vem para cá e assenta-te aqui. E ele veio, e se assentou (com vontades de saber que assunto Boaz queria discutir). Siga o Podcast e vocês ouvintes da palavra de Deus em Cristo Jesus nosso Senhor seja contigo como foi com todos aqueles que estiveram ouvindo essa noite de muita bênçãos. Àqueles que tiveram o privilégio de visitar a ADM em Marabá Paulista, e está bem próximo e no lugar onde a história começou. ADM de Marabá nesse Chá de mulheres, é contada com muitos detalhes pois surgiu como uma Fênix; acredito que todos que participaram fizeram parte do plano de Deus registrados na Bíblia e foram escritos com o propósito de ensinar a mim e a vocês lições que farão grande diferença na nossa vida, principalmente no contexto inserido pela Dra. Edinéia Santana na sua interpretação dissertativa sistemática essa noite de 30 de julho de 2022 ficará registrado nos anais da plantação da Igreja Evangélica Assembléia de Deus Ministério Madureira em Marabá Paulista SP. É importante saber que tudo que Jesus Cristo fez quando esteve aqui tinha o propósito de deixar mensagens que edificassem nossa fé e guiasse nossa vida em Cristo e em todos os momentos. Nada foi por acaso. Quero parabenizar a todos que apoiaram esse evento com graça e paz. O significado de Rute 4 trata a respeito das terras do falecido marido de Noemi e o casamento de Boaz com Rute. Sentindo os defeitos da pobreza e viuvez, Noemi descuidou vender as terras do falecido marido. Para impedir que a terras passassem para fora da família ela teve que garantir que ela fosse (ou comprada) pelo parente mais próximo conf. (Levítico 25:23-28). O livro conta que Boaz casa com Ruth (Rt 4:1-22) (Rt 4:1-6) visite o blog e leia material bíblico (vero testamentária) https://valdecifidelis.blogspot.com, Amém

    Charlas Pastor Luis Salas, Iglesia ETP

    1 Crónicas  21:26.A diferencia de la vida natural, la vida espiritual comienza con la muerte y la muerte comienza con un sacrificio, en ese preciso momento inicia nuestra Relación con Dios = Sacrificio u Ofrendas. La gran mayoría de las referencias bíblicas que contienen la palabra «sacrificio» se encuentran en el Antiguo Testamento, las cuales pre-configuran la muerte sacrificial de Jesús en la cruz por nosotros. Estamos en tiempos de tanta lucha, de tanta batalla espiritual, que muchos creyentes están cansados y abatidos. Otros están distraídos por tantas cosas que ofrece el mundo, como resultado de esto han perdido el anhelo y el deseo de adorar y exaltar a Dios, sin  embargo, la palabra de Dios nos insta a ofrecer sacrificios de alabanza y adoración al Señor, El esta buscando adoradores que le adoren en espíritu y verdad.El Nuevo Testamento habla del Sacrificio de Cristo en el madero, la muerte de Jesús fue, es y seguirá siendo el único sacrificio perfecto y completo que suple todos los sacrificios ejecutados por el hombre en el Antiguo Testamento, por lo tanto no necesitamos hacer ningún sacrificio por nuestros pecados. El sacrificio denota principalmente «el acto de ofrecer»; entonces, objetivamente, lo que Dios quiere que le ofrezcamos es nuestra completa adoración y dependencia como una ofrenda o regalo ante Él.Desde el comienzo Dios les enseñó a los hombres que llamó y que se les reveló cómo adorarlo, y luego en Éxodo 20:24-26 les dio las instrucciones claras a su pueblo a través de Moisés que luego fueron escritas en la Ley.Dios les ordenó a su pueblo que se acercaran a Él edificando altares de piedra colocados sobre la tierra, piedras que no podían ser cortadas, ni moldeadas por el hombre. Nuestra adoración tiene que ser natural, sin adornos, ni acomodos o cortaduras de ninguna índole, no estilizada sino rústica, común, natural, 1 Pedro 2:5.Ofrenda quemada o completamente quemado”. Es una de las 3 ofrendas voluntarias y de olor grato. Este sacrificio representaba la plena dedicación y la entrega a Dios. La esencia de este sacrificio era la adoración voluntaria hacia Dios. El animal, por lo general un macho sin defectos, al cual el pecador transfería la culpa por su pecado, por medio de la imposición de su mano en la cabeza del sacrificio. La culpa era transferida del pecador hacia el animal, y este cargaba los pecados del adorador y moría en su lugar. Una vez que la sangre era rociada sobre el altar, se hacía arder todo el animal. Se podría ofrecer tres tipos de animales en este sacrificio: vacuno (vacas), del rebaño (ovejas o cabras) y de aves (tórtolas o palominos). Se consumía en el altar completamente y expelía olor fragante delante de Dios; Yeshua cumplió completamente esta ofrenda quemada en el madero: Varón Lev 1:3 - Mateo 1:21 / Sin Mancha Lev 1:3 - 1 Pedro 1:22-23 / Voluntariamente Lev 1:3 - Juan 10:18.Cristo fue enviado por el Padre porque él se ofreció como nuestro sacrificio ante el Padre (Hebreos 9:14), se humilló a sí mismo tomando forma de siervo (Filipenses 2:7) y realizó la purificación de nuestros pecados por medio de sí mismo (Hebreos 1:3). Además, en el rollo del libro de la ley (Torah) estaba profetizado que el Mesías vendría para hacer la voluntad de Dios. Hebreos 10:7-9. La única ofrenda que no incluye el derramamiento de sangre, es una ofrenda de comida. Es una de las 3 ofrendas voluntarias y de olor grato. El enfoque de esta ofrenda era la adoración voluntaria. Dicha ofrenda consistía principalmente de cereales y otros productos del campo. La gente traía flor de harina, tortas sin levadura o granos tostados a los sacerdotes. Ellos quemaban un puñado simbólico ante el altar y podían consumir el resto. Este sacrificio debía ofrecerse sin levadura y miel porque ambas se fermentan y por esa razón eran consideradas inmundas. Junto con la ofrenda debía quemarse también incienso, el cual era agregado para producir un olor agradable. Esta ofrenda se podía ofrecer cocida o sin cocer. Jesús el pan de vida Juan 6:48, Jesús la vid verdadera Juan 15:1-4, Jesús el agua de vida Juan 4:11-15. Sacrificios de paz u ofrenda de paz: Esta ofrenda simbolizaba la comunión y la paz por medio de la sangre derramada. Es una de las 3 ofrendas voluntarias y de olor grato. Era la única ofrenda en la que el que ofrecía la ofrenda participaba al comer una porción del sacrificio. La grosura conformada por los riñones, el hígado y las membranas de la cavidad abdominal eran quemadas y ofrecidas enteramente al Señor. La sangre de la víctima se salpicaba o rociaba “sobre el altar alrededor”. Ni la grosura ni la sangre se podían comer, porque eran exclusivamente para Jehová. Luego de que la carne fuera ceremonialmente mecida y dada a los sacerdotes, los adoradores y sus invitados podían participar del banquete como una comida para Dios. Aceite - Grasa, Vino - Sangre. Romanos 12:1 “Así que, hermanos, os ruego por las misericordias de Dios, que presentéis vuestros cuerpos en sacrificio vivo, santo, agradable a Dios, que es vuestro culto racional”.Hebreos 13:15 “Así que, ofrezcamos siempre a Dios, por medio de él, sacrificio de alabanza, es decir, fruto de labios que confiesan su nombre”.Así que, si estás en Cristo Jesús, eres llamado a ofrecer sacrificios, pero de una manera diferente. Nuestro sacrificio para Dios debe ser de alabanza, de adoración, de gratitud, de honra que salga de nuestro corazón y de nuestra boca. …yo honraré a los que me honran, y los que me desprecian serán tenidos en poco. 1 SAMUEL 2:30    Honramos a Dios reconociendo que  él es nuestro Padre. Honramos a Dios trayendo alabanza y adoración. Honramos a Dios con todo lo que él nos ha dado. La ofrenda es adoración, es  por eso que ofrendando honramos a Dios. Proverbios 3:9-10. “Honra a Jehová con tus bienes,  Y con las primicias de todos tus frutos; Y serán llenos tus graneros con abundancia,  Y tus lagares rebosarán de mosto”. Honramos a Dios con el corazón, no solo de labios. Esto quiere decir sin hipocresía, porque a lo que no se le pone el corazón, es algo que no queremos hacer realmente. Honramos a Dios por medio de nuestro servicio.  Honramos a Dios viviendo una vida en santidad.

    Moteur de recherche
    Le seuil acceptable de nickel dans l'air, et la fausse bonne idée d'utiliser de la vaisselle compostable

    Moteur de recherche

    Play Episode Listen Later Aug 3, 2022 53:16


    La journaliste scientifique Valérie Levée explique comment on détermine le seuil acceptable de nickel dans l'air; Pierre-Antoine Gilbert, enseignant à l'Institut National d'Agriculture Biologique, dévoile de quelle manière les plantes absorbent l'azote; Antoine Boisson et Julie Major de l'Université du Québec à Rimouski (UQAR) parlent de l'arc de Nastapoka et de son origine à la baie d'Hudson; et Aurore Courtieux-Boinot, conseillère gestion des matières résiduelles et économie circulaire pour la Coopérative Incita, fait le point sur les couverts compostables qu'ils soient en carton ou en plastique.

    Yung Daddy
    #9 - Raanan Hershberg

    Yung Daddy

    Play Episode Listen Later Aug 1, 2022 52:05


    Support the show and listen to the BONUS episode with Raanan Hershberg here: https://www.patreon.com/levferFollow Raananhttps://www.instagram.com/raanancomedyhttps://twitter.com/RaanancomedyFollow Lev:https://www.instagram.com/levfer/https://twitter.com/thelevfershowFollow Ben:https://www.instagram.com/callahancomedyhttps://twitter.com/notbencallahanLeave us a five star rating or tag and share us to your social media story! It makes us feel good.The Lev Fer Show is a comedy podcast hosted by NYC comedian Lev Fer. Lev has been on the Showtime series Ray Donovan and various popular comedy podcasts. He can be seen regularly performing at The Stand comedy club.Support the show

    Devotional on SermonAudio
    212-(Levítico 22-24): tiempo de lectura, meditación y oración

    Devotional on SermonAudio

    Play Episode Listen Later Aug 1, 2022 22:00


    A new MP3 sermon from Iglesia Reformada Palabra de Vida is now available on SermonAudio with the following details: Title: 212-(Levítico 22-24): tiempo de lectura, meditación y oración Subtitle: Leamos la BIBLIA Speaker: Ramon M. Sosa Broadcaster: Iglesia Reformada Palabra de Vida Event: Devotional Date: 7/31/2022 Bible: Leviticus 22-24 Length: 22 min.

    Thinking on Scripture with Dr. Steven R. Cook
    Deuteronomy 28:15-68 - Introduction to the Curses & Review of Israel's History

    Thinking on Scripture with Dr. Steven R. Cook

    Play Episode Listen Later Jul 31, 2022 72:29


    Deuteronomy 28:15-68 Dr. Steven R. Cook Introduction      Concerning Deuteronomy chapter 28, Thomas Constable states, “This section of Deuteronomy (chapters 27-28) is one of the most important ones in Scripture because it records the two options open to Israel as she entered the Promised Land. Obedience to the revealed Word of God would result in blessing, but disobedience would result in blasting.”[1] Dwight Pentecost adds, “For understanding and explaining Israel's history as recorded throughout the Old Testament, there are perhaps no more important chapters than Deuteronomy 28–30.”[2]      Moses, having previously stated God's wonderful blessings for the obedient-to-the-Word Israelite (Deut 28:1-14), followed with God's cursings that would come upon the one who was disobedient-to-the-Word (Deut 28:15-68). In Deuteronomy 28:15-68, Moses set forth the curses that God would bring upon Israel if they repeatedly violated His directives as found in the Deuteronomic law code. Moses used the Hebrew verb אָרָר arar six times, which means, “to bind with a curse.”[3] The form of the verb is passive, which meant a curse was received by the nation of Israel if they turned away from God. Victor Hamilton states that אָרָר arar means “to bind, hem in with obstacles, [or] render powerless to resist.”[4] The curses mentioned in Deuteronomy are reflexive of those who violate their covenant relationship with God. That is, they bring the curses on themselves by violating God's Word.[5] God's curses are His righteous response to unethical behavior among His people, and they could be avoided by simply walking in obedience with the Lord (Deut 28:15, 20, 45-47, 58-59, 62; 29:25-28; 30:17-18). If the Israelite was aligned with God's Word in thought, speech, and conduct, it would open the channel for His blessing. However, if the Israelite turned from God's path, it would open the channel of cursing. Dwight Pentecost states, “These curses were not viewed as punishment for disobedience as much as disciplines to bring a guilty people back to obedience to God.”[6] Jack Deere agrees, saying, “Each individual judgment essentially had one goal: to turn Israel from disobedience.”[7]However, the curses would lead to ultimate destruction if God's people persisted in their sinful rebellion.      This lengthy section can be viewed in two parts: 1) a statement of curses that reverse all God's blessing (Deut 28:15-19), and 2) specific descriptions of the curses that God will send on Israel until they are destroyed (Deut 28:20-22, 24, 45, 48, 51, 61). God's judgment upon His people was self-inflicted because they would not obey Him (Deut 28:20, 45, 47, 62). God executed these curses at various times when His people were disobedient to the covenant (see Judg 2:20-22; Jer 6:19; 11:9-11; 29:15-20; 34:17-20; Dan 9:4-6; Hos 8:1-3).      The transmission of God's law to subsequent generations was primarily the responsibility of the parents (Deut 6:1-9), and priests (Lev 10:8-11; Ezra 7:10; Mal 2:7). Failure to teach God's law to subsequent generations of Israelites would create a theological vacuum in their souls which Satan would gladly fill. If God's people operated by unethical standards, His judgments would fall upon them. God held His people accountable for their ethical behavior, even if/when the majority did not know or abide by His laws, as ignorance did not protect them from His judgments (see 2 Ki 22:1-13). However, His judgments did not happen right away, as God would send ample warnings through His prophets, who occasionally functioned as a prosecuting attorney (רִיב rib),[8] pointing out their violation of the law and the impending consequences if they did not turn back to the Lord (i.e., repent). When God's prophet functioned as a prosecuting attorney for the Lord, he would present God's case before the people (Hos 4:1-3; 12:2; Mic 6:1-2). The Hebrew verb רִיב rib, when used by the prophet, denotes “God's lawsuit…against His own people.”[9] According to Earl Radmacher, “The Hebrew word refers to a formal complaint charging Israel with breaking the covenant.”[10] If Israel persisted in sin, God would execute His judgments in ever increasing severity, until they were eventually destroyed and removed from the land. Historically, we know God destroyed the ten northern tribes of Israel in 722 B.C. because His people had broken covenant with the Lord, and this occurred after repeated warnings through His prophets (2 Ki 17:1-23). The same judgment fell upon the two southern tribes of Judah in 586 B.C. when God raised up the Babylonians to defeat His people and take them into captivity (2 Ki 24:8-16), and this happened after repeated warnings by His prophets (Jer 7:25-26; 25:4-11; 29:18-19). Warren Wiersbe states: "The fact that Israel is God's chosen people and a special nation explains why He chastens them, for the greater the privilege, the greater the responsibility. “You only have I chosen of all the families of the earth; therefore, I will punish you for all your sins” (Amos 3:2). Divine election isn't an excuse for human rebellion. “For everyone to whom much is given, from him much will be required” (Luke 12:48)."[11]     [1] Tom Constable, Tom Constable's Expository Notes on the Bible (Galaxie Software, 2003), Dt 28:58. [2] J. Dwight Pentecost, Thy Kingdom Come: Tracing God's Kingdom Program and Covenant Promises throughout History (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 1995), 105. [3] Ludwig Koehler et al., The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1994–2000), 91. [4] Victor P. Hamilton, “168 אָרַר,” ed. R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (Chicago: Moody Press, 1999), 75. [5] We observe in Deuteronomy 27 how the verb אָרָר arar came upon the one who practiced idolatry (Deut 27:15), dishonored parents (Deut 27:16), secretly stole from a neighbor (Deut 27:17), injured the disabled (Deut 27:18), distorted justice due to the alien, orphan, or widow (Deut 27:19), practiced sexual perversion (Deut 27:20-23), secretly struck a neighbor (Deut 27:24), accepted a bribe to kill the innocent (Deut 27:25), or disobeyed any of God's laws (Deut 27:26). [6] J. Dwight Pentecost, Thy Kingdom Come, 106. [7] Jack S. Deere, “Deuteronomy,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 312. [8] The Hebrew verb רִיב rib is used some places in Scripture in a non-legal sense of people who fight with each other (Gen 13:7; Ex 17:7; Jer 15:10), as well as a legal sense in which one person takes up a lawsuit or legal case against another (Deut 17:8; 19:17; 21:5). [9] Ludwig Koehler et al., The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament, 1226. [10] Earl D. Radmacher, Ronald Barclay Allen, and H. Wayne House, Nelson's New Illustrated Bible Commentary (Nashville: T. Nelson Publishers, 1999), 1029. [11] Warren W. Wiersbe, Be Equipped, “Be” Commentary Series (Colorado Springs, CO: Chariot Victor Pub., 1999), 170–171.

    Calvary Orthodox Presbyterian Church
    Laws about Bodily Uncleanness

    Calvary Orthodox Presbyterian Church

    Play Episode Listen Later Jul 31, 2022


    passage: Lev 15:1-33, service: Evening Worship

    Practical Truths for Practical Living

    Exodus 11 :12-13, Romans 2 :5, Lev.17 :11, John 1: 12

    Douglas Jacoby Podcast
    A Tour Through John, Lesson 3

    Douglas Jacoby Podcast

    Play Episode Listen Later Jul 27, 2022 23:25


    For additional notes and resources check out Douglas' website.19 This is the testimony given by John when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, “Who are you?” 20 He confessed and did not deny it, but confessed, “I am not the Messiah.” 21 And they asked him, “What then? Are you Elijah?” He said, “I am not.” “Are you the prophet?” He answered, “No.” 22 Then they said to him, “Who are you? Let us have an answer for those who sent us. What do you say about yourself?” 23 He said,   “I am the voice of one crying out in the wilderness,‘Make straight the way of the Lord,'”as the prophet Isaiah said.24 Now they had been sent from the Pharisees. 25 They asked him, “Why then are you baptizing if you are neither the Messiah,nor Elijah, nor the prophet?” 26 John answered them, “I baptize with water. Among you stands one whom you do not know, 27 the one who is coming after me; I am not worthy to untie the thong of his sandal.” 28 This took place in Bethany across the Jordan where John was baptizing.Technical notes:The phrase the Jews (v.19) appears only 16 times in Matthew, Mark, and Luke combined, but 70 times in John! The Jews often refers to the Pharisees in the gospel of John, as opposed to the common people.In reference to sandals (v.27), Rabbi Jehoshua b. Levi said, "All works which a slave performs for his master a disciple should do for his teacher, except undoing shoe straps" (96a, Str-B 1:121).The Bethany (or Bethabara, KJV) at which John baptized was on the east side of the Jordan. This is not the Bethany on the Mount of Olives near Jerusalem.The authority of John the Baptist is under investigation by the priests and Levites (v.19ff).He refuses to allow people to believe his is something he is not.He was not the Messiah. Messianic expectation ran high in the first century, and it was important to distance himself from impostors and political troublemakers.Nor was he Elijah. He did come in the spirit of Elijah (see Mal 4:4-6), but he was not literally Elijah, or a reincarnation of him.Nor was he "the Prophet." This is a reference to Deuteronomy 18, a Messianic prophecy that only Christ could have fulfilled. Many misunderstood this passage in the first century -- Peter set them straight in Acts 3.John identifies himself as the messenger of Isaiah 40 and Malachi 3 who was to prepare for way for the Lord. After the messenger, the Lord himself would pay his people a visit! Be sure to check out these O.T. references if they are at all unfamiliar.His right to baptize is called into question by the Pharisees (v.25ff). John simply points to Christ, who alone is worthy.All the leaders of the religious establishment challenge John's authority. This is the pattern we will see with Christ, the same groups opposing him. Jesus clearly represented a threat to the establishment.Why did John baptize?In the O.T. (e.g., Leviticus), washing was often associated with moral cleansing.In Jerusalem at this time, Jews immersed themselves before they went up to the Temple to worship. Immersion was not considered strange or unusual.In publicly identifying oneself as a sinner, personal humility and solidarity with other penitent Jews was built. In fulfilling the mission of Malachi 4:4-6. it was vital that people specifically repent of sin, and repair their relationships with one another. That was the only way to become people ready for the coming of the Lord -- then as now!John was building a natural bridge not only to Christ, but also to Christian baptism.In 27 AD, Jesus was an unknown (v.26). Despite his divinity and the dire need for religious reform and prophetic preaching, he waited until the time was right before he began his "public" ministry.Now we continue our study of John 1, picking up on the second day of the narrative. The first was covered in verses 19 to 28.29 The next day he saw Jesus coming toward him and declared, “Here is the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world! 30 This is he of whom I said, ‘After me comes a man who ranks ahead of me because he was before me.' 31 I myself did not know him; but I came baptizing with water for this reason, that he might be revealed to Israel.” 32 And John testified, “I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it remained on him. 33 I myself did not know him, but the one who sent me to baptize with water said to me, ‘He on whom you see the Spirit descend and remain is the one who baptizes with the Holy Spirit.' 34 And I myself have seen and have testified that this is the Son of God.”This is day two (vv.29-34).John calls Jesus "the Lamb of God."This is a clear reference to the offering of O.T. sacrificial system (Lev 9:3; 14:13; Rev 5:12). Jesus is to bear our sins.It is also a reference to the Messiah, who in Jewish literature is often a Lamb.The dove is reminiscent of the dove returning to the ark in Gen 9. It's a whole new world, now. In fact, the age to come is breaking into our world. The Kingdom of God has arrived. (Biblically speaking, it has always been there, yet it comes in waves.)John redirects his disciples to Jesus. After all, this was the entire purpose of his ministry.He recognizes Jesus not by his halo, aura, or blond hair and blue eyes (!), but because God gave a sign.Jesus was, and looked like, any ordinary Jewish male of his day.More importantly, the Spirit resting on Jesus showed conclusively that he was the Messiah of prophecy: Isaiah 11:1-2; 42:1.The theme of testimony is strong in John's gospel, the word testimony / testify appearing seven times.There are seven confessions in all1:34   John the Baptist1:49   Nathanael4:42   The Samaritans (4:29)6:69   Peter9:38   Blind man11:27 Martha20:28 ThomasThe "confessions" of Caiaphas (11:50) and Pilate (19:19) are not genuine, but ironic.We come to faith through testimony.Through people we trust, admire, and begin to love.Not through pure logic. (We flatter ourselves.)Recommended: Ron Highfield, Is Christianity Really True?

    Buen Dia Todos Los Dias
    Que la luz brille

    Buen Dia Todos Los Dias

    Play Episode Listen Later Jul 26, 2022 3:28


    Devocional para hoy:Servir al necesitado es llevar la luz de Jesús para iluminar una vida que está apagada.Si sientes un vacío en tu corazón y vives en soledad. Levántate y vista un hospital, un ancianato, ve y llévales la luz de Jesús, ayudas, te activas y recibes propósito de vida.Busca, Isaías 58:10Escucha el audio aquí, https://cutt.ly/DevoA156Lee el articulo completo aquí, https://cutt.ly/Devo156 Buen DíaJuan C Quintero #FE, #CONFIAR, #ADORAR, #DIOS, #JESUS, #ESPIRITUSANTO, #DEVOCIONAL, #PASTOR, #IGLESIA, #VIDA, #BIBLIA, #PALABRADEDIOS, #BUENDIA, #TEMORES, #VIDAWORSHIPCENTER, #JUANCQUINTERO, #JCQPastor, #VidaWC, #BuenDiaTodosLosDias

    The 4D Athletes Podcast
    #13 I Am A Champion: How do we find purpose in sports and in life?

    The 4D Athletes Podcast

    Play Episode Listen Later Jul 26, 2022 64:27


    In Episode 13 of the I Am A Champion Show, the guys are joined by Marques Ogden and Leverett Ball to talk about the importance of finding purpose in life both in and out of sports A little background about Marques, in 2003, he was drafted into the NFL as an offensive lineman, after 5 years of playing in the league, he decided to retire and pursue a career in construction and contracting. At the age 27, Marques founded a construction company called Kayden Premier Enterprises. The company had fast growth in 2010, but eventually his business went bankrupt, losing almost 2 million dollars on one project in a matter of 90 days. During his darkest hours, he pulled himself together, got a part-time job as a custodian and with hard work and determination became an inspirational keynote speaker, executive coach, best-selling author and marketing leader, helping to build the success of others. Leverett Ball is a sports media professional with experience as a sideline reporter, play-by-play announcer, radio host, public address announcer, and in-game emcee among other things. Together they host the Lev and Marques podcast. The podcast discusses various topics in the world of sports and business. https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/the-lev-marques-show/id1570755726 Connect with Marques here on LinkedIn https://www.linkedin.com/in/marquesogden/ Connect with Leverett here on LinkedIn https://www.linkedin.com/in/leverett-ball-2a2302b4/ --- Send in a voice message: https://anchor.fm/4dathletes/message

    Yung Daddy
    #8 - Emma Willmann

    Yung Daddy

    Play Episode Listen Later Jul 25, 2022 51:53 Very Popular


    Support the show and listen to the BONUS episode with Emma Willmann here: https://www.patreon.com/levferFollow Emma:https://www.instagram.com/emmawillmannhttps://twitter.com/iamemmawillmannFollow Lev:https://www.instagram.com/levfer/https://twitter.com/thelevfershowFollow Ben:https://www.instagram.com/callahancomedyhttps://twitter.com/notbencallahanLeave us a five star rating or tag and share us to your social media story!!!The Lev Fer Show is a comedy podcast hosted by NYC comedian Lev Fer. Lev has been on the Showtime series Ray Donovan and various popular comedy podcasts. He can be seen regularly performing at The Stand comedy club.Support the show

    What the Hell Happened to Them?

    Podcast for a deep examination into the career and life choices of Jack Nicholson. Patrick is given some bad news about Netflix to cheer him up after he finds out his car is being detained by immigration services. Joe thinks about investing in a car wash company and tries to get Lev to partner with him. What's giving Lev cold feet? Find out on this week's episode of 'What the Hell Happened to Them?' Email the cast at whathappenedtothem@gmail.com Disclaimer: This episode was recorded in July 2022. References may feel confusing and/or dated unusually quickly. 'Flight to Fury' is available on DVD & (weirdly expensive) VHS: https://www.amazon.com/Flight-To-Fury-DVD/dp/B000A8NZ72/ref=tmm_dvd_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=1658704673&sr=1-2 Music from 'Diamonds are a Girl's Best Friend' by Martine McCutcheon (written by Leo Robin & Jule Styne) 'Diamonds from Sierra Leone' by Kanye West   Artwork from BJ West   quixotic, united, skeyhill, vekeman, jack, nicholson, syzygy, flight, fury, netflix, diamonds, hellman, lynch, mulholland, drive, eraserhead, estrada, plane, phillipines

    Calvary Orthodox Presbyterian Church

    passage: Lev 11:1-47, service: Evening Worship

    Christ Church (Moscow, ID)
    Liberty & Justice for All

    Christ Church (Moscow, ID)

    Play Episode Listen Later Jul 24, 2022 58:24


    INTRODUCTION Part of the advantage of taking larger sections together is seeing how seemingly different laws actually fit together. Here, we have a passage that begins with worship, flows out into criminal justice, and concludes with Israelite economic policies. The overarching point is that justice and economics are always thoroughly theological matters. We are always appealing to God or some god, when we adjudicate crimes, buy, sell, lease, or forgive. There is always an ultimate standard. It is not whether but which. THE TEXT “And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, command the children of Israel that they bring unto thee pure oil olive beat for the light…” (Lev. 24-25). SUMMARY OF THE TEXT God reminds His people the covenant with Him is their light and life, and so they were to picture that continually with candles and bread in the holy place (Lev. 24:1-9). Because God's covenant is the source of light and life, His law prohibits blasphemy, and therefore, depending on its severity, can be a capital crime because it is an attack on life itself (Lev. 24:10-23). Related to this principle, was the requirement of sabbath years where fields were left fallow, culminating in the fiftieth year of jubilee (Lev. 25:1-12). In the year of jubilee, rural lands and houses were returned to their original owners, creating a fifty year lease/rent cycle, with the Levites and cities excepted (Lev. 25:13-17, 29-34). God promised that obedience to these laws would cause the land to be blessed, and that Israel would dwell in safety (Lev. 25:18-22). These sabbath years also included the forgiveness of debts and the release of debt slaves (Lev. 25:25-28, 35-46). But debt slaves could always be redeemed by their close relatives (Lev. 25:47-55). OIL & BREAD, BLASPHEMY & JUSTICE Jesus said that He is the Light of the World (Jn. 8:12) and He is the Bread of Life (Jn. 6:48). In Him is life; and the life is the light of men (Jn. 1:4). But this is not merely a “spiritual” or “religious” fact. He made all things (Jn. 1:3), and therefore it applies to all things. His light and life show the way to the Father, and that fellowship is light for the world (cf. 1 Jn. 1:7). His light and life are for justice, economics, finances, debt, planting, harvest, restitution, redemption, safety, and blessing. We noted previously that murder is the one mandatory capital crime in biblical law but a possible maximum penalty for other crimes. That principle is underlined here, since they needed to inquire of the Lord to see what the appropriate penalty would be for the blasphemy (Lev. 24:12). The following verses, reinforce the lex talionis (“eye for eye”) principles of restitution, prohibiting all personal vengeance, and applied equally to all (Lev. 24:17-21). Between the blasphemy and physical altercation, this crime amounted to murder, and was not just a casual taking of the Lord's name in vain. It was high-handed covenant treason. We see the results all around us of not learning the lesson here: you cannot have life, liberty, or justice for all apart from honoring the Triune God who is their source. Blasphemy laws are inescapable; it's not whether but which. SINS, DEBTS, & LIBERTY When men reject the living God and His Word, sin does not go away, it merely gets renamed and new (false) gospels are invented to pretend to deal with it. Freud taught that since sexual sin caused guilt and shame, people should be free to do whatever they want so they don't feel bad and do bad things. Secular statists believe that people commit crimes because they are poor or don't have equal opportunities, therefore, the state must provide universal basic income and enforce equal opportunities, including things like abortions, universal day care, parental leave, social security, and reparations. Related is voting to legalize sins and crimes to try to make everyone feel better. The problem with all of this is that it doesn't work. Giving into sin/approving sin never actually deals with sin. There is no forgiveness of sins without the shedding of blood, but it must be the blood of perfectly pleasing sacrifice (Heb. 9). And the blood of babies, broken families, and other victims cannot take away sin. Government programs are not real grace. But it is true that real grace deals with real sin in the real world and it affects everything from public policy to taxation to inheritance laws and restitution. CONCLUSIONS Jesus came proclaiming “the acceptable year of the Lord,” the great Jubilee (Lk. 4:18-19). He came doing this centrally through proclaiming the forgiveness of sins that He was about to accomplish in the Cross. This is not because He didn't care about poverty or injustice but because He knew that sin/guilt is at the root of all of it. Remember that the seventh month was the month of the Day of Atonement/Feast of Booths, and the seventh years and jubilees (with their trumpets) were echoes of that. All liberty and justice flow from the Great Atonement in the blood of Christ. This freedom and justice begin at the Cross restoring fellowship between God and man, but it flows out into the world. Jesus taught His disciples to pray, “forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us.” This is a prayer for Jubilee. Do you want liberty and justice in the public square? Then practice it in your heart, in your home, in the church. And remember that the foundation of it all is forgiveness and release. Jesus is our Kinsman Redeemer, our Great Boaz, who has paid all our debts and set us free, and He has set us free so that we might do the same for others. Practice forgiveness/grace. Practice sabbath and diligence in your work. Keep the light and life of Jesus central. He has purchased us and the ends of the earth for His possession. We belong to Christ, and He will keep us safe.

    Thinking on Scripture with Dr. Steven R. Cook
    Jeremiah 49:28-39 - When God Judges Gentile Nations

    Thinking on Scripture with Dr. Steven R. Cook

    Play Episode Listen Later Jul 24, 2022 44:58


    Jeremiah 49:28-39 Steven R. Cook      God, who is “the Judge of all the earth” (Gen 18:25), had called Jeremiah to be His prophet, both to the Gentile nations (Jer 1:5, 10) and Judah (Jer 1:15-18; 2:1-2). Because Judah was in a special covenant relationship with God, Jeremiah was commissioned to speak to them first and to pronounce God's “judgments on them concerning all their wickedness, whereby they have forsaken Me and have offered sacrifices to other gods, and worshiped the works of their own hands” (Jer 1:16). The first part of the book of Jeremiah was written primarily to Judah (Jeremiah chapters 2-45). But after God judged His people, He fixed His canons against the surrounding Gentile nations (Jeremiah chapters 46-52). God, having already judged Egypt (Jer 46:1-26), Philistia (Jer 47:1-7), Moab (Jer 48:1-47), Ammon (Jer 49:1-6), Edom (Jer 49:7-22), and Damascus (Jer 49:23-27), now renders His judgments against Kedar and the kingdoms of Hazor (Jer 49:28-33), and Elam (Jer 49:34-39). Judgment Against Kedar, Hazor, and the Men of the East      Jeremiah opens this pericope with a prophecy “Concerning Kedar and the kingdoms of Hazor, which Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon defeated. Thus says the LORD, ‘Arise, go up to Kedar and devastate the men of the east'” (Jer 49:28). The Kedarites were a nomadic people descended from Ishmael (Gen 25:13), who later became known for their archery skills (Isa 21:16-17). They were also shepherds (Isa 60:7), lovers of war (Psa 120:5-7), and lived in unprotected villages (Jer 49:31). According to Radmacher, “The phrase men of the East is associated with the Arameans, Midianites, Amalekites, and other nomadic desert tribes (Gen 29:1; Judg 7:12).”[1] Though this passage refers to Kedar and the kingdoms of Hazor, it's message is to Nebuchadnezzar, as the Lord instructs him to attack and destroy the men of this region. The word devastate translates the Hebrew verb שָׁדָד shadad, which means “to devastate, despoil, deal violently with.”[2] Keeping God's sovereignty in primary view, the Babylonians never functioned as an independent power to do as they pleased, but were under God's sovereign control to serve as His agent of judgment against others. Interestingly, the same verb is used later to described God's judgments against the Babylonians (Jer 51:48, 53, 55-56).      When God called the Babylonians to come against the Kedarites, we are told, “They will take away their tents and their flocks; they will carry off for themselves their tent curtains, all their goods and their camels, and they will call out to one another, ‘Terror on every side!'” (Jer 49:29). And the advice God gave to the Kedarites was, ‘“Run away, flee! Dwell in the depths, O inhabitants of Hazor,' declares the LORD; ‘For Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon has formed a plan against you and devised a scheme against you'” (Jer 49:30). Though the men of Kedar and the kingdoms of Hazor would run for their lives, they could escape God's judgment upon them. Nebuchadnezzar, whom God had raised up as His instrument of judgment, was unaware of God's invisible hand that would guide him to victory.      The Lord guided Nebuchadnezzar, saying, ‘“Arise, go up against a nation which is at ease, which lives securely,' declares the LORD. ‘It has no gates or bars; they dwell alone. 32 Their camels will become plunder, and their many cattle for booty, and I will scatter to all the winds those who cut the corners of their hair; and I will bring their disaster from every side,' declares the LORD” (Jer 49:31-32). The picture portrays the Kedarites and their neighbors as overly self-confident, at ease, living securely, not needing gates or bars for protection, and dwelling alone. Nebuchadnezzar would exploit this weakness and take their possessions as plunder.      Most importantly in these verses is the revelation that the Lord Himself is the primary causal agent who brings judgment, saying, “I will scatter to all the winds” and “I will bring their disaster from every side” (Jer 49:32). God controls history according to His sovereign purposes. The end result of God's judgment would be that “Hazor will become a haunt of jackals, a desolation forever; no one will live there, nor will a son of man reside in it” (Jer 49:33). Judgment Against Elam      Next, we are told about God's judgment against Elam, as Jeremiah wrote, “That which came as the word of the LORD to Jeremiah the prophet concerning Elam, at the beginning of the reign of Zedekiah king of Judah, saying: 35 Thus says the LORD of hosts, ‘Behold, I am going to break the bow of Elam, the finest of their might'” (Jer 49:34-35). Elam was located about two hundred miles to the east of Babylon, in what today would be part of Iran. According to Huey, “It was conquered by the Assyrians under Ashurbanipal, ca. 640 B.C., but regained its independence with Assyria's collapse. It joined forces with Nabopolassar to destroy Nineveh in 612 B.C. The Babylonian Chronicle seems to indicate there was a conflict between Nebuchadnezzar and Elam, 596–594. In 539 the Elamites helped overthrow the Babylonian Empire.”[3]      Just as God had declared judgment against Kedar and the kingdoms of Hazor, so He sovereignly declared, “I will bring upon Elam the four winds from the four ends of heaven, and will scatter them to all these winds; and there will be no nation to which the outcasts of Elam will not go” (Jer 49:36). Here is another reminder that God is the One who sets up kings and kingdoms and determines their duration of existence (see Dan 2:21; 4:25). And the Lord continued, saying, “So I will shatter Elam before their enemies and before those who seek their lives; and I will bring calamity upon them, even My fierce anger,' declares the LORD, ‘And I will send out the sword after them until I have consumed them. 38 Then I will set My throne in Elam and destroy out of it king and princes,' declares the LORD” (Jer 49:37-38). However, the God who promised to destroy Edom, also gave a promise of a future hope by restoring the nation. The Lord declared, ‘“But it will come about in the last days that I will restore the fortunes of Elam,' Declares the LORD” (Jer 49:39). Here is a message of hope, as the God who chose to bring a nation down, also chose to elevate it again. The truth is all nations are subject to God's sovereign rule, and their moral or immoral behavior will be met with His blessings or cursings. Present Application      The Bible reveals “God is the King of all the earth…He reigns over the nations; He sits on His holy throne” (Psa 47:7-8). It is God “who changes the times and the seasons; He removes kings and establishes kings” (Dan 2:21; cf., Dan 4:17, 35). Furthermore, “The LORD is King forever and ever” (Psa 10:16a), for the “LORD has established His throne in the heavens, and His sovereignty rules over all” (Psa 103:19), and He “works all things after the counsel of His will” (Eph 1:11b), and “Whatever the LORD pleases, He does, in heaven and in earth, in the seas and in all deeps” (Psa 135:6). As sovereign God, He judges His world in righteousness.      When individuals, groups, cities, and nations turn away from God, He will judge them according to His righteous character and moral laws. We know from Scripture that “the LORD is righteous, [and] He loves righteousness” (Psa 11:7), and “Righteous are You, O LORD, and upright are Your judgments” (Psa 119:137). For God, righteousness is an attribute, an inherent quality, not the adherence to laws beyond Himself (of which there are none). The righteousness of God may be defined as the intrinsic, immutable, moral perfection of God, from which He commands all things, in heaven and earth, and declares as good that which conforms to His righteousness and as evil that which deviates. Righteousness and justice are related words. The former speaks of God's moral character, whereas the latter speaks of the actions that flow out of His character. Whatever God's righteousness requires, His justice executes; either to approve or reject, to bless or condemn. God is “the Judge of all the earth” (Gen 18:25), and He “is a righteous judge, and a God who has indignation every day” (Psa 7:11).      Though God judges, He is not One to judge quickly. It is written, “You, O Lord, are a God merciful and gracious, slow to anger and abundant in lovingkindness and truth” (Psa 86:15), and “the LORD is gracious and merciful; slow to anger and great in lovingkindness” (Psa 145:8). Peter reveals that God “is patient toward you, not wishing for any to perish but for all to come to repentance” (2 Pet 3:9). In this way, God is quick to warn and slow to judge. But God is not patient forever, and there are multiple accounts of judgment throughout Scripture. God judged the antediluvian world (Gen 6:1-7, 11-13; 7:21-24), the rebels at the Tower of Babel (Gen 11:1-9), the wicked citizens of Sodom and Gomorrah (Gen 19:24-25), the Egyptians (Deut 26:6-8; cf. Gen 15:13-14), the Canaanites (Lev 18:25; Deut 9:5), and the Babylonians (Jer 25:11-12). The book of Obadiah was written against the Edomites (Oba 1:1), and Nahum against the Ninevites (Nah 1:1). When Jesus was on the earth at the time of His first coming, He judged the religious leaders of his day (Matt 23:1-36), and pronounced judgment upon the nation of Israel for having rejected Him as their Messiah (Matt 23:37-39). In the future, God will judge Gentiles based on how they treat persecuted Jewish believers during the Tribulation (Matt 25:31-46). And God will judge all unbelievers at the Great White Throne judgment and will cast them into the Lake of Fire (Rev 20:11-15). God has also judged Satan (John 16:11), and will punish him in the future (Matt 25:41; Rev 20:10). On What Basis Does God Judge Israel and Gentile Nations?      As a nation, Israel was and is unique in human history, for it's the only nation that was created by God as a theocracy. Speaking to Israel, God said, “I am the LORD, your Holy One, the Creator of Israel, your King” (Isa 43:15; cf. Isa 43:1). Israel was a theocracy, and God was their Judge, Lawgiver, and King (Isa 33:22). As such, God gave Israel specific laws to direct their lives (Lev 27:34). The Mosaic Law was the standard by which Israel lived rightly before the Lord and was the basis for blessing or cursing, depending on their obedience or disobedience to His directives (Deut 11:26-28). Reading through Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, First and Second Kings, and all the OT prophets, one can see a consistent pattern of God blessing or cursing His people depending on whether they obeyed or disobeyed His written directives. God was extremely patient with His people when they disobeyed, repeatedly warning them about His coming judgments, but the historical trend was that of rebellion (Jer 25:4-7). Because of rampant idolatry, human sacrifice, and other egregious sins, God eventually destroyed the ten northern tribes of Israel in 722 B.C. (2 Ki 17:7-23), and the two southern tribes of Judah in 586 B.C. (Jer 25:8-11). The fear of the Lord and obedience to Him would have prevented their destruction, but the nation chose otherwise.      The Gentile nations did not possess the Mosaic Law as Israel did; however, a Gentile nation could be blessed or cursed, and this depended on at least two factors. First, God would bless or curse a Gentile nation depending on how it treated Israel. God told Abraham, the progenitor of Israel, “I will bless those who bless you, and the one who curses you I will curse” (Gen 12:3). According to Allen Ross, “Those who blessed Abram would receive blessing from God; that is, those who supported and endorsed him in his faith would actually find enrichment. Conversely, if anyone treated Abram lightly, he must be cursed.”[4] God's promise to bless or curse was based on the covenant that started with Abraham and extended to his descendants forever (Gen 17:7).[5] Concerning the curse, Arnold Fruchtenbaum states: "The first word for curse is kalal, which means “to treat lightly,” “to hold in contempt,” or “to curse.” To merely treat Abram and the Jews lightly is to incur the curse of God. The second word for curse used in this phrase (him that curses you will I curse) is aor, from the Hebrew root arah, which means “to impose a barrier,” “to ban.” This is a much stronger word for curse than the first one in the phrase…Therefore, even a light curse against Abram or against the Jews will bring a heavier curse from God."[6]      Second, a Gentile nation could be blessed or cursed depending on whether they pursued godly virtues or wickedness. Scripture reveals, “Righteousness exalts a nation, but sin is a disgrace to any people” (Prov 14:34). Biblically, there is a sense in which God's laws are written on the hearts of all people. Paul wrote, “For when Gentiles who do not have the Law do instinctively the things of the Law, these, not having the Law, are a law to themselves, in that they show the work of the Law written in their hearts, their conscience bearing witness and their thoughts alternately accusing or else defending them” (Rom 2:14-15).[7] God has placed within each person a moral sense of right and wrong. Everyone knows it's right to be honest, kind, courteous, patient, helpful to the weak, honoring to parents, faithful to one's spouse, etc. On the other hand, everyone knows it's wrong to murder, steal, lie, commit adultery, etc.[8] And how people behave collectively has results upon their city or nation. The Lord told Jeremiah, “At one moment I might speak concerning a nation [גּוֹי goy] or concerning a kingdom to uproot, to pull down, or to destroy it; if that nation against which I have spoken turns from its evil, I will relent concerning the calamity I planned to bring on it” (Jer 18:7-8). This is what happened when Jonah preached God's message of pending judgment to the Ninevites (Jonah 1:1-2; 3:1-4), and when they believed and repented (Jonah 3:5-9), He relented (Jonah 3:10). There is hope for any nation that has turned away from God, but only if the leadership and people turn to God and pursue righteousness in conformity with His character.      What influence do we, as Christians, have on our country? As God's people living in the dispensation of the church age, He directs us to learn and live His Word (2 Tim 2:15; 3:16-17), live by faith (Heb 10:38; 11:6), advance to spiritual maturity (Eph 4:11-16; 1 Pet 2:2), share the gospel (Mark 16:15; 1 Cor 15:3-4), make disciples (Matt 28:19-20), live holy lives (1 Pet 1:15-16), and do good (Gal 6:10; Tit 2:11-14). In this way, God may use us to help shape our nation in godly ways, which will influence its educational, political, economic, and social views for the better. We are, after all, to be a light to the world (Matt 5:14; Eph 5:8).   [1] Earl D. Radmacher, Ronald Barclay Allen, and H. Wayne House, Nelson's New Illustrated Bible Commentary (Nashville: T. Nelson Publishers, 1999), 942. [2] Ludwig Koehler et al., The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1994–2000), 1419. [3] F. B. Huey, Jeremiah, Lamentations, vol. 16, The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1993), 406. [4] Allen P. Ross, Creation and Blessing: A Guide to the Study and Exposition of Genesis (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1998), 263. [5] To love Israel is not a blanket endorsement of all their beliefs and behaviors. God, who loves Israel and chose them to be His people (Deut 7:6-8), also called them to be holy (Ex 19:5-6; Lev 11:45), and promised blessing or cursing, based on their obedience or disobedience to Him (Deut 28:1-68). Israel can and does fail, often rejecting God's love for them and walking in the ways of the world (see 2 Ch 36:15-16; Jer 7:25-26; 25:4-7; Ezek 16; Matt 23:1-39; Acts 7:51-53; 1 Th 2:14-16). The national rejection and crucifixion of Jesus (Matt 27:22-23; Acts 2:22-23; 4:27-28), Israel's promised Messiah (Deut 18:15; Isa 7:14; 9:6-7;53; 61:1; Matt 1:1, 17; Luke 1:31-33), was their greatest failure. Did Israel act alone in crucifying Jesus, their Messiah? No! God foretold Israel's Messiah would suffer and die (Psa 22:11-18; Isa 53); and, according to His sovereignty, He used wicked men, both Jews and Gentiles, to accomplish His will (Acts 2:22-23; 4:27-28). [6] Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum, Ariel's Bible Commentary: The Book of Genesis, 1st ed. (San Antonio, TX: Ariel Ministries, 2008), 242. [7] The human conscience, when working properly, serves as a moral compass. But because of willful and persistent sin, the conscience can become weak (1 Cor 8:7), callous (1 Tim 4:2), defiled (Tit 1:15), or evil (Heb 10:22). Persistent sin can damage the conscience so that it fails to operate properly. [8] The unbeliever can live morally according to the dictates of a healthy conscience, and though not saved, can receive some blessings in this life. Conversely, a Christian can turn away from the faith and pursue wickedness, and this results in divine discipline and the forfeiture of eternal rewards.

    Thinking on Scripture with Dr. Steven R. Cook
    Deuteronomy 28:1-14 - God's Promise of Blessings on Israel

    Thinking on Scripture with Dr. Steven R. Cook

    Play Episode Listen Later Jul 24, 2022 65:56


    Introduction      Deuteronomy 28:1-68 presents the blessings and cursings of the bilateral Mosaic Covenant (בְּרִית berith) which God promised to bring upon Israel depending on their obedience or disobedience to His commands. God's written directives assume the integrity of language in which His meaning was infused in the words and phrases He selected, and that language itself served as a reliable vehicle concerning His expectations. The Israelites were responsible to know what was communicated and would be blessed or cursed based on whether they responded to it positively or negatively. God's directives meant there were fixed categories of blessing and cursing, which allowed the Israelites to know with certainty what to expect from Him depending on how they treated their relationship with Him. This did not mean the Israelites could manipulate God to do their bidding; rather, it simply meant He was predictable and would do what He promised. A healthy relationship relies on clear and honest communication as well as predictable behavior.      For the sake of emphasis, Moses repeated the conditional aspects of God's blessings (Deut 28:1-2, 9, 13-14), and cursings (Deut 28:15, 20, 45-47, 58, 62; cf., Deut 29:24-28; 30:17-20). The word blessing translates the Hebrew noun בְּרָכָה berakah, which appears twelve times in Deuteronomy and sixty-seven times in the OT (TWOT). In Deuteronomy 28, the word refers to the tangible goodness that makes life enjoyable and rich, which God promised to His covenant people, Israel, if they would simply obey His commands. Areas of blessing would include: 1) healthy offspring, crops, and livestock (Deut 28:4-5, 8, 11), 2) military success (Deut 28:7), 3) fruitful labor (Deut 28:8, 12a), 4) international recognition and respect (Deut 28:9-10), 5) financial prosperity (Deut 28:12b), and 6) serving as an international leader to other nations (Deut. 28:13). God also promised to bring curses, which would undo all the blessings and bring Israel down, if they disobeyed (Deut 28:15-68). In Deuteronomy 28:16-19, Moses used the Hebrew verb אָרָר arar six times, which means, “to bind with a curse.”[1] The form of the verb is passive, which means a curse is received by the nation of Israel if they turn away from God. These blessings and cursings were predictable, depending on Israel's knowledge of God's directives and their adherence or insubordination to them (Deut 11:26-28; 29:29; 30:15-20).      When considering the Mosaic Covenant, it is important to realize God's blessings and cursings for Israel were tied to their moral behavior (see Lev 26:3-4; Deut 11:13-17; Jer 5:23-25; Amos 4:7; Mal 3:10).[2] When Israel abided by God's Word, advancing on the moral high ground of His ethical standards, the Lord would bless His people in the everyday affairs of their lives. God's blessings came directly in the form of rain, crop production, national health, etc. However, His blessings also came indirectly through His people who learned and lived His Word as it spoke to their marriages, families, education, labor, economic decisions, social activities, and welfare for the less fortunate in society. For example, God's blessings of protection and provision for Ruth and Naomi came through Boaz, who modeled godliness and compassion in his words and actions (Ruth 2:1-23). Boaz' choice to be a godly man meant he would serve as a conduit of God's grace to others.      Additionally, God's blessings should not be thought of as producing equal outcomes to all, as social and economic stratification would continue within Israelite society. It also did not mean everyone would have perfect health, as the general effects of sin in humanity continued. It did mean, however, that even those at the lowest place in society would have their basic needs met; needs such as food, shelter, and clothing. The poor in Israel would be wealthier and better off than those of other nations.[3]      But if God's people turned from the Lord and His Word and adopted an alternate ethical standard, then they would forfeit His blessings and bring judgment upon themselves (Deut 11:16-17; 2 Ch 6:24-27). However, God's judgments on Israel did not always happen in an instantaneous manner, as the Lord is patient, longsuffering, and slow to anger (Ex 34:6; Psa 86:15; 103:8; 145:8; Joel 2:13; Jon 4:2). And God often sent warnings to His people (Jer 7:25-26; 25:3-7; 29:18-19), which at times went on for centuries, and discipline came in stages. And even when God's judgment fell, it sometimes took the form of lesser punishment (Psa 103:10-12; Ezra 9:13). And if His people humbled themselves, He would offer forgiveness and restore their blessings (2 Ch 7:13-14). God is always quick to forgive, and He prefers to bless rather than punish. Any loving parent understands this.      A conundrum appears in the Old Testament as the righteous struggle from day to day while some evil people grow rich and seem to enjoy all the blessings this world can give. Asaph, a godly man, felt this struggle deeply (Psa 73:1-16). However, when considered from the divine perspective, worldly wealth does not always come with God's blessing, and the life and final days of the evil person will be less than desirable (Psa 73:17-20). The godly desire the Lord more than the things of this world (Psa 73:21-28), and they have joy and peace with whatever He provides. For whatever God gives to His obedient children will include joy and peace that they might appreciate it, “For who can eat and who can have enjoyment without Him? For to a person who is good in His sight He has given wisdom and knowledge and joy” (Eccl 2:25-26a). According to Solomon, “It is the blessing of the LORD that makes rich, and He adds no sorrow to it” (Prov 10:22), and “Better is a little with the fear of the LORD than great treasure and turmoil with it” (Prov 15:16). The godly are content with the Lord's daily provisions (Phil 4:11-13; 1 Tim 6:8; Heb 13:5).[4] Deuteronomy 28:1-14 - The Lord's Blessings      Moses opens the blessing section by saying, “Now it shall be, if you diligently obey the LORD your God, being careful to do all His commandments which I command you today, the LORD your God will set you high above all the nations of the earth” (Deut 28:1). This opening introduces a conditional clause (Deut 28:1), which is repeated several times in this section (cf., Deut 28:2, 9, 13). As Israel's Judge, Lawgiver, and King (Isa 33:22), the Lord had provided His people with clear directives concerning how they were to live, and if they chose righteousness, blessing would follow (Deut 11:26-28). God's blessings (בְּרָכָה berakah) pertained to agricultural, national, social, and material prosperity. God promised to set His people “high above all the nations.” According to Eugene Merrill, “What it means to be set high above all the nations is answered in part by the string of blessings that follow in Deuteronomy 3:3-8. Inasmuch as Israel's economy rested on an agrarian base, most of the blessing is associated with abundance in field and flock, but other aspects of safe and wholesome life are not ignored.”[5]      Moses continued, saying, “All these blessings will come upon you and overtake you if you obey the LORD your God” (Deut 28:2). The hiphil form of the Hebrew word overtake (נָשַׂג nasag) meant God would cause His blessings to come upon obedient-to-the-Word believers. That is, God's blessings would chase them wherever they were in order to overtake them. The obedient believer would not be able to escape the Lord's blessings. This is confirmed by the next clause, which reads, “Blessed shall you be in the city, and blessed shall you be in the country” (Deut 28:3). God's blessing would hunt them down, and their location was incidental. The word blessed (בָּרָךְ barak) means “to endue with power for success, prosperity, productiveness, longevity, etc.”[6] God wants to bless His people and He does not have to be cajoled or manipulated to do it.      God's blessings would not only be personal but would also spill over onto one's children and the production of one's labor, which included the ground as well as the animals. Moses said, “Blessed shall be the offspring of your body and the produce of your ground and the offspring of your beasts, the increase of your herd and the young of your flock” (Deut 28:4). Here is the concept of blessing by association. The adult Israelite who learned God's Word and walked with Him would be blessed, and so would all who were in contact with him. Boaz was a good example of God's blessings overflowing into the lives of others.      God would also provide an abundance of food for His people to eat, as Moses said, “Blessed shall be your basket and your kneading bowl” (Deut 28:5). Eugene Merrill states, “Abundant produce would, of course, result in abundant food supplies. Harvest baskets would overflow, and bakers would have more than enough wheat with which to bake their bread (v. 5).”[7] There would be no food insecurity among God's people.      And God's blessing would touch His people wherever they were, whether in the home or out in the community. Moses said, “Blessed shall you be when you come in, and blessed shall you be when you go out” (Deut 28:6). To come in and go out is a merism—a figure of speech—that refers to all of one's life and activities. According to Earl Kalland, “Going out and coming in is a common descriptive phrase of going out to one's daily tasks and returning home after the day's work is done, whatever that activity entails.”[8]      Having God's blessing did not mean Israel would not have enemies. God's people always have enemies, as we live in a fallen world that is temporarily governed by Satan and those who align with him (John 12:31; 14:30; 16:11; 1 John 3:13; 5:19). However, though opposition would arise against God's people, He would secure their victory, as Moses said, “The LORD shall cause your enemies who rise up against you to be defeated before you; they will come out against you one way and will flee before you seven ways” (Deut 28:7). When the text says, “they will come against you one way,” it's speaking of an intelligent coordinated attack against God's people. However, though the attack represents man's best military strategies and actions, God will neutralize their efforts and cause them to be defeated. That the enemy “will flee before you seven ways” meant their enemies could not flee the battle fast enough. This promise of military victory could be trusted because God had already displayed His power over the Egyptians when He brought Israel out of captivity. Having defeated the greatest superpower of the day, lesser powers would be of no concern.      The Israelite farmers would be blessed both in their efforts and the production of the land itself. Moses said, “The LORD will command the blessing upon you in your barns and in all that you put your hand to, and He will bless you in the land which the LORD your God gives you” (Deut 28:8). Eugene Merrill states, “Verse 8 forms a conclusion to this first set of blessings by summarizing the blessings according to the categories of what Israel would have and what Israel would do (the “barns” and “hand” respectively).”[9] Again, God's promised blessings were tangible in nature.      God's intention of blessing His people was that they might be an example to the rest of the world of what it means to be set apart to the Lord, to walk with Him in holiness. Moses said, “The LORD will establish you as a holy people to Himself, as He swore to you, if you keep the commandments of the LORD your God and walk in His ways” (Deut 28:9). The word holy (קָדוֹשׁ qadosh) means “commanding respect, awesome, treated with respect.”[10] It denotes being singled out for special use, to be consecrated for a unique purpose. But God's people were not mere objects one could set apart, but rather, volitional creatures that were called into a special relationship with the Lord. For this reason, we see the conditional clause, “if you keep the commandments of the LORD your God and walk in His ways.”      If Israel, as God's people, would learn and live His Word, then “all the peoples of the earth will see that you are called by the name of the LORD, and they will be afraid of you” (Deut 28:10). God was concerned about His image among the Gentiles. Being called by the name of the Lord meant being His representative in the world for others to see. God's values were to be reflected in the words and actions of His people. If His people would represent Him well, then Gentiles would be afraid of them. The word afraid (יָרֵא yare) most often means “to fear, [or] to be afraid.”[11] However, at times, the word connotes reverence, respect, or awe. This latter meaning might be preferred, as other translations suggest, saying, “they will stand in awe of you” (Deut 28:10 CSB), and “they will respect you” (Deut 28:10 NET). For those possessed with negative volition, they would fear God and His people. However, for those possessed with positive volition, they would be awed by God and His goodness and would respect His people. Earl Kalland states, “By being God's obedient and holy people (cf. 26:19), the Israelites would enjoy such an intimacy with God that they would become a testimony to all the peoples on earth who would fear or stand in awe of Israel (cf. 2:25; 11:25).”[12]      God's blessing would be obvious to His people as well as the Gentiles nations around them. Moses said, “The LORD will make you abound in prosperity, in the offspring of your body and in the offspring of your beast and in the produce of your ground, in the land which the LORD swore to your fathers to give you” (Deut 28:11). To abound (יָתַר yathar) with prosperity meant to “be left over, remain over.”[13] The idea is that God would give His people more than enough prosperity that they would consider themselves blessed, and others would as well.      Part of God's blessing meant predictable weather patterns in which the Lord would send rain on the land and cause their crops to be productive. Moses said, “The LORD will open for you His good storehouse, the heavens, to give rain to your land in its season and to bless all the work of your hand; and you shall lend to many nations, but you shall not borrow” (Deut 28:12). God created the universe and the world, and He controlled all His creation, including the earth's climate. God promised He would cause the rain to fall on the soil at optimal times so as to maximize the soil's production. Peter Craigie states: "One of the roles of God in the promised land would be the provision of fertility; fertility depended primarily on the rains. Without the rains, the crops could not grow, and without the crops and the other produce of the field, neither man nor his domestic animals could survive. Thus in v. 12, there is a very rich expression of the blessing of God, for in providing the rains, God was providing what would be the mainspring of life in Israel's land."[14]      God's blessings meant Israel would know economic stability in such a way that they would not have to borrow from others to engage in business ventures. In fact, Israel would be so prosperous, they would serve as bankers to others, in that they would lend to many nations and never have to borrow.      In Deuteronomy 28:13-14, Moses provided a summary statement of all God's goodness to His people as well as a final conditional clause. Moses said, “The LORD will make you the head and not the tail, and you only will be above, and you will not be underneath, if you listen to the commandments of the LORD your God, which I charge you today, to observe them carefully, 14 and do not turn aside from any of the words which I command you today, to the right or to the left, to go after other gods to serve them” (Deut 28:13-14). If Israel would listen (שָׁמַע shama) to God's directives and observe them carefully, staying faithful in their walk with Him and not pursuing other gods, then His blessings would overtake them. Earl Kalland notes:      Israel would move upward from her current status to that of the head among the nations, rather than become (or continue to be) the tail (v.13). She would “always be at the top, never at the bottom.” But all this would be determined by the adherence of the people to the stipulations of the covenant-treaty that they had accepted from the Lord. They must “carefully follow them” and “not turn aside … to the right or to the left” (v.14) from any of the commands Moses was rehearsing to them that day.[15]      In closing, the specific body of laws that Israel would need to follow had been provided by Moses in Deuteronomy chapters 5 through 26. There was no guessing about God's expectations for His people, and His blessings or cursings would follow, depending on whether Israel would obey or disobey the Lord (Deut 11:26-28). To be clear, the Mosaic Law was never intended to be a means of salvation, but a rule for life that could be obeyed by Israel who were in a covenant relationship with Him and who walked humbly with their Lord (see Deut 5:33; 8:6; 10:12-13; 29:29; 30:15-16; 31:11; Psa 1:2-3; 119:9-11).   [1] Ludwig Koehler et al., The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1994–2000), 91. [2] In the larger picture, God gives common grace to everyone (Matt 5:44-45; Acts 14:16-17), and this in order to win their hearts to Him, as He “is patient toward you, not wishing for any to perish but for all to come to repentance” (2 Pet 3:9). However, God's common grace does not last forever, and if people turn away from Him and pursue wickedness (Rom 1:18-23), He will let them go their sinful way (Rom 1:24-32; cf., Psa 81:12-13), and they will eventually perish in their sin. For the rebel-believer, it means being least in the kingdom of heaven (Matt 5:19; cf. 1 Cor 3:15), but for the unbeliever, it means suffering eternally in the Lake of Fire (Rev 20:11-15). [3] Blessing is a relative term even in our own societies. According to The World Bank, as of 2018, half the world's population lives on less than $5.50 a day (https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2018/10/17/nearly-half-the-world-lives-on-less-than-550-a-day). According to Pew research data in 2015, the poor in the US are much better off than the poor in other countries (https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/07/09/how-americans-compare-with-the-global-middle-class/). [4] Remember that Israelites, in the wilderness, were not content with the God's provision of manna and complained to the Lord to give them meat (Num 11:4-6). God gave them what they asked for, but they did not enjoy it (Num 11:18-20, 31-34), as “He gave them their request, but sent a wasting disease among them” (Psa 106:15). [5] Eugene H. Merrill, Deuteronomy, vol. 4, The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1994), 353. [6] John N. Oswalt, “285 בָּרַך,” ed. R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (Chicago: Moody Press, 1999), 132. [7] Eugene H. Merrill, Deuteronomy, vol. 4, 354. [8] Earl S. Kalland, “Deuteronomy,” in The Expositor's Bible Commentary: Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 & 2 Samuel, ed. Frank E. Gaebelein, vol. 3 (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1992), 167. [9] Eugene H. Merrill, Deuteronomy, vol. 4, 354. [10] Ludwig Koehler et al., The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament, 1066. [11] Ibid., 433. [12] Jack S. Deere, “Deuteronomy,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 311–312. [13] Francis Brown, Samuel Rolles Driver, and Charles Augustus Briggs, Enhanced Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977), 451. [14] Peter C. Craigie, The Book of Deuteronomy, The New International Commentary on the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1976), 337. [15] Earl S. Kalland, “Deuteronomy,” in The Expositor's Bible Commentary, 168.