Podcasts about neural

Highly complex part of an animal that coordinates actions and sensory information by transmitting signals between different parts of the body

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Best podcasts about neural

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Latest podcast episodes about neural

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
Alpha suppression during prehension indicates neural motor drive inhibition

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 3, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.12.02.518923v1?rss=1 Authors: Ortiz, O., Kuruganti, U., Chester, V., Wilson, A., Blustein, D. Abstract: Changes in alpha band activity (8-12 Hz) have been shown to indicate the inhibition of engagement of brain regions during cognitive tasks, reflecting real-time cognitive load. Despite this, its feasibility to be used in a more dynamic environment with ongoing motor corrections has not been studied. This research used electroencephalography (EEG) to explore how different brain regions are engaged during a simple grasp and lift task where unexpected changes to the properties of the object are introduced. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show alpha activity changes related to motor error correction occur only in motor-related areas (i.e. central areas), but not in error processing areas (ie. fronto-parietal network). This suggests that oscillations over motor areas could reflect inhibition of motor drive related to motor error correction, thus being a potential cortical electrophysiological biomarker for the process, and not solely as a proxy for cognitive demands. This observation is particularly relevant in scenarios where these signals are used to evaluate high cognitive demands co-occurring with high levels of motor errors and corrections, such as prosthesis use. The establishment of electrophysiological biomarkers of mental resource allocation during movement and cognition can help identify indicators of mental workload and motor drive, which may be useful for improving brain-machine interfaces. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
Rhythmic temporal coordination of neural activity avoids representational conflict during working memory

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 2, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.12.02.518876v1?rss=1 Authors: Abdalaziz, M., Redding, Z. V., Fiebelkorn, I. C. Abstract: Selective attention includes alternating states associated with either attentional sampling or attentional shifting, helping to avoid functional conflicts by isolating function-specific neural activity in time. We hypothesized that such rhythmic temporal coordination might also help to avoid representational conflicts during working memory. Multiple items can be simultaneously held in working memory, and these items can be represented by overlapping neural populations. Traditional theories propose that short-term storage of to-be-remembered items occurs through persistent neural activity, but when neurons are simultaneously representing multiple items, persistent activity creates a potential for representational conflicts. In comparison, more recent, activity-silent theories of working memory propose that items are stored through short-term changes in synaptic weights. Transient bursts in neural activity, rather than persistent activity, would serve to refresh these short-term synaptic changes. Here, we used EEG and response times (RTs) to test whether rhythmic temporal coordination helps to isolate neural activity associated with different to-be-remembered items, thereby avoiding representational conflicts. Consistent with this hypothesis, we report that the relative strength of different item representations alternates over time as a function of frequency-specific phase. Although RTs were linked to theta (~6Hz) and beta (~25 Hz) phase during a memory delay, the relative strength of item representations only alternated as a function of beta phase. The present findings support activity-silent theories of working memory, and inform models describing the role of oscillatory dynamics in organizing working memory. Finally, these findings support rhythmic temporal coordination as a general mechanism for avoiding either functional or representational conflicts during cognitive processes. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
Growth/differentiation factor 15 controls number of ependymal and neural stem cells in the ventricular/subventricular zone

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 2, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.12.02.518869v1?rss=1 Authors: Baur, K., Carrillo Garcia, C., San, S., von Hahn, M., Strelau, J., Hölzl-Wenig, G., Mandl, C., Ciccolini, F. Abstract: Late in neural development, the expression of growth/differentiation factor (GDF) 15 increases in the germinal epithelium of the murine ganglionic eminence (GE). However, the function of GDF15 in this region is unknown. We here show that ablation of GDF15 leads to an increase in proliferation of apically and subapically dividing progenitors in the GE. This is associated with faster cell cycle progression in both progenitor groups, and an increase in the total number of cycling progenitors. Enhanced proliferation of apically dividing progenitors leads to a permanent significant increase in the number of ependymal and apical neural stem cells (NSCs). Our data also indicate that the extra proliferation of subapically dividing progenitors causes a transient increase in the number of neuronal progenitors, which is compensated by increased apoptosis. Independent of the genotype, activity of endogenous epidermal growth factor (EGFR) signalling is essential for the proliferation of apically and subapically dividing progenitors. However, lack of GDF15 leads to a reduced cell surface expression of EGFR and altered dynamics of MAPK activation in response to EGF stimulation. Application of exogenous GDF15 rescued the effect of the genotype on the expression of EGFR and decreased proliferation in the mutant GE. Taken together, our results indicate that GDF15 modulates proliferation and growth factor responsiveness of apical progenitors in the developing GE, thereby regulating the number of total ependymal and NSCs. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

The Happy Brain
College Student Speaks Freely

The Happy Brain

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 2, 2022 45:15


Pierce DeCain is an eloquent Cornell freshman who's promoting free speech for his fellow students (which included me half a century ago).Apple Podcasts: https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/the-happy-brain/id1377502232?i=1000558350153Spotify Podcasts: https://open.spotify.com/episode/1wuRZCKcRWsg0sIPSvcrA6?si=jEJRVF72TSKNaE5b5pk1igLink to my new course: https://innermammalinstitute.org/courseIf you like The Happy Brain Podcast, please rate and review it to help others make peace with their inner mammal.THE HAPPY BRAIN PODCAST helps you blaze new trails to your dopamine, serotonin, oxytocin, and endorphin. My guests are pioneers in retraining the inner mammal. I love learning from them! Listen in and subscribe so you can turn on your happy chemicals in healthy new ways.Your host, Loretta Breuning PhD, is founder of the Inner Mammal Institute and author of "Habits of a Happy Brain: Retrain your brain to boost your serotonin, dopamine, oxytocin and endorphin levels.” Details at: https://innermammalinstitute.orgLife is more peaceful and satisfying when you understand the brain we've inherited from earlier mammals. Your mammal brain controls the chemicals that make you feel good: dopamine, serotonin, oxytocin, and endorphin. These chemicals are released for reasons that don't make sense to our verbal human brain. When you know what these chemicals do in animals, your ups and downs make sense!Our happy chemicals evolved to reward survival behavior, not to make you feel good all the time. Each happy chemical has a special job. When it turns on, it paves neural pathways that turn it on more easily in the future. That's why we repeat behaviors that we'd rather do without. Fortunately, you can re-wire yourself to stimulate them in sustainable ways.But it's hard. It's like learning a foreign language: it takes a lot of repetition. Yet people do it every day. You can be one of them! You can design a new path to your happy chemicals and repeat it until it's strong enough to turn on easily. The Inner Mammal Institute shows you how.The Inner Mammal Institute has free resources to help you make peace with your inner mammal: videos, blogs, infographics, and podcasts. Dr. Breuning's books explain the big picture and help you plot your course step by step. No matter where you are right now, you can enjoy more happy chemicals in healthy ways. Get the details at https://InnerMammalInstitute.org.Music from Sonatina Soleil by W.M. Sharp. Hear more of it at https://InnerMammalInstitute.org/musicbywmsharp

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
Latent neural population dynamics underlying normal breathing, opioid induced respiratory depression, and gasping

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 1, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.11.30.518585v1?rss=1 Authors: Bush, N. E., Ramirez, J.-M. Abstract: Breathing is vital and must be concurrently robust and flexible. This rhythmic behavior is generated and maintained within a rostro-caudally aligned set of medullary nuclei called the Ventral Respiratory Column (VRC). The rhythmic properties of individual VRC nuclei are well known, yet technical challenges have limited the interrogation of the entire VRC population simultaneously. Here, we characterize over 13,000 VRC units using high-density electrophysiology, opto-tagging, and histological reconstruction. Population dynamics analysis reveals interactions between inspiratory and expiratory dynamical states give rise to a low-dimensional, elliptical neural manifold. The structure of this manifold is robust and maintained even during opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD). However, during severe hypoxia-induced gasping, the low-dimensional dynamics of the VRC reconfigure from rotational to all-or-none, ballistic efforts. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
Identifying Content-Invariant Neural Signatures of Phenomenal Magnitude

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 1, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.11.30.518510v1?rss=1 Authors: Barnett, B., Andersen, L. M., Fleming, S. M., Dijkstra, N. Abstract: Some experiences are stronger than others: they have greater phenomenal magnitude. Although the phenomenal magnitude of experience is a familiar component of human consciousness, the computational scheme underpinning its encoding in the brain is unknown. In particular, it is unknown whether phenomenal magnitude is encoded in a "rich" manner, via the strengthening or broadcast of content-specific perceptual representations, or a "sparse" scheme, in which a content-invariant signal monitors the reliability or precision of first-order contents. In a reanalysis of existing MEG and fMRI data from two distinct studies, we operationalise phenomenal magnitude as subjective ratings of awareness and visibility to address this question. We find that phenomenal magnitude is associated with content-invariant neural signatures distributed across visual, parietal, and frontal cortices. Moreover, we show that these neural signatures exhibit similarities with other analogue magnitude codes such as number, with each rating being represented as being more similar to its neighbours, and less similar to more distant ratings. Our findings suggest a role for a content-invariant analogue magnitude code in determining the strength of perceptual experience. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
Orthogonal neural encoding of targets and distractors supports multivariate cognitive control

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 1, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.12.01.518771v1?rss=1 Authors: Ritz, H., Shenhav, A. Abstract: People can overcome a wide array of mental challenges by coordinating their neural information processing to align with their goals. Recent behavioral work has shown that people can independently control their attention across multiple features during perceptual decision-making, but the structure of the neural representations that enables this multivariate control remains mysterious. We hypothesized that the brain solves this complex coordination problem by orthogonalizing feature-specific representations of task demands and attentional priority, allowing the brain to independently monitor and adjust multiple streams of stimulus information. To test this hypothesis, we measured fMRI activity while participants performed a task designed to tag processing and control over feature-specific information that is task-relevant (targets) versus task-irrelevant (distractors). We then characterized the geometry of these neural representations using a novel multivariate analysis (Encoding Geometry Analysis), estimating where the encoding of different task features is correlated versus orthogonal. We identified feature-specific representations of task demands and attentional priority in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS), respectively, consistent with differential roles for these regions in monitoring versus directing information processing. Representations of attentional priority in IPS were fully mediated by the control requirements of the task, associated with behavioral performance, and depended on connectivity with nodes in the frontoparietal control network, suggesting that these representations serve a fundamental role in supporting attentional control. Together, these findings provide evidence for a neural geometry that can enable coordinated control over multiple sources of information. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
Cortical networks relating to arousal are differentially coupled to neural activity and hemodynamics

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 1, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.12.01.518759v1?rss=1 Authors: Meyer-Baese, L., Morrissette, A. E., Wang, Y., Le Chatelier, B., Borden, P. Y., Keilholz, S., Stanley, G. B., Jaeger, D. Abstract: Even in the absence of specific sensory input or a behavioral task, the brain produces structured patterns of activity. This organized activity has been shown to be modulated by changes in arousal. Here, we use wide-field voltage imaging to establish the relationship between cortical network activity and arousal in spontaneously behaving head-fixed mice expressing the voltage sensitive fluorescent FRET sensor Butterfly 1.2. This approach allowed us to simultaneously image hemodynamic and voltage activity, and then compare fMRI analogous activity changes to the direct cortical voltage activity in relation to arousal and movement. Arousal and facial movements were assessed through analysis of face video recordings. We find that changes in pupil diameter were differentially coupled to hemodynamics and cortical voltage activity in a regionally and frequency specific way. Further this coupling changed between periods of spontaneous facial movements, and periods of rest. Our results indicate that while fMRI-like hemodynamic signals show strong relations to behavior and arousal, these relations are distinct from those shown by brain voltage activity. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

Day[0] - Zero Days for Day Zero
[binary] Patch Gaps and Apple Neural Engine Vulns

Day[0] - Zero Days for Day Zero

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 1, 2022 43:49


The end of kASLR bypasses? Probably just click-bait, but the patch gap is real and we discuss that a bit before getting into a couple AI-based corruptions. Links and vulnerability summaries for this episode are available at: https://dayzerosec.com/podcast/172.html [00:00:00] Introduction [00:01:15] Spot the Vuln - Escape [00:06:00] Humble Tech Book Bundle: The Art of Hacking by No Starch Press [00:11:00] An End to KASLR Bypasses? [00:15:59] Mind the Gap [00:24:36] ANE_ProgramCreate() multiple kernel memory corruption [CVE-2022-32898] [00:34:29] Chat Question: Guides/Techniques to Help With C++ Reverse Engineering [00:36:35] ZinComputeProgramUpdateMutables() OOB write due to double fetch issue [CVE-2022-32932] The DAY[0] Podcast episodes are streamed live on Twitch twice a week: -- Mondays at 3:00pm Eastern (Boston) we focus on web and more bug bounty style vulnerabilities -- Tuesdays at 7:00pm Eastern (Boston) we focus on lower-level vulnerabilities and exploits. We are also available on the usual podcast platforms: -- Apple Podcasts: https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/id1484046063 -- Spotify: https://open.spotify.com/show/4NKCxk8aPEuEFuHsEQ9Tdt -- Google Podcasts: https://www.google.com/podcasts?feed=aHR0cHM6Ly9hbmNob3IuZm0vcy9hMTIxYTI0L3BvZGNhc3QvcnNz -- Other audio platforms can be found at https://anchor.fm/dayzerosec You can also join our discord: https://discord.gg/daTxTK9

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
Neural mechanisms of parasite-induced summiting behavior in 'zombie' Drosophila

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 1, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.12.01.518723v1?rss=1 Authors: Elya, C., Lavrentovich, D., Lee, E., Pasadyn, C., Duval, J., Basak, M., Saykina, V., de Bivort, B. L. Abstract: For at least two centuries, scientists have been enthralled by the zombie behaviors induced by mind-controlling parasites. Despite this interest, the mechanistic bases of these uncanny processes have remained mostly a mystery. Here, we leverage the recently established Entomophthora muscae-Drosophila melanogaster zombie fly system to reveal the molecular and cellular underpinnings of summit disease, a manipulated behavior evoked by many fungal parasites. Using a new, high-throughput behavior assay to measure summiting, we discovered that summiting behavior is characterized by a burst of locomotion and requires the host circadian and neurosecretory systems, specifically DN1p circadian neurons, pars intercerebralis to corpora allata projecting (PI-CA) neurons and corpora allata (CA), who are solely responsible for juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis and release. Summiting is a fleeting phenomenon, posing a challenge for physiological and biochemical experiments requiring tissue from summiting flies. We addressed this with a machine learning classifier to identify summiting animals in real time. PI-CA neurons and CA appear to be intact in summiting animals, despite E. muscae cells invading the host brain, particularly in the superior medial protocerebrum (SMP), the neuropil that contains DN1p axons and PI-CA dendrites. The blood-brain barrier of flies late in their infection was significantly permeabilized, suggesting that factors in the hemolymph may have greater access to the central nervous system during summiting. Metabolomic analysis of hemolymph from summiting flies revealed differential abundance of several compounds compared to non-summiting flies. Transfusing the hemolymph of summiting flies into non-summiting recipients induced a burst of locomotion, demonstrating that factor(s) in the hemolymph likely cause summiting behavior. Altogether, our work reveals a neuro-mechanistic model for summiting wherein fungal cells perturb fly hemolymph, activating the neurohormonal pathway linking clock neurons to juvenile hormone production in the CA, ultimately inducing locomotor activity in their host. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

Troubled Minds Radio
The Predator Class - Are Psychos That Run the World Infected with Something Non-Human?

Troubled Minds Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 30, 2022 141:34


The parasite world seems to control everything. Is it possible that the sickest humans are being controlled by something that is not human at all?http://www.troubledminds.org Support The Show! https://www.buymeacoffee.com/troubledminds https://rokfin.com/creator/troubledminds https://troubledfans.com https://patreon.com/troubledminds#aliens #conspiracy #paranormalRadio Schedule Mon-Tues-Wed-Thurs 7-9pst - https://fringe.fm/iTunes - https://apple.co/2zZ4hx6Spotify - https://spoti.fi/2UgyzqMStitcher - https://bit.ly/2UfAiMXTuneIn - https://bit.ly/2FZOErSTwitter - https://bit.ly/2CYB71UFollow Algo Rhythm -- https://bit.ly/3uq7yRYFollow Apoc -- https://bit.ly/3DRCUEjFollow Ash -- https://bit.ly/3CUTe4ZFollow Daryl -- https://bit.ly/3GHyIaNFollow James -- https://bit.ly/3kSiTEYFollow Jennifer -- https://bit.ly/3BVLyCMFollow Joseph -- https://bit.ly/3pNjbzb Matt's Book -- https://amzn.to/3fqmRWgFollow Nightstocker -- https://bit.ly/3mFGGtxRobert's Book -- https://amzn.to/3GEsFUKFollow TamBam -- https://bit.ly/3LIQkFw--------------------------------------------------A Strange Thing Happens to Wolves Infected by Infamous Mind-Altering Parasite : ScienceAlerthttps://www.sciencealert.com/a-strange-thing-happens-to-wolves-infected-by-infamous-mind-altering-parasitehttps://www.msn.com/en-us/news/us/this-parasite-manipulates-the-minds-of-wolves-rats-and-maybe-even-you/ar-AA14GpUThttps://worthly.com/richest/hated-billionaires-world/Filthy Rich: Why Billionaires are Some of the Worst People on the Planet – Vox Populihttps://mrkantor.com/filthy-rich-why-billionaires-are-some-of-the-worst-people-on-the-planet/Opinion: Abigail Disney: 125 billionaires control our climate future | CNNhttps://www.cnn.com/2022/11/29/opinions/billionaires-climate-crisis-abigail-disney/index.htmlhttps://www.discovermagazine.com/planet-earth/do-parasites-rule-the-worldhttps://mysteriousuniverse.org/2014/03/do-parasites-rule-the-world/https://indexarticles.com/reference/discover/do-parasites-rule-the-world/https://www.frequencyfoundation.com/2010/07/02/parasites-rule-the-world-toxoplasma-gondii/Opinion: We should be skeptical of billionaires who pledge to share their wealth | CNNhttps://www.cnn.com/2022/11/28/opinions/billionaires-pledge-share-wealth-collins/index.htmlhttps://articlefeed.org/do-parasites-rule-the-world-by-using-our-bodies-as-hosts/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30668944/How parasites manipulate us - BBC Newshttps://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-26240297Neural parasitology: how parasites manipulate host behaviour | Journal of Experimental Biology | The Company of Biologistshttps://journals.biologists.com/jeb/article/216/1/1/11346/Neural-parasitology-how-parasites-manipulate-hostHow Parasites Manipulate Your Behavior | Neurosciencehttps://www.labroots.com/trending/neuroscience/17847/parasites-manipulate-behaviorhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Behavior-altering_parasitehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MAAHgAuti84&ab_channel=kritzingerx24

inControl
ep 7 - Jean-Jacques Slotine

inControl

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 29, 2022 70:57


In this episode, our guest is Jean-Jacques Slotine, Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Information Sciences as well as Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Director of the Nonlinear Systems Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Distinguished Faculty at Google AI.  We explore and connect a wide range of ideas from nonlinear and adaptive control to robotics, neuroscience, complex networks, optimization and machine learning.Outline00:00 - Intro00:50 - Jean-Jacques' early life06:17 - Why control? 09:45 - Sliding control and adaptive control18:47 - Neural networks 23:15 - First ventures in neuroscience28:27 - Contraction theory and applications48:26 - Synchronization51:10 - Complex networks57:59 - Optimization and machine learning1:08:17 -  Advice to future students and outro Episode linksNCCR Symposium: https://tinyurl.com/bdz84p4c Sliding mode control: https://tinyurl.com/2s45ra4mApplied nonlinear control: https://tinyurl.com/4wmbt4bwOn the Adaptive Control of Robot Manipulators: https://tinyurl.com/b7jcpkzwGaussian Networks for Direct Adaptive Control: https://tinyurl.com/22zb7pkxThe intermediate cerebellum may function as a wave-variable processor: https://tinyurl.com/2c34ytepOn contraction analysis for nonlinear systems: https://tinyurl.com/5cw4z9j8Kalman conjecture: https://tinyurl.com/2pfjsbkeI. Prigogine: https://tinyurl.com/5ct8yssb RNNs of RNNs: https://tinyurl.com/3mpt7fecHow Synchronization Protects from Noise: https://tinyurl.com/2p82erwp Controllability of complex networks: https://tinyurl.com/24w7hdaeB. Anderson: https://tinyurl.com/e9pkyxdxOnline lectures on nonlinear control: https://tinyurl.com/525cnru4Podcast infoPodcast website: https://www.incontrolpodcast.com/Apple Podcasts: https://tinyurl.com/5n84j85jSpotify: https://tinyurl.com/4rwztj3cRSS: https://feeds.buzzsprout.com/1632769.rssYoutube: https://tinyurl.com/bdbvhsj6Facebook: https://tinyurl.com/3z24yr43Twitter: https://twitter.com/IncontrolPInstagram: https://www.instagram.com/incontrol_podcast/Acknowledgments and sponsorsThis episode was supported by the National Centre of Competence in Research on «Dependable, ubiquitous automation» and the IFAC Activity fund.The podcast benefits from the help of an incredibly talented and passionate team. Special thanks to B. Seward, E. Cahard, F. Banis, F. Dörfler, J. Lygeros, as well as the ETH and mirrorlake studios.Music was composed bSupport the show

Brain Inspired
BI 154 Anne Collins: Learning with Working Memory

Brain Inspired

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 29, 2022 82:27


Support the show to get full episodes and join the Discord community. Anne Collins runs her  Computational Cognitive Neuroscience Lab at the University of California, Berkley One of the things she's been working on for years is how our working memory plays a role in learning as well, and specifically how working memory and reinforcement learning interact to affect how we learn, depending on the nature of what we're trying to learn. We discuss that interaction specifically. We also discuss more broadly how segregated and how overlapping and interacting our cognitive functions are, what that implies about our natural tendency to think in dichotomies - like MF vs MB-RL, system-1 vs system-2, etc., and we dive into plenty other subjects, like how to possibly incorporate these ideas into AI. Computational Cognitive Neuroscience Lab.Twitter: @ccnlab or @Anne_On_Tw.Related papers:How Working Memory and Reinforcement Learning Are Intertwined: A Cognitive, Neural, and Computational Perspective. Beyond simple dichotomies in reinforcement learning.The Role of Executive Function in Shaping Reinforcement Learning.What do reinforcement learning models measure? Interpreting model parameters in cognition and neuroscience. 0:00 - Intro 5:25 - Dimensionality of learning 11:19 - Modularity of function and computations 16:51 - Is working memory a thing? 19:33 - Model-free model-based dichotomy 30:40 - Working memory and RL 44:43 - How working memory and RL interact 50:50 - Working memory and attention 59:37 - Computations vs. implementations 1:03:25 - Interpreting results 1:08:00 - Working memory and AI

Guidance Counselor 2.0
Episode 186 - I Ain't Got Time...How Can Recruiters Help w/Daniel Norton, CTO of Neural Payments

Guidance Counselor 2.0

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 28, 2022 33:54


I am joined by my friend Daniel Norton, CTO of Neural Payments. We are going to dive into how to leverage a recruiting firm as well as junior developers! Like what you hear? Connect with me - Website: www.vaco.com/taylorLinkedIn: Taylor Desseyn Tweet me: @tdesseyn Pics of the life, wife, daughter & dog: @tdesseyn

#TWIMshow - This Week in Marketing
[Ep136] - Google Publishes A Guide To Current & Retired Ranking Systems

#TWIMshow - This Week in Marketing

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 28, 2022 10:40


1. Google's Introduces Policy Circumvention - Google has added a new spam policy to its search spam policies - “Policy circumvention.” In short, if you take any action you take to bypass the other Google Search spam or content policies such as creating new sites, using other sites or other methods to distribute that content, maybe on third-party sites or other avenues then Google will restrict or remove the content from showing up in search. Here is what Google wrote:“If you engage in actions intended to bypass our spam or content policies for Google Search, undermine restrictions placed on content, a site, or an account, or otherwise continue to distribute content that has been removed or made ineligible from surfacing, we may take appropriate action which could include restricting or removing eligibility for some of our search features (for example, Top Stories, Discover). Circumvention includes but is not limited to creating or using multiple sites or other methods intended to distribute content or engage in a behavior that was previously prohibited”2. Google's Advice On When You Should Move Your Blogs To A Sub-Domain - John Mueller of Google recently shared his advice on when you should add blogs to a Sub-Domain. John shared that he will move blogs to a subdomain over a www when he thinks the content on the subdomain can live on its own. He said "my way of thinking with regards to subdomains is that it depends on what you're trying to do. Is it content that's meant to be tightly connected to the main site? Then put it on the main site. If you want the content to stand on its own, then a subdomain is a good match."He also shared that there are technical considerations to think about outside of SEO. He said "There's also the technical side-effect of subdomains sometimes making things a bit more complicated: verification in search console, tracking in analytics, DNS, hosting, security, CSPs, etc."Lastly, John added "To be clear, I think it will affect rankings of the new content, but ultimately it depends on what you want to achieve with it. Sometimes you want something separated out, sometimes you want to see something as a part of the main site. These are different situations, and the results will differ."3. Google: 60% Of The Internet Is Duplicate & Prefers https - Gary Illyes from Google shared during Google Search Central Live in Singapore that 60% of the content on internet is duplicate. To find duplicates, Google compares the checksum generated from the main content and if the checksum matches then the content is duplicate. Lastly, Gary mentioned that Google will always pick a https url over http. Ensure that you have https on your website and focus on producing something way more unique and useful than most of what is out on the internet.  4. Google Re-confirms That E-A-T Applies To Every Single Search Query - During recent SMX Next event, Hyung-Jin Kim, the Vice President of Google Search (who has been working on search quality for the past 20 years and leads up core ranking at Google Search) reconfirmed that E-A-T is used in every single query, it is applied to everything Google Search does. "E-A-T is a core part of our metrics," he added, explaining that it is to "ensure the content that people consume is going to be, is not going to be harmful and it is going to be useful to the user." Here is the transcript of what he said exactly:“E-A-T is a core part of our metrics and it stands for expertise, authoritativeness and trustworthiness. This has not always been there in Google, and it is something we have developed about 10 to 12 to 13 years ago. And it is really there to make sure that, along the lines of what we talked about earlier, that is it really there to ensure the content that people consume is going to be, is not going to be harmful and it is going to be useful to the user. These are principles we live by every single day. And E-A-T, that template, of how we rate an individual site based on expertise, authoritativeness and trustworthiness, we do it to every single query and every single result. So it is actually pretty pervasive throughout everything we do. I will say that YMYL queries, the your money or your life queries, such as when I am looking for a mortgage or when I am looking for the local ER, those we have a particular eye on and pay a bit more attention to those queries because those are some of the most important decisions people can make, some of the most important decisions people will make in their lives. So I will say that E-A-T is has a bit more of an impact there but again, I will say that E-A-T applies to everything, every single query that we have.”5. Google Publishes A Guide To Current & Retired Ranking Systems - You can find out which algorithms Google uses to rank search results and which ones are no longer in use with the help of a new guide to Google's ranking systems. Furthermore, Google distinguishes between ranking "systems" and ranking "updates" in its most recent guide, using new terminology. RankBrain is one example of a system that is always operating in the background. On the other hand, an update describes a one-time adjustment to ranking structures.For instance, when Google returns search results, the helpful content system is always active in the background, while it is subject to modifications to enhance its performance. Other examples of one-time adjustments to ranking algorithms include spam updates and updates to the core algorithm.Here is the list, in alphabetical order, of Google's ranking systems that are currently operational. BERT: Short for Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers, BERT allows Googe to understand how combinations of words can express different meanings and intent. Crisis information systems: Google has systems in place to provide specific sets of information during times of crisis, such as SOS alerts when searching for natural disasters. Deduplication systems: Google's search systems aim to avoid serving duplicate or near-duplicate webpages. Exact match domain system: A system that ensures Google doesn't give too much credit to websites with domain names that exactly match a query. Freshness systems: A system designed to show fresher content for queries where it would be expected Helpful content system:  A system designed to better ensure people see original, helpful content, rather than content made primarily to gain search engine traffic. Link analysis systems and PageRank: Systems that determine what pages are about and which might be most helpful in response to a query based on how pages link to each other. Local news systems: A system that surfaces local news sources when relevant to the query. MUM: Short for Multitask Unified Model, MUM, is an AI system capable of understanding and generating language. It improves featured snippet callouts and is not used for general ranking. Neural matching:  A system that helps Google understand representations of concepts in queries and pages and match them to one another. Original content systems: A system to help ensure Google shows original content prominently in search results, including original reporting, ahead of those who merely cite it. Removal-based demotion systems: Systems that demote websites subject to a high volume of content removal requests. Page experience system: A system that assesses various criteria to determine if a webpage provides a good user experience. Passage ranking system: An  AI system Google uses to identify individual sections or “passages” of a web page to understand better how relevant a page is to a search. Product reviews system:  A system that rewards high-quality product reviews written by expert authors with insightful analysis and original research. RankBrain:  An AI system that helps Google understand how words are related to concepts. Allows Google to return results that don't contain exact words used in a query. Reliable information systems: Google has multiple systems to show reliable information, such as elevating authoritative pages, demoting low-quality content, and rewarding quality journalism. Site diversity system: A system that prevents Google from showing more than two webpage listings from the same site in the top results. Spam detection systems: A system that deals with content and behaviors that violate Google's spam policies.

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
Exploring the Neural Processes behind Narrative Engagement: An EEG Study

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 28, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.11.28.518174v1?rss=1 Authors: Dini, H., Simonetti, A., Bruni, L. E. Abstract: Past cognitive neuroscience studies using naturalistic stimuli have considered narratives holistically and focused on cognitive processes. In this study, we incorporated the narrative structure--the dramatic arc--as an object of investigation, to examine how engagement levels fluctuate across a narrative-aligned dramatic arc. We explored the possibility of predicting self-reported engagement ratings from neural activity and investigated the idiosyncratic effects of each phase of the dramatic arc on brain responses as well as the relationship between engagement and brain responses. We presented a movie excerpt following the six-phase narrative arc structure to female and male participants while collecting EEG signals. We then asked this group of participants to recall the excerpt, another group to segment the video based on the dramatic arc model, and a third to rate their engagement levels while watching the movie. The results showed that the self-reported engagement ratings followed the pattern of the narrative dramatic arc. Moreover, whilst EEG amplitude could not predict group-averaged engagement ratings, other features comprising dynamic inter-subject correlation, dynamic functional connectivity patterns and graph features were able to achieve this. Furthermore, neural activity in the last two phases of the dramatic arc significantly predicted engagement patterns. This study is the first to explore the cognitive processes behind the dramatic arc and its phases. By demonstrating how neural activity predicts self-reported engagement, which itself aligns with the narrative structure, this study provides insights on the interrelationships between narrative structure, neural responses, and viewer engagement. Significance statementDramatic narratives follow a complex structure termed as the narrative arc. Here, we addressed the complexity of this structure in order to explore brain responses during narrative cognition. We examined the link between the narrative arc and its six phases with self-reported engagement, and whether brain responses elicited by a narrative can predict engagement levels. Our results showed that the group-averaged engagement ratings followed the dramatic arc model. EEG features predicted group-averaged engagement patterns and also engagement levels in the last two phases. This is the first study to characterize the narrative dramatic arc phases at the neural level. It contributes to the fields of cognitive narratology and neuroscience by extending current knowledge on how the brain responds to narratives. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
A new theoretical framework jointly explains behavioral and neural variability across subjects performing flexible decision-making

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 28, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.11.28.518207v1?rss=1 Authors: Pagan, M., Tang, V. D., Aoi, M. C., Pillow, J. W., Mante, V., Sussillo, D., Brody, C. D. Abstract: The ability to flexibly select and accumulate relevant information to form decisions, while ignoring irrelevant information, is a fundamental component of higher cognition. Yet its neural mechanisms remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that, under assumptions supported by both monkey and rat data, the space of possible network mechanisms to implement this ability is spanned by the combination of three different components, each with specific behavioral and anatomical implications. We further show that existing electrophysiological and modeling data are compatible with the full variety of possible combinations of these components, suggesting that different individuals could use different component combinations. To study variations across subjects, we developed a rat task requiring context-dependent evidence accumulation, and trained many subjects on it. Our task delivers sensory evidence through pulses that have random but precisely known timing, providing high statistical power to characterize each individuals neural and behavioral responses. Consistent with theoretical predictions, neural and behavioral analysis revealed remarkable heterogeneity across rats, despite uniformly good task performance. The theory further predicts a specific link between behavioral and neural signatures, which was robustly supported in the data. Our results provide a new experimentally-supported theoretical framework to analyze biological and artificial systems performing flexible decision-making tasks, and open the door to the study of individual variability in neural computations underlying higher cognition. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

Amores de garra
Adopta a un ajolote, ejercicio necesario para perros según talla y raza, terapia neural- 26 Nov 22

Amores de garra

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 28, 2022 44:55


El Dr. Luis Zambrano, platica acerca del proyecto Chinampa - Refugio, para adoptar simbólicamente a un ajolote. El MVZ Luis Quiñones explica cuánto ejercicio deben hacer los perros. La MVZ Mariana Aguilar explica cómo encontrar el punto de dolor.

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
Neural alpha oscillations and pupil size differentially index cognitive demand under competing audio-visual task conditions

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 26, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.11.25.517931v1?rss=1 Authors: Kraus, F., Tune, S., Obleser, J., Herrmann, B. Abstract: Cognitive demand is thought to modulate two often used, but rarely combined, measures: pupil size and neural alpha (8-12 Hz) oscillatory power. However, it is unclear whether these two measures capture cognitive demand in a similar way, and whether a measured cognitive demand response in pupil size or brain activity is dependent on sensory modality by which the demand is induced. Here we recorded pupil size and neural alpha power (using electroencephalography), while human participants of both sexes concurrently performed a visual multiple object-tracking task and an auditory gap-detection task. Difficulties of the two tasks were manipulated independent of each other. Participants' performance decreased in accuracy and speed with increasing cognitive demand. Pupil size increased with increasing demand for both the auditory and the visual task. Alpha power emerging from two cortical sources showed counteracting neural dynamics: Alpha power in visual cortex decreased with increasing demand in the visual task, whereas alpha power in parietal cortex increased with increasing demand in the auditory task. Furthermore, demand-related changes in pupil size and alpha power were uncorrelated, suggesting that they index different aspects of cognitive demand. Overall, the current study demonstrates that the dynamics of the neurophysiological indices of cognitive demand and associated effort are multi-faceted and potentially modality-dependent under complex audio-visual task conditions. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
Anti-NMDAR encephalitis antibodies cause long-lasting degradation of the hippocampal neural representation of memory

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 25, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.11.25.517901v1?rss=1 Authors: Zamani, A., Peixoto-Moledo, P., Tomas, D. P., Rotstein, H. G., Dalmau, J., Jercog, P. E. Abstract: N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome together with a reduction of NMDAR. Although in most patients the life-threatening symptoms of the acute stage resolve with immunotherapy, memory and executive functions remain altered for several months or years. A mechanistic explanation for these long-lasting cognitive effects is still lacking and previous animal models have not explored this effect. Here, we combined repeat calcium imaging of the same population of hundreds of hippocampal CA1 neurons for three months along with two behavioral tasks to assess retrograde and anterograde memory loss using a reported mouse model of cerebroventricular transfer of patients' CSF antibodies. We measured how memory-related neuronal activity is affected by the presence of NMDAR antibodies during the induction of the model and its long-lasting recovery. In addition, we developed a computational model that provides a mechanistic explanation for the long-term antibody-mediated impairment of memory. The findings show that the presence of antibodies leads to an increase of CA1 neuronal firing rate, resulting in a reduction of the amount of information encoded by these cells. Furthermore, the antibodies cause a degradation of the hippocampal neuronal response stability over time, providing a neural correlate of memory dysfunction. All these neuronal alterations span the 3 months of recordings, and in some cases beyond the last recording point. The computational model shows that a reduction of NMDAR is sufficient to cause the changes observed in neuronal activity, including the different involvement of excitatory and inhibitory inputs to CA1 neurons. Altogether, we show that the antibody-mediated reduction of NMDAR leads to long-term changes in hippocampal neuronal activity which extend far beyond the antibody clearance, providing a mechanism that can account for the cognitive deficits observed in the protracted recovery of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
Brief temporal perturbations in somatosensory reafference disrupt perceptual and neural attenuation and increase supplementary motor-cerebellar connectivity

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 25, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.11.25.517892v1?rss=1 Authors: Kilteni, K., Houborg, C., Ehrsson, H. H. Abstract: Intrinsic delays in sensory feedback can be detrimental for motor control. As a compensation strategy, the brain predicts the sensory consequences of movement via a forward model on the basis of a copy of the motor command. Using these predictions, the brain attenuates the somatosensory reafference to facilitate the processing of exafferent information. Theoretically, this predictive attenuation gets disrupted by (even minimal) temporal errors between the predicted and the actual reafference, but direct evidence for such disruption is lacking since previous neuroimaging studies contrasted conditions of nondelayed reafferent input with exafferent one. Here, we combined psychophysics with functional magnetic resonance imaging to test whether subtle perturbations in the timing of somatosensory reafference disrupt its predictive processing. Twenty-eight participants generated touches on their left index finger by tapping a sensor with their right index finger. The touches on the left index finger were delivered at the time of the two fingers contact or with a 100 ms delay. We found that such brief temporal perturbations disrupted the attenuation of the somatosensory reafference both at the perceptual and neural level, leading to greater somatosensory and cerebellar responses and weaker somatosensory connectivity with the cerebellum proportionally to perceptual changes. Moreover, we observed increased connectivity of the supplementary motor area with the cerebellum during the perturbations. We interpret these effects as the failure of the forward model to predictively attenuate the delayed somatosensory reafference and the return of the prediction error to the motor centers, respectively. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
The Neural Correlates of Arousal: The Ventral Posterolateral Nucleus-Global Transient Co-Activation

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 24, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.11.23.517776v1?rss=1 Authors: Han, J., Xie, Q., Wu, X., Huang, Z., Tanabe, S., Fogel, S., Hudetz, A. G., Wu, H., Northoff, G., Mao, Y., He, S., Qin, P. Abstract: Arousal and awareness are two components of consciousness whose the neural mechanisms remain unclear. Spontaneous increases of global (brain-wide) blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal has been found to be sensitive to changes in arousal. By contrasting BOLD datasets with altered arousal levels, we found that the activation of ventral posterolateral nucleus (VPL) decreased during transient increase in the global signal (top 17% data) in low arousal and awareness states (non-rapid eye movement sleep and anesthesia) as compared to wakefulness, and even in eye-closed (compared with eyes-open) in healthy awake-states, while this activation remained unchanged in patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome characterized by high arousal without awareness. These results demonstrate that co-activation of the VPL and global activity is critical to arousal, but not to awareness. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
Neural correlates of probabilistic information processing in gesture-speech integration

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 24, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.11.23.517759v1?rss=1 Authors: Zhao, W., Li, X., Du, Y. Abstract: How information of different modalities (e.g., speech and gesture) frame into a unified one remains unclear in the neurobiology of language. Leveraging the information-theoretic complexity metrics of entropy and mutual information (MI) to quantify gestures and speech, the present event-related potentials and chronometric double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study investigated the neural processes during probabilistic gesture-speech integration. In the early processing stage, we found a positive correlation of P1 amplitude with speech entropy and a negative correlation of N1-P2 amplitude with gesture entropy, while the TMS disruption effect of posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) was negatively correlated with speech entropy. In the lexico-semantic processing stage, we observed a negative correlation of N400 amplitude with both gesture entropy and gesture-speech MI, a negative correlation of late positive component amplitude with speech entropy, together with correlations of the TMS interruption effect of inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) with gesture entropy, speech entropy and their MI. Our findings suggest a probabilistically updated lexical representation that was dynamically framed by top-down gesture constrain, bottom-up speech encoding and their interplay. A 5-step process in the pMTG-IFG-pMTG neural circuit is hypothesized for probabilistic gesture-speech processing, which promises a better understanding of the predictive multisensory language processing. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

Headliner Radio
E215: Doug Castro | Inside Neural DSP

Headliner Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 23, 2022 29:48


Music tech entrepreneur and founder and CEO of Finland's Neural DSP, Doug Castro explains why the Nordic music scene is such a hotbed for innovation, reflects on the company's growth so far, and shares his views on AI's role in the future of music technology and studio recording.

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
Heard or understood? Neural tracking of language features in a comprehensible story, an incomprehensible story and a word list

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 22, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.11.22.517477v1?rss=1 Authors: Gillis, M., Vanthornhout, J., Francart, T. Abstract: Speech comprehension is a complex neural process on which relies on activation and integration of multiple brain regions. In the current study, we evaluated whether speech comprehension can be investigated by neural tracking. Neural tracking is the phenomenon in which the brain responds in a time-locked fashion to specific features of the speech. These features can be acoustic, i.e., acoustic tracking, or derived from the content of the speech using language properties, i.e., language tracking. We evaluated whether neural tracking of speech differs between a comprehensible story, an incomprehensible story, and a word list. We evaluated the neural responses to speech of 19 participants (6 men). No significant difference regarding acoustic tracking was found. However, significant language tracking was only found for the comprehensible story. The most prominent effect was visible to word surprisal, a language feature at the word level. The neural response to word surprisal showed a prominent negativity between 300 and 400~ms, similar to the N400 in evoked response paradigms. This N400 was significantly more negative when the story was be comprehended, i.e., when words could be integrated in the context of previous words. These results show that language tracking can capture the effect of speech comprehension. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
Appetitive cue exposure increases neural reward responses without modulating temporal discounting

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 22, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.11.21.517327v1?rss=1 Authors: Knauth, K., Mathar, D., Kuzmanovic, B., Peters, J., Tittgemeyer, M. Abstract: When given a choice, humans and many animals prefer smaller but sooner over larger but later rewards, a tendency referred to as temporal discounting. Alterations in devaluation of future rewards have been reported in a range of maladaptive behaviors and clinical conditions. Although temporal discounting is highly stable over time and testing environments (e.g., laboratory vs. virtual reality), it is partly under contextual control. For example, highly appetitive cues such as erotic images might increase preferences for immediate rewards, although overall evidence remains mixed. Dopaminergic circuit activity and striatal dopamine concentrations are often assumed to drive increases in temporal discounting following appetitive cue-exposure, yet this was never explicitly tested. Here we examined cue-reactivity effects (erotic vs. neutral pictures) on subsequent temporal discounting in a pre-registered within-subjects study in healthy male participants (n=38). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assessed neural cue-reactivity, value-computations and choice-related effects. Preregistered analyses replicated previous findings of value coding in ventromedial prefrontal cortices, striatum and cingulate cortex. Likewise, as hypothesized, lateral prefrontal cortex activity increased during choices of delayed rewards, potentially reflecting cognitive control. As predicted, erotic vs. neutral cue exposure was associated with increased activity in attention and reward circuits. Contrary to our preregistered hypotheses, temporal discounting was largely unaffected by cue exposure. Likewise, cue-reactivity in key areas of the dopaminergic reward circuit (Nacc, VTA) was not significantly associated with changes in behavior. Our results indicate that behavioral effects of erotic cue exposure on temporal discounting might not be as unequivocal as previously thought and raise doubt on the hypothesis of an upregulated dopaminergic ramping mechanism, that might support myopic approach behavior towards immediate rewards. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
Stability of neural representations in the auditory midbrain across the lifespan despite age-related brainstem delays

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 20, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.11.20.517243v1?rss=1 Authors: Land, R., Kral, A. Abstract: The extent to which aging of the central auditory pathway impairs auditory perception in the elderly independent of peripheral cochlear decline is debated. To cause auditory deficits in normal hearing elderly, central aging needs to degrade neural sound representations at some point along the auditory pathway. However, inaccessible to psychophysical methods, the level of the auditory pathway at which aging starts to effectively degrade neural sound representations remains poorly differentiated. Here we tested how potential age-related changes in the auditory brainstem affect the stability of spatiotemporal multiunit complex speech-like sound representations in the auditory midbrain of old normal hearing CBA/J mice. Although brainstem conduction speed slowed down in old mice, the change was limited to the sub-millisecond range and only minimally affected temporal processing in the midbrain (i.e. gaps-in-noise sensitivity). Importantly, besides the small delay, multiunit complex temporal sound representations in the auditory midbrain did not differ between young and old mice. This shows that although small age-related neural effects in simple sound parameters in the lower brainstem may be present in aging they do not effectively deteriorate complex neural population representations at the level of the auditory midbrain when peripheral hearing remains normal. This result challenges the widespread belief of pure central auditory decline as an automatic consequence of aging. However, the stability of midbrain processing in aging emphasizes the role of undetected 'hidden' peripheral damage and accumulating effects in higher cortical auditory-cognitive processing explaining perception deficits in 'normal hearing' elderly. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
Switching state-space modeling of neural signal dynamics

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 20, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.11.18.517120v1?rss=1 Authors: He, M., Das, P., Hotan, G., Purdon, P. L. Abstract: Linear parametric state-space models are a ubiquitous tool for analyzing neural time series data, providing a way to characterize the underlying brain dynamics with much greater statistical efficiency than non-parametric data analysis approaches. However, neural time series data are frequently non-stationary, exhibiting rapid changes in dynamics, with transient activity that is often the key feature of interest in the data. Stationary methods can be adapted to time-varying scenarios by employing fixed-duration windows under an assumption of quasi-stationarity. But time-varying dynamics can be explicitly modeled by switching state-space models, i.e., by using a pool of state-space models with different properties selected by a probabilistic switching process. Unfortunately, unlike linear state-space models, exact solutions for state inference and parameter learning with switching state-space models are intractable. Here we derive a solution to the inference problem for a general probabilistic switching state-space framework based on a variational approximation on the joint posterior distribution of the underlying states and the switching process. We then use this state-inference solution within a generalized expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to learn the model parameters of the linear state-space models and the switching process. We perform extensive simulations in different settings to benchmark the performance of our method against existing switching inference methods. We also demonstrate the robustness of our switching inference to characterize dynamics outside the generative switching model class. In addition, we introduce a novel initialization strategy for the expectation step of the generalized EM algorithm using a leave-one-out strategy to compare among candidate models, which significantly improves performance compared to existing switching methods that employ deterministic annealing. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of our method for the problem of sleep spindle detection, showing how switching state-space models can be used to detect and extract transient spindles from human sleep electroencephalograms in an unsupervised manner. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
Phencyclidine disrupts neural coordination and cognitive control by dysregulating translation

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 18, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.11.18.517075v1?rss=1 Authors: Park, E., Kao, H.-Y., Jourdi, H., van Dijk, M., Carrillo-Segura, S., Tunnell, K. W., Gutierrez, J., Wallace, E. J., Troy-Regier, M., Radwan, B., Lesburgueres, E., Alarcon, J. M., Fenton, A. A. Abstract: Phencyclidine (PCP) causes psychosis, is abused with increasing frequency, and was extensively used in antipsychotic drug discovery, but how this uncompetitive NMDA-receptor antagonist impairs cognition remains unknown. Using rats and mice, we report that, consistent with ionotropic actions, PCP discoordinated hippocampus CA1 action potential discharge and impaired a well-learned hippocampus-dependent active place avoidance that requires cognitive control. However, consistent with metabotropic actions, PCP exaggerated protein-synthesis dependent DHPG-induced mGluR-LTD. Pretreatment with anisomycin or the group I mGluR antagonist MPEP, both of which repress translation, prevented the discoordination and PCP-induced cognitive and sensorimotor impairments. Both PCP and the NR2A-containing NMDA-receptor antagonist NVP-AAM077 unbalanced translation that engages the AKT, mTOR and 4EBP1 translation machinery and increased protein synthesis, whereas the NR2B-containing antagonist Ro25-6981 did not. We conclude that PCP dysregulates translation acting through NR2A receptor subtypes recruiting group 1 mGluR signaling pathways, leading to the neural discoordination that is central to the cognitive and sensorimotor impairments. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
Neural noise is associated with age-related neural dedifferentiation

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 18, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.11.17.516990v1?rss=1 Authors: Pichot, R. E., Henreckson, D. J., Foley, M., Koen, J. D. Abstract: Age-related neural dedifferentiation - reductions in the selectivity and precision of neural representations - contributes to cognitive aging and is thought to result from age increases in neural noise. This research has primarily used fMRI to examine age-related reductions in neural selectivity for different categories of visual stimuli. The present experiment used EEG to examine the link between neural noise and age-related neural dedifferentiation indexed by the scene-selective (P200) and face-selective (N170) ERP components. Young and older adults viewed images of scenes, objects, and faces during a 1-back task. Whereas both the P200 and N170 showed age-related slowing of peak latency, only the P200 showed age-related reductions in amplitude that were independent of visual and contrast acuity. We also examined the relationship between the ERP peak measures and an index of neural noise, namely the 1/f exponent of the frequency power spectrum. For the P200 amplitude, higher levels of neural noise were associated with smaller P200 amplitudes in young, but not older adults. In contrast, there was an age-invariant relationship between neural noise and N170 amplitude in the left hemisphere with higher levels of neural noise being associated reduced N170 amplitudes. While the present findings provide novel empirical evidence broadly consistent with predictions from computational models of neural dedifferentiation, the results also highlight potential limitations of the computational model that necessitate revision. The results also suggest that, at least for the P200, maintaining levels of neural noise similar to young adults might preserve levels of neural selectivity. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

FIT.nl Podcast: verander je leefstijl.
#133: Is de hersenwerking in relatie met voeding anders bij mensen met obesitas? - Hoogleraar Anne Roefs, PhD.

FIT.nl Podcast: verander je leefstijl.

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 18, 2022 29:05


Hoe reageren de hersenen op voeding? Wijkt dit af als je zwaarder bent? Anne Roefs en collega's hebben daar recent een studie naar gedaan. Deze studie zorgde voor een nieuwe kijk op de reactie van de hersenen en met verrassende resultaten. Onderwerpen die we bespreken zijn: 1. Reageren de hersenen anders op voeding bij mensen met een gezond BMI versus een hoger BMI? 2. Wat bepaalt onze reactie op voeding? Heeft mentale framing een invloed? Oftewel hoe je op dat moment naar voeding kijkt, vanuit welk perspectief. 3. En natuurlijk het meest relevant: is dit trainbaar?

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
Quadratic computations maintain neural specificity to natural stimuli across stages of visual processing

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 18, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.11.17.516970v1?rss=1 Authors: Rowekamp, R. J., Sharpee, T. Abstract: Despite recent successes in machine vision, artificial recognition systems continue to be less robust than biological systems. The brittleness of artificial recognition system has been attributed to the linearity of the core operation that matches inputs to target patterns at each stage of the system. Here we analyze responses of neurons from the visual areas V1, V2, and V4 of the brain using the framework that incorporates quadratic computations into multi-stage models. These quadratic computations make it possible to capture local recurrent computation, and in particular, nonlinear suppressive interactions between visual features. We find that incorporating quadratic computation not only strongly improved predictive power of the resulting model, but also revealed several computation motifs that increased the selectivity of neural responses to natural stimuli. These motifs included the organization of excitatory and suppressive features along mutually exclusive hypotheses about incoming stimuli, such as orthogonal orientations or opposing motion directions. The balance between excitatory and suppressive features was largely maintained across brain regions. These results emphasize the importance and properties of quadratic computations that are necessary for achieving robust object recognition. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

The Happy Brain
Hospital Drama

The Happy Brain

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 18, 2022 65:37


My guest tells us how she brings the inner mammal method into her daily work as a Registered Nurse. (https://RNextdoor.com)If you like The Happy Brain Podcast, please rate and review it to help others make peace with their inner mammal.THE HAPPY BRAIN PODCAST helps you blaze new trails to your dopamine, serotonin, oxytocin, and endorphin. My guests are pioneers in retraining the inner mammal. I love learning from them! Listen in and subscribe so you can turn on your happy chemicals in healthy new ways.Your host, Loretta Breuning PhD, is founder of the Inner Mammal Institute and author of "Habits of a Happy Brain: Retrain your brain to boost your serotonin, dopamine, oxytocin and endorphin levels.” Details at: https://innermammalinstitute.orgLife is more peaceful and satisfying when you understand the brain we've inherited from earlier mammals. Your mammal brain controls the chemicals that make you feel good: dopamine, serotonin, oxytocin, and endorphin. These chemicals are released for reasons that don't make sense to our verbal human brain. When you know what these chemicals do in animals, your ups and downs make sense!Our happy chemicals evolved to reward survival behavior, not to make you feel good all the time. Each happy chemical has a special job. When it turns on, it paves neural pathways that turn it on more easily in the future. That's why we repeat behaviors that we'd rather do without. Fortunately, you can re-wire yourself to stimulate them in sustainable ways.But it's hard. It's like learning a foreign language: it takes a lot of repetition. Yet people do it every day. You can be one of them! You can design a new path to your happy chemicals and repeat it until it's strong enough to turn on easily. The Inner Mammal Institute shows you how.The Inner Mammal Institute has free resources to help you make peace with your inner mammal: videos, blogs, infographics, and podcasts. Dr. Breuning's books explain the big picture and help you plot your course step by step. No matter where you are right now, you can enjoy more happy chemicals in healthy ways. Get the details at https://InnerMammalInstitute.org.Music from Sonatina Soleil by W.M. Sharp. Hear more of it at https://InnerMammalInstitute.org/musicbywmsharp

Brain Inspired
BI 153 Carolyn Jennings: Attention and the Self

Brain Inspired

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 18, 2022 85:30


Support the show to get full episodes and join the Discord community. Carolyn Dicey Jennings is a philosopher and a cognitive scientist at University of California, Merced. In her book The Attending Mind, she lays out an attempt to unify the concept of attention. Carolyn defines attention roughly as the mental prioritization of some stuff over other stuff based on our collective interests. And one of her main claims is that attention is evidence of a real, emergent self or subject, that can't be reduced to microscopic brain activity. She does connect attention to more macroscopic brain activity, suggesting slow longer-range oscillations in our brains can alter or entrain the activity of more local neural activity, and this is a candidate for mental causation. We unpack that more in our discussion, and how Carolyn situates attention among other cognitive functions, like consciousness, action, and perception. Carolyn's website.Books:The Attending Mind.Aeon article:I Attend, Therefore I Am.Related papersThe Subject of Attention.Consciousness and Mind.Practical Realism about the Self. 0:00 - Intro 12:15 - Reconceptualizing attention 16:07 - Types of attention 19:02 - Predictive processing and attention 23:19 - Consciousness, identity, and self 30:39 - Attention and the brain 35:47 - Integrated information theory 42:05 - Neural attention 52:08 - Decoupling oscillations from spikes 57:16 - Selves in other organisms 1:00:42 - AI and the self 1:04:43 - Attention, consciousness, conscious perception 1:08:36 - Meaning and attention 1:11:12 - Conscious entrainment 1:19:57 - Is attention a switch or knob?

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
Hungry for compliments? Ghrelin is not associated with neural responses to social rewards or their pleasantness

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 18, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.11.18.516889v1?rss=1 Authors: Sailer, U., Riva, F., Lieberz, J., Campbell-Meiklejohn, D., Scheele, D., Pfabigan, D. M. Abstract: The stomach-derived hormone ghrelin motivates food search and stimulates food consumption, with highest plasma concentrations before a meal and lowest shortly after. However, ghrelin also appears to affect the value of non-food rewards such as interaction with rat conspecifics, and monetary rewards in humans. The present pre-registered study investigated how nutritional state and ghrelin concentrations are related to the subjective and neural responses to social and non-social rewards. In a cross-over feed-and-fast design, 67 healthy volunteers (20 women) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a hungry state and after a meal with repeated plasma ghrelin measurements. In task 1, participants received social rewards in the form of approving expert feedback, or non-social computer reward. In task 2, participants rated the pleasantness of compliments and neutral statements. Nutritional state and ghrelin concentrations did not affect the response to social reward in task 1. In contrast, ventromedial prefrontal cortical activation to non-social rewards was reduced when the meal strongly suppressed ghrelin. In task 2, fasting increased activation in the right ventral striatum during all statements, but ghrelin concentrations were neither associated with brain activation nor with experienced pleasantness. Complementary Bayesian analyses provided moderate evidence for a lack of correlation between ghrelin concentrations and behavioral and neural responses to social rewards, but moderate evidence for an association between ghrelin and non-social rewards. This suggests that ghrelin's influence may be restricted to non-social rewards. Social rewards implemented via social recognition and affirmation may be too abstract and complex to be susceptible to ghrelin's influence. In contrast, the non-social reward was associated with the expectation of a material object that was handed out after the experiment. This may indicate that ghrelin might be involved in anticipatory rather than consummatory phases of reward. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
Oscillatory brain networks in continuous speaking and listening

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 17, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.11.17.516860v1?rss=1 Authors: Abbasi, O., Steingraeber, N., Chalas, N., Kluger, D. S., Gross, J. Abstract: Speech production and perception are fundamental processes of human cognition that both rely on an internal forward model that is still poorly understood. Here, we study this forward model by using Magnetoencephalography (MEG) to comprehensively map connectivity of regional brain activity within the brain and to the speech envelope during continuous speaking and listening. Our results reveal a partly shared neural substrate for both processes but also a dissociation in space, delay and frequency. Neural activity in motor and frontal areas is coupled to succeeding speech in delta band (1-3 Hz), whereas coupling in the theta range follows speech in temporal areas during speaking. Neural connectivity results showed a separation of bottom-up and top-down signalling in distinct frequency bands during speaking. Here, we show that frequency-specific connectivity channels for bottom-up and top-down signalling support continuous speaking and listening in a way that is consistent with the predictive coding framework. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience
ACC neural ensemble dynamics are structured by strategy prevalence

PaperPlayer biorxiv neuroscience

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 17, 2022


Link to bioRxiv paper: http://biorxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2022.11.17.516909v1?rss=1 Authors: Proskurin, M., Manakov, M., Karpova, A. Abstract: Medial frontal cortical areas are thought to play a critical role in the brain's ability to flexibly deploy strategies that are effective in complex settings. Still, the specific circuit computations that underpin this foundational aspect of intelligence remain unclear. Here, by examining neural ensemble activity in rats that sample different strategies in a self-guided search for latent task structure, we demonstrate a robust tracking of individual strategy prevalence in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), especially in an area homologous to primate area 32D. Prevalence encoding in the ACC is wide-scale, independent of reward delivery, and persists through a substantial ensemble reorganization that tags ACC representations with contextual content. Our findings argue that ACC ensemble dynamics is structured by a summary statistic of recent behavioral choices, raising the possibility that ACC plays a role in estimating - through statistical learning - which actions promote the occurrence of events in the environment. Copy rights belong to original authors. Visit the link for more info Podcast created by Paper Player, LLC

Jorgenson's Soundbox
#051 AI Evolution: ComputerVision, Olfactory Computation, and Neural Nets with Max Olson

Jorgenson's Soundbox

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 15, 2022 95:52


Topics: (5:29) - Max's background and career (14:15) - Is it reasonable to use Neural Net, Deep Learning and Machine learning interchangeably? (26:37) - The Future of AI (39:18) - Google & AI Writing (49:42) - Hiring AI for help in our personal lives (55:02) - How Improvements in Robotics will massively push things forward (57:12) - Computers being able to smell and taste (1:04:56) - Scarier futures of AI (1:08:13) - Is there a new field of opportunities you're paying attention to now in Computer Vision? (1:16:03) - Prompt Engineering (1:24:54) - Final recap   Links: Max on Twitter MaxOlson.com Max's Newsletter, Blog & Podcast - FutureBlind Berkshire Hathaway Letters to Shareholders from Max Olson Mashgin LEX AI GPT-3 Juggernaut AI Life 3.0 by Max Tegmark Turing Test Midjourney community showcase Jasper AI Copy AI       >> Invest in early-stage companies alongside Eric and his partners at Rolling Fun: https://angel.co/v/back/rolling-fun >> Join the free weekly email list at ejorgenson.com/newsletter >> Text the podcast to a friend >> Give the podcast a positive review to help us reach new listeners  >> Name-your-price subscription monthly, annual, or one-time: https://app.omella.com/o/9Bufa  >> Follow me on Twitter: @ericjorgenson >> Get in touch about sponsoring this podcast by replying to an email or DMing me on Twitter.

Wissensnachrichten - Deutschlandfunk Nova
Vorstandsfrauen, Ratten, Hochaus

Wissensnachrichten - Deutschlandfunk Nova

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 14, 2022 6:00


Die Themen in den Wissensnachrichten: +++ Vorstandsfrauen verdienen mehr als Männer +++ Hochhaus wird steifer +++ Ratten können tanzen +++ **********Weiterführende Quellen zu dieser Folge:Mixed Compensation Barometer von EY, 14.11.2022Spontaneous beat synchronization in rats: Neural dynamics and motor entrainment, science advances, 11.11.2022Variability in the Natural Frequencies of a Nine‐Story Concrete Building from Seconds to Decades, the seismic record, (2022) 2 (4)International Sports Events and Repression in Autocracies: Evidence from the 1978 FIFA World Cup, Cambridge University Press: 06 October 2022The road to recovery: a synthesis of outcomes from ecosystem restoration in tropical and sub-tropical Asian forests,Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 14.11.2022Thermalization by a synthetic horizon, Phys. Rev. Research 4, 8.11. 2022**********Ihr könnt uns auch auf diesen Kanälen folgen: Tiktok und Instagram.**********Weitere Wissensnachrichten zum Nachlesen: https://www.deutschlandfunknova.de/nachrichten

Expressions
REMOTE NEURAL MONITORING

Expressions

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 13, 2022 24:16


In this episode of EXPRESSIONS SEASON 5 Ciara will define what is REMOTE NEURAL MONITORING, it's purpose and history and how it coincides with gangstalking. --- This episode is sponsored by · Anchor: The easiest way to make a podcast. https://anchor.fm/app Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/ciaratavares-reyes/support

Science Friday
The US Battles RSV, Neural Connections, La Brea Tar Pits. Nov 11, 2022, Part 2

Science Friday

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 11, 2022 47:35


How Past Extinctions At The La Brea Tar Pit Can Teach Us About Our Climate Future If you drive through Los Angeles, you'll pass by some of California's most iconic sites—the Hollywood Walk of Fame, Universal Studios, the Santa Monica Pier. But if you don't look for it, you may miss the La Brea tar pits—a place where Ice Age life from around 50 thousand years ago got trapped and preserved in sticky black ooze. Visitors can see megafauna, including skeletons of saber tooth cats and dire wolves, along with a vast collection of specimens, including things as small as beetle wings and rodent dung. La Brea was recently named as one of the world's most important geological heritage sites by the International Union of Geological Sciences. The museum is currently planning an extensive redesign that will seek to connect visitors to research, offering lessons about climate, extinction, and survival. Dr. Lori Bettison-Varga, president and director of the Los Angeles Museum of Natural History, joins Ira to explain the significance of the site, and how a trove of Ice Age specimens can serve as a modern-day climate laboratory.   Across The Country, RSV Is Overwhelming Medical Systems If you have a child—or interact with children on a regular basis—odds are you've heard about a very contagious virus: RSV, or respiratory syncytial virus. This isn't a new illness, but it has been surging across the country. This has left parents and caretakers stressed about how to keep their kids safe. Hospitals across the country are having trouble coping with this year's surge, which has come earlier and stronger than normal. This week, Science Friday is spotlighting two regions affected by the wave: Wisconsin and Washington, D.C. The two regions have their own challenges when it comes to the RSV surge. In Wisconsin, care deserts and a large elderly population make containing this virus important to avoid dangerous consequences. In Washington, D.C., hospitals are feeling the effects of years of shutting down pediatric units to make room for adult beds. Joining Ira to talk about RSV in Wisconsin and Washington D.C. are two journalists who have been following this: Jenny Peek, news editor for Wisconsin Public Radio and Aja Drain, reporter at WAMU public radio.   What You Should Know About This RSV Surge Respiratory syncytial virus, known as RSV, is the number one cause of infant hospitalizations in the United States, and cases are soaring this year. Because young children have spent part—if not most—of their childhoods isolated, masking, or staying home due to the pandemic, many of their immune systems haven't been exposed to RSV until now. It's caused a huge surge in cases, and placed a heavy burden on pediatric clinics and hospitals. What do you need to know about the spike in infections? Ira talks with Dr. Carol Kao, a pediatrician and assistant professor at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, who has treated RSV for years. They dig into why this surge is happening now, the basics of the virus, how RSV is treated, and where we stand with an RSV vaccine.   Mapping Brain Connections Reinforces Theories On Human Cognition Brain regions are associated with different functions—the hippocampus is responsible for long-term memory, for example, and the frontal lobe for personality, behavior, and emotions. After decades of research using sophisticated brain imaging, there's a growing consensus among neuroscientists that understanding the connections between brain regions may be even more important than the functions of the regions themselves. When it comes to understanding human cognition, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Ira speaks with Dr. Stephanie Forkel, assistant professor at the Donders Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging at Radboud University in Nijmegen in the Netherlands, who wrote a review article in the journal Science about the importance of brain connectivity, and what it means for the future of neuroscience. Transcripts for each segment will be available the week after the show airs on sciencefriday.com.  

Neural Implant podcast - the people behind Brain-Machine Interface revolutions
Jon Sakai on interacting with your target patients and the neural sleeve made by Cionic

Neural Implant podcast - the people behind Brain-Machine Interface revolutions

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 8, 2022 23:56


Jon Sakai is the Head of Commercialization at Cionic, a wearable neurostimulator sleeve for those with neuromuscular disease ***This podcast is sponsored by Iris Biomedical, check out their Neurotech Startup Services here*** Top 3 Takeaways: "There isn't any individualized training that needs to happen. What needs to happen is the identification of which muscle groups need support and have those turned on and programmed in intensity appropriately." "We were able to improve door sub selection and inversion in more than 90% of our participants." "There's nothing like getting an appreciation for a problem like the acuity of a problem when you just watch someone for five minutes struggle with something that's probably unimaginable if it's a condition that you're not familiar with." 0:45 "Do you want to introduce yourself better than I just did?" 2:45 "There are algorithms that go behind it and it can actually predict how you're walking. How does that work?" 3:45 "Is there a learning process for the algorithms?" 5:00 "Do you guys use hydrogels as well? And how do you have gels inside of your leggings?" 5:45 Iris Biomedical ad sponsorship 6:30 "What kind of improvement is there?" 8:30 How can your algorithm predict the end of a walking cycle before it has started? 9:15 What was it like getting FDA approval? 9:45 What are the next steps for the company after raising your next round of funding? 10:30 How is this going to be sold? In clinics, prescriptions, or normal retail? 11:45 What is Head of Commercialization and how does one get that role? 14:45 "You guys have been around for four years. What do the next four years look like?" 16:30 "What are some big challenges that are facing?" 17:30 "If you had unlimited funding, what would you do?" 18:30 What is some career advice you have? 22:45 " Is there anything that we didn't talk about that you wanted to mention?"

Brain Inspired
BI 152 Michael L. Anderson: After Phrenology: Neural Reuse

Brain Inspired

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 8, 2022 105:11


Support the show to get full episodes and join the Discord community. Michael L. Anderson is a professor at the Rotman Institute of Philosophy, at Western University. His book, After Phrenology: Neural Reuse and the Interactive Brain, calls for a re-conceptualization of how we understand and study brains and minds. Neural reuse is the phenomenon that any given brain area is active for multiple cognitive functions, and partners with different sets of brain areas to carry out different cognitive functions. We discuss the implications for this, and other topics in Michael's research and the book, like evolution, embodied cognition, and Gibsonian perception. Michael also fields guest questions from John Krakauer and Alex Gomez-Marin, about representations and metaphysics, respectively. Michael's website.Twitter: @mljanderson.Book:After Phrenology: Neural Reuse and the Interactive Brain.Related papersNeural reuse: a fundamental organizational principle of the brain.Some dilemmas for an account of neural representation: A reply to Poldrack.Debt-free intelligence: Ecological information in minds and machinesDescribing functional diversity of brain regions and brain networks. 0:00 - Intro 3:02 - After Phrenology 13:18 - Typical neuroscience experiment 16:29 - Neural reuse 18:37 - 4E cognition and representations 22:48 - John Krakauer question 27:38 - Gibsonian perception 36:17 - Autoencoders without representations 49:22 - Pluralism 52:42 - Alex Gomez-Marin question - metaphysics 1:01:26 - Stimulus-response historical neuroscience 1:10:59 - After Phrenology influence 1:19:24 - Origins of neural reuse 1:35:25 - The way forward

The Happy Brain
Addiction MD on Political Correctness

The Happy Brain

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 4, 2022 64:26


Dr. Vera Tarman tells me about the changes that have taken place in her 20 years of treating addiction.If you like The Happy Brain Podcast, please rate and review it to help others make peace with their inner mammal.THE HAPPY BRAIN PODCAST helps you blaze new trails to your dopamine, serotonin, oxytocin, and endorphin. My guests are pioneers in retraining the inner mammal. I love learning from them! Listen in and subscribe so you can turn on your happy chemicals in healthy new ways.Your host, Loretta Breuning PhD, is founder of the Inner Mammal Institute and author of "Habits of a Happy Brain: Retrain your brain to boost your serotonin, dopamine, oxytocin and endorphin levels.” Details at: https://innermammalinstitute.orgLife is more peaceful and satisfying when you understand the brain we've inherited from earlier mammals. Your mammal brain controls the chemicals that make you feel good: dopamine, serotonin, oxytocin, and endorphin. These chemicals are released for reasons that don't make sense to our verbal human brain. When you know what these chemicals do in animals, your ups and downs make sense!Our happy chemicals evolved to reward survival behavior, not to make you feel good all the time. Each happy chemical has a special job. When it turns on, it paves neural pathways that turn it on more easily in the future. That's why we repeat behaviors that we'd rather do without. Fortunately, you can re-wire yourself to stimulate them in sustainable ways.But it's hard. It's like learning a foreign language: it takes a lot of repetition. Yet people do it every day. You can be one of them! You can design a new path to your happy chemicals and repeat it until it's strong enough to turn on easily. The Inner Mammal Institute shows you how.The Inner Mammal Institute has free resources to help you make peace with your inner mammal: videos, blogs, infographics, and podcasts. Dr. Breuning's books explain the big picture and help you plot your course step by step. No matter where you are right now, you can enjoy more happy chemicals in healthy ways. Get the details at https://InnerMammalInstitute.org.Music from Sonatina Soleil by W.M. Sharp. Hear more of it at https://InnerMammalInstitute.org/musicbywmsharp

CryptoNews Podcast
#175: Kadan Stadelmann on The Cosmos Ecosystem and $ATOM Becoming a Top 10 Crypto

CryptoNews Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 3, 2022 40:13


Kadan Stadelmann is a blockchain developer, operations security expert, and Chief Technology Officer of Komodo. Komodo is a leader in blockchain interoperability and atomic swap technology. Its flagship technology and end-user application are AtomicDEX - a mobile and web-compatible non-custodial multi-coin wallet and atomic swap-powered DEX rolled into one dApp. Kadan strongly identifies with Komodo's open-source vision and ideology. His dedication to the Komodo project is founded on an unwavering desire to make the world a better place. In addition to cryptography, blockchain technology, and development, Kadan is interested in literature, mathematics, astrophysics, and traveling.In this conversation, we discuss:- Cosmos ecosystem- $ATOM price prediction- Chance of $ATOM flipping $ETH- Cosmos being quality all around- Cosmos becoming a major player in the DeFi space- Achieving total blockchain interoperability on Cosmos- EVM-compatible blockchains- Paying fees on your own token- CosmoVerse in Medellín- Neural interfaces- Komodo HD wallet + hardware wallet KomodoWebsite: komodoplatform.comTwitter: @KomodoPlatformDiscord: komodoplatform.com/discordKadan StadelmannTwitter: @0xca333LinkedIn: Kadan Stadelmann ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------  This episode is brought to you by PrimeXBT.  PrimeXBT offers a robust trading system for both beginners and professional traders that demand highly reliable market data and performance. Traders of all experience levels can easily design and customize layouts and widgets to best fit their trading style. PrimeXBT is always offering innovative products and professional trading conditions to all customers.  PrimeXBT is running an exclusive promotion for listeners of the podcast. After making your first deposit, 50% of that first deposit will be credited to your account as a bonus that can be used as additional collateral to open positions.  Code: CRYPTONEWS50  This promotion is available for a month after activation. Click the link below:  PrimeXBT x CRYPTONEWS50

Quick Charge
Quick Charge Podcast: October 24, 2022

Quick Charge

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 25, 2022 8:43


Listen to a recap of the top stories of the day from Electrek. Quick Charge is available now on Apple Podcasts, Spotify, TuneIn and our RSS feed for Overcast and other podcast players. New episodes of Quick Charge are recorded Monday through Thursday and again on Saturday. Subscribe to our podcast in Apple Podcast or your favorite podcast player to guarantee new episodes are delivered as soon as they're available. Stories we discuss in this episode (with links): Tesla (TSLA) pulls demand levers in China, launches referral program and cuts prices Tesla releases software update with improved charging efficiency and more 2023 Kia Niro EV price announced – starts at $39,450, available this month Ford CEO shares F-150 Lightning's official 0-60 mph under 4-seconds, faster than originally promised Toyota struggles with EV shift, considers changing plans due to Tesla Rivian (RIVN)halts powered tonneau cover production to redesign it (U: statement) XPeng 1024 Tech Day 2022 recap: Neural net autonomous driving, robotaxis, and ‘flying car' footage https://youtu.be/TMX0XNoVqyg var postYoutubePlayer;function onYouTubeIframeAPIReady() { postYoutubePlayer = new YT.Player( "post-youtube-video" ); } Subscribe to the Electrek Daily Channel on Youtube so you never miss a day of news Follow Mikey: Twitter @Mikey_Electric Listen & Subscribe: Apple Podcasts Spotify TuneIn Share your thoughts! Drop us a line at tips@electrek.co. You can also rate us in Apple Podcasts or recommend us in Overcast to help more people discover the show!

14 Waves
Mixtape 80: Neural Net Overload

14 Waves

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 25, 2022 103:18


Semsis – “Letting Go”, 1999. Slinky Wizard – “People Like Us (Polenski Mix)”, 1998. Numb – “Desire (Protean)”, 1998. Genetic – “Lexus”, 1998. Grouch – “Monster”, 2011. X-Dream – “Psychomachine”, 1998. Orange Sector – “Body Control”, 1998. Pitch Black – “Ape to Angel (System Seven Remix)”, 2006. SBK – “Borderline”, 2004. Eon Project – “Intra Neutral Power”, 1998. Noise Unit – “Fargo Field”, 2021. LOUISAHHH – “Chaos (Wax Wings Remix)”, 2021. Statiqbloom – “Capacity of Brutality”, 2022. Chris Liebing and Speedy J – “Tunox”, 2005. Digital Poodle – “Head of Lenin (New Republik Mix)”, 1994. Brixx – “Shock of the New”, 2021. Front Line Assembly – “Comatose (Grisha Mix)”, 1998. Individual Totem – “Paradoxon (Grade 2)”, 1997. Massiv In Mensch – “In Zeiten Wie Diesen”, 2001. Metal Spark – “Corrosive”, 1998. X Marks the Pedwalk – “Maximum Pace”, 1996. Crystal Geometry – “Guillotine”, 2021. B.T.H. – “Incredible News to Access”, 1997. Website link: https://skullandcrossfades.com/neural-net-overload

The Happy Brain
A Dating and Supply Chain Entrepreneur!

The Happy Brain

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 21, 2022 56:58


Adam Lyons has applied the inner mammal method to his many businesses, from dating coach to supply chain consultant, with great results!If you like The Happy Brain Podcast, please rate and review it to help others make peace with their inner mammal.THE HAPPY BRAIN PODCAST helps you blaze new trails to your dopamine, serotonin, oxytocin, and endorphin. My guests are pioneers in retraining the inner mammal. I love learning from them! Listen in and subscribe so you can turn on your happy chemicals in healthy new ways.Your host, Loretta Breuning PhD, is founder of the Inner Mammal Institute and author of "Habits of a Happy Brain: Retrain your brain to boost your serotonin, dopamine, oxytocin and endorphin levels.” Details at: https://innermammalinstitute.orgLife is more peaceful and satisfying when you understand the brain we've inherited from earlier mammals. Your mammal brain controls the chemicals that make you feel good: dopamine, serotonin, oxytocin, and endorphin. These chemicals are released for reasons that don't make sense to our verbal human brain. When you know what these chemicals do in animals, your ups and downs make sense!Our happy chemicals evolved to reward survival behavior, not to make you feel good all the time. Each happy chemical has a special job. When it turns on, it paves neural pathways that turn it on more easily in the future. That's why we repeat behaviors that we'd rather do without. Fortunately, you can re-wire yourself to stimulate them in sustainable ways.But it's hard. It's like learning a foreign language: it takes a lot of repetition. Yet people do it every day. You can be one of them! You can design a new path to your happy chemicals and repeat it until it's strong enough to turn on easily. The Inner Mammal Institute shows you how.The Inner Mammal Institute has free resources to help you make peace with your inner mammal: videos, blogs, infographics, and podcasts. Dr. Breuning's books explain the big picture and help you plot your course step by step. No matter where you are right now, you can enjoy more happy chemicals in healthy ways. Get the details at https://InnerMammalInstitute.org.Music from Sonatina Soleil by W.M. Sharp. Hear more of it at https://InnerMammalInstitute.org/musicbywmsharp

The New P&L - Principles & Leadership in Business
The New P&L speaks to Dominick Romano, Founder & CEO of Neural Processing Start-up, Drainpipe.io

The New P&L - Principles & Leadership in Business

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 21, 2022 47:49


This week on The New P&L we speak to Dominick Romano, founder and CEO of Drainpipe – a neural processing start-up founded in 2020 to address the need to represent any form of multi-media and relationship in an ‘infinite-continuous' space for long term data storage and effective compression into weighted symbolic parameters. Drainpipe is an operating system which essentially acts as the ‘QuickBooks' of a company's digital footprint. Dominick is a serial tech entrepreneur, launching a Digital Advertising agency while was in Middle School, before becoming a Video Game Develop, a Software Engineer and then launching PremiumCPM - another digital advertising agency that he scaled into one of the world's Top 100 Programmatic Advertising Companies. To learn more about Drainpipe, go to www.drainpipe.io If you'd like to join The New P&L movement for more principled leadership and more purpose-led business and keep up to date with all our latest news, go to www.principlesandleadership.com and subscribe. Twitter: @TheNewPandL Insta: @principlesandleadership LinkedIn page: Principlesandleadership --- Send in a voice message: https://anchor.fm/principlesandleadership/message Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/principlesandleadership/support

The Happy Brain
Tribe Sober

The Happy Brain

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 7, 2022 44:32


Janet Gourand helps people stimulate their dopamine, serotonin, oxytocin, and endorphin after they give up alcohol (TribeSober.com).If you like The Happy Brain Podcast, please rate and review it to help others make peace with their inner mammal.THE HAPPY BRAIN PODCAST helps you blaze new trails to your dopamine, serotonin, oxytocin, and endorphin. My guests are pioneers in retraining the inner mammal. I love learning from them! Listen in and subscribe so you can turn on your happy chemicals in healthy new ways.Your host, Loretta Breuning PhD, is founder of the Inner Mammal Institute and author of "Habits of a Happy Brain: Retrain your brain to boost your serotonin, dopamine, oxytocin and endorphin levels.” Details at: https://innermammalinstitute.orgLife is more peaceful and satisfying when you understand the brain we've inherited from earlier mammals. Your mammal brain controls the chemicals that make you feel good: dopamine, serotonin, oxytocin, and endorphin. These chemicals are released for reasons that don't make sense to our verbal human brain. When you know what these chemicals do in animals, your ups and downs make sense!Our happy chemicals evolved to reward survival behavior, not to make you feel good all the time. Each happy chemical has a special job. When it turns on, it paves neural pathways that turn it on more easily in the future. That's why we repeat behaviors that we'd rather do without. Fortunately, you can re-wire yourself to stimulate them in sustainable ways.But it's hard. It's like learning a foreign language: it takes a lot of repetition. Yet people do it every day. You can be one of them! You can design a new path to your happy chemicals and repeat it until it's strong enough to turn on easily. The Inner Mammal Institute shows you how.The Inner Mammal Institute has free resources to help you make peace with your inner mammal: videos, blogs, infographics, and podcasts. Dr. Breuning's books explain the big picture and help you plot your course step by step. No matter where you are right now, you can enjoy more happy chemicals in healthy ways. Get the details at https://InnerMammalInstitute.org.Music from Sonatina Soleil by W.M. Sharp. Hear more of it at https://InnerMammalInstitute.org/musicbywmsharp