Nita Farahany (@NitaFarahany) is a law professor at Duke University; a leading expert on the ethical, legal, and social implications of emerging technologies; and the author of The Battle for Your Brain: Defending the Right to Think Freely in the Age of Neurotechnology. What We Discuss with Nita Farahany: Consumer technology that can track, decode, and even manipulate what goes on in the brain is no longer just a plot device in some far-flung sci-fi novel — it's already beginning to come to market. An ALS patient recently set a record for communicating through a brain implant at 62 words per minute (in comparison, ALS-afflicted physicist Stephen Hawking was only able to communicate at about 15 words per minute by the time of his death in 2018). Though still in its infancy, consciously transmitted brain-to-brain communication has proven successful in the laboratory. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans can accurately sense political bias from subjects' unconscious thoughts. Brain scans reveal that a significant percentage of coma patients who can't speak or move are aware of the world around them and can communicate through electroencephalogram (EEG) sensors. And much more... Full show notes and resources can be found here: jordanharbinger.com/810 This Episode Is Brought To You By Our Fine Sponsors: jordanharbinger.com/deals Sign up for Six-Minute Networking — our free networking and relationship development mini course — at jordanharbinger.com/course! Like this show? Please leave us a review here — even one sentence helps! Consider including your Twitter handle so we can thank you personally!
Episode: 2883 A dead salmon points the way to better brain imaging. Today, outrageous research.
A libido-enhancing therapy did different things to the women and men who watched erotic videos in an fMRI machine, while a promising birth control drug for men ticks all the right boxes (and none of the scary ones).
Angela Stanton Angela A Stanton, PhD has earned her doctorate in NeuroEconomics (experimental neuroscience using economic models) and is also fMRI certified, having earned the following degrees: PhD Claremont Graduate University in Economics with dissertation in neuroscience; fMRI certification at Harvard University, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging; MS in Management Science & Engineering, Stanford University; MBA at University of California, Riverside; BSc Mathematics, UCLA. Her doctoral research focused on understanding how human decision-making is influenced by neurotransmitter changes. She ran clinical trial experiments, gaining an appreciation of the role hormones play in emotional and physiological decisions. A lifelong migraine sufferer, in 2008 she took early retirement from her academic position and has been an avid researcher in the field of migraines. Her efforts of understanding the cause of migraines have been assisted by thousands of migraine sufferers around the world. In 2014 she published the first, and in 2017 the second edition, of the book (Fighting The Migraine Epidemic: Complete Guide. How to Treat & Prevent Migraines Without Medicines) that established her as a leader in the field of migraine research based on nutrition and electrolyte management. She now teaches migraine sufferers and healthcare providers all over the world about how to abort and prevent migraines without any medicine. Angela's Top Tips Migraine is not a disease - don't consider it as a disease. Every time you feel a headache consider whether it is a migraine or not and you need to be able to distinguish if it is a migraine or a headache. Always consider what you ate - what causes the electrolyte imbalance? Angela's Book Fighting The Migraine Epidemic: A Complete Guide: How To Treat & Prevent Migraines Without Medicine - Angela A Stanton Ph.D https://amzn.to/3S1lQmc Resources Mentioned The Big Fat Surprise - Nina Teicholz Wheat Belly - William Davis MD Grain Brain - Dr David Perlmutter Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Quotes by Angela Stanton “A misconception is that migraine is a pulsating, throbbing headache, it's not..” “Your body wants to heal and if you remove the symptoms then the symptoms will become stronger.” “There is only one reason for a migraine for everyone. It is always going to be associated with what is potentially causing an electrolyte imbalance.” “Migraineurs still have these heightened sensory organs. We simply haven't adapted the same way as the people who don't have migraines.” “You are a migraineur because you live in an environment that is not appropriately prepared for your adaptation.” “If you are able to avert the early morning migraine, which is when the majority of the migraines start, then you have averted more than 50% of migraines.” “Migraineurs excrete 50% more sodium than non migraineurs.” Connect with Angela Stanton on social media Twitter: https://twitter.com/MigraineBook Facebook Profile: https://www.facebook.com/AngelaAStantonPhD Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/DrAngelaAStanton/ Facebook Group: https://www.facebook.com/groups/MigraineSufferers Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/drangelastanton/ LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/angelaastantonphd/ Website Details: https://stantonmigraineprotocol.com/ https://www.stantonmigraineprotocol.org/ https://migraine-book.com/ The Fabulously Keto Diet & Lifestyle Journal: A 12-week journal to support new habits – Jackie Fletcher If you have enjoyed listening to this episode - Leave us a review By leaving us a review on your favourite podcast platform, you help us to be found by others. Support us on Patreon Help Jackie and Louise make more episodes by supporting them on Patreon:https://www.patreon.com/FabulouslyKeto Connect with us on social media https://www.facebook.com/FabulouslyKeto https://www.instagram.com/FabulouslyKeto1 https://twitter.com/FabulouslyKeto Facebook Group: https://www.facebook.com/groups/FabulouslyKeto Music by Bob Collum Recommend a guest We would love to know if you have a favourite guest you would like us to interview. Let us know who you would like to hear of if you have a particular topic you would like us to cover. https://fabulouslyketo.com/recommend-a-guest We sometimes get a small commission on some of the links, this goes towards the costs of producing the podcast.
This week Adam and Faith are about to get ‘Jolted' by Alayar Kangarlu, an associate professor of neurobiology who has also been working in the field of MRI research and development since the 90s. More recently, Alayar has been focused on a therapeutic procedure called PrTMS which uses an fMRI scan to locate areas of the brain that are not working correctly and sends signals to help ‘jolt' the brain back into working order. Faith and Adam pepper Alayar with questions like: Can this treatment change your personality? What is happiness? Is this just for patients on the spectrum (like autism) or can someone who is depressed utilize the treatment? How close are we to mainstreaming this type of therapy? Find out the answers on this week's Jolty! Interested in finding more about neurotherapy? Visit Dr. Kangarlu's website: https://neurotherapeutixnyc.com/
Systems neuroscience aims to understand how brain cells and circuits are organized to produce behavior in living organisms. Julio Martinez-Trujillo, M.D., Ph.D., shares his research studying how neurons interact with one another and other cell types within a circuit during ex vivo and in vivo conditions. He also looks to the future and discusses how stem cell technologies can provide unique access to study human circuits and new insights into the nervous system. Series: "Stem Cell Channel" [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 38322]
Systems neuroscience aims to understand how brain cells and circuits are organized to produce behavior in living organisms. Julio Martinez-Trujillo, M.D., Ph.D., shares his research studying how neurons interact with one another and other cell types within a circuit during ex vivo and in vivo conditions. He also looks to the future and discusses how stem cell technologies can provide unique access to study human circuits and new insights into the nervous system. Series: "Stem Cell Channel" [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 38322]
There are actually 5 drivers of resilience; optimism, self compassion, cognitive agility, self efficacy and emotional regulation. We dive deep into each of these components and how they play a part in being resilient, with our guest Gabriella Rosen Kellerman MD. Gabriella is a medical doctor and behavioral science researcher with training in psychiatry and fMRI research. She currently works as Chief Product Officer at BetterUp – a company focused on employee wellbeing. But today's episode is dedicated to talking about her latest venture - co-writing a new book with none other than the “the father of positive psychology” Martin SeligmanPhD. Their book, Tomorrowmind: Thriving at Work with Resilience, Creativity, and Connection―Now and in an Uncertain Future is a hopeful look at how to flourish in an uncertain world. By capitalizing on a Tomorrowmind, we can utilize the universal psychological skills for thriving in an uncertain future: resilience and cognitive agility; mattering and purpose; rapid rapport for social support; prospection; and creativity and innovation (PRISM). Join our insightful and thoughtful conversation with Gabriella to learn how we can adopt a tomorrowmind. And then stick around for our Grooving Session where Tim discusses the part of the interview that sent chills up his spine, and Kurt gets philosophical about what it means to be optimistic. Topics (3:24) Welcome and speed round questions. (5:58) What is a Tomorrowmind? (7:26) Why are creativity and prospection superpowers? (10:05) The phases of prospective thinking. (13:11) Why the right answer can be to ask a different question. (15:45) What is positivity resonance and why does it matter? (21:32) What are the consequences of time famine on connection? (23:17) A story of resilience - Aggie Dunn of Heinz. (26:55) What exactly does it mean to be resilient? (29:31) How does self compassion play a part in resilience? (31:53) The 5 building blocks of resilience. (34:40) Writing a book with Martin Seligman. (36:56) What music does Gabriella listen to at home? (39:40) Grooving Session with Tim and Kurt on Tomorrowmind. Links Tomorrowmind: Thriving at Work with Resilience, Creativity, and Connection―Now and in an Uncertain Future: https://amzn.to/3jnu9Mt Episode 31, Leaving the Matrix: Annie Duke and Insights into how you can improve your thinking! https://behavioralgrooves.com/episode/leaving-the-matrix-annie-duke-and-insights-into-how-you-can-improve-your-thinking/ Episode 225, Behind NOISE and Beyond The Book: Linnea Gandhi Shares her New Course on Noise: https://behavioralgrooves.com/episode/behind-noise-linnea-gandhi/ Episode 283, Is The Anus Really The Key To All Intelligent Life? | Henry Gee: https://behavioralgrooves.com/episode/anus-the-key-to-intelligent-life/ Growth After Trauma by Richard G. Tedeschi: https://hbr.org/2020/07/growth-after-trauma Episode 214, Observing the Non-Obvious: How to Spot Trends Around You with Rohit Bhargava: https://behavioralgrooves.com/episode/the-non-obvious-rohit-bhargava/ Musical Links Nickel creek “Reasons Why”: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lyZQB1H_Zw Bach “Piano Concerto in D Minor”: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A_yGiFHbQR0 Pharrell Williams “Happy”: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZbZSe6N_BXs
Dr. Aaron Weiner, Ph.D., ABPP is a board-certified Psychologist and addiction specialist and speaks nationally on the topics of addiction, behavioral health, and the impact of drug policy on public health. His perspective is informed by years of experience growing and directing addiction service lines for hospitals and healthcare systems, the current state of medical and psychological research, and his own observations in private practice. In this episode. Dr. Aaron talks about process addictions and how they differ from substance addictions. TAKEAWAYS: [1:40] A little bit about Dr. Aaron and his career. [4:10] Addictions and addictive behaviors are very misunderstood. [7:00] Why do these ‘non-substance' addictions exist? [9:10] Sexual content is so easily accessible. [10:50] Social media apps want to be addicting. Dr. Aaron ran an experiment and moved his icons around so that he wouldn't click on the same addictive apps over and over again. [13:00] How do I know if I have a process addiction? [16:00] It's easy to lie to yourself to avoid the discomfort or the consequences of your actions. [18:10] There is a normalization in process behaviors. People want you to ‘binge' on movies or ‘be addicted' to video games. [22:55] Insurance companies will pay for food-eating disorders but won't consider a gaming disorder. [25:40] What is an FMRI? [27:30] A lot of therapists like to pretend the body doesn't exist from the neck down. Dr. Aaron explains what he means. [29:50] An addiction forms because the person is just trying to find some way for peace and stability. RESOURCES: Sex and Relationship Healing @RobWeissMSW Sex Addiction 101 Seeking Integrity Cruise Control: Understanding Sex Addiction in Gay Men Prodependence: Moving Beyond Codependency Out of the Doghouse by Robert Weiss Weinerphd.com Dr. Aaron on LinkedIn QUOTES: “Someone's life can be completely bulldozed by an addiction that has nothing to do with a chemical you put in your body.” “When it comes to process addictions and where we draw the line unless we're having an anger point with consequences, it's societally defined.” “You can see when brains change when someone is compulsive vs. not. It's very clear that the brain works differently when someone is addicted.” “I view addictive behaviors simply as overgrown or malignant coping mechanisms.”
American Journal of Psychiatry Audio
This episode of AJP Audio features two articles from the February issue of AJP. First up, we have Nathaniel G. Harnett, Ph.D. (Harvard Medical School), discussing the impact of adversity and stress on racial disparities in childhood brain development among Black and White American children. Following that, Ziv Ben-Zion, Ph.D. (Yale University), discusses a non-exact replication study of a study published in AJP by Stevens et al. (previously featured on AJP Audio) looking at brain-based biotypes to guide treatment following trauma. And of course, we'll check in with AJP Editor-in-Chief Dr. Ned Kalin about the rest of the February issue and how it all fits together. Transcript Harnett interview [01:05] How do less tangible factors like trauma, stress, and exposure to violence impact brain development? [03:07] What do you mean by toxic stress? [04:41] Why did you choose to focus on those regions of the brain? [06:01] Regional variability and privacy concerns [07:50] Limitations [09:11] Future research [10:59] Children and the limited control of their environment [12:10] Ben-Zion interview [13:39] Challenges of running a non-exact replication study [15:12] Limitations [18:35] Should researchers consider replication in study design? [21:26] Future research [24:24] Kalin interview [27:46] Dumornay et al. [28:08] Baldwin et al. [30:02] Cleary et al. [31:38] Ben-Zion et al. [34:15] Hien et al. [37:08] Be sure to let your colleagues know about the podcast, and please rate and review it on Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, Stitcher, Spotify, or wherever you listen to it. Subscribe to the podcast here. Listen to other podcasts produced by the American Psychiatric Association. Browse articles online. How authors may submit their work. Follow the journals of APA Publishing on Twitter. E-mail us at email@example.com
Win Today with Christopher Cook
Today's conversation discusses why resilience is not a quick fix, how to develop cognitive agility, and anti-fragility, the power of daydreaming, and how to grow after trauma. Joining us is Dr. Gabriella Kellerman, our guest, who has served as chief product officer and chief innovation officer at BetterUp, founding CEO of LifeLink, and an advisor to healthcare, coaching, and behavior change technology companies. Trained in psychiatry and fMRI research, she holds an MD with honors from Mount Sinai School of Medicine and a BA summa cum laude from Harvard University. Her work has been published and featured in The Atlantic Online, Harvard Business Review, Inc., Forbes, and many more. Suffice it to say, her expertise in today's conversation is sure to add value to you. Dive Deeper: If you enjoy this episode with Gabriella, I'm sure you'll also enjoy the following: 319: Dr. Alison Cook on The Cocktail of Codependency, Learning Surrender, and the Dysfunction of Spiritual Bypassing 320: Dr. Casey Halpern on Understanding the Roots of OCD and Compulsive Behaviors and How They Relate to Anxiety and Trauma ++++++ Episode Links: Gabriella's Website | Twitter | Buy Gabriella's new book on Amazon! Subscribe to #WinTodayShow on YouTube. Join the conversation wherever hashtags are welcome using #WinTodayShow. Get the "Win the Week" email newsletter here. ************************** This week's show partners: Get LMNT and a free gift with your purchase here! Save 25% on the Abide Sleep and Pray Meditation app. Text WIN to 22433 **************************
You can wear an Oura ring or a WHOOP armband to tell you how your body is adapting to exercise. A continuous glucose monitor can send your phone information about your blood sugar levels are changing. And during the pandemic, a lot of people bought home pulse oximeters to monitor their blood oxygenation levels. But there's one part of the body where home health sensors haven't reached yet, and that's our brains. They're protected inside our thick skulls, which means it's pretty hard to measure what's going on in there. Until recently, the only real instruments available to doctors and neuroscientists were big hospital-based machines like X-Rays, CT-scans, EEGs, and MRIs.But that might finally be changing. Harry's guest this week is Ryan Field, chief technology officer at Kernel. The vision of the L.A.-based company is to develop a consumer device that would work like a pulse oximeter, but for your brain. The first version, Kernel Flow, is shaped like a bicycle helmet, and it contains more than 50 low-power lasers that beam light through your scalp into your skull, into the outermost layers of your brain. Hundreds of detectors built in the helmet collect the light that's scattered back to determine oxygen levels in the brain's blood supply, which is an indirect measure of neural activity.Field says the company isn't yet targeting specific consumer applications for the Kernel Flow. But it's already using the device in early studies designed to measure a user's level of focus on a specific task, or how their brain activity changes in response to pain therapy or psychedelic drugs. Field says what Kernel has done is sort of like building the very first iPhone -- but if the only app the device came with was Maps. Now it's up to developers to figure out what else to do with it.For a full transcript of this episode, please visit our episode page at http://www.glorikian.com/podcast Please rate and review The Harry Glorikian Show on Apple Podcasts! Here's how to do that from an iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch:1. Open the Podcasts app on your iPhone, iPad, or Mac. 2. Navigate to The Harry Glorikian Show podcast. You can find it by searching for it or selecting it from your library. Just note that you'll have to go to the series page which shows all the episodes, not just the page for a single episode.3. Scroll down to find the subhead titled "Ratings & Reviews."4. Under one of the highlighted reviews, select "Write a Review."5. Next, select a star rating at the top — you have the option of choosing between one and five stars. 6. Using the text box at the top, write a title for your review. Then, in the lower text box, write your review. Your review can be up to 300 words long.7. Once you've finished, select "Send" or "Save" in the top-right corner. 8. If you've never left a podcast review before, enter a nickname. Your nickname will be displayed next to any reviews you leave from here on out. 9. After selecting a nickname, tap OK. Your review may not be immediately visible.That's it! Thanks so much.
Interior Integration for Catholics
Summary In this episode, Dr. Peter reviews the limitations of current Catholic resources on anger, and then reviews secular resources, including interpersonal neurobiology and the structural theory of dissociation. We examine the role of the body in anger responses, and discuss more wholistic ways of working constructive with parts that experience anger, rather than trying to dismiss anger, suppress it or distract from it. Lead-in William Blake, A Poison Tree: I was angry with my friends; I told my wrath, my wrath did end. I was angry with my foe: I told it not, my wrath did grow. We've all experienced anger and we've all experienced angry people We know it's a problem. And global data suggest that it's getting worse. Gallup world poll from 2021: 140 countries Did you experience the following feelings during a lot of the day yesterday? How about anger? 17% of US respondents agreed 26% of women worldwide up from 20% from 10 years ago 20% of men -- flat from 10 years ago. Harm can come from anger Mark Twain “Anger is an acid that can do more harm to the vessel in which it is stored than to anything on which it is poured.” CCC 2302 By recalling the commandment, "You shall not kill," our Lord asked for peace of heart and denounced murderous anger and hatred as immoral. Anger is a desire for revenge. "To desire vengeance in order to do evil to someone who should be punished is illicit," but it is praiseworthy to impose restitution "to correct vices and maintain justice." If anger reaches the point of a deliberate desire to kill or seriously wound a neighbor, it is gravely against charity; it is a mortal sin. The Lord says, "Everyone who is angry with his brother shall be liable to judgment." "Everyone who is angry with his brother shall be liable to judgment." And who hasn't been angry -- including Jesus himself?. We have got to unpack this There is so much misunderstanding about anger in the Catholic world, so much of the way that Catholics have approached anger has been limited, misinformed, and misguided When I think about why the Catholic Church in the US, in Canada, in Europe and Australia, in the entire Western World, there are many factors. Brandon Vogt New Stats on Why Young People Leave the Church based on his book Return: How to Draw Your Child Back to the Church One critical factor is that cradle Catholics, especially young Catholics do not believe that the Church can help them with their problems. Diocese of Springfield Exit Surveys (2014) 68% – Spiritual needs not met67% – Lost interest over time Only 7% of Millennials raised Catholic still actively practice their faith today (weekly Mass, pray a few times each week, say their faith is “extremely” or “very” important) 6.5 people leave the Catholic Church for every one that joins 66% of “nones” agree that “religion causes more problems than it solves” That's why so many fall away from the Faith. The Church doesn't seem relevant to them because she doesn't seem like she has the answers to the real issues they face. 10% of American adults are former Catholics Nearly half of those who fall away from the Church become "nones" And another quarter become Evangelical Christians. 79% of former Catholics leave the Church before age 23. 50% of Millennials raised Catholic no longer identify as Catholic today And it's about topics like anger -- we are not doing a good job meeting the needs that Catholics have today, human formation needs. Intro I am Dr. Peter Malinoski, a.k.a. Dr. Peter, clinical psychologist, trauma therapist, podcaster, blogger, cofounder and president of Souls and Hearts -- but most of all I am a beloved little son of God, a passionate Catholic who wants to help you to taste and see the height and depth and breadth and warmth and the light of the love of God, especially God the Father and Mary our Mother, our spiritual parents, our primary parents. To really absorb your identity as a little child of God and Mary. I want you to enter much more deeply into an intimate, personal, loving relationship with the three Persons of the Trinity and with our Lady. That is what this Interior Integration for Catholics podcast is all about, that is what Souls and Hearts is all about – all about shoring up the natural foundation for the spiritual life of intimacy with God, all about overcoming the natural human formation deficits and obstacles to contemplative union with God our Father and our Lady, our Mother We are on an adventure of love together. And one thing, one major, big, huge thing that gets in the way of being loved by God and Mary and loving in return is anger. Anger. This is Episode 103 of Interior Integration for Catholics. Interior Integration for Catholics is part of Souls and Hearts, our online outreach, check us out at soulsandhearts.com. Anger: one of the seven deadly sins, one the lethal vices that can kill your soul. Anger. So much confusion about anger. The Burden of Anger: June 10, 2021 Catholic-daily-reflections.com The first level of sin is simply to be “angry” interiorly. The sin of anger is an interior attitude of disgust toward another. Jesus says that the consequence of having anger toward another is that you will be “liable to judgment.” Humility. I could be wrong. The offerings from Five Catholic writers on anger are a case in point. The most popular book Fr. T.G. Morrow, Overcoming Sinful Anger 303 Amazon Review, mostly positive, #16 on the list of bestsellers in Catholic Theology, put out by Sophia Press in 2015 And it's not very good. I can't recommend it. First off, Fr. Morrow admits that he doesn't understand why people get angry We've all encountered people who explode when they feel angry. It baffles me how often the sort of anger rears its ugly head in marriages – even in allegedly Christian marriages. (p. 9). I am often surprised to discover Christians who pray ardently, receive the sacraments regularly, we've and attend Mass daily, and yet have an anger problem. (p. 10) Presumes a homogeneous, single personality. Easy to explain with part. Why do people explode in anger? There are many reasons, but I think the top three are power and control, a refusal to take responsibility, and habit. (p. 13). Very simplistic view of psychology, and no consideration of neurology, traumatology, Confusion about the causal chain in anger. Where anger fits in a sequence of events Little genuine interest in anger. Anger is something to essentially get rid of. Not much consideration of the unconscious and unconscious anger. Acknowledges that suppressing anger is problematic, but there still is an assumption that if I'm not feeling anger, it's not there. Disconnect. "Irrational anger" Very focused on the will and will training -- naïve assumptions about sympathetic arousal. Nike Spirituality -- Just do it. Romans 7:15: I do not understand my own actions. For I do not do what I want, but I do the very thing I hate. Spiritual Bypassing Definitions John Welwood: American clinical psychologist, psychotherapist, teacher, and author, known for integrating psychological and spiritual concepts Using “spiritual ideas, words and practices to sidestep or avoid personal, emotional ‘unfinished business,' to shore up a shaky sense of self, or to belittle basic needs, feelings, psychological wounds and developmental tasks.” Blogger Rose Hahn: Spiritual Bypassing: What It Is & How To Avoid It Bypassing occurs when spiritual ideals get elevated to the realm of absolute truth in such a way that our real, lived experience is somehow denied. Rather than doing the work of healing deep wounds, we may use these ideals to deny, devalue, or avoid meeting our more human needs – such as emotional bonding, love, and esteem. In other words, rather than risk opening ourselves to real human connection, and possibly get hurt, we adopt a more enlightened, spiritual way of relating to the world that doesn't rely on human relationship. Not a lot from a specifically Catholic perspective, but this is from Katharina, who styles herself "The Bohemian Catholic" We are supposed to uplift each other, and treat each other with love and respect - like icons of Christ, as God's creation… BUT if you find yourself trying to tell someone that their faith should keep them "happy" all the time, then you aren't helping them. Using spiritual words, spiritual means, spiritual concepts -- all to whitewash or put a Band-Aid on significant psychological or emotional problems in the natural realm Bypassing the natural realm and going to the spiritual realm. Essentially saying -- You should not feel this way. Which is what Fr. Morrow is saying. He promises to "I will offer some ideas, which I consider quite novel, on how to avoid angry explosions." (p.4) Tips So, as a first step in overcoming passive-aggressive anger keep reminding yourself that you want to be a Christian, and therefore you can't take revenge anymore. (p. 9). First, take the time to calm down and figure out why you're angry…. One of the tactics often recommended is to count to ten before deciding what to do. (p. 20). Better still, say a short prayer before acting. The next step is to ask yourself if your angry feeling is been caused by something significant. Most angry fights in marriage are caused by trifling things. (p. 20). Or perhaps use humor to make your point.(p. 20). Offering your angry feeling as a sacrifice is not suppressing it but doing something with it. It is making a bad situation into a beneficial one. That is what it means to embrace the cross. (p. 23-24). If we can forgive others, we can pull the rug out from beneath our anger most of the time. Unforgiveness is the main culprit behind anger. (p. 25). … Refocus your thoughts away from the things that made you angry to some very positive thoughts. For example, thank God for the beautiful weather for the ability to read or buy things you need. (p. 30). I often encourage people with an anger problem to daily for humility. It works. (p. 36). Chapter 7: Thanking God, praising God Consider your future. One key way to change her behaviors to work on in your mind just what your life will be like if you don't change your angry behavior. (pp. 72-73) If you struggle with an anger problem write on an index card all the negatives of continuing your anger and read that list several times a day. (p. 74). Fr. Joseph Esper, Saintly Solutions to Life's Common Problems 99 reviews on amazon. #138 in Roman Catholicism. 2001 Book -- First Chapter is on anger. St. Thomas of Villanova: "Dismiss all anger and look into yourself a little." (p. 7) "St. Francis de Sales advises that, to avoid the sin of anger, you must quickly ask God to give peace to your heart when you're angered and then turn your thoughts to something else. Don't discuss the matter at hand or make decisions or correct other person while you're angry. When a person angers you, St. Francis advises, consider the person's good qualities rather than the words or actions you find objectionable." (p. 7) When we have to speak to someone with whom we are angry, we should first pray for the Lord's guidance and help. It's often more effective to speak in terms of asking favors, rather than making demands or giving orders…" (p. 5-6) ...rehearse possible responses and evaluate which ones which might help you. (p. 7) Tommy Tighe St. Dymphna's Playbook: A Catholic Guide to Finding Mental and Emotional Well-Being 2021 book, #57 in Christian Pastoral Counseling, 66 reviews, mostly positive. Doesn't discuss anger. Discusses irritability as a symptom of depression and resentment as a problem in relationships "However, the more I have experienced depression in my own life and in my work as a clinician, the more I have seen the symptoms of irritability and anger is predominant features of depression." (p. 13). That's one way, not the only way. So often depression results from Recommendations "…go for a walk, take some time to meditate, watch or read something that lightens our mood. (p. 13) "Keeping a diary of our emotions and reactions to those emotions is a great place to start… Look back on a situation, slow it down, and examine what exactly happened….We might ask ourselves: What is it that has led to my irritability? Is it because I'm depressed and trying to stuff that feeling down rather than address it? What am I thinking in that situation? (p. 15). "We draw this all out on paper, examine what was really behind our emotional response, and then explore ways of thinking that will restructure our reactions and response. And we write these down! Simply thinking about these things isn't going to help. The whole point is to get them out of our head and onto paper so that we can work them out. Consider it an emotional "show your work" kind of exercise." (p. 15). Then, after a really brief introspective process, we can catch that the real reason for our irritability is our depressed mood, and we can interject coping skills for depression to stave off our irritability. (p. 16). Changing the focus of our thinking is key when we try to battle against depression and irritability that inevitably rears its ugly head. You've probably heard people suggest keeping a gratitude list to help you feel more positive, much along the same lines as St. Paul's advice. It works. (p. 18). Steps in the process Visualize yourself from the perspective of compassionate observer. Notice from the outside whole feelings xare upsetting you and how they are reflected in your appearance. Try to let the warm feeling of compassion and desire to help arise within you. Say to yourself: "It is understandable that you feel that way. You are experiencing a natural response to depressing thoughts. But I'm going to help you." Visualize putting your hand on your shoulder or hugging yourself to soothe and comfort yourself. Give yourself a friendly smile. Think about if there are other things you want to tell yourself that would energize and encourage you to cheer up. Taking time to say those things. When you feel it is appropriate, begin saying goodbye to yourself and remind yourself that you come back anytime you want. (p. 16-17). For resentment: Active listening Tommy Tighe: to fend off resentment, we have to communicate with things are important to us and why. We can't expect our partner to read her mind. We have to tell them the things we value, what things we have grown to expect in relationships because of our past experiences and we have to tell them why. (p 113) Rhonda Chevrin Taming the Lion Within: 5 Steps from Anger to Peace 2017 16 ratings is a Catholic author, international speaker and Professor of Philosophy. She is the author of over 60 books concerning the matters of Catholic thought, practice and spirituality, Take a secure thought -- use your imagination to think of ways out of annoying or enraging situations Avoid exceptionality. Accept the averageMove your musclesHumor is your best friendF.I.S.T. Feelings, Impulses, Sensations, Thoughts: What it signifies is that we can control our immediate impulses and sensations when hurt or frustrated, but if we control our thoughts we can control her impulses.Put your mental health firstPeace over power: Many times you can't win, and it doesn't matter if you lose. It's not worth the effort to put up a fight. They are not doing it to you; they're just doing it! – Much is not done on purposeNot a 911 Not everything is an emergency,.Be Group minded Anger at GodForgiveness Fr. Spitzer Angry with God? Here's Fr. Spitzer's Advice on How to Overcome Anger God understands your anger. Don't dwell on it. Don't go there. Choose instead to: Three step process in the YouTube clip Angry with God: Stop comparing to the way you once were. Stop comparing yourself to others. Stop having expectations for your suffering. Offer it up. Stop the questioning. Saints' behaviors Meg Hunter-Kilmer - published on 09/28/17Aleteia September 28, 2017, What We Probably Don't Know about St. Jerome Is Just What We Need to Know St. Jerome was known to carry around a stone that he would hit himself with every time he lost his temper. If these are helpful to you, great. I don't want to put up roadblocks. Might be helpful to many people. As a Catholic psychologist, I am not comfortable recommending any of these Catholic sources Very simplistic view of psychology, and no consideration of neurology, traumatology, Confusion about the causal chain in anger. Where anger fits in a sequence of events Little genuine interest in anger. Anger is something to essentially get rid of. Very focused on the will and will training -- naïve assumptions about sympathetic arousal. And they don't get that anger has a protective function -- to protect us against shame. Not one of those sources connects anger to shame. And that's the primary connection we need to understand if we want to resolve anger, not just try to shoo it away. What are we talking about when we discuss anger -- let's get into definitions of Anger Focused on vengeance secondary to a desire -- more than an emotion. Written discussions of anger in the western canon go back as far as fourth-century BC in Greece when the philosopher Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) argued that anger is a rational and natural reaction to being offended and thus is closely associated with reason. In the Rhetoric (1991, p. 1380) he defined anger as “a belief that we, or our friends, have been unfairly slighted, which causes in us both painful feelings and a desire or impulse for revenge.” 1907 Catholic Encyclopedia: Anger: The desire of vengeance. Its ethical rating depends upon the quality of the vengeance and the quantity of the passion. When these are in conformity with the prescriptions of balanced reason, anger is not a sin. It is rather a praiseworthy thing and justifiable with a proper zeal. It becomes sinful when it is sought to wreak vengeance upon one who has not deserved it, or to a greater extent than it has been deserved, or in conflict with the dispositions of law, or from an improper motive. The sin is then in a general sense mortal as being opposed to justice and charity. It may, however, be venial because the punishment aimed at is but a trifling one or because of lack of full deliberation. Likewise, anger is sinful when there is an undue vehemence in the passion itself, whether inwardly or outwardly. Ordinarily it is then accounted a venial sin unless the excess be so great as to go counter seriously to the love of God or of one's neighbor. CCC 2302 By recalling the commandment, "You shall not kill," our Lord asked for peace of heart and denounced murderous anger and hatred as immoral. Anger is a desire for revenge. "To desire vengeance in order to do evil to someone who should be punished is illicit," but it is praiseworthy to impose restitution "to correct vices and maintain justice." If anger reaches the point of a deliberate desire to kill or seriously wound a neighbor, it is gravely against charity; it is a mortal sin. The Lord says, "Everyone who is angry with his brother shall be liable to judgment." Contradiction that aggression (or vengeance) and anger have to go together Lot of research to tease about anger and aggression: Ephesians 4:26: Be angry but do not sin; do not let the sun go down on your anger APA Dictionary of Psychology: an emotion characterized by tension and hostility arising from frustration, real or imagined injury by another, or perceived injustice. It can manifest itself in behaviors designed to remove the object of the anger (e.g., determined action) or behaviors designed merely to express the emotion (e.g., swearing). Anger is distinct from, but a significant activator of, aggression, which is behavior intended to harm someone or something. Despite their mutually influential relationship, anger is neither necessary nor sufficient for aggression to occur. Psychologist Paul Ekman. (1999). Basic emotions. In T. Dalgleish & M. J. Power (Eds.), Handbook of cognition and emotion (pp. 45–60). John Wiley & Sons Ltd Due to its distinct and widely recognizable pattern of face expression, anger has always been included in the repertoire of basic emotions. Benefits of Anger Farzaneh Pahlavan Multiple Facets of Anger: Getting Mad or Restoring Justice? Chapter 3: The Neurobiology of RAGE and Anger & Psychiatric Implications with a Focus on Depression Daniel J. Guerra1, Valentina Colonnello and Jaak Panksepp As a basic emotion, anger emerges early in life and has a unique adaptive function in motivating, organizing, and regulating behavior. No other emotion can match the consistency and vigor of anger in mobilizing high-level energy and sustaining goal-directed activity. Anger serves a variety of regulatory functions in physiological and psychological processes related to self-defense as well as to interpersonal and societal behaviors. Through socialization processes, it plays an important role in the development of personality and individual differences in responding to environmental challenges, which can be more or less adaptive. (p. v). Aristotle: Aristotle: Nichomachean Ethics: It is easy to fly into a passion – anybody can do that – but to be angry with the right person into the right extent and at the right time and with the right object in the right way – that is not easy, and it is not everyone who can do it In themselves passions are neither good nor evil. They are morally qualified only to the extent that they effectively engage reason and will….It belongs to the perfection of the moral or human good that the passions be governed by reason. CCC 1767 CCMMP: Catholic-Christian Meta-Model of the Person DMU Paul Vitz, William Nordling, Paul Craig Titus. p. (294) to remain in the virtuous middle ground requires being disposed to a righteous anger that will stand up to injustice, and use a good measure of anger in ways that are corrective of the evil, preventive of further injustice, and indicative of a balance to mean between extremes. Emotions are good when, as reactions antecedent to reasoning, they make us conscious of reality and prepare us for a more complete reaction and moral action. Emotion and choice then serve moral flourishing (e.g., when we have an appropriate spontaneous reaction of anger at injustice). Second, emotions are good as felt reactions that also follow the intellectual evaluation of the situation. Emotions can be expressive of rational decisions. Emotions can thus participate in our life of reason and will (Gondreau, 2013). For example, when we choose to rectify and injustice, a balanced expression of anger can help us to act decisively will being restrained enough that we do not overreact. Through a righteous or just expression of anger, we entered rectify injustice, will finding a just and rational mean between excessively weak or exceedingly strong emotional displays. (p. 650). Emotions are viewed as informing people about their cares and concerns. To prepare the body for action, directing our thoughts to ways that will appropriately address the issues at hand. They can signal and manipulate other people in ways that suit the person's emotional needs (Parrott, 2001). Being disconnected from emotional experience, therefore, means being cut off from adaptive information (Pos et al., 2003). (pp. 650-651). Digression into justification of secular sources Question may arise, "OK, Dr. Peter, as you already noted, anger has been recognized for a long time, going all the way back to Aristotle and way before that in Sacred Scripture. You emphasize that you are a Catholic psychologist, so why are you even looking at these secular sources like the American Psychological Association? There is a lot about anger in Scripture, in the Church Fathers and the saints about anger in the spiritual life. Discalced Carmelite Abbott Marc Foley in his excellent book The Context of Holiness: Psychological and Spiritual Reflections on the Life of St. Therese of Lisieux "One…misconception is that the spiritual life is an encapsulated sphere, cloistered from the realities of daily living….we have only one life composed of various dimensions. Our emotional life, intellectual life, social life, work life, sex life, spiritual life are simple ways of speaking of the different facets of our one life. (p. 1). We have one life. One life. We don't have a spiritual life that is separate from our emotional life. We have one life. If we are angry, that affects our whole life. The Church herself encourages us to look to all branches of knowledge and glean what is best from them in order to live our one life better. From the CCC, paragraph 159 "Though faith is above reason, there can never be any real discrepancy between faith and reason. Since the same God who reveals mysteries and infuses faith has bestowed the light of reason on the human mind, God cannot deny himself, nor can truth ever contradict truth." "Consequently, methodical research in all branches of knowledge, provided it is carried out in a truly scientific manner and does not override moral laws, can never conflict with the faith, because the things of the world and the things of faith derive from the same God. The humble and persevering investigator of the secrets of nature is being led, as it were, by the hand of God in spite of himself, for it is God, the conserver of all things, who made them what they are." And from the Vatican II document, the Pastoral Constitution of the Church in the Modern World, paragraph 62 reads: In pastoral care, sufficient use must be made not only of theological principles, but also of the findings of the secular sciences, especially of psychology and sociology, so that the faithful may be brought to a more adequate and mature life of faith. Remember that we are embodied beings -- we are composites of a soul and a body. The 17th Century Philosopher Rene Descartes' popularized what is called mind-body dualism. Mind-body dualism is the idea that the body and the mind operate in separate spheres, and neither can be assimilated into the other. And that is false. Demonstrably false in a lot of ways, be we so often assume it to be true. We have one life. In the last several years we are realizing just how much of our mental life and our psychological well-being is linked in various ways to our neurobiology -- the ways that our nervous systems function. And the relationship between our embodied brain and our minds is reciprocal -- each affects the other in complex ways that we are just beginning to understand. In other words, brain chemistry affects our emotional states. And our emotional states and our behaviors affect brain chemistry. It's not just our minds and it's not just our bodies and it's not just our souls -- it's all of those, all of what makes me who I am, body, mind, soul, spirit, all of it. And since Scripture, the Early Church Fathers, the Catechism and so on are silent on neurobiology, neurochemistry, neurophysiology and so many other areas that impact our minds and our well-being, as a Catholic psychologist I am going to look elsewhere, I'm going to look into secular sources. I just don't think it's reasonable to expect the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops or the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in the Vatican to be experts in these areas -- it's not their calling, it's not their expertise. St. John of the Cross in his Prologue of Ascent of Mt. Carmel: "I will not rely on experience or science…[but] I will not neglect whatever possible use I can make of them. Fr. Marc Foley, OCD : The Context of Holiness: As St. Thomas wrote of St. Augustine's use of Platonic philosophy in the Summa: "whenever Augustine, who was imbued with the doctrines of the Platonists, found in their teaching anything consistent with the faith, he adopted it and those things which he found contrary to the faith he amended." (ST I, q. 84,a. 5) p.4 And St. Thomas himself drew on so much of Aristotle's thought in his writings, bringing it into his body of work. Abbot Marc Foley. In short, we should never swallow the school of thought whole; we should sift the wheat from the chaff, separate truth from falsehood. p.4 We want the best from all sources. Emphasis on biological processes: From Heidi Crockett Anger Management with Interpersonal Neurobiology Discussed Interpersonal Neurobiology at length in Episode 92 of this podcast Understanding and Healing your Mind through IPNB In interpersonal neurobiology, anger as an emotion is viewed from the perspective of cognitive neuroscience. And cognitive neuroscience states that cognition and emotion are dynamically combined with physical arousal. When anger is induced as an emotion in humans, it can unconsciously affect physiological and neural resources. Affective states of anger are subsequently expressed in the brain as well as the body, and these neural and physiological changes can influence the cognitive processes. Many studies and resources have been expended on studying the emotions of happiness, sadness, and fear, which align with psychopathological states of hypomania, depression, and anxiety. Kathy Steele, Suzette Boon, Onno van der Hart: Treating Trauma-Related Dissociation: A Practical, Integrative Approach: Anger is an affect to derived from activation of the sympathetic nervous system, geared to energize the body for maximum effort to fend off perceived danger. Psychologically, it protects from awareness of vulnerability and lack of control, and therefore from shame. And fight mode, we are all primed to perceive cues of danger rather than cues of safety and relational connection. In such a heightened state of arousal, it is easy to misunderstand the intentions of others. (p.332). Polyvagal theory and anger A critical period for experience-dependent development of the feelings of safety during early infancy: A polyvagal perspective on anger and psychometric tools to assess perceived safety Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience July 2022 article Andrea Poli, Angelo Gemignani, Carlo Chiorri and Mario Miccoli Brief primer here on some neurology. Don't worry. I will keep it simple. Neurons are specialized cells that receive and send signals to other cells through fragile and thin cellular extensions called axons. Myelination: a membrane or a sheath around the axons on neurons. Myelinated axons often have a larger diameter Myelinated axons are insulated Myelination allows for much faster transmission of electric impulses Presence of safety during the critical period (first year of life). Decreased unmyelinated/myelinated cardioinhibitory fibers ratio in adulthood Ventral Vagal complex is able to have a greater impact on reducing the Sympathetic Nervous System arousal -- decreasing anger VVC is able to have a greater impact on reducing Dorsal Vagal Complex fear and shutdown responses -- the freeze response. Greater capacity for self-regulation. Absence of safety during the critical period Increased unmyelinated/myelinated cardioinhibitory fibers ratio in adulthood Ventral Vagal complex has a lesser impact on reducing the Sympathetic Nervous System arousal -- less able to decrease sympathetic arousal, including anger VVC has a lesser impact on reducing Dorsal Vagal Complex fear and shutdown responses -- less able to reduce the freeze response. Less capacity for self-regulation. Dampened VVC activity reduces the capacity of adaptive inhibition of SNS and DVC (Dorsal Vagal Complex), and emotional self-regulation. Hence, environmental detection of unsafety cues may preferentially trigger SNS-mediated anger in order to avoid DVC-mediated immobilization with fear. Young children exposed to five or more significant adverse experiences in the first three years of childhood face a 76% likelihood of having one or more delays in their language, emotional or brain development. (6) As the number of traumatic events experienced during childhood increases, the risk for the following health problems in adulthood increases: depression; alcoholism; drug abuse; suicide attempts; heart and liver diseases; pregnancy problems; high stress; uncontrollable anger; and family, financial, and job problems. (6) 7 ways childhood adversity changes a child's brain Donna Jackson Nakazawa Acestoohigh.com website September 8, 2016 Epigenetic Shifts gene methylation, in which small chemical markers, or methyl groups, adhere to the genes involved in regulating our stress response, and prevent these genes from doing their jobs. Size and Shape of the Brain stress releases a hormone that actually shrinks the size of the hippocampus, an area of our brain responsible for processing emotion and memory and managing stress. Chronic neuroinflammation can lead to changes that reset the tone of the brain for life Brain connectivity: Dr. Ryan Herringa, neuropsychiatrist and assistant professor of child and adolescent psychiatry at the University of Wisconsin, found that children and teens who'd experienced chronic childhood adversity showed weaker neural connections between the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. Girls also displayed weaker connections between the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala. The prefrontal-cortex-amygdala relationship plays an essential role in determining how emotionally reactive we're likely to be to the things that happen to us in our day-to-day life, and how likely we are to perceive these events as stressful or dangerous. Including anger. Wiring of the brain and nervous system matter -- they matter a lot Brain activation in anger Distinct Brain Areas involved in Anger versus Punishment during Social Interactions Olga M. Klimecki, David Sander & Patrik Vuilleumier Scientific Reports 2018. 25 men fMRI study anger induced in an in inequality game designed to be unfair. In the present study, we found that the intensity of experienced anger when seeing the face of the unfair other was parametrically related to activations in amygdala, STS (superior temporal sulcus), and fusiform gyrus (related to facial recognition). The STS has been shown to produce strong responses when subjects perceive stimuli in research areas that facial recognition Farzaneh Pahlavan Multiple Facets of Anger: Getting Mad or Restoring Justice? Chapter 3: The Neurobiology of RAGE and Anger & Psychiatric Implications with a Focus on Depression Daniel J. Guerra1, Valentina Colonnello and Jaak Panksepp Rage emerges when specific environmental stimuli arouse the neural circuitry of the RAGE system. Even if the anger-thoughts and the related expression are modulated and regulated by higher cortico-cognitive areas, the human basic circuitry of anger is still subcortical. Since the early description of rage in decorticated cats (Dusser De Barenne, 1920) and dogs (Rothmann, 1923) and their responses to inoffensive stimuli, it was clear that the rage expression is i) dependent on subcortical areas, i.e. the ancient regions play a crucial role more than the higher neocortical regions; ii) independent of an intact cortex. p. 11 Among the higher limbic regions of this network, the medial nucleus, the basal complex, and central and lateral nuclei of the amygdala play a key role in the modulation of RAGE. p. 1 All this happens far away from the frontal cortex in the limbic system of your brain. Kathy Steele, Suzette Boon, Onno van der Hart: Treating Trauma-Related Dissociation: A Practical, Integrative Approach Why of Chronic anger. Anger is the primary emotion of the "fight" defense. When (parts of) the patient become stuck in this defense, anger becomes chronic. Thus, the first intervention is safety. 332 As long as a fight reaction remains unresolved, anger will remain chronic. (p.332). Almost no one seems to understands that anger is a defense against fear and shame. It's a way of trying to protect oneself. There are several reasons that anger and hostility become chronic in dissociative patients. First, patients typically have been severely invalidated, ignored, heard, betrayed, and sometimes even tortured over extended periods of time, while helpless to stop it. In itself, this is enough to generate enormous rage in anyone as part of the naturally occurring fight defense. Second, as children, patients often had little to no help in learning how to regulate and appropriately express normal anger, much less how to cope with it. Often it was unacceptable for many patients to express any kind of anger as children, while the adults around them were uncontained and highly destructive with their anger. Others had no limit set on their angry behaviors. (p. 330). Angry dissociative parts are feared and avoided internally by most other parts, particularly those that function in daily life. After all, angry behaviors toward self and others may interfere with functioning in a variety of personal and social ways. An ongoing vicious cycle of rage and shame ensues internally: the more patients avoid their angry and destructive dissociative parts, the angry these parts become, and the more they shame other parts and are shamed by them. (p. 331). … Angry parts have a deep shame and are highly defended against the strong belief that they are very bad. Their defense is reinforced by the shame of patients that such parts of themselves even exist. These parts of the patient are terrified of attachment to the therapist and you the relationship is dangerous, mainly because they are afraid that the therapist will never accept them. (p. 331-332). Whether the anger is part of a fight response or not, it is often a secondary emotion that protects the patient from feelings of sadness, extreme powerlessness, shame, guilt, and loss. (p. 333). (add grief) Parts of the patient that developed controlling-punitive strategies will be angry with others to get what they need, while those that have controlling-caregiving strategies will punish themselves for being angry or having needs. (p. 333). This is often the case in hostile parts such as those of self-injure or encourage other parts to self-harm, prostitute themselves, abuse drugs or alcohol, or engage in other self-destructive behaviors. They are often stuck in destructive and harmful behaviors that are an "attack self" defense against shame. (p.333). Finally, the rage of the perpetrator is often an embodied experience from which patients cannot yet escape without sufficient realization and further integration. Some dissociative parts imitate perpetrators internally, repeating the family dynamics from the past with other parts in a rather literal way. (p.333). "Getting the anger out" is not really useful, as the problem is that the patient needs to learn how to effectively express anger verbally rather than physically, and in socially appropriate and contained ways, so the patient can be heard by others. It is less the fact that patients express anger, but how they do so and whether that expression allows him to remain grounded in the present, to retain important relationships, and to avoid being self-destructive. (p. 334). Expression of anger is not necessarily therapeutic in itself. It is how (parts of) the patient experience and express it that is important; whether it is within a window of tolerancex in a socially appropriate and safe. Therapist must learn when expression of anger is therapeutic and when containment of anger is more helpful. (p. 334). Working with anger an angry parts (p.335). Take the time to educate the patient as a whole about the functions of anger and angry parts. Although they may seem like "troublemakers," they can be understood as attempting to solve problems with ineffective or insufficient tools. Encourage all parts of the patient understand, accept, and listen to angry parts, instead of avoiding them. Make efforts to understand what provokes angry parts. There are many potential triggers. Not direct quotes Do all parts feel the same way as the angry part? If not, can those parts listen to and accept angry parts perspective? Would the angry part be willing to listen to the other internal perspectives? Invite other parts to watch and listen if possible. Can set limits with the angry part the angry part and all parts need to learn that healthy relationships do not include punishment, humiliation, or force Use titration, helping the person experienced as a small amount of anger will remain grounded in the present Parts and imitate a perpetrator often literally experience themselves in our experienced by other parts as the actual perpetrator. Thus they understandably induce fear and shame within a patient as a whole, and sometimes fearing the therapist. (p. 345). The functions of perpetrator-imitating parts are (1) protect the patient against threats of the perpetrator, which continue to be experienced as real in the present; (2) defend the patient against unbearable realizations of being helpless and powerless as a child, (3) re-enact traumatic memories from the perspective of the perpetrator, as mentalize by the child; (4) serve as a defense against shame through attacking the patient and avoiding inner experiences of shame; (5) provide an outlet for the patient's disowned sadistic and punitive tendencies; and (6) hold unbearable traumatic memories. (p. 346). Suzette Boon, Kathy Steele, Onno van der Hart 2011 book Coping with Trauma-Related Dissociation: Skills Training for Patients and Therapists Destructive expressions of anger include persistent revenge fantasies or actions, hurting self or others, "taking it out" on innocent people (or animals), or destruction of property. (p. 265). Dissociative parts of a person that are stuck in anger may experience this feeling as vehement and overwhelming, often without words. They may have irresistible urges to act aggressively and have great difficulty thinking and reflecting on their feelings before acting. Angry parts have not learned how to experience or express anger and helpful ways. There are two types of anger dissociative parts. The first are parts that are stuck in a defensive fight mode, ready to protect you. Their anger at original injustices may be legitimate and naturally accompanies a tendency to strike out and fight, which is an essential survival strategy. However, such parts have become stuck in anger, unable to experience much else. They rigidly perceived threat and ill-will everywhere and they react with anger and aggression as their only option of response. Although these parts of you may not yet realize it, anger is often a protection against vulnerable feelings of shame, fear, hurt, despair, powerlessness, and loss. The second type of angry part may seem very much like the original perpetrator. They imitate those who hurt them in the past, and they can be experienced internally as the actual perpetrator. This experience can be particularly frightening, disorienting, and shameful. But be assured this is a very common way of dealing with being traumatized. In fact, although these parts may have some similarities to those who hurt you, they also significant differences: they are parts of you as a whole person, who is trying to cope with unresolved traumatic experiences. (p. 267) Tips for coping with anger (p, 269 to 271) recognize how to make distinctions among the many gradations of anger, from mild irritation to rage, so that you can intervene more rapidly. Understand your tells around anger, which may include a tight or tense feeling in your body, clenched jaw's or fists, feeling flushed or shaky, breathing heavily, heart racing, a feeling of heat, a surge of energy. Empathize with her angry parts, recognizing they have very limited coping skills, and very limited vision. They've been shunned by other parts, left alone with their hurt, fear, shame, in isolation. This does not mean you have to accept their impulses toward inappropriate behavior Once you start feeling some compassion toward these parts you can begin to communicate with them, listening with an intention, with curiosity to understand what lies underneath the anger Angry parts have a strength, that they could transferred to use and more positive ways Become more curious about why anger is happening. Try creative and healthy nonverbal ways of expressing your anger, such as writing, drawing, painting, making a collage Physical exercise may help as an outlet for the physical energy generated by the physiology of anger Work on understanding your anger, by reflecting on it, rather than just experiencing it, being immersed in it. You might imagine observing yourself from a distance, and getting curious about why you feel the way you do. Give yourself a time-out, that is, walk away from the situation if you're getting too angry. Counseling to 10, or even 200 before you say or do something you might regret later. Calm breathing may help Listen to each part of you, about what might help that part with anger. You can have in her conversations with parts of yourself about anger and how to express it. Small and safe ways to express anger can be negotiated that are agreeable to all parts of you Watch safe people in your life and seal they handle their own anger. Do they accept being angry? Are they are respectful and appropriate with her anger? Are there particular strategies that they use that you could practice for yourself? Healthy anger can get positive strength and energy. It can help you be appropriately assertive, set clear boundaries, and confront wrongs in the world. Anger can pave the way to other emotions, leading to the resolution relational conflicts. We learn the most common triggers of your anger. Once you learn these triggers, you can be more aware when they occur and more able to prevent an automatic reaction of anger. Establish intercommunication among parts of yourself to recognize triggers and negotiate possible helpful strategies to cope with them rather than just reacting. You can try allowing yourself to experience just a small amount of anger from another part of yourself: a drop, a teaspoon, 1% or 2%. In exchange you can share with angry parts feelings of calm and safety. Inner safe spaces can be very helpful for childlike parts that feel terrified My parts Feisty Part-- defends against shame -- Melancholio. Good Boy Challenger Creative-distracting me. Closing Mark your calendars. Next Live Experience of the IIC podcast will be on Friday, January 13, 2023 from 2:00 PM to 3:00 PM Eastern time on Zoom (repeat) -- All about Anger -- dealing with your anger. Going beyond what books can do. Experiential exercise. Links to register have gone out in our emailed Wednesday Reflections. Can get the link on the IIC landing page as well, SoulsandHearts.com/iic December 28, 2022 Reflection at soulsandhearts.com/blog From Rejecting to Embracing Aging Reach out to me Crisis@soulsandhearts.com Conversation hours: cell is 317.567.9594 conversation hours 4:30 PM to 5:30 PM Eastern Time Every Tuesday and Thursday. Resilient Catholic Community -- you do not have to be alone. Why a deep intimate personal relationship with God our Father, Mary our Mother -- spiritual parents By claiming our identity as beloved daughters and sons of God the Father and Mary our Mother. Identity is freely given. How By dealing with the natural level issues we have, the human formation issues we have that have spiritual consequences. Grace perfects nature So many spiritual problems have their roots in the natural realm, in human formation. If this kind of exercise is helpful to you, we have nearly 100 of them in the Resilient Catholics Community. 120 Catholics like you already on board, already on the pilgrimage -- just had 47 apply for the December 2022 cohort, excited to get to know our new applicants. Closed December 31 -- wait list should be up soon for the June 2023 Cohort. Get to know your own parts Get to love your own parts If interested, contact me. Crisis@soulsandhearts.com 317.567.9594 conversation hours 4:30 PM to 5:30 PM Eastern Time Every Tuesday and Thursday.
Support the show to get full episodes and join the Discord community. Mariam Aly runs the Aly lab at Columbia University, where she studies the interaction of memory, attention, and perception in brain regions like the hippocampus. The short story is that memory affects our perceptions, attention affects our memories, memories affect our attention, and these effects have signatures in neural activity measurements in our hippocampus and other brain areas. We discuss her experiments testing the nature of those interactions. We also discuss a particularly difficult stretch in Mariam's graduate school years, and how she now prioritizes her mental health. Aly Lab. Twitter: @mariam_s_aly. Related papers Attention promotes episodic encoding by stabilizing hippocampal representations. The medial temporal lobe is critical for spatial relational perception. Cholinergic modulation of hippocampally mediated attention and perception. Preparation for upcoming attentional states in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. How hippocampal memory shapes, and is shaped by, attention. Attentional fluctuations and the temporal organization of memory. 0:00 - Intro 3:50 - Mariam's background 9:32 - Hippocampus history and current science 12:34 - hippocampus and perception 13:42 - Relational information 18:30 - How much memory is explicit? 22:32 - How attention affects hippocampus 32:40 - fMRI levels vs. stability 39:04 - How is hippocampus necessary for attention 57:00 - How much does attention affect memory? 1:02:24 - How memory affects attention 1:06:50 - Attention and memory relation big picture 1:07:42 - Current state of memory and attention 1:12:12 - Modularity 1:17:52 - Practical advice to improve attention/memory 1:21:22 - Mariam's challenges
In this discussion, we start with his pioneering work on developing susceptibility contrast for imaging perfusion while at MGH, and then his pioneering work on developing Near Infrared Spectroscopy, and using this approach to help validate fMRI contrast and shed some light on it. After this we discuss a wide range of topics that his group has been working on - falling into the categories of either methods development or mind-body interactions. He has played a major role in many insightful studies that include those using simultaneous EEG and fMRI, and looking at neuromodulation, brain plasticity, subliminal stimulation and processing, and resting state fMRI. He has been perfectly positioned and extremely active over the years to not only add to cutting edge methods and understanding of the brain, but to carry these over into eventual clinical practice. Guest: Arno Villringer, M.D. is the Director of the Department of Neurology at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in Leipzig. He is also the Director of the Department of Cognitive Neurology at Leipzig University Hospital, and Professor of Cognitive Neurology, Leipzig University. In addition he's Director of the MindBrainInstitute Berlin School of Mind and Brain. Arno received his MD in 1984 from Albert Ludwig University Freiburg in Germany and did a short but highly impactful fellowship at the MGH NMR Center in Boston. From 1986 to 1993, he was in Munich at the Ludwig Maximilian University department of Neurology. From 1993 to 2007 he was at Charité University Medicine in Berlin in the Department of Neurology, working up to Vice Chairman. Finally in 2007 he took on his primary role as Director of the Department of Neurology at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in Leipzig.
In today's episode, we'll dive into the psychology, neuroscience, and philosophy of aesthetics. Find out how your brain senses aesthetic experiences, how aesthetic senses can influence your behavior, and why people have studied the field of aesthetics for so long.About Dr. Cliff Workman: When we judge people for their moral or prosocial behaviors, do our perceptions of their beauty influence our evaluations? I am interested in understanding how morality and beauty interact to modulate decision-making. Prior to joining the ChatLab, I was a postdoctoral scholar in the Social Cognitive Neuroscience Lab at the University of Chicago under the supervision of Jean Decety. Our work investigates the psycholigical and neural mechansisms underpinning political polarization and support for ideologically-motivated violence. I received my Ph.D. from the University of Manchester in England in 2016 where I investigated relations between moral cognition and emotions and the physiopathology of major depression. Before starting my PhD, I worked at Johns Hopkins University on neuroimaging studies of psychiatric disorders, and also completed a B.S. in Psychology at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, where I worked on studies of clinical, cognitive, and social functioning. Get started with Buzzsprout HERE!FIND DR. CLIFF WORKMANWebsite: https://cliffordworkman.com/MENTIONEDChatterjee, A., & Vartanian, O. (2014). Neuroaesthetics. Trends in cognitive sciences, 18(7), 370–375. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2014.03.003Thakral, P. P., Moo, L. R., & Slotnick, S. D. (2012). A neural mechanism for aesthetic experience. Neuroreport, 23(5), 310–313. https://doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0b013e328351759fKirk, U., Skov, M., Hulme, O., Christensen, M. S., & Zeki, S. (2009). Modulation of aesthetic value by semantic context: an fMRI study. NeuroImage, 44(3), 1125–1132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.10.009Tinio, P. P. L. (2019). Creativity and aesthetics. In J. C. Kaufman & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of creativity (pp. 691–708). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316979839.035Stein, J.-P., Koban, K., Joos, S., & Ohler, P. (2022). Worth the effort? Comparing different youtube vlog production styles in terms of viewers' identification, parasocial response, immersion, and enjoyment. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 16(3), 426–436. https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000374Venkatesan, T., Wang, Q. J., & Spence, C. (2022). Does the typeface on album cover influence expectations and perception of music? Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 16(3), 487–503. https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000330Shelley, J. (2022, February 28). The concept of the Aesthetic. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved October 25, 2022, from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aesthetic-concept/ Workman, C.I., Humphries, S., Hartung, F., Aguirre, G.K., Kable, J.W., Chatterjee, A. (2021). Morality is in the eye of the beholder: The neurocognitive basis of the “anomalous-is-bad” stereotype. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1494(1):3-17.FIND MEWMT Instagram: @walkmethrough.jpg Website: https://walk-me-through.mailchimpsites.com/Support WMT: https://www.buymeacoffee.com/walkmethroughPersonal Instagram: @eugenia.jpgCREDITSTrack: Electric Ten — Broke in Summer Support the show
Seong-Gi Kim, Ph.D. received his Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry from Washington University in 1988 for investigating blood flow using NMR spectroscopy, and did postdoctoral research at the University of Washington on the determination of biomolecular structure by NMR. Early on, Dr. Kim embraced the difficult but penetrating work of fMRI on animal models. He has since been leading the world pushing the limits of our understanding of the biologic underpinnings of fMRI contrast towards answering systems neuroscience questions. Since 2013, Dr. Kim has been director of the Center for Neuroscience Imaging Research (CNIR) at Sungkyunkwan University in Seoul, Korea. This is a pretty intense podcast that has a slightly different format than our typical podcasts. We hit on about 15 of the big questions in fMRI: including the pre and post undershoot, negative signal changes, new types of contrast, fMRI specificity, and spatial and temporal resolution. Towards the end we talk about Dr. Kim's inspired work using optogenetics to provide insight into resting state fMRI as well as how excitation vs inhibition contribute to fMRI contrast.
Bella chats with professor Russ Poldrack.Russ is the Albert Ray Lang professor of psychology at Stanford University, where he directs the Poldrack lab. Russ also serves as the director of the Stanford Center for Reproducible Neuroscience and the SDS center for Open and Reproducible science. Russ and his lab use cognitive, computational, and neuroimaging approaches to study how decision-making, executive control, and learning and memory are implemented in the human brain.In this episode, we discussed Russ's research in cognitive neuroscience using neuroimaging techniques such as MRI and fMRI, as well as his effort and contribution to reproducible science. For example, along with colleagues, Russ created and is currently managing a platform called Openneuro, an Open Archive For Analysis And Sharing Of Brain Initiative Data. Russ also talked about an innovative and fascinating study called “My connectome project”, in which he was his own subject for 18 months. He then shared interesting findings from this project and how this project had impacted how he thinks about his brain and future neuroimaging research. In the end, Russ shared his advice and tips with people who are applying to graduate school in neuroscience, as well as a fun story about discovering a surprising finding in his own brain.If you find this episode interesting, please leave us a good review on your podcast platform! It only takes a few minutes, but it will allow our podcast to reach more people and hopefully get them excited about psychology and brain sciences.Links:Russ's lab: https://poldracklab.stanford.edu/Russ's Twitter: @russpoldrackRuss's books: - Hard to Break: why our brains make habits stick https://press.princeton.edu/books/hardcover/9780691194325/hard-to-brea- The New Mind Readers https://press.princeton.edu/books/hardcover/9780691178615/the-new-mind-readersBella's website: https://bellafascendini.github.io/Bella's Twitter: @BellaFascendiniPodcast Twitter: @StanfordPsyPodPodcast Substack: https://stanfordpsypod.substack.com/Let us know what you think of this episode or the podcast! :) firstname.lastname@example.org
What do stories and memories have to do with gratitude?Think of a time or story about gratitude - it doesn't even have to do with you. When you think about it and replay it, you actually start to feel gratitude and when you feel that gratitude there are changes that happen in your brain circuitry!Our brains are oriented to story - it is one of the major ways we organize information in our brains. A study was performed where people listened to others who survived genocide and told stories of how others helped them along the way. Those listening had fMRI scans and it showed that by listening to these stories, the neural pathways of gratitude light up! Those pathways can light up when we HEAR stories of gratitude...even ones that have NOTHING to do with us. I always think of the Publix commercial where the little boy sneakily invites his neighbor over for Christmas dinner. The story has nothing to do with me, but I feel so much gratitude each time I was the commercial or even think about it!Be sure to tune in next week to find out the most scientifically proven way to practice gratitude...and guess what? It can be done is as little as 1 minute a day!www.allyoumama.comIG -@MeghanQBarrett
Real-time neurofeedback fMRI is a unique and powerful kind of fMRI involving real time feedback of brain activity to the subject towards the goal of enhancing or suppressing activity or connectivity, and ultimately changing behavior. Michal's work has taken real time neurofeedback fMRI to the next level, embracing operant conditioning to alter measured fMRI network activity independent of the subject's awareness or conscious control. Here Peter and Michal discuss all the types of neurofeedback-based fMRI, focusing mostly on her implicit neurofeedback studies. They discuss the real time fMRI feedback setup as well as the potential applications - for understanding how the brain reprograms itself as well as clinical applications. Today's Guest: Michal Ramot, Ph.D. is a Senior scientist in the Department of Brain Sciences and the Roel C. Buck Career Development Chair at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Isreal. She received her Bachelor of Science in Mathematics from the Hebew University in Jerusalem in 2004. She went on to receive her PhD from Interdisciplinary Centre for Neural Computation working under the guidance of Rafi Malach and Leon Deouell. She carried out a postdoc at the Department of Neurobiology at the Weizmann Institute of Science also under Dr. Malach and then did a second post doc under Dr. Alex Martin in the Laboratory of Brain and Cognition at the National Institute of Mental Health. Episode producers: Anastasia Brovkin Alfie Wearn Brain Art Artist: Joseph Salvo Title: MRI Self Portrait Author's Description: “I've been inspired by the Woodland art style, that has been called "x-ray art" for its depictions of subject's interiors. I sought to adapt this style for MRI images. The goal is to provide a glimpse of what lies beyond the surface, while maintaining respect for the subject.” Please send any feedback, guest suggestions, or ideas to email@example.com
Dr. David Spiegel is Willson Professor and Associate Chair of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Director of the Center on Stress and Health, and Medical Director of the Center for Integrative Medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine, where he has been a member of the academic faculty since 1975, and was Chair of the Stanford University Faculty Senate from 2010-2011. Dr. Spiegel has more than 40 years of clinical and research experience studying psycho-oncology, stress and health, pain control, psychoneuroendocrinology, sleep, hypnosis, and conducting randomized clinical trials involving psychotherapy for cancer patients. On this encore episode of the Psychology Talk Podcast, Dr. Spiegel discusses a new, interactive hypnosis application, Reveri. Reveri is unique in that, unlike many meditation and hypnosis applications available to consumers, it allows you to interact with it, and adjust accordingly to your needs. Dr. Spiegel and Dr. Hoye discuss, among other things: •Neurological correlates of hypnosis•The development of the Hypnotic Induction Profile by Dr. Spiegel's father, Herbert Spiegel•Aspects of hypnotizability •The role of absorption in hypnosis. •Dr. Spiegel's research Listen in to expand your mind, and change your perspective on mind-body medicine!Explore the Reveri App:https://www.reveri.comThe Psychology Talk Podcast is a unique conversation about psychology around the globe. Your host, clinical psychologist Dr. Scott Hoye, discusses psychology with mental health practitioners and experts to keep you informed about issues and trends in the industry. Podcast Website: https://psych-talk.comDr. Hoye's Clinical Practice: https://chicagopsychservices.com
Prawie wszystko co wiesz na temat mózgu to mit. Ciekawostki na temat temat tego skomplikowanego organu szybko się dezaktualizują - coś co było przełomowym odkryciem 50 czy 20 lat temu dziś naukowcy uznają za nieaktualne lub tłumaczą w inny sposób. Zapytałyśmy Was o to, jakie anegdoty na temat mózgu chciały_libyście zweryfikować i staramy się je omówić z pomocą naszej stałej gościni - Aleksandry Piejki z Instytutu Psychologii PAN i Fundacji Można Zwariować. Dowiecie się między innymi czym jest neuroplastyczność i czy u każdego działa tak samo, co to jest fMRI i czy konkretne części mózgu mają jakieś funkcjonalności? Więcej obalania neuromitów już za tydzień, w części drugiej! _________ aplikacja do medytacji Cleo: TUTAJ książka Ani: TUTAJ _________ Dziękujemy za Wasze wsparcie na Patronite oraz słanie dobrego słowa o podcaście! Jeśli chcecie podzielić się swoimi refleksjami to piszcie do nas na: firstname.lastname@example.org lub na Instagramie: Cleo Cwiek @cleocwiek Ania Cyklińska @psychoedu_ Fundacja Można Zwariować @moznazwariowac www.moznazwariowac.pl Grupa na FB (więcej)
Dr. Marta Seretny is currently a research fellow in anaesthesia and perioperative medicine working at Auckland City Hospital and an honorary lecturer at the University of Auckland department of Anaesthesiology. She completed much of her postgraduate clinical training in Edinburgh, Scotland and her final years of training in Auckland New Zealand. Her PhD, awarded by the university of Edinburgh, investigated chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) using fMRI of the brain. She is interested in optimising the perioperative pathways of cancer patients in order to improve patient centred outcomes.In this episode, we discuss her journey as a Polish child refugee, seeking asylum in Italy and eventually resettling through sponsorship in Australia. We talk about the challenges in raising multilingual children, and the difficulties with third culturalism in moving between different countries. Marta shares how she found her way into anaesthetics, and breaking the stereotypes of academia.You can find her on these links:https://unidirectory.auckland.ac.nz/profile/mser366https://www.youtube.com/watch?app=desktop&v=PGKVfBlINKwNB: This episode was recorded in 2021.Support the showAs always, if you have any feedback or queries, or if you would like to get in touch with the speaker, feel free to get in touch at email@example.com. Audio credit:Bliss by Luke Bergs https://soundcloud.com/bergscloudCreative Commons — Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported — CC BY-SA 3.0Free Download / Stream: https://bit.ly/33DJFs9Music promoted by Audio Library https://youtu.be/e9aXhBQDT9Y
In this episode, we're talking about the element of Gratitude and the second of our strategies to put it into practice (see the first strategy in episode #30). This strategy of "Accepting what is" can be tough. Interestingly, even accepting the good things in our lives can be tough. We'll talk about why this happens and also identify some key obstacles that keep gratitude at a distance (i.e., mindlessness, grasping, and aversion), and how we can open up to accept the good, the bad... and everything else. You'll also learn a super simple gratitude practice that is worth two million dollars! p.s. We're grateful you're here with us at the Joy Lab! Key Takeaways (see full transcript below): Acceptance is not the same as giving up. Acceptance actually gives us an honest platform to work from. If we choose to fight, we can and we can be more clear about what we're dealing with and what needs to be done. We might also choose to let things be as they are and let ourselves feel better about them. It's really just when we're unwilling to accept things as they actually are, that we get ourselves into trouble. Some key obstacles can stand in the way of gratitude and acceptance. These are: aversion, grasping, and mindlessness. And of course... cheraphobia! Cheraphobia is the fear of being happy. It's surprisingly common. Gratitude and acceptance are powerful strategies for this. You can use your hands as a real-time neurofeedback tool to practice gratitude and acceptance (it's cheaper than a 2 million dollar fMRI machine!) Links Mentioned: Joy Lab Program (step-by-step practices to help you build and maintain the elements of joy in your life) Joy Lab podcast episode 8 (Why Gratitude Is Good [And Gratefulness Is Great]) Joy Lab podcast episode 30 (Gratitude in the Wild: See What Is) Sharon Salzberg (personal website) Full transcript available at: https://www.naturalmentalhealth.com/podcasts/joy-lab-podcast/episodes/2147807028
The discovery of resting state fMRI ushered in an entirely new subfield of fMRI and a new era in functional imaging that permeates much of what we do today. Today's guest, Professor Bharat Biswal is credited with the discovery of this signal. In this conversation Professor Biswal recounts the events leading up to and including his discovery of the resting state signal. He and Peter also talk about all things resting state fMRI, including white matter correlations and potential clinical applications. He even turns the tables on Peter, and asks a few questions of his own. This is worth a listen as he weighs in on the challenges, limits, and opportunities of resting state fMRI today. Today's Guest: Bharat Biswal, Ph.D. is Distinguished Professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. He is also affiliated with the Department of Radiology in New Jersey Medical School. He received his B.S. in Engineering from Uktal University in 1989, his M.S. from Michigan Technical University in 1991, and his Ph.D. from the Medical College of Wisconsin Department of Biophysics in 1996 under the mentorship of Jim Hyde. While in graduate school, Dr Biswal was the first to report the observation of functional correlation in the resting state signal - in this case between the left and right motor cortex. This first resting state fMRI paper was published in Magnetic Resonance in Medicine in 1995 and is titled: Functional Connectivity in the motor cortex of resting human brain using echo-planar MRI. Episode producers: Ekaterina Dobryakova Alfie Wearn Brain Art Artist: Paola Galdi Title: Yarn Brain Author Description: “I created this figure to debug a piece of code I was writing to map cortical vertices to volumetric voxels and count how many direct neighbours fell within a cortical ribbon mask. My code was definitely wrong, but the figure was cool!” Please send any feedback, guest suggestions, or ideas to firstname.lastname@example.org
Muitos jogos online oferecem os famosos "loot boxes", que são caixas de recompensas pagas, mas que trazem componentes de sorte.Também há os benefícios "pay to win", em que você compra vantagens e afins.Afinal, eles são perigosos?Confira o papo entre o leigo curioso, Ken Fujioka, e o cientista PhD, Altay de Souza.> OUÇA (50min 38s)*Naruhodo! é o podcast pra quem tem fome de aprender. Ciência, senso comum, curiosidades, desafios e muito mais. Com o leigo curioso, Ken Fujioka, e o cientista PhD, Altay de Souza.Edição: Reginaldo Cursino.http://naruhodo.b9.com.br*PARCERIA: ALURAAprofunde-se de vez: garantimos conhecimento com profundidade e diversidade, para se tornar um profissional em T - incluindo programação, front-end, data science, devops, ux & design, mobile, inovação & gestão.Navegue sua carreira: são mais de 1300 cursos e novos lançamentos toda semana, além de atualizações e melhorias constantes.Conteúdo imersivo: faça parte de uma comunidade de apaixonados por tudo que é digital. Mergulhe na comunidade Alura.Aproveite o desconto para ouvintes Naruhodo no link:https://bit.ly/naruhodo_alura*REFERÊNCIASResistance to extinction as a function of percentage of reinforcement, number of training trials, and conditioned reinforcementhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/5908814/The Janus-Faced Role of Gambling Flow in Addiction Issueshttps://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/cyber.2016.0453Variety of gambling activities from adolescence to age 30 and association with gambling problems: a 15-year longitudinal study of a general population samplehttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/add.13083?casa_token=kzfbg0tpFFsAAAAA:11YwPuYh2WHDHJAMTCYF7RUEeDIxk7RsLW4hvDSQoxj6feQ9ecRRhO5GRo_yKeFANFQpF4S7hh6otpPETemporal orientation and perceived control as determinants of risk-takinghttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022103166900758Dark Flow, Depression and Multiline Slot Machine Playhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10899-017-9695-1The brave blue world: Facebook flow and Facebook Addiction Disorder (FAD)https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0201484Schedules of Reinforcementhttps://www.google.com.br/books/edition/Schedules_of_Reinforcement/xctyCQAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=0Internet gaming disorder: Feeling the flow of social gameshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352853218301032Altered neural correlates of reward and loss processing during simulated slot-machine fMRI in pathological gambling and cocaine dependence☆https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4266109/Gambling Severity Predicts Midbrain Response to Near-Miss Outcomeshttps://www.jneurosci.org/content/jneuro/30/18/6180.full.pdfVideo game loot boxes are linked to problem gambling: Results of a large-scale surveyhttps://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0206767Associations between loot box use, problematic gaming and gambling, and gambling-related cognitionshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306460318315077Dutch Gambling Authority vs Electronic Arts, and the future of loot boxeshttps://www.gamesindustry.biz/dutch-gambling-authority-vs-electronic-arts-the-end-of-loot-boxes-as-legislative-black-boxesThe prevalence of loot boxes in mobile and desktop gameshttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/add.14973?casa_token=A030xGdCc7cAAAAA:WCmlQWOT9_uh89sOXpjqLcTcZcPcnRSWKzE6KQiMm6WMB3ztAHcfG6qI8CNRhHbH8VobDahrV2F3hxTWLoot box engagement and problem gambling among adolescent gamers: Findings from a national surveyhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306460319310007?casa_token=u9Ake6SttRUAAAAA:jAkQRxlALHm2odFtqAztw4XzbfI-984t8gS0VLIjPFFADksNJ6tCA1kBdL5HBbSv7LF4MRYTX7cDSM5 Diagnostic Criteria: Gambling Disorderhttps://www.ncpgambling.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/DSM-5-Diagnostic-Criteria-Gambling-Disorder.pdfThe changing face of desktop video game monetisation: An exploration of exposure to loot boxes, pay to win, and cosmetic microtransactions in the most-played Steam games of 2010-2019https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232780Rare Loot Box Rewards Trigger Larger Arousal and Reward Responses, and Greater Urge to Open More Loot Boxeshttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10899-019-09913-5Problem gamblers spend less money when loot boxes are removed from a game: a before and after study of Heroes of the Stormhttps://peerj.com/articles/7700/Fortnite microtransaction spending was associated with peers' purchasing behaviors but not gaming disorder symptomshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306460319310585?casa_token=6nJDEoR5pS0AAAAA:Iknu6yqP4TrV9mz_FeNlIVgMb-v4HniS6m0D92hAJxaDBBswnG2tK6J-Nx_gJVWUDmHv1aWXQ6oNaruhodo #39 - A ignorância é uma benção?https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MIKhzU6VNy8&ab_channel=Cient%C3%ADstica%26PodcastNaruhodoNaruhodo #218 - Existe a tal "sorte de principiante"?https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WOWxol6g4kc&ab_channel=Cient%C3%ADstica%26PodcastNaruhodoNaruhodo #169 - Pessoas que publicam frases motivacionais são menos inteligentes?https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A0MXsp7KA4A&ab_channel=Cient%C3%ADstica%26PodcastNaruhodoNaruhodo #49 - O que causa o vício?https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=--Z_ylPXIWc&ab_channel=Cient%C3%ADstica%26PodcastNaruhodo*APOIE O NARUHODO PELA PLATAFORMA ORELO!Um aviso importantíssimo: o podcast Naruhodo agora está no Orelo: https://bit.ly/naruhodo-no-oreloE é por meio dessa plataforma de apoio aos criadores de conteúdo que você ajuda o Naruhodo a se manter no ar.Você escolhe um valor de contribuição mensal e tem acesso a conteúdos exclusivos, conteúdos antecipados e vantagens especiais.Além disso, você pode ter acesso ao nosso grupo fechado no Telegram, e conversar comigo, com o Altay e com outros apoiadores.E não é só isso: toda vez que você ouvir ou fizer download de um episódio pelo Orelo, vai também estar pingando uns trocadinhos para o nosso projeto.Então, baixe agora mesmo o app Orelo no endereço Orelo.CC ou na sua loja de aplicativos e ajude a fortalecer o conhecimento científico.https://bit.ly/naruhodo-no-orelo
The pandemic has permanently altered our immune systems — and some pretty fundamental aspects of who we are.
Would you like to experience first hand the power of Total Somatic education?THE TOTAL SOMATICS MEMBERSHIP DOORS ARE OFFICIALLY OPEN****TO JOIN, GO TO https://totalsomatics.com/join-now/ ******MEMBERSHIP DOORS CLOSE ON FRIDAY 11TH NOVEMBER 2022 FOR MANY MONTHS.In this episode, Heidi Hadley delves into the importance of safeguarding our memory. As we age, we want to be able to utilise the process of Neuroplasticity to keep our brain healthy. Within this episode, Heidi Hadley provides advice on how to keep your brain healthy as you age. She discusses how we can adopt lifestyle habits to safeguard our memory and keep producing new brain cells.FREE PDF DOWNLOAD - FAQ GUIDE:https://totalsomatics.com/faq-answer-guide/ONLINE SHOP:https://totalsomatics.com/audio-instruction/TO LEARN MORE:https://TotalSomatics.comWAIT LIST:https://totalsomatics.com/join-now/FREE EBOOK:https://totalsomatics.com/free-ebook-somatics-what-is-it-how-can-it-help-me/LISTEN TO PAST PODCAST EPISODES:https://totalsomatics.com/podcast/*********TOTAL SOMATICS FREE CHALLENGE***********https://totalsomatics.com/total-somatics-free-challenge/************************************************************FREE WEBINAR:https://totalsomatics.com/free-total-somatics-webinar/Support the show
Razib Khan's Unsupervised Learning
Today, on the Unsupervised Learning podcast Razib talks to Erik Hoel, author of the novel The Revelations, and host of The Intrinsic Perspective Substack. Hoel is a neuroscientist at Tufts who is interested in the problem of consciousness. Hoel admits right off that the questions and answers around consciousness motivate neuroscience in the first place, but throughout the conversation, he also points out that the discipline has a long way to go before it uncovers deep and insightful counterintuitive findings. In the early years of the 21st century, neuroscience was driven forward by amazing new technologies like functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) that seemed to offer a window onto the brain's activity, but over the last few years, most researchers agree that many of these papers did not live up to the hype (getting caught up in the replication crisis and underpowered studies). Razib also talks to Hoel about his recent paper, The overfitted brain: dreams evolve to assist generalization, which argues that by “hallucinating out-of-distribution sensory stimulation every night, the brain is able to rescue the generalizability of its perceptual and cognitive abilities and increase task performance.” In plainer English, dreams allow the brain to experiment with novel possibilities outside of the range of experience and let it be more flexible and well-prepared in the face of surprising stimuli. Razib and Hoel also discuss his unique perspective as a humanist and a scientist. Hoel's mother owned an independent bookstore, and he spent most of his childhood exploring its shelves. He reflects on how his Substack has grown (his piece The gossip trap won Scott Alexander's book review contest), to the point where he wonders if perhaps in the next decade he will be more a writer who does some neuroscience than a neuroscientist who does some writing. Share
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Huberman Lab Podcast Notes In the 1960s and 1970s, meditation and psychedelic use were talked about as one in the same practiceTo get better at falling asleep or manage lost sleep, try yoga nidra or non-sleep deep rest at some point during the dayIf your goal is to increase focus, and mood, and deliberately control shifts in interoception/exteroception, traditional meditation is beneficialA wandering mind is an unhappy mind: what people are thinking at any given moment is a better predictor of happiness than what people are doing – being fully engaged in what you're doing is the strongest predictor of happinessChoosing the right meditation for the moment: test whether you are in an interoceptive or exteroceptive state; then, choose the meditation that allows you to go against the grain of your natural state to train your body, brain, and increased neural plasticity for trait changesMeditation tip: instead of dwelling on your ability to remain focused, think about your ability to refocus – that's where the training and magic happensKey question to ask before meditation: do you want to be more relaxed or more alert through the meditation practiceHow long should you meditate? Just like exercise, the best form of meditation is the one you do consistentlyTurning focus on breathing pattern can in itself be a form of meditation practiceGeneral rule of breathwork: if inhales are longer than exhales, you will shift into more alert state; if you focus on longer, more vigorous exhales you will relaxThree main considerations of meditation practice: (1) exteroceptive versus interoceptive focus; (2) breathing pattern; (3) continuum between interoception and dissociationPractice to start meditation:Close your eyes and try to put 100% of focus on the third eye or breathing for three breaths;Open eyes and visually focus on one body part or area for three breaths;Look at something in the environment for three breaths;Focus on something further for three breaths;Acknowledge you are a small body in a large world for three breaths;Step back to interoception for three breathsRemember, pay attention to breathing the whole timeRead the full notes @ podcastnotes.orgIn this episode, I discuss the biological mechanisms of the state changes that occur during different types of mediation and describe how to develop the mediation practice optimal for you. I explain key meditation principles, such as using specific breathwork patterns and adjusting your perception to specific locations along the continuum between interoception, exteroception and dissociation. I discuss how meditation practices lead to long-term trait changes and neuroplasticity, including changing your default mood, reducing baseline anxiety/depression, increasing your ability to focus, enhancing relaxation, improving sleep, and increasing your overall happiness level. I also explain the concept behind the “third-eye center,” what mindfulness is from a biological standpoint, the power of ultra-brief meditations and how to select the best meditation and time and duration to meditate to meet your need. I also explain a novel open-eyed perception-based meditation that may enhance focus, relaxation and task-switching ability. Whether you are a novice or an experienced meditator or simply interested in how our brain controls different aspects of conscious awareness and self-regulation, this episode should interest you. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman ROKA: https://www.roka.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Huberman Lab Premium https://hubermanlab.com/premium For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Meditation (00:04:13) InsideTracker, Thesis, ROKA, Momentous Supplements (00:08:25) Brief History of Meditation: Consciousness, Psychedelics, fMRI (00:16:19) How the Brain Interprets the Body & Surrounding Environment; Mindfulness (00:26:07) Neuroscience of Mediation; Perceptual Spotlights (00:32:27) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:33:41) Interoception vs. Exteroception (00:42:20) Default Mode Network, Continuum of Interoception & Exteroception (00:53:30) Tools: Interoceptive or Exteroceptive Bias, Meditation Challenge (01:01:48) State & Trait Changes, Interoceptive & Exteroceptive Meditations, Refocusing (01:07:35) Tool: Brief Meditations, Waking Up App (01:10:30) “Third Eye Center” & Wandering Thoughts (01:20:46) Mediation: Practice Types, Focal Points & Consistency (01:24:10) Breathwork: Cyclic Hyperventilation, Box Breathing & Interoception (01:30:41) Tool: Meditation Breathwork, Cyclic vs. Complex Breathwork (01:39:22) Interoception vs. Dissociation, Trauma (01:47:43) Model of Interoception & Dissociation Continuum (01:53:39) Meditation & Dissociation: Mood, Bias & Corresponding Challenge (02:00:18) Meditation & Sleep: Yoga Nidra, Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) (02:11:33) Choosing a Meditative Practice; Hypnosis (02:14:53) Tool: Space-Time Bridging (STB) (02:25:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Social Media Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
In this episode, I discuss the biological mechanisms of the state changes that occur during different types of mediation and describe how to develop the mediation practice optimal for you. I explain key meditation principles, such as using specific breathwork patterns and adjusting your perception to specific locations along the continuum between interoception, exteroception and dissociation. I discuss how meditation practices lead to long-term trait changes and neuroplasticity, including changing your default mood, reducing baseline anxiety/depression, increasing your ability to focus, enhancing relaxation, improving sleep, and increasing your overall happiness level. I also explain the concept behind the “third-eye center,” what mindfulness is from a biological standpoint, the power of ultra-brief meditations and how to select the best meditation and time and duration to meditate to meet your need. I also explain a novel open-eyed perception-based meditation that may enhance focus, relaxation and task-switching ability. Whether you are a novice or an experienced meditator or simply interested in how our brain controls different aspects of conscious awareness and self-regulation, this episode should interest you. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman ROKA: https://www.roka.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Huberman Lab Premium https://hubermanlab.com/premium For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Meditation (00:04:13) InsideTracker, Thesis, ROKA, Momentous Supplements (00:08:25) Brief History of Meditation: Consciousness, Psychedelics, fMRI (00:16:19) How the Brain Interprets the Body & Surrounding Environment; Mindfulness (00:26:07) Neuroscience of Mediation; Perceptual Spotlights (00:32:27) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:33:41) Interoception vs. Exteroception (00:42:20) Default Mode Network, Continuum of Interoception & Exteroception (00:53:30) Tools: Interoceptive or Exteroceptive Bias, Meditation Challenge (01:01:48) State & Trait Changes, Interoceptive & Exteroceptive Meditations, Refocusing (01:07:35) Tool: Brief Meditations, Waking Up App (01:10:30) “Third Eye Center” & Wandering Thoughts (01:20:46) Mediation: Practice Types, Focal Points & Consistency (01:24:10) Breathwork: Cyclic Hyperventilation, Box Breathing & Interoception (01:30:41) Tool: Meditation Breathwork, Cyclic vs. Complex Breathwork (01:39:22) Interoception vs. Dissociation, Trauma (01:47:43) Model of Interoception & Dissociation Continuum (01:53:39) Meditation & Dissociation: Mood, Bias & Corresponding Challenge (02:00:18) Meditation & Sleep: Yoga Nidra, Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) (02:11:33) Choosing a Meditative Practice; Hypnosis (02:14:53) Tool: Space-Time Bridging (STB) (02:25:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Social Media Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
It can seem like our culture is obsessed with our ability to focus. Why can't we focus, how we can focus better, why is our lack of focus ruining society? There are best-selling books and apps that promise to teach us the secrets of paying attention. But what do we really know about what's happening in the brain when we're focused or not? In a fascinating set of studies, University of Chicago neuroscientist Monica Rosenberg is using fMRIs to study the science of attention and answer all sorts of questions about focus. In this episode we ask her: Do some people have an easier time sustaining attention while others don't, just because of the way their brain activity works? And if you have a harder time, are there things you can do to make your focus better?
Episode #46.About the Guest:Dr. Craig Stark's research investigates the neural bases of human long-term memory. He uses functional neuroimaging (fMRI), experimental psychology, neuropsychological studies of amnesic patients, and studies of aging and dementia to investigate how the neural systems supporting these various types of memory operate and interact. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding the human hippocampus and other components of the medial temporal lobe.In this episode, you'll learn:How human memory works How the hippocampus and Amygdala affect memoryTechniques to improve your memory How games can improve memoryMemorable Quotes:Memory is stored in the strengths of the connections between neurons. Our brain has, somewhere between ten and a hundred billion neurons, and they all make connections to a bunch of other neurons. And memory is stored as the strength of the connections between them. - Craig StarkYou are never too old. Your brain is changeable, plastic, and malleable. You can rewire it at any stage in life. These kinds of things are out there, and learning and memory are the ways to rewire your brain. - Craig StarkIn dementia, the hippocampus and its adjacent structures are ground zero. They get taken out. Dory from Finding Nemo is a great example of an amnesic patient. She can't remember what happened if she gets distracted. These amnesic patients could be telling you a story and the end of the story would remind them of the beginning of the story, and they could even just loop and tell it again. - Craig StarkAbout the Host:Dung Trinh, MD is the Chief Medical Officer of Irvine Clinical Research, a medical missionary with TongueOut Medical Missions, and holds leadership positions with multiple healthcare organizations in Orange County. He is a keynote speaker, best-selling author, and Host of “Health Talks with Dr. Trinh” which can be heard weekly on OC Talk Radio. Connect with Dr. Trinh:HealthTalks OC WebsiteTongue OutFacebook PageFacebook (Personal Account)InstagramLinkedInYouTube
Lisa is joined by Dr. Nicole Cain, ND MA who talks about the importance of psychobiotics for mental health. She is a nationally renowned expert on beating anxiety. She has been quoted as an expert in Forbes and has published articles for Salon Magazine, Well+Good, Psychology Today, The Institute for Natural Medicine, Thrive Global, and Women's Lifestyle Magazine. She is the founder of the Anxiety Breakthrough Program and the Anxiety Apothecary. Dr. Nicole Cain has a doctorate in Naturopathic Medicine as well as a Master's Degree in Clinical Psychology and is currently writing a book about integrative solutions for anxiety. Her programs are available at DrNicoleCain.com and she can be found on Instagram @DrNicoleCain.About Omni-Biotic:As a result of their deeply studied, uniquely effective probiotic formulations, Omni-Biotic has been a leading, professional brand in Europe for more than a quarter of a century.Each Omni-Biotic probiotic strain is analyzed to determine its unique functional characteristics and these strains are then mindfully combined with a targeted outcome in mind. The final formulations are then subjected to independent, clinical trials designed to demonstrate efficacy in humans-the highest standard of evidence in medicine. Omni-Biotic formulations are provided in a convenient powder form which requires reconstitution in water or another non-acidic liquid. This approach maximizes the viability of the probiotics-ensuring they arrive alive and metabolically active in the intestines.Stress ReleaseOmni-Biotic Stress Release is a psychobiotic formulation designed to support the gut-brain axis. Honored with the Probiotic Product of the Year in 2021 (NutraIngredients USA), Stress Release works to tighten the intestinal barrier, optimize neurotransmitter production, and right size inflammation. These activities have demonstrated the ability to improve mood, cognition, and memory with clinical studies including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) showing shifts in brain activity.
Neuroscience Meets Social and Emotional Learning
“When I look at narcissism through the vulnerability lens, I see the shame-based fear of being ordinary. I see the fear of never feeling extraordinary enough to be noticed, to be loveable, to belong, or to cultivate a sense of purpose.” Brené Brown. And when I look at narcissism through the vulnerability lens, I see the spirit in that person, desperately trying to be seen for their talents, skills and abilities, but something keeps this person's spirit in the shadows and I wonder what that is. On today's episode we will examine: ✔ Narcissism through the vulnerability lens ✔ What is narcissism and how is it diagnosed. ✔ What the narcissistic brain looks like. ✔ 3 STEPS to move you forward if you think you are a narcissist, if you live with one, or if you work with one. Welcome back to The Neuroscience Meets Social and Emotional Learning Podcast where we bridge the gap between theory and practice, with strategies, tools and ideas we can all use immediately, applied to the most current brain research to heighten productivity in our schools, sports environments and modern workplaces. I'm Andrea Samadi and launched this podcast to share how important an understanding of our brain is for our everyday life and results. For this week's Brain Fact Friday, I want to look at something I saw this past week about the narcissistic brain. We hear this word so often these days, thrown around when describing someone who is self-centered, someone who is unlikeable when they exclaim, “That person is such a narcissist!” Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is “a condition where people have an inflated sense of self-importance and a deep-seated need for attention and admiration. Those living with NPD show a distinct lack of empathy for the feelings and needs of others.”[i] In writing this episode, I want to come from the “vulnerable” angle (like Brené Brown mentioned in her quote) and look at what we can learn about the brain of someone who meets at least 5 of the criteria for what we call narcissistic personality disorder.[ii] My goal with this episode is to help all of us to understand the “why” behind narcissism, a personality disorder that is not difficult to miss when you either work with, or live with someone who shows even a few of the criteria that's needed for a clinical diagnosis. American psychologist, and brain disorder specialist, Dr. Daniel Amen, from Amen Clinics, says that “6.2% of the American population has a narcissistic personality disorder” that often begins in early adulthood. What's interesting, is that “Psychologically speaking, narcissism is a personality trait that every person possesses to some degree. Like any characteristic, it exists on a spectrum. We all fall somewhere along the narcissistic continuum” and a certain amount of self-centeredness is healthy.”[iii] While writing this episode, I remembered something sleep medicine physician, and sports psychiatrist Dr. Shane Creado from EP #72[iv] said to me when he analyzed my brain scan from Amen Clinics, and I went back to that episode #84[v] to look at what he saw. I remember he said something about my deep limbic system being the brightest part of my emotional brain and that he saw this area overactive in people who hold themselves to high standards. I wondered for a minute. Oh no, does this make me a narcissist? Curious, I sent him a text late last night to double check what he meant by that and he sent me a wonderful explanation this morning, affirming that narcissism is complex, and operates on a spectrum. He explained why we all need a certain amount of it, to be focused on our goals, or things that we want to achieve, which explained why he saw this area light up brightly with people who are perfectionists, like I tend to be with this podcast. When releasing content out to the world, I have to be careful of what I say, and how I say it, especially when I'm interviewing someone, and what I create goes into the w