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Virginia Water Radio
Episode 636 (9-12-22): Two Shorebirds That Stand Out on Their Yellow Legs

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 12, 2022


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:27).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 9-9-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the weeks of September 12 and September 19, 2022. SOUNDS – ~2 sec – short examples of calls by Greater Yellowlegs (first) and Lesser Yellowlegs (second). In this episode, we feature two shorebirds whose long, colorful legs are a distinctive mark.  Have a listen for about 20 seconds and see if you can guess the name shared by these two species that's based on that characteristic.  And here's a hint: the name rhymes with what a person eats when they get two scrambled for breakfast. SOUNDS  - ~21 sec If you guessed yellowlegs, you're right!  You heard, first, the Greater Yellowlegs, and second, the Lesser Yellowlegs.  Both are known as “marsh sandpipers” or simply “marshpipers” because they're in the family of shorebirds called sandpipers and they prefer marshes or other wetland habitats.  Greater Yellowlegs are also sometimes called “tattlers” because of their noisy alarm calls.  The two species are the only tall sandpipers in North America with legs colored bright yellow or sometimes orange.  They're distinguished from one another by the somewhat larger size of the Greater Yellowlegs, by that species' bigger and slightly upturned bill, and by differences between their calls.  Both species breed in the tundra or forests of Canada and Alaska, and both then migrate to spend winter in the southern United States, Mexico, Central America, or South America.  The Lesser Yellowlegs is typically found in Virginia only during migration, but the Greater Yellowlegs can be found wintering along Virginia's coast.  These birds hunt in shallow water and on mud flats for their prey of fish, frogs, and a variety of invertebrate animals, such as insects, worms, snails, and shrimp. If you're visiting coastal Virginia between fall and spring and you're watching the birds, here's hoping you encounter some yellow-legged ones wading in shallow waters to find their food. Thanks to Lang Elliott for permission to use the yellowlegs' sounds, from the Stokes' Field Guide to Bird Songs, and we let the Greater Yellowlegs have the last call. SOUNDS – ~5 sec SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of “Cripple Creek” to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The sounds of the Greater Yellowlegs and Lesser Yellowlegs were from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs-Eastern Region CD set, by Lang Elliott with Donald and Lillian Stokes (Time Warner Audio Books, copyright 1997), used with permission of Lang Elliott.  Lang Elliot's work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGES Greater Yellowlegs, photographed at Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge in Virginia, August 11, 2022.  Photo by iNaturalist user kenttrulsson, made available online at https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/132685927(as of 9-12-22) for use under Creative Commons license “Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0.”  Information about this Creative Commons license is available online at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.Lesser Yellowlegs, at Virginia Beach, Va., May 3, 2022.  Photo by iNaturalist user hikerguy150, made available online at https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/116695303(as of 9-12-22) for use under Creative Commons license “Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0.”  Information about this Creative Commons license is available online at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT GREATER YELLOWLEGS AND LESSER YELLOWLEGS The following information is excerpted from the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, “Yellowlegs,” text by Richard Carstensen (undated), updated by David Tessler in 2007, online (as a PDF) at https://www.adfg.alaska.gov/static/education/wns/yellowlegs.pdf. “Mixed assemblages of small shorebirds combing our coastal wetlands in spring are likely to be accompanied by several yellowlegs, immediately recognizable by their greater size. As the “peeps” scurry over the mud and along the waters edge, the yellowlegs, with a more careful, heron-likeelegance, wade out into ponds and sloughs in search of different prey.“General description: Yellowlegs can be distinguished from other shorebirds by the long, straight oralmost imperceptibly upturned bill and the very long, bright yellow legs.  The neck is longer and moreslender than that of most shorebirds. ...Distinguishing betweenthe two...species of yellowlegs is more difficult.  Plumage of the two birds is nearly identical.  None of the following distinctions are completely reliable by themselves, and if possible they should be used in conjunction with each other.  When seen together, as often occurs in migration, the greater yellowlegs (Tringa melanoleuca) stands9-10 inches high (0.25 m), taller than the lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes).  The greater yellowlegs has a somewhat thicker bill than the lesser, and it may turn upward very slightly, while that of the lesser yellowlegs is slighter and quite straight.  The calls of the two species are distinctive.  The greater yellowlegs has a louder and clearer call, often uttered in a three- or four-note sequence, ‘kyew kyew kyew,' with a falling inflection to each syllable.  The lesser yellowlegs tends to call once or twice.  Both species of yellowlegs have a ‘yodeling' song in addition to the better known sharp alarm calls.  This song is given either from the ground or during display flights and has been variously interpreted as ‘toowhee, toowhee,' ‘tweda, tweda,' or ‘whee-oodle, whee-oodle.'  It is heard both on the breeding grounds and in migration. ... “Life history: ...Fall migration begins in late July and lasts through September.  Primary routes are midcontinental (mostly west of the Mississippi River) in spring and both midcontinental and along the Atlantic coast in fall.  Wintering yellowlegs are scattered along the coasts from South America through California and Oregon.  In South America, birds concentrate where shallow lagoons and brackish herbaceous marshes lie adjacent to the outer coast.  Flooded agricultural fields, especially rice fields, have also become important.  In mild years greater yellowlegs winter as far north as southern Vancouver Island. “Behavior and feeding: The exaggerated legs of the Tringa genus are best explained by the custom of feeding in the water, often wading out beyond the belly depths of less elevated relatives.  Among shorebirds, long bills usually accompany long legs for the same reason.  The greater yellowlegs is an accomplished fisher, at times preying almost exclusively on small estuarine fishes such as sticklebacks and sculpins.  Sometimes groups of feeding yellowlegs will form lines, wading abreast to corner fish in the shallows.  Both yellowlegs, particularly the lesser, also eat invertebrates.  Adults and larvae of aquatic insects such as water boatmen, diving beetles, dragonfly nymphs, and flies are important in the diet, as are sand fleas and intertidal amphipods.  Terrestrial invertebrates such as ants,grasshoppers, snails, spiders and worms are also taken.  In spite of the length of the yellowlegs bill, it is rarely used for probing in sand or mud.  The greater yellowlegs will swing its bill from side to side in the water; the lesser yellowlegs does not. “Both yellowlegs breed in the boreal forest and the transitions between forest and tundra in wet bogs and open muskegs. During migration, both species frequent brackish tidal sloughs and mudflats, as well as the edges of freshwater lakes and ponds.  Lesser yellowlegs occasionally swim, an unusual practice amongshorebirds.  The lesser yellowlegs seems somewhat more gregarious than the greater, although both are seen in loose flocks.” SOURCES Used for Audio Alaska Department of Fish and Game, “Yellowlegs,” text by Richard Carstensen (undated), updated by David Tessler in 2007, online (as a PDF) at https://www.adfg.alaska.gov/static/education/wns/yellowlegs.pdf. Chandler S. Robbins et al., A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, St. Martin's Press, New York, 2001. Chesapeake Bay Program, “Birds,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/all/birds/all.  The Greater Yellowlegs entry is online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/entry/greater_yellowlegs; there was no entry for Lesser Yellowlegs (as of 9-9-22). Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “All About Birds,” online at http://www.allaboutbirds.org.  The Greater Yellowlegs entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Greater_Yellowlegs/; the Lesser Yellowlegs entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Lesser_Yellowlegs/. Hugh Jennings, “Bird of the Month: Greater/Lesser Yellowlegs,” Eastside Audubon, August 23, 2018, online at https://www.eastsideaudubon.org/corvid-crier/2019/8/26/greaterlesser-yellowlegs. Alice Jane Lippson and Robert L. Lippson, Life in the Chesapeake Bay, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md., 2006. Stan Tekiela, Birds of Virginia Field Guide, Adventure Publications, Inc., Cambridge, Minn., 2002. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries):Fish and Wildlife Information Service, online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/.  The Greater Yellowlegs entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040130&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19244; the Lesser Yellowlegs entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040131&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19244. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “List of Native and Naturalized Fauna in Virginia, August 2020,” online (as a PDF) at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/virginia-native-naturalized-species.pdf. For More Information about Birds in Virginia or Elsewhere University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, “Animal Diversity Web,” online at https://animaldiversity.org. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Birds of the World,” online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/home (subscription required). Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin,” online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/.  This site and its accompanying mobile app allow identification of birds by photo or sound.Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “eBird,” online at https://ebird.org/home.  Here

united states america music new york relationships university california game canada world education college guide water state fall mexico zoom land stand living research society tech government foundation oregon north america environment fish press normal dark natural web md va rain birds ocean baltimore alaska animals atlantic cd snow behavior citizens south america agency cambridge stream mixed priority adults plants biology native environmental bay primary images yellow dynamic grade bio index commonwealth legs menu processes central america pond signature virginia tech arial merlin scales accent atlantic ocean life sciences lesser stokes natural resources virginia beach adaptations mississippi river compatibility colorful msonormal populations vancouver island ls times new roman field guides distinguishing sections aquatic watershed organisms zoology flooded chesapeake minn taxonomy chesapeake bay policymakers new standard acknowledgment terrestrial ornithology cambria math style definitions worddocument xeno stormwater saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent virginia department wintering johns hopkins university press punctuationkerning breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit trackmoves trackformatting lidthemeother x none lidthemeasian snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules mathpr latentstyles deflockedstate msonormaltable centergroup sols subsup undovr latentstylecount donotpromoteqf mathfont brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin wrapindent rmargin defjc intlim narylim defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority inaturalist lsdexception locked qformat semihidden unhidewhenused latentstyles table normal bmp name title name strong name emphasis name normal name colorful list name intense reference name default paragraph font name colorful grid name book title name subtitle name light shading accent name bibliography name light list accent name toc heading name light grid accent name table grid name revision name placeholder text name list paragraph name no spacing name quote name light shading name intense quote name light list name dark list accent name light grid name colorful shading accent name medium shading name colorful list accent name medium list name colorful grid accent name medium grid name subtle emphasis name dark list name intense emphasis name colorful shading name subtle reference cripple creek birdsongs ebird living systems grades k biotic alaska department wildlife resources shorebirds name e plumage cumberland gap light accent dark accent colorful accent name list name date name plain text name closing name no list name grid table light name signature name outline list name grid table name body text name table simple name body text indent name table classic name list continue name table colorful name message header name table columns name list table name salutation name table list name table 3d name body text first indent name table contemporary name note heading name table elegant name block text name table professional name document map name table subtle name normal indent name table web name balloon text name list bullet name normal web name table theme name list number name normal table name plain table killdeer inland fisheries name mention name hashtag name unresolved mention virginia society michigan museum all about birds audio notes lang elliott water center tmdl lang elliot virginia standards chandler s robbins
Laura Erickson's For the Birds
Anything Can Happen

Laura Erickson's For the Birds

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 2, 2022 5:34


The time around Labor Day Weekend is what Laura thinks of as the "Anything Can Happen" time of year. (The recording at start and finish is of a Semipalmated Plover, from the Macaulay Library of the Cornell Lab of Ornithology. The Cedar Waxwing recording was made my Lang Elliott.)

Virginia Water Radio
Episode 633 (8-1-22): Two Great Waterbirds

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 2, 2022


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:58).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 8-1-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the weeks of August 1 and August 8, 2022.  This is a revised repeat of an episode from August 2015. SOUNDS – ~4 sec – call from Great Egret then from Great Blue Heron. In this episode, we feature two mystery sounds, and a guest voice, to explore two striking birds—striking in looks, and striking in how they hunt.  Have a listen for about 30 seconds, and see if you can guess these two long-necked, long-legged wading birds. SOUNDS AND GUEST VOICE – ~30 sec – Voice: “At once he stirs and steps into the water, wading with imperial self-possession on his three-pronged, dragonish feet.  The water could not tremble less at the passage of his stilt legs as he stalks his dinner.  His neck arches like the bending of a lithe bow, one of a piece with the snapping arrow of his beak.” If you guessed, egret or heron, you're right!  The first call was from a Great Egret and the second from a Great Blue Heron.  The guest voice was Alyson Quinn, reading part of her “Lesson from an Egret,” inspired by a September 2007 visit to the Potomac River.  The word “egret” derives from an old German word for “heron,” a fitting origin for the many similarities between these two big birds.  The Great Egret and the Great Blue Heron are the two largest of 12 North American species of herons, egrets, and bitterns.  The Great Egret is strikingly white, while the Great Blue has only a partially white head over a bluish-gray body.  But a white subspecies of the Great Blue, called the Great White Heron, occurs in Florida.  Great Egrets and Great Blues both typically feed in shallow water, taking fish, amphibians, and other prey by waiting and watching quietly, then quickly striking with their long, sharp beaks.  The two species also share a history of having been widely hunted for their long plumes in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the impact on their populations helped lead to nationwide bird-conservation efforts and organizations. Distinctive looks, behavior, and history make these two “Greats” a memorable and meaningful sight along Virginia's rivers, ponds, marshes, and other areas.  Thanks to Lang Elliott for permission to use this week's sounds, from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs, and thanks to Alyson Quinn for permission to share her “Lesson from an Egret,” which gets this episode closing words. GUEST VOICE – ~18 sec – “I want to be more like the egret, with the patience to be still without exhaustion, to never mind the idle currents or be dazzled by the glamour of light on water; but, knowing the good thing I wait for, to coil my hope in constant readiness, and to act in brave certitude when it comes.” SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 277, 8-10-15. The sounds of the Great Egret and the Great Blue Heron were taken from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs-Eastern Region CD set, by Lang Elliott with Donald and Lillian Stokes (Time Warner Audio Books, copyright 1997), used with permission of Lang Elliott, whose work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/. Excerpts of “Lesson from an Egret” are courtesy of Alyson Quinn, from her blog “Winterpast” (September 21, 2007, post), available online at http://www.winterispast.blogspot.com/, used with permission.  Ms. Quinn made the recording after a visit to Algonkian Regional Park, located in Sterling, Va. (Loudoun County), part of the Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority.  More information about the park is available online at https://www.novaparks.com/parks/algonkian-regional-park. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES (Except as otherwise noted, photographs are by Virginia Water Radio.) Upper two images: Great Egret along the New River near Parrott, Va. (Pulaski County); photos by Robert Abraham, used with permission.  Third image: Great Blue Heron in a marsh at Wachapreague, Va. (Accomack County), October 5, 2007.  Bottom image: Great Blue Heron in a stormwater pond on the Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg, July 28, 2015. EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT GREAT EGRETS AND GREAT BLUE HERONS The following information is excerpted from the Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “Fish and Wildlife Information Service”: Great Egret “Life History” entry, online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040032&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19202; and Great Blue Heron “Life History” entry, online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040027&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19202. Great Egret Physical Description“Large, heavy, white heron with yellow-orange bill, black legs, long, slender neck, and long plumes extending beyond tail….” Behavior“Male selects territory that is used for hostile and sexual displays, copulation and nesting.  Adjacent feeding areas vigorously defended, both sexes defend.  …Migration occurs in fall and early spring along coast; winters further south than Virginia. …Foraging: alone in open situations; prefers fresh or brackish waters, openings in swamps, along streams or ponds; wader: stalks prey; known to participate in the 'leap-frog' feeding when initiated by cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis).  Prey are taken in shallow waters; prey usually includes insects, fish, frogs (adults and tadpoles), small birds, snakes, crayfish, and many others.  Nesting: in trees or thickets, 3-90 ft. above water in willows, holly, red cedar, cypress, and bayberry on dry ground in marshes.” Population Comments“Dangerously near extermination in early part of [20th] century due to plume hunting; population comeback hampered by loss of habitat, exposure to DDT and other toxic chemicals and metals. …[Predators include] crows and vultures….” Great Blue Heron Physical Description“Large grayish heron with yellowish bill, white on head, cinnamon on neck, and black legs,” Behavior“Territoriality: known to have feeding territory in non-breeding seasons, defended against members of same species.  Range: breeds from central Canada to northern Central America and winters from middle United States throughout Central America; in Virginia, is a permanent resident of the Coastal Plain. …Foraging: stands motionless in shallow water waiting on prey; occasionally fishes on the wing along watercourses, meadows and fields far from water.  They also take frogs, snakes, insects, and other aquatic animals.  Nesting: predominately in tall cedar and pine swamps, but may also be found on the ground, rock ledges, and sea cliffs; nests on platform of sticks, generally in colonies….” Aquatic/Terrestrial Associations“Salt or fresh shallow waters of lakes, ponds, marshes, streams, bays, oceans, tidal flats, and sandbars; feeds in surf, wet meadows, pastures, and dry fields.” SOURCES Used for Audio Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “All About Birds,” online at http://www.allaboutbirds.org. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Birds of the World,” online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/home  (subscription required). Alice Jane Lippson and Robert L. Lippson, Life in the Chesapeake Bay, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2006. Merriam-Webster  Dictionary:“Egret,” online at https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/egret;“Heron,” online at https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/heron. National Audubon Society, “History of Audubon and Science-based Bird Conservation,” online at http://www.audubon.org/content/history-audubon-and-waterbird-conservation. Oxford Dictionaries/Oxford University Press:“Egret,” online at http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/egret;“Heron,” online at http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/heron. Chandler S. Robbins et al., A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, St. Martin's Press, New York, 2001. Stan Tekiela, Birds of Virginia Field Guide, Adventure Publications, Inc., Cambridge, Minn., 2002. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/:Great Blue Heron entry, online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040027&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19202;Great Egret entry, online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040032&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19202;“List of Native and Naturalized Fauna in Virginia, August 2020,” online (as a PDF) at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/virginia-native-naturalized-species.pdf.The Waterbird Society, online at https://waterbirds.org/. Joel C. Welty, The Life of Birds, W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Penn., 1975. For More Information about Birds in Virginia and Elsewhere Chesapeake Bay Program, “Birds,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/all/birds/all. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin Photo ID.”  The application for mobile devices allows users to submit a bird photograph to get identification of the bird. Information is available online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and the Audubon Society, “eBird,” online at https://ebird.org/home.  Here you can find locations of species observations made by contributors, and you can sign up to contribute your own observations. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, “Animal Diversity Web,” online at https://animaldiversity.org. Virginia Society of Ornithology, online at http://www.virginiabirds.org/.  The Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth. Xeno-canto Foundation, online at http://www.xeno-canto.org/.  This site provides bird songs from around the world.  RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Birds” subject category. Following are links to some other episodes on birds in the family of herons, egrets, night-herons, and bitterns.Episode 118, 7-9-12 – Summertime sampler of birds, including Great Blue Heron. Episode 127, 9-10-12 – Green Heron. Episode 235, 10-13-14 – Black-crowned Night Heron.Episode 381, 8-14-17 – Midnight sounds near water, including Great Blue Heron.Episode 430, 7-23-18 – Marsh birds in Virginia, including Great Blue Heron and Least Bittern.Episode 478, 6-24-19 – Little Blue Heron.Episode 603, 11-15-21 – Fall bird migration, including Green Heron and Snowy Egret. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post.2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-4: Living Systems and Processes1.5 – Animals, including humans, have basic life needs that allow them to survive. 2.5 – Living things are part of a system. 3.4 – Adaptations allow organisms to satisfy life needs and respond to the environment. 3.5 – Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems support a diversity of organisms. 4.2 – Plants and animals have structures that distinguish them from one another and play vital roles in their ability to survive. 4.3 – Organisms, including humans, interact with one another and with the nonliving components in the ecosystem. Grades K-5: Earth ResourcesK.11 – Humans use resources.1.8 – Natural resources can be used responsibly.3.8 – Natural events and humans influence ecosystems.4.8 – Virginia has important natural resources.

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Virginia Water Radio
Episode 627 (5-9-22): A Trio of Songbirds with Tree Nests Near Water

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later May 9, 2022


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (5:05).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 5-6-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the weeks of May 9 and May 16, 2022.   This episode from is part of a series this year of episodes related to trees and shrubs. MUSIC – ~14 sec – instrumental. That's part of “New Spring Waltz,” by the late Madeline MacNeil, who was a well-known and highly regarded musician based in Virginia's Shenandoah Valley. Each new spring brings a chance to focus on the life cycles of wildlife.  This mid-spring episode of Water Radio explores some connections among nesting birds, trees, and water.  Have a listen for about 30 seconds to three mystery sounds, and see if you know these three bird species who nest in trees near water, either always or at least sometimes.  And here's a hint: you'll be singing a melodious trill, if you hit this mystery out of the park. SOUNDS  - 29 sec. If you guessed two warblers and an oriole, you're right!  And you get bodacious bird bragging rights if you recognized, first, the Prothonotary Warbler; second, the Northern Parula, also a kind of warbler; and third, the bird for which Baltimore's baseball team is named, the Baltimore Oriole.  All three of these songbirds are found in Virginia in the spring and summer breeding season.  During that period, the Prothonotary Warbler is common in Virginia's central and southern Coastal Plain and can occasionally be found in some other parts of the Commonwealth; the Baltimore Oriole is common outside of the Coastal Plain; and the Northern Parula is common statewide.  The three species show a range of attachment to water-side trees as their nesting habitat.  The Prothonotary Warbler is particularly known for nesting in cavities in trees around water; in fact, the bird is sometimes called the “Swamp Warbler” in the southeastern United States.  The Northern Parula typically nests in trees along rivers and wetlands, especially in areas where it can find the materials it prefers for making its hanging nests: Spanish Moss or a kind of stringy lichen; this bird is also known to make nests out of debris left in trees after floods.  The Baltimore Oriole is the least water-attached of these three species, being found nesting high in trees in many areas outside of deep woods, including parks and yards; however, streamsides are among the species preferred areas for the bird's fibrous, hanging nests. If you're near streams, rivers, or wetlands and you see or hear any of these three birds, look to nearby trees for cavities or hanging materials that may be harboring the birds' next generation. Thanks to Lang Elliott for permission to use the bird sounds, from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs.  Thanks also to Janita Baker of Blue Lion Dulcimers and Guitars for permission to use Madeline MacNeil's music, and we close with about 25 more seconds of “New Spring Waltz.” MUSIC – ~26 sec – instrumental. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS “New Spring Waltz” is from Madeline MacNeil's 2002 album “Songs of Earth & Sea”; copyright held by Janita Baker, used with permission.  More information about Madeline MacNeil is available from Ms. Baker's “Blue Lion Dulcimers & Guitars” Web site, online at https://www.bluelioninstruments.com/Maddie.html. The sounds of the Baltimore Oriole, Northern Parula, and Prothonotary Warbler were from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs-Eastern Region CD set, by Lang Elliott with Donald and Lillian Stokes (Time Warner Audio Books, copyright 1997), used with permission of Lang Elliott.  Lang Elliot's work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES Baltimore Oriole at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife's National Conservation Training Center in Shepherdstown, W. Va., August 2015.  Photo by Michelle Smith, made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov; the specific URL for the photograph washttps://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/17342/rec/2, as of 5-9-22.Northern Parula at Kennebago Lake in Maine, July 2011.  Photo by Bill Thompson, made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov; the specific URL for the photograph was https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/12961/rec/1, as of 5-9-22.Prothonotary Warbler bringing food to its nest in South Carolina, March 2012.  Photo by Mark Musselman, made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov; the specific URL for the photograph was https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/14152/rec/3, as of 5-9-22. EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT THE BIRDS IN THIS EPISODE The scientific names of the birds in this episode are as follows: Baltimore Oriole – Icterus galbula;Northern Parula – Setophaga Americana (formerly Parula americana);Prothonotary Warbler – Protonotaria citrea. SOURCES Used for Audio Chesapeake Bay Program, “Birds,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/all/birds/all.  The Baltimore Oriole entry is online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/entry/baltimore_oriole. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “All About Birds,” online at http://www.allaboutbirds.org.The Baltimore Oriole entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Baltimore_Oriole;the Northern Parula entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Northern_Parula/;the Prothonotary Warbler entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Prothonotary_Warbler. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Birds of the World,” online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/home (subscription required). The Baltimore Oriole entry is online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/species/balori/cur/introduction; the Northern Parula entry is online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/species/norpar/cur/introduction; the Prothonotary Warbler entry is online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/species/prowar/cur/introduction. Merriam-Webster, “Warble,” online at https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/warble. Chandler S. Robbins et al. A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, St. Martin's Press, New York, N.Y., 2001. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries):“Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/.The Baltimore Oriole entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040348&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19117;the Northern Parula entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040312&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19117;the Prothonotary Warbler entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040303&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19117. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “List of Native and Naturalized Fauna in Virginia, August 2020,” online (as a PDF) at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/virginia-native-naturalized-species.pdf. For More Information about Birds in Virginia and Elsewhere Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin Photo ID.”  The application for mobile devices allows users to submit a bird photograph to get identification of the bird. Information is available online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and the Audubon Society, “eBird,” online at https://ebird.org/home.  Here you can find locations of species observations made by contributors, and you can sign up to contribute your own observations. Stan Tekiela, Birds of Virginia Field Guide, Adventure Publications, Inc., Cambridge, Minn., 2002. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, “Animal Diversity Web,” online at https://animaldiversity.org/. Virginia Society of Ornithology, online at http://www.virginiabirds.org/.  The Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth. Xeno-canto Foundation, online at http://www.xeno-canto.org/.  This site provides bird songs from around the world.  For More Information about Trees and Shrubs in Virginia and Elsewhere Center for Watershed Protection, “Trees and Stormwater Runoff,” online at https://www.cwp.org/reducing-stormwater-runoff/. Chesapeake Bay Program, “Field Guide: Plants and Trees,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/all/plants_trees/all. eFloras.org, “Flora of North America,” online at http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1. Sanglin Lee and Alan Raflo, “Trees and Water,” Virginia Water Resources Research Center, Virginia Water Central Newsletter, pages 13-18, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/49367.   (A Virginia Cooperative Extension version of this article—“Trees and Water,” by Sanglin Lee, Alan Raflo, and Jennifer Gagnon, 2018—with some slight differences in the text is available online at https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/content/pubs_ext_vt_edu/en/ANR/ANR-18/ANR-18NP.html.) Texas A&M University AgriLife Extension, “How Trees Grow,” online at https://agrilife.org/treecarekit/introduction-to-tree-care/how-trees-grow/. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Forests of Virginia, 2018, Resource Update FS-264, Asheville, N.C., 2020; available online at https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/59963. U.S. Department of Agriculture/U.S. Forest Service, “State and Private Forestry Fact Sheet—Virginia 2022,” online (as a PDF) at https://apps.fs.usda.gov/nicportal/temppdf/sfs/naweb/VA_std.pdf. U.S. Department of Agriculture/Forest Service/Climate Change Resource Center, “Forest Tree Diseases and Climate Change,” online at https://www.fs.usda.gov/ccrc/topics/forest-disease. U.S. Department of Agriculture/Forest Service/Northern Research Station (Newtown Square, Penn.), “Forest Disturbance Processes/Invasive Species,” online at https://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/disturbance/invasive_species/.” U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)/Natural Resources Conservation Service, “PLANTS Database,” online at https://plants.usda.gov. Virginia Botanical Associates, “Digital Atlas of the Virginia Flora,” online at http://www.vaplantatlas.org/index.php?do=start&search=Search. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation/Natural Heritage Division, online at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural-heritage/. Virginia Department of Forestry, “Virginia's Forests,” online at https://dof.virginia.gov/.  Some of the useful pages at that site are the following:“Benefits of Trees,”

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Virginia Water Radio
Episode 620 (3-14-22): Calling All Virginia Chorus Frogs

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Mar 15, 2022


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:45).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments Images Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 3-11-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of March 14, 2022.  This is a revised version of an episode from March 2019. SOUNDS – ~5 sec. This week, that raspy call opens an episode about several species of small frogs that share a common group name but differ in sound and distribution.  Have a listen for about 10 seconds to two species recorded simultaneously, and see if you know the name of this frog group.  And here's a hint: to get the key word, gather a lot of harmonious singers, or skip over a song's verses.  SOUNDS  - ~10 sec. If you guessed chorus frogs, you're right!  You heard the creaky call of Mountain Chorus Frogsalong with the single notes of Spring Peepers, two of seven chorus frog species in Virginia.  The other five are the Little Grass Frog and four more species with “chorus frog” in their name: Brimley's, New Jersey, Southern, and Upland chorus frogs.  As a group, they're noted for their choruses of calling males advertising for mates in breeding season.  Those calls vary among the species in pitch, tone, and how quickly sounds are repeated.  The species also differ in their distribution in Virginia: Spring Peepers occur statewide, and Upland Chorus Frogs are found in much of the state, but the other five occupy narrower ranges in the Commonwealth. The Mountain Chorus Frog, which is found from Pennsylvania to Mississippi, including southwestern Virginia, is getting special scientific attention.  Since 2019, scientists Kevin Hamed, at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, and Wally Smith, at the University of Virginia's College at Wise, have led a project to learn more about the species' distribution.  Collaborating with the Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly the Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), they're inviting Virginia citizens, especially K-12 students, to look and listen for this species and to submit information on any observations.  The project's Web site notes that Mountain Chorus Frog's breeding activity is mostly from February to April, but may continue into June; they'll call during the day as well as at night; and places to hear them—which is more likely than seeing them—include wet ditches, flooded fields, mountain seeps and springs, tire ruts, and furrows in plowed fields. To learn more about this project, to submit Mountain Chorus Frog observations, or to request a classroom visit by the researchers, go online to mtchorusfrog.fishwild.vt.edu, or call Kevin Hamed at (540) 231-1887. Thanks to the Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources and to Lang Elliott for permission to use this week's sounds, from A Guide to the Frogs and Toads of Virginia.  We close with a medley of calls from the seven chorus frogs found in Virginia, in alphabetical order.  Have a listen for about 20 seconds, and see if you can recall their names, mentioned earlier in this episode.  Good luck! SOUNDS - ~ 23 sec – Brimley's Chorus Frog, Little Grass Frog, Mountain Chorus Frog, New Jersey Chorus Frog, Southern Chorus Frog, Spring Peeper, Upland Chorus Frog. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 464, 3-18-19. The frog sounds in this episode were from “The Calls of Virginia Frogs and Toads” CD, copyright 2008 by the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (now the Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources) and Lang Elliott/NatureSoundStudio, used with permission.   The CD accompanies A Guide to the Frogs and Toads of Virginia, Special Publication Number 3, Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries; as of March 14, 2022, that publication is no longer available at Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources online store, https://www.shopdwr.com/.  For more information, contact the Department at P.O. Box 90778, Henrico, VA 23228-0778; phone: (804) 367-1000 (VTDD); main Web page is https://dwr.virginia.gov/; to send e-mail, visit https://dwr.virginia.gov/contact/. Lang Elliott's work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/. Thanks to the following people for their help with this episode: Carola Haas, Virginia Tech Department of Fish and Wildlife Conservation, Blacksburg; John Kleopfer, Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources; Kevin Hamed, Virginia Tech Department of Fish and Wildlife Conservation, Blacksburg;Wally Smith, University of Virginia's College at Wise. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGES Project flyer being used for the Mountain Chorus Frog monitoring initiative being conducted in 2022 by the University of Virginia's College at Wise, Virginia Tech, and the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. Flyer accessed at https://www.mtchorusfrog.fishwild.vt.edu, 3/11/22.A chorus frog (species not identified) in Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge in Virginia. Photo made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov, accessed 3-14-22; specific URL for the photo was https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/12030/rec/1.Below are Virginia county occurrence maps for the seven chorus frog species found in Virginia, all from the Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at https://vafwis.dgif.virginia.gov/fwis/, accessed 3/15/22.SOURCES Used for Audio AmphibiaWeb, https://amphibiaweb.org/index.html. John D. Kleopfer and Chris S. Hobson, A Guide to the Frogs and Toad of Virginia, Special Publication Number 3, Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries [now Department of Wildlife Resources], Richmond, Va., 2011. Bernard S. Martof, et al., Amphibians and Reptiles of the Carolinas and Virginia, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1980. J.C. Mitchell and K.K. Reay, Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Virginia, Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries/Richmond (1999); available online (as a PDF) at https://www.virginiaherpetologicalsociety.com/atlases/mitchell-atlas.pdf, courtesy of the Virginia Herpetological Society.  (Herpetology refers to the study of amphibians and reptiles.) Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources, “Wildlife Information,” online at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wildlife/information/.  Information for the seven chorus frogs found in Virginia is at the following links:Brimley's Chorus Frog;Little Grass Frog;Mountain Chorus Frog;New Jersey Chorus Frog;Southern Chorus Frog;Spring Peeper;Upland Chorus Frog. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources, “Virginia Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/.  This site has detailed information on life history, distribution, habitat, and other aspects of species.  The information specifically for the seven chorus frogs found in Virginia is at the following links:Brimley's Chorus Frog;Little Grass Frog;Mountain Chorus Frog;New Jersey Chorus Frog;Southern Chorus Frog;Spring Peeper;Upland Chorus Frog. Virginia Herpetological Society, “Frogs and Toads of Virginia,” online at https://www.virginiaherpetologicalsociety.com/amphibians/frogsandtoads/frogs_and_toads_of_virginia.htm. Virginia Tech Department of Fish and Wildlife Conservation, “Mountain Chorus Frog,” online at https://www.mtchorusfrog.fishwild.vt.edu/.  This is the Web site for the Mountain Chorus Frog monitoring initiative being under taken by Virginia Tech, the University of Virginia's College at Wise, and the Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources. For More Information about Frogs or Other Amphibians U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative, online at https://armi.usgs.gov/. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources, “A Guide to the Salamanders of Virginia,” online at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wildlife/salamanders/. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources, “A Guide to Virginia's Frogs and Toads,” online at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wildlife/frogs-and-toads/. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources, “Virginia is for Frogs,” online at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wildlife/virginia-is-for-frogs/. Sarah Wade, “UVa-Wise team hunts for amphibians in SW Va.'s high-altitude wetlands,” Bristol Herald-Courier, July 4, 2021.  This article describes research in 2021 by Wally Smith, at the University of Virginia's College at Wise, who is one of the researchers in the Mountain Chorus Frog project noted in this episode's audio. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Amphibians” subject category. Following is the link to another episode on an amphibian monitoring project:Episode 357, 2-27-17 – on the Eastern Spadefoot.  Following are links to other episodes focusing on frog species in the chorus frog group:Brimley's Chorus Frog – Episode 563, 2-8-21;Little Grass Frog – Episode 509, 1-27-20;Spring Peeper– Episode 570, 3-29-21; Episode 618, 2-28-22.

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