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Best podcasts about michigan museum

Latest podcast episodes about michigan museum

Virginia Water Radio
Episode 627 (5-9-22): A Trio of Songbirds with Tree Nests Near Water

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later May 9, 2022


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (5:05).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 5-6-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the weeks of May 9 and May 16, 2022.   This episode from is part of a series this year of episodes related to trees and shrubs. MUSIC – ~14 sec – instrumental. That's part of “New Spring Waltz,” by the late Madeline MacNeil, who was a well-known and highly regarded musician based in Virginia's Shenandoah Valley. Each new spring brings a chance to focus on the life cycles of wildlife.  This mid-spring episode of Water Radio explores some connections among nesting birds, trees, and water.  Have a listen for about 30 seconds to three mystery sounds, and see if you know these three bird species who nest in trees near water, either always or at least sometimes.  And here's a hint: you'll be singing a melodious trill, if you hit this mystery out of the park. SOUNDS  - 29 sec. If you guessed two warblers and an oriole, you're right!  And you get bodacious bird bragging rights if you recognized, first, the Prothonotary Warbler; second, the Northern Parula, also a kind of warbler; and third, the bird for which Baltimore's baseball team is named, the Baltimore Oriole.  All three of these songbirds are found in Virginia in the spring and summer breeding season.  During that period, the Prothonotary Warbler is common in Virginia's central and southern Coastal Plain and can occasionally be found in some other parts of the Commonwealth; the Baltimore Oriole is common outside of the Coastal Plain; and the Northern Parula is common statewide.  The three species show a range of attachment to water-side trees as their nesting habitat.  The Prothonotary Warbler is particularly known for nesting in cavities in trees around water; in fact, the bird is sometimes called the “Swamp Warbler” in the southeastern United States.  The Northern Parula typically nests in trees along rivers and wetlands, especially in areas where it can find the materials it prefers for making its hanging nests: Spanish Moss or a kind of stringy lichen; this bird is also known to make nests out of debris left in trees after floods.  The Baltimore Oriole is the least water-attached of these three species, being found nesting high in trees in many areas outside of deep woods, including parks and yards; however, streamsides are among the species preferred areas for the bird's fibrous, hanging nests. If you're near streams, rivers, or wetlands and you see or hear any of these three birds, look to nearby trees for cavities or hanging materials that may be harboring the birds' next generation. Thanks to Lang Elliott for permission to use the bird sounds, from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs.  Thanks also to Janita Baker of Blue Lion Dulcimers and Guitars for permission to use Madeline MacNeil's music, and we close with about 25 more seconds of “New Spring Waltz.” MUSIC – ~26 sec – instrumental. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS “New Spring Waltz” is from Madeline MacNeil's 2002 album “Songs of Earth & Sea”; copyright held by Janita Baker, used with permission.  More information about Madeline MacNeil is available from Ms. Baker's “Blue Lion Dulcimers & Guitars” Web site, online at https://www.bluelioninstruments.com/Maddie.html. The sounds of the Baltimore Oriole, Northern Parula, and Prothonotary Warbler were from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs-Eastern Region CD set, by Lang Elliott with Donald and Lillian Stokes (Time Warner Audio Books, copyright 1997), used with permission of Lang Elliott.  Lang Elliot's work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES Baltimore Oriole at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife's National Conservation Training Center in Shepherdstown, W. Va., August 2015.  Photo by Michelle Smith, made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov; the specific URL for the photograph washttps://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/17342/rec/2, as of 5-9-22.Northern Parula at Kennebago Lake in Maine, July 2011.  Photo by Bill Thompson, made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov; the specific URL for the photograph was https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/12961/rec/1, as of 5-9-22.Prothonotary Warbler bringing food to its nest in South Carolina, March 2012.  Photo by Mark Musselman, made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov; the specific URL for the photograph was https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/14152/rec/3, as of 5-9-22. EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT THE BIRDS IN THIS EPISODE The scientific names of the birds in this episode are as follows: Baltimore Oriole – Icterus galbula;Northern Parula – Setophaga Americana (formerly Parula americana);Prothonotary Warbler – Protonotaria citrea. SOURCES Used for Audio Chesapeake Bay Program, “Birds,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/all/birds/all.  The Baltimore Oriole entry is online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/entry/baltimore_oriole. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “All About Birds,” online at http://www.allaboutbirds.org.The Baltimore Oriole entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Baltimore_Oriole;the Northern Parula entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Northern_Parula/;the Prothonotary Warbler entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Prothonotary_Warbler. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Birds of the World,” online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/home (subscription required). The Baltimore Oriole entry is online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/species/balori/cur/introduction; the Northern Parula entry is online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/species/norpar/cur/introduction; the Prothonotary Warbler entry is online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/species/prowar/cur/introduction. Merriam-Webster, “Warble,” online at https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/warble. Chandler S. Robbins et al. A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, St. Martin's Press, New York, N.Y., 2001. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries):“Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/.The Baltimore Oriole entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040348&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19117;the Northern Parula entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040312&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19117;the Prothonotary Warbler entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040303&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19117. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “List of Native and Naturalized Fauna in Virginia, August 2020,” online (as a PDF) at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/virginia-native-naturalized-species.pdf. For More Information about Birds in Virginia and Elsewhere Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin Photo ID.”  The application for mobile devices allows users to submit a bird photograph to get identification of the bird. Information is available online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and the Audubon Society, “eBird,” online at https://ebird.org/home.  Here you can find locations of species observations made by contributors, and you can sign up to contribute your own observations. Stan Tekiela, Birds of Virginia Field Guide, Adventure Publications, Inc., Cambridge, Minn., 2002. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, “Animal Diversity Web,” online at https://animaldiversity.org/. Virginia Society of Ornithology, online at http://www.virginiabirds.org/.  The Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth. Xeno-canto Foundation, online at http://www.xeno-canto.org/.  This site provides bird songs from around the world.  For More Information about Trees and Shrubs in Virginia and Elsewhere Center for Watershed Protection, “Trees and Stormwater Runoff,” online at https://www.cwp.org/reducing-stormwater-runoff/. Chesapeake Bay Program, “Field Guide: Plants and Trees,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/all/plants_trees/all. eFloras.org, “Flora of North America,” online at http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1. Sanglin Lee and Alan Raflo, “Trees and Water,” Virginia Water Resources Research Center, Virginia Water Central Newsletter, pages 13-18, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/49367.   (A Virginia Cooperative Extension version of this article—“Trees and Water,” by Sanglin Lee, Alan Raflo, and Jennifer Gagnon, 2018—with some slight differences in the text is available online at https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/content/pubs_ext_vt_edu/en/ANR/ANR-18/ANR-18NP.html.) Texas A&M University AgriLife Extension, “How Trees Grow,” online at https://agrilife.org/treecarekit/introduction-to-tree-care/how-trees-grow/. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Forests of Virginia, 2018, Resource Update FS-264, Asheville, N.C., 2020; available online at https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/59963. U.S. Department of Agriculture/U.S. Forest Service, “State and Private Forestry Fact Sheet—Virginia 2022,” online (as a PDF) at https://apps.fs.usda.gov/nicportal/temppdf/sfs/naweb/VA_std.pdf. U.S. Department of Agriculture/Forest Service/Climate Change Resource Center, “Forest Tree Diseases and Climate Change,” online at https://www.fs.usda.gov/ccrc/topics/forest-disease. U.S. Department of Agriculture/Forest Service/Northern Research Station (Newtown Square, Penn.), “Forest Disturbance Processes/Invasive Species,” online at https://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/disturbance/invasive_species/.” U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)/Natural Resources Conservation Service, “PLANTS Database,” online at https://plants.usda.gov. Virginia Botanical Associates, “Digital Atlas of the Virginia Flora,” online at http://www.vaplantatlas.org/index.php?do=start&search=Search. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation/Natural Heritage Division, online at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural-heritage/. Virginia Department of Forestry, “Virginia's Forests,” online at https://dof.virginia.gov/.  Some of the useful pages at that site are the following:“Benefits of Trees,”

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The Modern Art Notes Podcast
Meret Oppenheim, African art and restitution

The Modern Art Notes Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 21, 2022 57:56


Episode No. 546 of The Modern Art Notes Podcast features curators Natalie Dupêcher and Laura de Becker.  Along with Anne Umland and Nina Zimmer, Dupêcher is the co-curator of "Meret Oppenheim: My Exhibition," a retrospective that spans the Swiss artists' 1930s work in Paris, her engagements with surrealism, and her broad post-war synthesis of nouveau réalisme, pop, abstraction and addresses of nature. The exhibition is at the Menil Collection, Houston, through September 18 before traveling to the Museum of Modern Art, New York. It debuted at the Kunstmuseum Bern last fall. (The Kunstmuseum Bern created a "digitorial" for the exhibition.) "Oppenheim" is accompanied by a catalogue published by MoMA. Indiebound and Amazon offer it for $27-45. de Becker is the curator of "Wish You Were Here: African Art and Restitution" at the University of Michigan Museum of Art. The exhibition takes a unique approach to an examination of eleven objects from the museum's African collection: instead of researching their provenances' relationship to the era of colonization in private, the museum is conducting its research into those objects publicly and in near-real time via a gallery exhibition. Both the exhibition and the website UMMA has launched for the project are models of transparency. de Becker is UMMA's curator for African art and interim chief curator. She is assisted in the project by Timnet Gedar, Bridget Grier, Caitlyn Webster and Ozi Uduma. 

SAPIENS: A Podcast for Everything Human
Repatriation Is Our Future

SAPIENS: A Podcast for Everything Human

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 13, 2022 44:00


The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990, or NAGPRA, is supposed to curb the illegal possession of ancestral Native American remains and cultural items. But a year after it was passed by the U.S. federal government, a significant African burial ground in New York City was uncovered. And there was zero legislation in place for its protection. Dr. Rachel Watkins shares the story of the New York African Burial Ground—and what repatriation looks like for African American communities.   (00:00:44) Enter the Peabody Museum of Archeology and Ethnology and its NAGPRA controversy. (00:03:19) A discovery in Manhattan is not covered by NAGPRA. (00:05:19) Intro. (00:05:44) Dr. Rachel Watkins, the New York African Burial Ground Project and Michael Blakey.  (00:11:40) Dr. Rachel Watikins meets the Cobb Collection. (00:23:44) Exploring Repatriation for the New York African Burial Ground Project. (00:28:26) The issue of repatriation for the Cobb Collection. (00:34:02) Revisiting season 4. (00:40:49) Credits.   SAPIENS: A Podcast for Everything Human, is produced by House of Pod and supported by the Wenner-Gren Foundation. SAPIENS is also part of the American Anthropological Association Podcast Library. This season was created in collaboration with the Indigenous Archaeology Collective and Society of Black Archaeologists, with art by Carla Keaton, and music from Jobii, _91nova, and Justnormal. For more information and transcriptions, visit sapiens.org.     Thank you this time also to The Harvard Review and their podcast, A Legacy Revealed for permitting us to use a clip from Episode 4 I Could See Family in Their Eyes, hosted by Raquel Coronell Uribe and Sixiao Yu and produced by Lara Dada, Zing Gee, and Thomas Maisonneuve.   Additional Sponsors: This episode, and entire series, was made possible by the Cornell Institute of Archaeology and Material Studies, the Denver Museum of Nature & Science, UC San Diego Scripps Center for Marine Archaeology, the University of Michigan Museum of Anthropological Archaeology, the Joukowsky Institute for Archaeology at Brown University, UMASS Boston's Fiske Center for Archaeological Research, UC Berkeley's Archaeological Research Facility, and the Imago Mundi Fund at Foundation for the Carolinas.   Additional Resources:   From SAPIENS: Why the Whiteness of Archaeology Is a Problem Craft an African American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act  New York African Burial Ground  The Mismeasure of Man Guest: Rachel Watkins is a biocultural anthropologist with an emphasis on African American biohistory and social history, bioanthropological research practices, and histories of U.S. biological anthropology.

RadioCIAMS
SAPIENS Talk Back: Archaeology and Social Justice

RadioCIAMS

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 24, 2022 40:30


The Archaeology Centers Coalition and RadioCIAMS present “SAPIENS Talk Back”: eight conversations with students and scholars that expand upon the insights of Season 4 of the SAPIENS podcast entitled “Our Past is the Future.” In this episode, we welcome the featured guests of Episode 3 of SAPIENS Season 4: Dr. Kisha Supernant, Associate Professor in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Alberta and Director of the Institute of Prairie and Indigenous Archaeology, and Lenora McQueen, an activist who has worked tirelessly to preserve the Shockoe Hill African Burying Ground in Richmond. “SAPIENS Talk Back” was developed in collaboration with the Indigenous Archaeology Collective and the Society of Black Archaeologists, with special help from Drs. Sara Gonzalez, Justin Dunnavant, and Ayana Flewellen. Special thanks also to Chip Colwell and the production team at SAPIENS, the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, and House of Pod.   This episode was made possible by financial support of the University of Michigan Museum of Anthropological Archaeology. Hosts Rafael Cruz Gil and Carol Anne Barsody from the Cornell Institute of Archaeology and Material Studies join Elspeth Geiger (University of Michigan), Mariela Declet Pérez (University of California, San Diego), and Dan Plekhov (Brown University) for a conversation on how to reshape the discipline. SAPIENS Talk Back is a production of the Archaeological Centers Coalition. You can find more information about their work at archaeologycoalition.org.  RadioCIAMS is a member of the American Anthropological Association's podcast library. Our theme music was composed by Charlee Mandy and performed by Maia Dedrick and Russell Dedrick. This episode was produced at Cornell University by Adam Smith, with Alex Symons as engineer and Rebecca Gerdes as production assistant.

Virginia Water Radio
Episode 615 (2-7-22): Winter Brings Brant to Atlantic Coastal Waters

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Feb 7, 2022


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:17).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 2-4-22.TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of February 7, 2022.  This revised episode from December 2019 is part of a series this year of winter-related episodes. SOUND – ~ 5 sec. This week, we feature a feathered Virginia winter-resident mystery sound.  Have a listen to the sound for about 10 more seconds, and see if you know a relatively small, dark-colored goose species that migrates from Arctic shores to the mid-Atlantic coast for the winter.  And here's a hint: the name rhymes with migrant.SOUNDS - ~10 sec.If you guessed the Brant, you're right!  From its summer breeding grounds in northern Canada and Greenland, the Brant travels to wintering areas along the Atlantic from Massachusetts to North Carolina, including coastal Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay region.  That's the pathway for eastern sub-populations of the species; westernsub-populations migrate from Arctic parts of Canada and Alaska to the Pacific coastline.One of eight species of geese native to North America, Brant live in a variety of saltwater or estuarine habitats, feeding mostly on a number of kinds of aquatic plants.  In their winter habitats along the Atlantic Coast and around the Chesapeake, they prefer areas where they can feed on Eelgrass [Zostera marina].  Wintering Brant will eat various other aquatic plants, too, especially in response to reduced populations of Eelgrass.  According to the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, however, Brant are more dependent on a single food type than other geese species, and this dependence can make Brant more vulnerable than other geese to starvation in some years.  Regarding Brant winter feeding, the Cornell Lab notes that severe conditions in eastern North America during the winter of 1976 and 1977 kept Brant from traditional winter habitats for several months.  As a result, Brant that year moved inland to feed in agricultural fields, suburban lawns, and golf courses, and over 40 years later, eastern Brant still forage inland from New York to Virginia. Thanks to Lang Elliott for permission to use this week's sounds, from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs.  We close with about 40 seconds of music for Brant and other kinds of geese.  Here's “Geese Piece,” by Torrin Hallett, and graduate student at the Yale School of Music. MUSIC - ~43 sec – instrumental.SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 502, 12-9-19, The Brant sounds were from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs-Eastern Region CD set, by Lang Elliott with Donald and Lillian Stokes (Time Warner Audio Books, copyright 1997), used with permission of Lang Elliott, whose work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/. “Geese Piece” is copyright 2016 by Torrin Hallett, used with permission.  Thanks very much to Torrin for composing the piece especially for Virginia Water Radio.  Torrin is a 2018 graduate of Oberlin College and Conservatory in Oberlin, Ohio; a 2020 graduate in Horn Performance from Manhattan School of Music in New York; and a 2021 graduate of the Lamont School of Music at the University of Denver.  He is currently a graduate student at the Yale School of Music.  More information about Torrin is available online at https://www.facebook.com/torrin.hallett.  This music was previously featured in Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 500, 11-25-19.  Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES Brant in defensive position in Alaska.  Photo by Tim Bowman, made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov; specific URL for the photo was https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/4267/rec/1, as of 2-7-22.Brant in Cape Charles, Va. (Northampton County), January 31, 2019.  Photo by Robert Suppa, made available on iNaturalist at https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/20014700(as of 2-7-22) for use under Creative Commons license “Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0.”  Information about this Creative Commons license is available online at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT BRANT The scientific name of the Brant is Branta bernicla.Here are some points about Brant, excerpted from the Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “Fish and Wildlife Information Service/Brant/Life History/Brant,” online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040046&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19030, as of 2-7-22. Physical Description “The adult neck and head are black, except for a broken white crescent on each side of the neck.  The bill is black and the eye is brown.  The chest and foreback are black, sharply defined against the breast and sides.  The back and scapulars are brown with the feathers vaguely tipped with lighter brown.  The rump is dusky brown to dusky, with the sides of the rump white.  The forebreast and sides are pale ashy-gray, and the feathers of the sides are slightly browner, and broadly tipped with white.  The breast, belly and flanks are pale grayish to light grayish-brown.  The feet are black, and the tail is black….” Nesting Habitat and Behavior “This species breeds in Arctic North America, Arctic islands, northern Canada, [and] Greenland off- shore islands, river deltas, marshy uplands, and tundra lakes.  This species is seldom far from the coast.  They use marshy ground, sandy beaches, talus slopes, coastal sedge tundra, lowland coastal tundra just above the high tide line, low islands of tundra lakes and dry inland slopes covered with vegetation, low grass-covered flats dissected by tidal streams, [and] grassy islands and grassy slopes of low mountains near the coast.  The nest site is always in the open, on offshore or lake islands, or on low lying land. …The nest cover is low, thick, grass or sedge mat vegetation.  They nest in colonies. …The nest is initially a depression formed in soggy earth.  Sedges are molded around the scrape and down is later added. …The young are led to tidal flats or pools where they consume quantities of insects as well as grass….” Winter Habitat (of Eastern Sub-populations) “Non-breeding habitat is on the Atlantic Coast from Massachusetts to North Carolina.  They are coastal but also occur in lower Chesapeake Bay, the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, Chincoteague Bay, Gargathy Bay, and Accomack County.  Most of the time the 8000 that winter in Virginia are concentrated in Back Bay, [other] bays, tidal flats with abundant pondweed growth, mudflats, …lagoons, estuaries, saltmarshes, islands, …marine habitat, and shallow expanses of saltwater.  They are most abundant on Chesapeake Bay on the barrier beach side of the bays. They may be in shallow areas of brackish water.  They are gregarious, and often form large rafts on open water while feeding and resting.  They rest on sandbars, and roost on banks or on water near the feeding grounds.” Diet “This species forages in water, mud, and fields.  It immerses the head and neck and grazes or up-ends. This species prefers to feed in bays, shallow plant filled waters on the leeward side of barrier islands, spits, and sandbars and grassy fields.  This species feeds at low tide and does not dive. …The juveniles eat insects, grass, larvae, small crustaceans, sedge, marine invertebrates, mosquito larvae, and pondweed.  Eelgrass is the primary food, and they have been recently feeding extensively on sea lettuce due to the destruction of eelgrass beds.   They may also graze on saltmarsh pastures.  Other foods include moss, lichens, algae, sea lettuce, widgeon grass, …sedge, [and other materials]. …Animal foods are taken accidentally and include fish eggs, worms, snails, amphipods, insects, crustaceans, and clams.  When saltmarshes and bays freeze over, they will graze on grass planted in yards.” SOURCES Used for Audio Chesapeake Bay Program, “Eelgrass,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/entry/eelgrass.  Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “All About Birds,” online at http://www.allaboutbirds.org; the Brant entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Brant/. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, “Birds of the World,” online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/home(subscription required); the Brant entry is online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/species/brant/cur/introduction.  This is the source for the information mentioned in the audio about Brant's dependence on Eelgrass.  Ducks Unlimited, online at https://www.ducks.org/hunting/waterfowl-id/geese. Encyclopedia Britannica, “Brant,” online at https://www.britannica.com/animal/brant-bird; and “Goose,” online at https://www.britannica.com/animal/goose-bird. Chandler S. Robbins et al., A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, St. Martin's Press, New York, 2001.Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/; the Brant entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040046&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19027. For More Information about Birds in Virginia and Elsewhere Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin Photo ID.”  The application for mobile devices allows users to submit a bird photograph to get identification of the bird. Information is available online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and the Audubon Society, “eBird,” online at https://ebird.org/home.  Here you can find locations of species observations made by contributors, and you can sign up to contribute your own observations. Stan Tekiela, Birds of Virginia Field Guide, Adventure Publications, Inc., Cambridge, Minn., 2002. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, “Animal Diversity Web,” online at https://animaldiversity.org/. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “List of Native and Naturalized Fauna in Virginia, August 2020,” online (as a PDF) at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/virginia-native-naturalized-species.pdf. Virginia Society of Ornithology, online at http://www.virginiabirds.org/.  The Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth. Xeno-canto Foundation, online at http://www.xeno-canto.org/.  This site provides bird songs from around the world. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODESAll Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Birds” and “Weather/Climate/Natural Disasters” subject categories.Following are links to several other winter-related episodes, including episodes on some birds that reside in Virginia typically only in winter (listed separately).  Please note that some of these episodes may be redone in early 2022; in those cases, the respective links below will have information on the updated episodes. Frost – Episode 597, 10-4-21.Freezing and ice – Episode 606, 12-6-21 (especially for grades K-3).Ice on ponds and lakes – Episode 404, 1-22-18 (especially for grades 4-8).Ice on rivers – Episode 406, 2-5-18 (especially for middle school grades).Polar Plunge® for Special Olympics – Episode 356, 2-20-17.Snow physics and chemistry – Episode 407, 2-12-18 (especially for high school grades).Snow, sleet, and freezing rain – Episode 613, 1-24-22.Snow terms – Episode 612, 1-17-22.Surviving freezing – Episode 556, 12-21-20.Winter precipitation and water supplies – Episode 567, 3-8-21.Winter weather preparedness – Episode 605, 11-29-21.Water thermodynamics – Episode 610, 1-3-22. Bird-related Episodes for Winter Audubon Society Christmas Bird Count – Episode 607, 12-13-21.American Avocet – Episode 543, 9-21-20.Canvasback (duck) – Episode 604, 11-22-21.Common Goldeneye (duck) – Episode 303, 2/15/16.Green-winged Teal (duck) – Episode 398, 12-11-17.Grebes (Horned and Red-necked) – Episode 233, 9-29-14.Loons – Episode 445, 11-5-18.Fall migration – Episode 603, 11-15-21.Northern Harrier – Episode 561, 1-25-21.Snow Goose – Episode 507, 1/13/20.Tundra Swan – Episode 554, 12-7-20.Winter birds sampler from the Chesapeake Bay area – Episode 565, 2-22-21. Following are other music pieces composed by Torrin Hallett for Virginia Water Radio, with episodes featuring the music. “A Little Fright Music” – used most recenlty in Episode 601, 10-31-21, on connections among Halloween, water, and the human body.“Beetle Ballet” – used in Episode 525, 5-18-20, on aquatic beetles.“Chesapeake Bay Ballad” – used most recently in Episode 604, 11-22-21, on Canvasback ducks.“Corona Cue” – used in Episode 517, 3-23-20, on the coronavirus pandemic.“Flow Stopper” – used in Episode 599, 10-18-21, on “Imagine a Day Without Water.”“Ice Dance” – used most recently in Episode 606, 12-6-21, on freezing of water.“Lizard Lied” – used in Episode 514, 3-2-20, on lizards.“New Year's Water” – used most recently in Episode 610, 1-3-22, on water thermodynamics and a New Year's Day New River wade-in.“Rain Refrain” – used most recently in Episode 559, 1-11-21, on record rainfall in 2020.“Runoff” – used in Episode 585, 7-12-21, on middle schoolers calling out stormwater-related water words.“Spider Strike” – used in Episode 523, 5-4-20, on fishing spiders.“Tropical Tantrum” – used most recently in Episode 580, 6-7-21, on the 2021 Atlantic tropical storm season preview.“Tundra Swan Song – used in Episode 554, 12-7-20, on Tundra Swans.“Turkey Tune” – used in Episode 343, 11-21-16, on the Wild Turkey. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLsSOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”2018 Science SOLs Grades K-4: Living Systems and Processes 1.5 – Animals, including humans, have basic life needs that allow them to survive. 2.4 – Plants and animals undergo a series of orderly changes as they grow and develop, including life cycles. 2.5 – Living things are part of a system. 3.4 – Adaptations allow organisms to satisfy life needs and respond to the environment. Grades K-5: Earth and Space Systems K.9 – There are patterns in nature. 1.7 – There are weather and seasonal changes. 2.7 – Weather patterns and seasonal changes affect plants, animals, and their surroundings. 4.4 – Weather conditions and climate have effects on ecosystems and can be predicted. Grades K-5: Earth Resources 3.8 – Natural events and humans influence ecosystems. 4.8 – Virginia has important natural resources. Grade 6 6.8 – Land and water have roles in watershed systems, including the Chesapeake Bay estuary. Life Science LS.7 – Adaptations support an organism's survival in an ecosystem. LS.8 – Change occurs in ecosystems, communities, populations, and organisms over time. Biology BIO.8 – Dynamic equilibria exist within populations, communities, and ecosystems. Virginia's SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/. Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels (* indicates episode listed above in the “Related Water Radio Episodes” section). Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade. Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.*Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.*Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.*Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school.Episode 524, 5-11-20 – on sounds by water-related animals, for elementary school through high school.Episode 531, 6-29-20 – on various ways that animals get water, for 3rd and 4th grade.Episode 539, 8-24-20 – on basic numbers and facts about Virginia's water resources, for 4th and 6th grade.*Episode 606, 12-6-21 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.

Virginia Water Radio
Episode 607 (12-13-21): A Winter Holidays History of Counting Birds

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 16, 2021


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:08).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 12-10-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of December 13, 2021.  This revised episode from December 2015 is part of a series this year of winter-related episodes. SOUNDS – 7 secThis week, the sound of Mallard ducks on a December day in Blacksburg, Va., is the call to explore the annual Christmas Bird Count, organized by the National Audubon Society.Since 1900, the Society has helped organize volunteers to hold local daylong bird counts between December 14 and January 5.  On any single day within that period, volunteer counters follow specific routes within a 15-mile diameter circle, counting every bird they see or hear.  The count provides a snapshot both of the species encountered and of the numbers of individuals within each species.  According to the Society, this effort is the “longest running community science bird project” in the United States, and it actually takes place now in over 20 countries in the Western Hemisphere.  The results of such a long-term inventory help show the status of bird populations and the impacts of changes in habitat, climate, and other environmental conditions. Of course, birds living around water and wetlands are part of the annual count; in fact, the Audubon Society's founding in the late 1800s was due largely to concerns over commercial use of plumes from egrets and other wading birds.  [Additional note, not in audio: This refers to the founding in 1896 of the Massachusetts Audubon Society, the first state-level affiliate of the National Audubon Society, founded in 1905.  For more information on this history, see the Extra Information section below.] So what kinds of water-related birds might Virginia Christmas bird counters find?  Have a listen for about 20 seconds to this sample of four possible species.SOUNDS - 23 secThe Bald Eagle, Belted Kingfisher, Ring-billed Gull, and Greater Yellowlegs are among the many water-related birds that inhabit parts of Virginia during winter, including shorebirds, ducks, herons, and lots of others.  Keeping track of these and other feathered Virginia winter residents is a holiday tradition for many Commonwealth citizens with patience, binoculars, and attentive eyes and ears.Thanks to Lang Elliott for permission to use the eagle, kingfisher, gull, and yellowlegs sounds, from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs. Here's hoping that Virginia's Christmas bird counters find good variety and high numbers this year.  We close with a U.S. Fish and Wildfire Service recording of another Virginia water-related winter resident, the Common Loon, a species that some diligent coastalVirginia counter might spot or hear on a winter day or night. SOUNDS - ~6 sec SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 294, 12-14-15. The Mallard sounds were recorded by Virginia Water Radio at the Virginia Tech Duck Pond in Blacksburg on December 10, 2015. The sounds of the Bald Eagle, Belted Kingfisher, Ring-billed Gull, and Greater Yellowlegs were taken from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs-Eastern RegionCD set, by Lang Elliott with Donald and Lillian Stokes (Time Warner Audio Books, copyright 1997), used with permission of Lang Elliott, whose work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/. The Common Loon sounds were taken from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife National Digital Library, http://digitalmedia.fws.gov/cdm/; the specific URL for the loons recording was https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/audio/id/57/rec/1, as of 12-13-21. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES Mallards (several males, plus one female on right) on Virginia Tech Duck Pond, Blacksburg, December 10, 2015.Great Blue Heron in a stormwater pond near the Virginia Tech Inn and Alumni Center in Blacksburg, December 16, 2021.Canada Geese beside a stormwater pond near the Virginia Tech Inn and Alumni Center in Blacksburg, December 11, 2021. EXTRA INFORMATION On Bird Counts Another nationwide count is the Great Backyard Bird Count, held each February and organized by Audubon, the Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, and Birds Canada.  This count calls on volunteers to watch birds for 15 minutes or more, at least once over four days (February 18-21 in 2022), and record the species and numbers of all the birds seen or heard.  Its results also contribute to large-scale and long-term understanding of bird species distribution and health.  For more information, visit http://gbbc.birdcount.org/.On Audubon Society History and Waterbirds “Outrage over the slaughter of millions of waterbirds, particularly egrets and other waders, for the millinery trade led to the foundation, by Harriet Hemenway and Mina Hall, of the Massachusetts Audubon Society in 1896.  By 1898, state-level Audubon Societies had been established in Pennsylvania, New York, New Hampshire, Illinois, Maine, Wisconsin, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Connecticut, the District of Columbia, Ohio, Indiana, Tennessee, Minnesota, Texas, and California. ...In 1901, state-level Audubon groups joined together in a loose national organization....  In 1905, the National Audubon Society was founded, with the protection of gulls, terns, egrets, herons, and other waterbirds high on its conservation priority list.” – National Audubon Society, “History of Audubon and Science-based Bird Conservation, online at http://www.audubon.org/content/history-audubon-and-waterbird-conservation.On Loon Calls in Winter“Generally loons are silent on the wintering grounds, but occasionally on a quiet winter night one will hear their primeval, tremulous yodel.” – Alice Jane Lippson and Robert L. Lippson, Life in the Chesapeake Bay (Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md., 2006), p. 285.“All calls can be heard in migration and winter, but compared to the breeding season, they are uncommon.” – Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and American Ornithologists' Union, “Birds of North America Online/Common Loon/Sounds,” online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/species/comloo/cur/sounds (subscription required for access to this Web site). SOURCES Used in Audio Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “All About Birds,” online at http://www.allaboutbirds.org. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Birds of the World,” online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/home (subscription required for this site). Alice Jane Lippson and Robert L. Lippson, Life in the Chesapeake Bay, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md., 2006. National Audubon Society, online at http://www.audubon.org/. National Audubon Society, “Christmas Bird Count,” online at http://www.audubon.org/conservation/science/christmas-bird-count. Kathy Reshetiloff, “Listen for the haunting call of loons on Bay's frigid winter waters,” Bay Journal, 12/8/14, updated 3/31/20. Chandler S. Robbins et al. A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, St. Martin's Press, New York, 2001. Stan Tekiela, Birds of Virginia Field Guide, Adventure Publications, Inc., Cambridge, Minn., 2002. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries):Fish and Wildlife Information Service, online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/.The Bald Eagle entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040093&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18974.The Belted Kingfisher entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040220&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18974.The Ring-billed Gull entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040170&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18974.The Greater Yellowlegs entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040130&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18974.The Common Loon entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040001&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18974. For More Information about Birds in Virginia or Elsewhere Chesapeake Bay Program, “Birds,” online athttps://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/all/birds/all. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin Photo ID.”  The application for mobile devices allows users to submit a bird photograph to get identification of the bird.  Information is available online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and the Audubon Society, “eBird,” online at https://ebird.org/home.  Here you can find locations of species observations made by contributors, and you can sign up to contribute your own observations. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, “Animal Diversity Web,” online at https://animaldiversity.org. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “List of Native and Naturalized Fauna in Virginia, August 2020,” online (as a PDF) at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/virginia-native-naturalized-species.pdf. Virginia Society of Ornithology, online at http://www.virginiabirds.org/.  The Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth. Xeno-canto Foundation, online at http://www.xeno-canto.org/.  This site provides bird songs from around the world. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Birds” and “Weather/Climate/Natural Disasters” subject categories. Following are links to several other winter-related episodes, including episodes on some birds that reside in Virginia typically only in winter (listed separately).  Please note that some of these episodes are being redone in late 2021 and early 2022; in those cases, the respective links below will have information on the updated episodes. Frost – Episode 597, 10-4-21.Freezing and ice – Episode 606, 12-6-21 (especially for grades K-3).Ice on ponds and lakes – Episode 404, 1-22-18 (especially for grades 4-8).Ice on rivers – Episode 406, 2-5-18 (especially for middle school grades).Polar Plunge®for Special Olympics – Episode 356, 2-20-17.Snow physics and chemistry – Episode 407, 2-12-18 (especially for high school grades).Snow, sleet, and freezing rain – Episode 461, 2-25-19.Snow terms – Episode 300, 1-25-16.Surviving freezing – Episode 556, 12-21-20.Winter precipitation and water supplies – Episode 567, 3-8-21.Winter weather preparedness – Episode 605, 11-29-21.Water thermodynamics – Episode 195, 1-6-14. Bird-related Episodes for Winter American Avocet – Episode 543, 9-21-20.Brant (goose) – Episode 502, 12-9-19.Canvasback (duck) – Episode 604, 11-22-21.&l

christmas united states music new york relationships university california game history texas world science education college guide water state fall change zoom land tech research society government green ohio foundation minnesota new jersey north america pennsylvania tennessee wisconsin modern illinois ring environment indiana fish dark press normal union web surviving natural md va rain birds humans baltimore ocean animals cd snow connecticut ice maine citizens columbia cambridge agency stream priority plants new hampshire biology native environmental bay images counting dynamic grade rhode island bio scientific index generally commonwealth frost processes hawk menu pond outrage signature virginia tech broad robbins accent atlantic ocean life sciences natural resources freezing special olympics compatibility msonormal colorful demonstrate populations times new roman sora ls brant sections aquatic teal watershed zoology chesapeake western hemisphere minn policymakers taxonomy chesapeake bay bald eagles gull shenandoah robert l osprey audubon blacksburg acknowledgment mallard cosgrove ornithology cambria math loons style definitions worddocument xeno saveifxmlinvalid ignoremixedcontent winter holidays punctuationkerning breakwrappedtables dontgrowautofit trackmoves trackformatting stormwater lidthemeother snaptogridincell wraptextwithpunct useasianbreakrules lidthemeasian x none mathpr latentstyles deflockedstate msonormaltable centergroup subsup undovr donotpromoteqf virginia department latentstylecount mathfont johns hopkins university press brkbin brkbinsub smallfrac dispdef lmargin wrapindent rmargin defjc intlim narylim defunhidewhenused defsemihidden defqformat defpriority lsdexception locked qformat semihidden unhidewhenused audubon society latentstyles table normal polar plunge bmp name title name strong name emphasis name normal name colorful list name intense reference name default paragraph font name colorful grid name book title name subtitle name light shading accent name bibliography name light list accent name toc heading name light grid accent name table grid name revision name placeholder text name list paragraph name no spacing name quote name light shading name intense quote name light list name dark list accent name light grid name colorful shading accent name medium shading name colorful list accent name medium list name colorful grid accent name medium grid name subtle emphasis name dark list name intense emphasis name colorful shading name subtle reference national audubon society birdsongs canada geese ebird christmas bird count living systems mallards grades k msohyperlink name e wildlife resources light accent dark accent colorful accent name list great blue heron cumberland gap name date name plain text name closing name no list name grid table light name signature name outline list name grid table name body text name table simple name body text indent name table classic name list continue name table colorful name message header name table columns name list table name salutation name table list name table 3d name body text first indent name table contemporary name note heading name table elegant name block text name table professional name document map name table subtle name normal indent name table web name balloon text name list bullet name normal web name table theme name list number name normal table name plain table bird conservation inland fisheries virginia society michigan museum canvasback ben cosgrove all about birds audio notes msobodytext water center tmdl lang elliott bay journal donotshowrevisions virginia standards
Virginia Water Radio
Episode 604 (11-22-21): Canvasbacks Come Back to the Chesapeake as Winter Approaches

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 23, 2021


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:33).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 11-19-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of November 22, 2021.  This revised episode from January 2014 is part of a series this year of winter-related episodes. SOUND – ~5 sec That's the landing sound of a large, distinctive duck that can be found in winter on Virginia's coastal waters.  Have a listen for about 10 seconds to some more of this species' sounds, and see if you know this bird.  And here's a hint: the bird's name, and the male's beautiful color, may remind you of a painting.SOUND – ~12 secIf you guessed a Canvasback, you're right!  Canvasbacks breed on water bodies in the prairies of Canada and the northern United States, but they winter in large sections of the U.S. and Mexico, with one concentration in the Chesapeake Bay area.  According to the Chesapeake Bay Program, at one time almost half of North America's Canvasbacks wintered around the Chesapeake, but that number has decreased to about 20 percent because of reductions in Bay submerged aquatic vegetation, or Bay grasses, a valuable winter food for this species.  Canvasbacks are diving ducks, meaning they typically go completely underwater to obtain food and avoid predators.  In winter, Canvasbacks feed largely on plant roots and buds, while in summer they'll add to their plant diet a variety of aquatic insects and other animals.  Predators on adult and young Canvasbacks include mink, coyotes, foxes, owls and other birds, some reptiles and fish, and human hunters, while Canvasback eggs are eaten by various mammals and birds. The Canvasback is considered one of the most distinctive North American ducks.  The following quote from the Cornell Lab of Ornithology's “Birds of the World” Web site describes how the bird stands out.  Quote: “This exclusively North American species is considered the ‘aristocrat of ducks.'  The male's striking appearance—rich chestnut-red head and neck, black chest, white back, and long, sloping, blackish bill—along with its large size distinguish it in the field.”  Unquote. Thanks to Lang Elliott for permission to use the Canvasback sounds, from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs.  We close with about 50 seconds of music appropriate for the Canvasback's Chesapeake Bay connection.  Here's “Chesapeake Bay Ballad,” by Torrin Hallett, a graduate student at the Yale School of Music. MUSIC - ~51 sec – instrumental SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 197, 1-20-14, and the sounds segment of Episode 50, 1-24-11. Emily Whitesell helped write this original script for this episode during a Virginia Tech English Department internship in Spring 2011 with the Virginia Water Resources Research Center. The Canvasback sounds were from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs-Eastern Region CD set, by Lang Elliott with Donald and Lillian Stokes (Time Warner Audio Books, copyright 1997), used with permission of Lang Elliott.  Lang Elliot's work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/. “Chesapeake Bay Ballad” is copyright 2020 by Torrin Hallett, used with permission.  Torrin is a 2018 graduate of Oberlin College and Conservatory in Oberlin, Ohio; a 2020 graduate in Horn Performance from Manhattan School of Music in New York; and a 2021 graduate of the Lamont School of Music at the University of Denver.  He is currently a graduate student at the Yale School of Music.  More information about Torrin is available online at https://www.facebook.com/torrin.hallett.  Thanks very much to Torrin for composing the piece especially for Virginia Water Radio.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 565, 2-22-21. Following are other music pieces composed by Torrin Hallett for Virginia Water Radio, with episodes featuring the music.“A Little Fright Music” – used most recently in Episode 601, 10-31-21, on connections among Halloween, water, and the human body.“Beetle Ballet” – used in Episode 525, 5-18-20, on aquatic beetles.“Corona Cue” – used in Episode 517, 3-23-20, on the coronavirus pandemic. “Flow Stopper” – used in Episode 599, 10-18-21, on “Imagine a Day Without Water.”“Geese Piece” – used most recently in Episode 440, 10-1-18, on E-bird. “Ice Dance” – used in Episode 556, 12-21-20, on how organisms survive freezing temperatures.“Lizard Lied” – used in Episode 514, 3-2-20, on lizards. “New Year's Water” – used in Episode 349, 1-2-17, on the New Year. “Rain Refrain” – used most recently in Episode 559, 1-11-21, on record rainfall in 2020.“Runoff” – used in Episode 585, 7-12-21 – on middle schoolers calling out stormwater-related water words.“Spider Strike” – used in Episode 523, 5-4-20, on fishing spiders.“Tropical Tantrum” – used most recently in Episode 580, 6-7-21, on the 2021 Atlantic tropical storm season preview.“Tundra Swan Song – used in Episode 554, 12-7-20, on Tundra Swans.“Turkey Tune” – used in Episode 343, 11-21-16, on the Wild Turkey.  Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGESMale Canvasback (location and date not identified).  Photo by Lee Karney, made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov; specific URL for this photo was https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/1645/rec/2), as of 11/22/21.Female Canvasback in Anchorage Coastal Wildlife Refuge in Alaska in May 2005.  Photo by Donna A. Dewhurst, made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov; specific URL for this photo was https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/14/rec/9), as of 11/22/21.EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT CANVASBACK DUCKS The scientific name of the Canvasback is Aythya valisineria. Here are some points about Canvasbacks, excerpted from the Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “Fish and Wildlife Information Service/Canvasback,” online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040064&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18949.Physical Description “The adult male has a head that is rusty red, shading to almost black near the bill.  The breast is grayish-black and the sides and back are light gray to white.  The wings and speculum are gray, and the eye is red.  The bill is long and sloping, black, with decidedly long sloping profile that clearly distinguishes it from the redhead. …The adult female head is light brown.  The sides and breast are olive-brown to gray-brown, and the underparts are light gray. The back is gray, finely barred with darker gray, and the wings are grayish brown.  …They have short wings, and a rapid wingbeat.  This species has difficulty leaving the water.  It is one of the fastest flying ducks.  …It is one of the largest ducks.”Breeding “The breeding season is from May to June… This species breeds in Alaska, western Canada, northwest United States, western North America from the prairie provinces of Canada, south into the central and western states and occasionally as far east as Hudson Bay with a few as far north as Alaska.  Spring and early summer they are found in marshes with shallow waters [and in] flooded farmland.  In mid-summer they frequent large marshes and lakes, sloughs, and swampy areas.” Migration and Winter Habitat and Behavior “During migration, they fly in large ‘V' shaped flocks at high altitudes. … They are also associated with larger bodies of water.  …Late migration is in the fall, and early migration in the spring.  This species migrates cross country from the northwestern United States to the Atlantic Coast, principally the Chesapeake Bay.  The migration corridors shift annually, and they have a strong tendency to return to the same breeding ground.  … The heaviest flight is from the Canada pothole country to the Chesapeake Bay. … They arrive at Chesapeake Bay later than most other ducks.  The Chesapeake Bay fall migration is from October 15 to December 15, with a peak from November 15 to December 15.  The spring migration is from February 20 to May 1, with the peak from March 1 to March 30.  They occupy specific and traditional rivers, lakes, and marshes on migratory areas.  … This species winters to Mexico [and to the] Atlantic and Gulf Coast.  ...Virginia is one of best areas for canvasbacks.  …  They are found in lakes, salt bays and estuaries, brackish and alkaline waters near the coast, estuaries and shallow bays, [and] rarely on the open sea. … The optimum in Chesapeake Bay areas is in fresh and brackish estuarine bays with extensive beds of submerged plants or abundant invertebrates, primarily in brackish rather than salt or freshwater areas. … There has been a 53% decline in wintering populations in the United States.  There has also been a decrease in the Atlantic flyway.”  [Population decreases have been caused by several factors, including drainage of breeding marshland, food supplies being depleted by carp and swan, pollution of wintering areas, disappearance of submerged aquatic vegetation in the Chesapeake Bay, droughts on breeding grounds, oil spills, and illegal hunting and trapping.] Diet “This species dives and obtains food from the bottoms of ponds, lakes, large rivers, open marshes, and muddy bottoms.  Plants are uprooted and the roots are eaten.  This species dives to 20-30 feet. … Important foods include…aquatic plants…, molluscs, insects, caddisfly and midge larvae, dragonflies, [and] small fish.  Chesapeake Bay foods include wild celery, widgeon grass, eelgrass, pondweed, clams and mud crabs.  Juvenile foods include caddisfly larvae, midge larvae, and mayfly nymphs.” SOURCES Used for Audio Mike Burke, “The big, beautiful canvasback: What's not to love?”  Bay Journal, November 2021, available online at https://www.bayjournal.com/eedition/page-43/page_136f4325-b978-5e55-bcec-907f0a04b1fc.html. Chesapeake Bay Program, “Birds,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/all/birds/all; the Canvasback entry is online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/entry/canvasback. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “All About Birds,” online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/news/.  The Canvasback entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Canvasback/. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Birds of the World” online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/home(subscription may be required).  The Canvasback entry is online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/species/canvas/cur/introduction. Alice Jane Lippson and Robert L. Lippson, Life in the Chesapeake Bay-3rdEdition, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md., 2006. Chandler S. Robbins et al., A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, St. Martin's Press, New York, N.Y., 2001. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/; the Canvasback entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040064&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18949. For More Information about Birds in Virginia and Elsewhere Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin Photo ID.”  The application for mobile devices allows users to submit a bird photograph to get identification of the bird. Information is available online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and the Audubon Society, “eBird,” online at https://ebird.org/home.  Here you can find locations of species observations made by contributors, and you can sign up to contribute your own observations. Stan Tekiela, Birds of Virginia Field Guide, Adventure Publications, Inc., Cambridge, Minn., 2002. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, “Animal Diversity Web,” online at https://animaldiversity.org/. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “List of Native and Naturalized Fauna in Virginia, August 2020,” online (as a PDF) at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/virginia-native-naturalized-species.pdf. Virginia Society of Ornithology, online at http://www.virginiabirds.org/.  The Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth. Xeno-canto Foundation, online at http://www.xeno-canto.org/.  This site provides bird songs from around the world. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Birds” and “Weather/Climate/Natural Disas

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