Welcome! and Thank you for listening. I turned 60 this week. I am entering the senior years of my life. Time is my most precious commodity. Do I coast or push? Many people promise the fountain of youth through pills or procedures. But I challenge you to take charge of your health now. In reality, most modern medical procedures and pharmaceuticals patch problems rather than cure them. The accumulation of metabolic waste begins to take its toll and diagnosis increase as do medications and ailments. I believe the best way to eliminate metabolic waste and improve health is through plant based nutrition and movement. I want to share this secret with as many people as I can for my remaining years. Would you like to join me as an outlier in health and wellness? Standing decreases your risk of death and major cardiac events as noted in a recent publication that I will discuss. Do you stand for 8 hours a day? Let me help you do a few calculations. Excessive sodium intake results in vascular injury and heart disease. Do you really know how much sodium is in your food? Who are you going to trust to assure your food is as healthy as it can be? Spoiler, it can only be you. Your choice. Health and nutrition over marketing and gimmicks. What are you waiting for? The clock is ticking. Thank you for listening. Email me at firstname.lastname@example.org with questions Website: doctordulaney.com https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamacardiology/fullarticle/2793521?guestAccessKey=a7667c1f-c0f7-4b82-8795-fd9febc9caec&utm_source=silverchair&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=article_alert-jamacardiology&utm_content=etoc&utm_term=081022 https://www.amazon.com/Plant-based-Wellness-Cookbook-Generations-Cooking/dp/1733967702/ref=sr_1_3?crid=1U4J4U0SZUXUF&dchild=1&keywords=plant+based+wellness+cookbook&qid=1621083696&sprefix=plant+based+well%2Caps%2C173&sr=8-3
In today's episode, Dr. Titus Chiu gives his insight into brain optimization. After suffering from a concussion after a car accident, Dr. Titus slowly began to experience the reality of long term trauma to the brain. What he learned not only can help survivors of various traumas but can help you optimize your own brain for peak performance. He reviews the many tools available today that enhance brain function. In addition, Dr. Titus teaches you how to naturally sooth your vagus nerve using simple techniques you can perform at home. Finding balance is a key point of today's discussion. Dr.Titus guides us through his perspective on everything from biohacking to simple daily habits to promote balance on your journey to brain optimization. Be sure to tune in to this week's episode. Key Takeaways: [6:40] Concussed: Developing Brain Fog and Excessive worry [9:17] Inflammation: Long term effects of brain trauma [13:44]Leaky blood brain barrier [17:30] Mental Emotional stress can trigger Leaky Blood Brain Barrier [20:00] Habits that can lead can negatively affect our brain health [23:30] Entrepreneurs and ADHD [29:00] Working out to gain more focus [31:00] Emerging Consciousness of nootropics: Brain - Body - Being [34:45] Brain Optimization Tips: Vagus nerve, activating the default mode network [43:15] Daily Habits:Gratitude, Hormetic Stressors and Finding Balance... [46:05] Bio-Hacking tools [48:36] Making sure my health is a priority Resources: Activate your Vagus Nerve https://www.brainsave.com/vagus Memorable Quotes: “There's that physical trauma that happens and, like I said, it doesn't even have to be to your head, but that triggers a secondary insult we call a chemical trauma.” [9:53] – Dr.Titus Chiu “Even things like gut or digestive imbalance can lead to a leaky brain.” [16:06] – Dr.Titus Chiu “Our number one purpose of our brain is to help us navigate the physical world.” [28:15] – Dr.Titus Chiu “When you create that space where we're not focused on goal-oriented behaviors, that's where a lot of the insights and a lot of things start to fall into place.” [37:01] – Dr. Titus Chiu
Teachers seem to find each other like magnets! I met @joclarkcoaching in an online business community that we had both joined. We connected through our shared heartbreaking decision - *leaving teaching*. In this episode we discussed: Jo's personal journey into teaching Loss of autonomy, trust, and respect Excessive assessment and data collection Inspiring leadership qualities and stories Knowing *when* it's time to leave teaching LOVELY LINKS: Learn more about Jo's support and coaching on her website www.joclarkteaching.com Download her FREE 12 Ways to Kickstart and Improve Your Health and Wellness So, You're Thinking About Leaving Teaching Find wellbeing support inside the www.winewithteacherclub.com Support the vision and donate to Yalari
2022 ರಲ್ಲಿ ಭಾರತೀಯರು ಕೇವಲ ಮದ್ಯಪಾನವನ್ನ ಸೇವಿಸುವುದಷ್ಟೇ ಅಲ್ಲ ಜೊತೆಗೆ ಅನೇಕ ಹೊಸ ಬ್ರಾಂಡ್ಗಳ ವಿಸ್ಕಿಗಳು, ಜಿನ್ಗಳು, ಬಿಯರ್ಗಳನ್ನು ನಮ್ಮ ದೇಶದಲ್ಲೇ ಉತ್ಪಾದಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ಪವನ್ ಶ್ರೀನಾಥ್ ಅವರು ಗಣೇಶ್ ಚಕ್ರವರ್ತಿ ಅವರೊಂದಿಗೆ ಮದ್ಯಪಾನ ಹೇಗೆ ತಯಾರಿಸಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ, ಅವುಗಳ ಇತಿಹಾಸ ಮತ್ತು ಕಳೆದ 10-15 ವರ್ಷಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಭಾರತೀಯ ಮದ್ಯ ಉದ್ಯಮವು ಹೇಗೆ ಬದಲಾಗಿದೆ ಎಂಬುದರ ಕುರಿತು ಮಾತನಾಡುತ್ತಾರೆ.Indians in 2022 are not just enjoying drinking alcoholic beverages, but are also creating new brands of whiskeys, gins, beers and more that are being celebrated both at home and abroad. Host Pavan Srinath talks to Ganesh Chakravarti about how alcoholic drinks are made, their brief history, and how Indian liquor industry is being transformed in the last 10-15 years.Warning: Consumption of alcohol is injurious to health. Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to addiction as well as various health problems. Do not drink and drive, as you will be putting the safety of you and of others at risk.*Update!* Thale-Harate now has its own YouTube channel! Featuring full episodes and more soon! Head over to youtube.com/haratepod, subscribe and hit the bell icon!ತಲೆ ಹರಟೆ ಕನ್ನಡ ಪಾಡ್ಕಾಸ್ಟ್ನ 146ನೇ ಸಂಚಿಕೆಯಲ್ಲಿ, ಪವನ್ ಮತ್ತು ಗಣೇಶ್ ಕನಿಷ್ಠ 10,000 ವರ್ಷಗಳಿಂದ ಮಾನವ ಸಮಾಜದ ಭಾಗವಾಗಿರುವ ಮದ್ಯಪಾನದ ತಯಾರಿಕೆ ಮತ್ತು ಸೇವನೆಯ ಕುರಿತು ಚರ್ಚಿಸುತ್ತಾರೆ.ಬಟ್ಟಿ ಇಳಿಸುವಿಕೆಯ ತಂತ್ರಗಳನ್ನು ಬಳಸಿಕೊಂಡು ವಿವಿಧ ಮದ್ಯಪಾನೀಯಗಳನ್ನು ಹೇಗೆ ಉತ್ಪಾದಿಸಲಾಗುತ್ತೆ ಎಂಬುವುದರ ಕುರಿತು ಪವನ್ ಮಾತಾಡುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಭಾರತ, ವಿಶೇಷವಾಗಿ ಸ್ವತಂತ್ರ ಭಾರತ ಸರ್ಕಾರಗಳ, ಮದ್ಯವನ್ನು ನಿಷೇಧಿಸುವ ಅಥವಾ ಹೆಚ್ಚು ತೆರಿಗೆ ವಿಧಿಸುವ ನಿರ್ಣಯದ ಕುರಿತು ಮತ್ತು ಪ್ರತಿ ಹಂತದಲ್ಲೂ ಸರ್ಕಾರ ಇದನ್ನ ನಿಯಂತ್ರಿಸುವ ವಿಷಯದ ಕುರಿತು ಅವರು ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಚರ್ಚಿಸಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ಪವನ್ ಅವರು IMFL ಗಳು ಅಥವಾ "ಭಾರತೀಯ ನಿರ್ಮಿತ ವಿದೇಶಿ ಮದ್ಯಗಳ" ಉತ್ಪಾದನೆಯ ಕುರಿತು ಮತ್ತು ಕಳೆದ 10-15 ವರ್ಷಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಭಾರತೀಯ ಮದ್ಯ ಕಂಪನಿಗಳು ಹೇಗೆ ರಾಷ್ಟಮಟ್ಟದಲ್ಲಿ ಮತ್ತು ಅಂತಾರಾಷ್ಟ್ರೀಯಮಟ್ಟದಲ್ಲಿ ಹೆಸರು ಮಾಡುತ್ತಿದೆ ಎಂದು ತಿಳಿಸಿದ್ದಾರೆ ಜೊತೆಗೆ ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷರಿಂದ ಭಾರತೀಯರಿಗೆ ಪರಿಚಿತವಾದ ಜಿನ್ ಮತ್ತು ಟಾನಿಕ್ ಕುರಿತು ಕೆಲವು ಆಸಕ್ತಿಕರ ವಿಷಯಗಳನ್ನು ನಮ್ಮ ಜೊತೆ ಹಂಚಿಕೊಂಡಿದ್ದಾರೆ.On Episode 146 of the Thale-Harate Kannada Podcast, hosts Pavan and Ganesh sit down to discuss the brewing, preparation and consumption of alcoholic beverages, an activity that has been a part of human society for at least 10,000 years.Pavan shares how various beverages are created using techniques of fermentation and distillation. He also discusses how India, especially Independent Indian governments have viewed alcohol as something to either be banned, or taxed heavily and controlled in every aspect. He discusses the creation of IMFLs or “Indian Made Foreign Liquors” and how it is only over the last 10-15 years that Indian companies are moving beyond this to make high quality alcoholic beverages and liquors for both Indians and the world. He also shares how his drink of choice is a Gin and Tonic, a mixed drink that developed because of the colonisation of India by the British.ಫಾಲೋ ಮಾಡಿ. Follow the Thalé-Haraté Kannada Podcast @haratepod. Facebook: https://facebook.com/HaratePod/ , Twitter: https://twitter.com/HaratePod/ , Instagram: https://instagram.com/haratepod/ and YouTube: https://youtube.com/HaratePod .ಈಮೇಲ್ ಕಳಿಸಿ, send us an email at email@example.com or send a tweet and tell us what you think of the show!You can listen to this show and other awesome shows on the new and improved IVM Podcast App on Android: https://ivm.today/android or iOS: https://ivm.today/ios and check out our website at https://ivmpodcasts.com/ .You can also listen to the podcast on Apple Podcasts, Spotify, Google Podcasts, Gaana, Amazon Music Podcasts, JioSaavn, Castbox, or any other podcast app. We also have some video episodes up on YouTube! ಬನ್ನಿ ಕೇಳಿ!
Download the cheat: https://bit.ly/50-meds View the lesson: https://bit.ly/EpinephrineEpiPenNursingConsiderations Generic Name Epinephrine Trade Name Adrenalin, EpiPen Indication Asthma and COPD exacerbations, allergic reactions, cardiac arrest, anesthesia adjunct Action Affects both beta1 and beta2 also has alpha agonist properties resulting in bron- chodilation and increases in HR and BP. Inhibits hypersensitivity reactions. Therapeutic Class Antiasthmatic, bronchodilator, vasopressor Pharmacologic Class Adrenergic agonist Nursing Considerations • Side effects include: angina, tachycardia, hypertension, restlessness, nervousness, hyperglycemia • Use with MAOI may lead to hypertensive crisis • Patients should not use stimulants (caffeine, guarana, etc) • Excessive use may cause bronchospasm • Assess lung sounds, pulse, BP, and other hemodynamic parameters • Monitor for chest pain • Instruct patient to use as directed • Patient should insure adequate fluid intake to liquefy secretions • Mouth should be rinsed after inhalation • Beta blockers may negate effects • May increase blood glucose levels
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We all experience the worry cycle. According to a Psychology Today article, “at least one in four Americans – about 65 million of us—will meet the criteria for an anxiety disorder at some point in our lifetime. Even those individuals whose lives are going well may occasionally worry excessively.” In our best moments, worry can take us down a spiral of fear where our minds play out dramas that leave us feeling powerless, vulnerable, and afraid. In our worst moments, worry can be paralyzing and health-diminishing. Excessive worrying can lead to poor decision-making and deter us from taking life-improving risks. The crazy-making part of the worry cycle is that 99.9% of the time, the things we fret about never happen. Worry is a timewaster, an energy suck, a diminisher of life quality. Engaging in it rarely changes anything. Unfortunately, it's hard to stop worrying. Good news, though; there are ways to get out of your brain-spinning story of fear and worry. During this week's episode of Reflect Forward, I share tips on breaking the endless worry cycle. 1. Get some exercise Moving your body is guaranteed to make you feel better. It not only provides a distraction, but exercise also causes your body to release endorphins which are “feel good” hormones that increase happiness, focus, and energy. 2. Challenge the Worry Cycle with Tough Questions Put your worry into perspective by journaling about it. Write down what you are worried about and why. 3. Power Pose Amy Cuddy's powerful TED Talk on Power Posing outlines the benefits of using dominant body postures to gain confidence and reduce anxiety. While there are Power Posing naysayers, I have found doing them to be incredibly helpful when I am anxious, especially when speaking in front of people. 4. Talk it Out Talking about your worry allows you to process it while gaining perspective and insight. Ask a confidant to listen and offer advice (if appropriate). If that doesn't work, a therapist can be a good listener and provide you with worry-management tools. 5. Get Some Sleep Sleep deprivation has been proven to increase anxiety and depression, compounding the “what if” problem. To better handle what life so throws at you, get 7-8 hours of sleep each night. Of course, excessive worrying can cause insomnia, creating a cycle that's hard to break. A small amount of worry is healthy but letting it take over your life can lead to major health issues. The good news is that most of what you worry about will never come to be. For those things that do…trust yourself and your capacity to handle whatever life throws at you. You can cope with, survive, and move beyond whatever happens. Believe in yourself and you will be pleasantly surprised. Question of the Week My question of the week comes from one of my employees. “Kerry, I know you love to ask questions. What is your favorite question to ask?” Hands down: what do you think? That's my favorite question. Tune in to find out why. Thanks for listening, and please like, share, rate, write a review, or subscribe to my podcast. It always helps with the algorithms. Follow me on Instagram or LinkedIn. Subscribe to my podcast Reflect Forward on iTunes Or check out my new YouTube Channel, where you can watch full-length episodes of Advice From a CEO! And if you are looking for a keynote speaker or a podcast guest, click here to book a meeting with me to discuss what you are looking for!
6 Harmful Effects of Excessive Worrying Worrying to some can seem like an uncomfortable routine. Worrying carries you through your days, whether they are tough, or everything is going smoothly. However, that discomfort is most likely affecting you in ways you haven't realized. Because with the painful routine of worry comes the parallel routines of dealing with it. Which of these harmful effects is excessive worrying causing you? 1. Time Suck Have you ever been roused out of a daze of worry? Maybe you were staring out a window thinking about a bill that is due or a dreaded impending trip. How long were you in that daze? Minutes or hours? You lose valuable time worrying when you could be actively working on something important. 2. Lack of Enjoyment Worry can also suck the enjoyment out of life. You should be enjoying an ice cream date with your new boyfriend, but instead, you are worriedabout calories. Maybe you could be enjoying a sunny day, but instead,you are concerned about all the emails you must answer at work tomorrow. 3. Insomnia Staying up all night in an aggravated and tired heap is a waste of time and not in the least bit enjoyable. Insomnia is a major effect of excessive worry, and it affects the rest of your life and health as well. 4. Physical Debilitation Stomach aches, acid reflux, migraines, and other debilitating illnesses are often caused or made worse by worry. Our bodies are tough, but they are a canvas for what goes on in our minds. What might your chronic symptoms be telling you about your level of worry? 5. Relationship Strain Your relationships, whether romantic, platonic, or familial, can all be affected by your own worry because it impacts how you behave. Those that love and care for you will feel the weight of your burdens, or they may feel that you cannot focus on them due to the overwhelming stress you are trying to deal with. No matter how much you are loved, the relationship will eventually become strained under the weight of it all. 6. Vices Turning to a vice for relief from worry is more common than you think. Smoking, drinking, binge eating, or other forms of eating disorders can all be vices or illnesses that develop in response to excessive worry. While these “vices” can vary in their extremes, they all are harmful. While the bolded words of this article may seem like the start of a stand-up comedy act at first, the harmful effects of excessive worry are no laughing matter. Be it insomnia or a resulting mental illness such as depression, this list should serve as both a warning as to why you should take care of yourself and reach out to others that are dealing with excessive worry.
First trial to prove a diet supplement can prevent hereditary cancer Newcastle University (UK), July 25, 2022 A trial in people with high hereditary risk of a wide range of cancers has shown a major preventive effect from resistant starch, found in a wide range of foods such as oats, breakfast cereal, cooked and cooled pasta or rice, peas and beans, and slightly green bananas. An international trial—known as CAPP2—involved almost 1000 patients with Lynch syndrome from around the world, and revealed that a regular dose of resistant starch, also known as fermentable fiber, taken for an average of two years, did not affect cancers in the bowel but did reduce cancers in other parts of the body by more than half. This effect was particularly pronounced for upper gastrointestinal cancers including esophageal, gastric, biliary tract, pancreatic and duodenum cancers. The astonishing effect was seen to last for 10 years after stopping taking the supplement. "We found that resistant starch reduces a range of cancers by over 60%. The effect was most obvious in the upper part of the gut," explained Professor John Mathers, professor of Human Nutrition at Newcastle University. "This is important as cancers of the upper GI tract are difficult to diagnose and often are not caught early on. "Resistant starch can be taken as a powder supplement and is found naturally in peas, beans, oats and other starchy foods. The dose used in the trial is equivalent to eating a daily banana; before they become too ripe and soft, the starch in bananas resists breakdown and reaches the bowel where it can change the type of bacteria that live there. "Resistant starch is a type of carbohydrate that isn't digested in your small intestine; instead it ferments in your large intestine, feeding beneficial gut bacteria—it acts, in effect, like dietary fiber in your digestive system. This type of starch has several health benefits and fewer calories than regular starch. We think that resistant starch may reduce cancer development by changing the bacterial metabolism of bile acids and to reduce those types of bile acids that can damage our DNA and eventually cause cancer. However, this needs further research." New study finds lowest risk of death was among adults who exercised 150-600 minutes/week Harvard School of Public Health, July 25, 2022 An analysis of more than 100,000 participants over a 30-year follow-up period found that adults who perform two to four times the currently recommended amount of moderate or vigorous physical activity per week have a significantly reduced risk of mortality, according to new research published today in the American Heart Association's journal Circulation. The reduction was 21-23% for people who engaged in two to four times the recommended amount of vigorous physical activity, and 26-31% for people who engaged in two to four times the recommended amount of moderate physical activity each week. In 2018, the United States Department of Health and Human Services' Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommended that adults engage in at least 150-300 minutes/week of moderate physical activity or 75-150 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity, or an equivalent combination of both intensities. The analysis also found: Participants who met the guidelines for vigorous physical activity had an observed 31% lower risk of CVD mortality and 15% lower risk of non-CVD mortality, for an overall 19% lower risk of death from all causes. Participants who met the guidelines for moderate physical activity had an observed 22-25% lower risk of CVD mortality and 19-20% lower risk of non-CVD mortality, for an overall 20-21% lower risk of death from all causes. Participants who performed two to four times above the recommended amount of long-term vigorous physical activity (150-300 min/week) had an observed 27-33% lower risk of CVD mortality and 19% non-CVD mortality, for an overall 21-23% lower risk of death from all causes. Participants who performed two to four times above the recommended amount of moderate physical activity (300-600 min/week) had an observed 28-38% lower risk of CVD mortality and 25-27% non-CVD mortality, for an overall 26-31% lower risk of mortality from all causes. In addition, no harmful cardiovascular health effects were found among the adults who reported engaging in more than four times the recommended minimum activity levels. Previous studies have found evidence that long-term, high-intensity, endurance exercise, such as marathons, triathlons and long-distance bicycle races, may increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events, including myocardial fibrosis, coronary artery calcification, atrial fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Treating dementia with the healing waves of sound Ultrasound applied to the brain could help treat patients with dementia. Tohoku University (Japan), July 20, 2022 Ultrasound waves applied to the whole brain improve cognitive dysfunction in mice with conditions simulating vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The research, conducted by scientists at Tohoku University in Japan, suggests that this type of therapy may also benefit humans. The team, led by cardiologist Hiroaki Shimokawa, found that applying low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) to the whole brain of the mice improved blood vessel formation and nerve cell regeneration without having obvious side effects. "The LIPUS therapy is a non-invasive physiotherapy that could apply to high-risk elderly patients without the need for surgery or anaesthesia, and could be used repeatedly," says Shimokawa. The Tohoku University team found that cognitive impairment markedly improved in mice with conditions similar to vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease when LIPUS was applied to the whole brain three times a day for 20 minutes each time. Study: ADHD drugs do not improve cognition in healthy college students University of Rhode Island, July 19, 2022 Contrary to popular belief across college campuses, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications may fail to improve cognition in healthy students and actually can impair functioning, according to a study by researchers at the University of Rhode Island and Brown University. Study co-investigators Lisa Weyandt, professor of psychology and a faculty member with URI's George and Anne Ryan Institute for Neuroscience, and Tara White, assistant professor of research in behavioral and social sciences at Brown University, had anticipated different findings. "We hypothesized that Adderall would enhance cognition in the healthy students, but instead, the medication did not improve reading comprehension or fluency, and it impaired working memory," she said. "Not only are they not benefitting from it academically, but it could be negatively affecting their performance." This first-ever multisite pilot study of the impact of so-called "study drugs" on college students who do not have ADHD comes at a time when use of prescription stimulants such as Adderall, Ritalin and Vyvanse is common among young adults who believe the drugs will improve their academic performance. Results of the study, published in the journal Pharmacy, show that the standard 30 mg dose of Adderall did improve attention and focus -- a typical result from a stimulant -- but that effect failed to translate to better performance on a battery of neurocognitive tasks that measured short-term memory, reading comprehension and fluency. Weyandt has a theory about why working memory would be adversely affected by the medication. Brain scan research shows that a person with ADHD often has less neural activity in the regions of the brain that control executive function -- working memory, attention, self-control. For people with ADHD, Adderall and similar medications increase activity in those regions and appear to normalize functioning. "If your brain is functioning normally in those regions, the medication is unlikely to have a positive effect on cognition and my actually impair cognition. In other words, you need to have a deficit to benefit from the medicine," Weyandt said. Guanabana: the cancer killer big pharma doesn't want you to know about Northeastern University, July 16, 2022 Guanabana is known by a variety of names -- including soursop, cherimoya, custard apple, Brazilian paw paw and graviola. As far back as the 1970s, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) investigated the merits of guanabana, and discovered the stems and leaves of the tree were successful in destroying cancer cells. "Inexplicably, the results [of the NCI research] were published in an internal report and never released to the public. Since 1976, guanabana has proven to be an immensely potent cancer killer in 20 independent laboratory tests, but as of now, no double-blind clinical trials," reports Christopher Lane, Ph.D., in Psychology Today. Moreover, this study found that a compound derived from the leaves of guanabana was "selectively cytotoxic for the lung (A-549), colon (HT-29), and pancreatic (PACA-2) cell lines with potencies equal to or exceeding those of Adriamycin." And research in the Journal of Natural Products discovered that extracts of guanabana demonstrated pesticidal, antimalarial, antiviral and antimicrobial properties. Likewise, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center states that guanabana shows anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo. Revered for centuries in South America and Southeast Asia, the bark, leaves, root, seeds and fruit have been used to tame heart disease, asthma, liver issues and arthritis. Guanabana is also helpful for treating sleep disorders, fevers and cough. According to the article, "Guanabana--Medicinal Uses?" extracts of the plant: Attack cancer safely and effectively with an all-natural therapy that does not cause extreme nausea, weight loss and hair loss. Protect the immune system. Boost energy and outlook on life. Effectively target and kill malignant cells in 12 types of cancer -- including colon, breast, prostate, lung and pancreatic cancer. Proved to be up to 10,000 times stronger in slowing the growth of cancer cells than Adriamycin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug. Selectively kill only cancer cells, unlike traditional chemotherapy treatments. *A word of caution: Excessive consumption of guanabana can lead to neuronal dysfunction and degeneration with symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease. Consult with a qualified practitioner before taking guanabana on a daily basis. High-strength cannabis linked to addiction and mental health problems University of Bath (UK), July 25, 2022 As the strength or potency of cannabis products has increased internationally over the years, so have rates of people being treated for cannabis addiction, say the authors of a new study. Researchers from the Addiction and Mental Health Group at the University of Bath (UK) have systematically analyzed the relationship between the types of cannabis people use and their addiction and mental health problems. Their work draws on 20 studies involving almost 120,000 people. The new study, published in The Lancet Psychiatry, suggests that people who use high-potency cannabis are more likely to experience addiction than those using low-potency products. It also suggests that people using high-potency cannabis are more likely to experience a psychotic disorder, such as schizophrenia. These findings may help to explain why more people have received treatment for cannabis problems over recent years. Data from the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction show a 76% increase in people entering treatment for cannabis addiction in the past decade.
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This month on Episode 38 of Discover CircRes, host Cynthia St. Hilaire highlights original research articles featured in the Jue 24th, July 8th and July 22nd issues of the journal. This episode also features an interview with the 2022 BCBS Outstanding Early Career Investigator Award finalists, Dr Hisayuki Hashimoto, Dr Matthew DeBerge and Dr Anja Karlstadt. Article highlights: Nguyen, et al. miR-223 in Atherosclerosis. Choi, et al. Mechanism for Piezo1-Mediated Lymphatic Sprouting Kamtchum-Tatuene, et al. Plasma Interleukin-6 and High-Risk Carotid Plaques Li, et al. 3-MST Modulates BCAA Catabolism in HFrEF Cindy St. Hilaire: Hi, and welcome to Discover CircRes, the podcast of the American Heart Association's journal, Circulation Research. I'm your host, Dr Cindy St. Hilaire, from the Vascular Medicine Institute at the University of Pittsburgh. And today I'm going to be highlighting articles from our June 24th, July 8th and July 22nd issues of Circulation Research. I'm also going to have a chat with the finalists for the 2022 BCBS Outstanding Early Career Investigator Award, Dr Hisayuki Hashimoto, Dr Matthew DeBerge and Dr Anja Karlstadt. Cindy St. Hilaire: The first article I want to share is from our June 24th issue and is titled, miR-223 Exerts Translational Control of Proatherogenic Genes in Macrophages. The first authors are My-Anh Nguyen and Huy-Dung Hoang, and the corresponding author is Katey Rayner and they're from the University of Ottawa. A combination of cholesterol accumulation in the blood vessels and subsequent chronic inflammation that's derived from this accumulation drive the progression of atherosclerosis. Unfortunately, current standard medications tackle just one of these factors, the cholesterol. And this might explain why many patients on such drugs still have vascular plaques. In considering treatments that work on both aspects of the disease, meaning lipid accumulation and inflammation, this group investigated the micro RNA 223 or miR-223, which is a small regulatory RNA that has been shown to suppress expression of genes involved in both cholesterol uptake and inflammatory pathways in both liver and immune cells. Cindy St. Hilaire: The team showed that mouse macrophages deficient in miR-223, exhibited increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced cholesterol efflux compared with control cells. Overexpression of miR-223 had the opposite effects. Furthermore, atherosclerosis prone mice, whose hematopoietic cells lacked miR-223, had worse atherosclerosis with larger plaques and higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines than to control animals with normal levels of miR-223. These findings highlight miR-223's dual prompt, antiatherogenic action, which could be leveraged for future therapies. Cindy St. Hilaire: The second article I want to share is from our July 8th issue of Circulation Research and is titled, Piezo1-Regulated Mechanotransduction Controls Flow-Activated Lymph Expansion. The first author is Dongwon Choi and the corresponding author is Young-Kwon Hong, and they're from UCLA. As well as being super highways for immune cells, lymph vessels are drainage channels that help maintain fluid homeostasis in the tissues. This network of branching tubes grows as fluids begin to flow in the developing embryo. This fluid flow induces calcium influx into the lymphatic endothelial cells, which in turn promotes proliferation and migration of these cells, leading to the sprouting of lymph tubules. But how do LECs, the lymphatic endothelial cells, detect fluid flow in the first place? Piezo1 is a flow and mechanosensing protein known for its role in blood vessel development and certain mutations in Piezo1 cause abnormal lymphatic growth in humans. Cindy St. Hilaire: This script found that Piezo1 is expressed in the embryonic mouse LECs and that the suppression of Piezo1 inhibits both flow activated calcium entry via the channel ORAI1, as well as downstream target gene activation. Overexpression of Piezo1, by contrast, induced the target genes. The team went on to show that mice lacking either Piezo1 or ORAI1 had lymphatic sprouting defects and that pharmacological activation of Piezo1 in mice enhanced lymphogenesis and prevented edema after tail surgery. Together, the results confirmed Piezo1's role in flow dependent lymphatic growth and suggest it might be a target for treating lymphedema. Cindy St. Hilaire: The third article I want to share is also from our July 8th issue and is titled, Interleukin-6 Predicts Carotid Plaque Severity, Vulnerability and Progression. The first and corresponding author of this study is Joseph Kamtchum-Tatuene from University of Alberta. Excessive plasma cholesterol and systemic inflammation are contributing factors in atherosclerosis. While traditional remedies have been aimed at lowering patient's lipid levels, drugs that tackle inflammation are now under investigation, including those that suppress Interleukin-6, which is an inflammatory cytokine implicated in the disease. Focusing on carotid artery disease, this group conducted a prospective study to determine whether IL-6 levels correlated with disease severity. 4,334 individuals were enrolled in the cardiovascular health study cohort. They had their blood drawn and ultrasounds taken at the start of the study and five years later. This group found IL-6 was robustly correlated with and predicted plaque severity independent of other cardiovascular risk factors. This study also determined that an IL-6 blood plasma level of 2.0 picograms/mls, identified individuals with the highest likelihood of plaque, vulnerability and progression. This threshold value could be used to select patients who might benefit from novel IL-6 lowering medications. Cindy St. Hilaire: The last article I want to share is from our July 22nd issue of Circulation Research and is titled, Mitochondrial H2S Regulates BCAA Catabolism in Heart Failure. The first author is Zhen Li, and the corresponding author is David Lefer from Louisiana State University. Hydrogen sulfide, or H2S, is a compound that exerts mitochondrial specific actions that include the preservation of oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial biogenesis and ATP synthesis, as well as inhibiting cell death. 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, or 3-MST, is a mitochondrial H2S producing enzyme, whose functions in cardiovascular disease are not fully understood. Cindy St. Hilaire: This group investigated the global effects of 3-MST deficiency in the setting of pressure overload induced heart failure. They found that 3-MST was significantly reduced in the myocardium of patients with heart failure, compared with non failing controls. 3-MST knockout mice exhibited increased accumulation of branch chain amino acids in the myocardium, which was associated with reduced myocardial respiration and ATP synthesis, exacerbated cardiac and vascular dysfunction, and worsened exercise performance, following transverse aortic constriction. Restoring myocardial branched-chain amino acid catabolism, or administration of a potent H2S donor, ameliorated the detrimental effects of 3-MST deficiency and heart failure with reduced injection fraction. These data suggest that 3-MST derived mitochondrial H2S, may play a regulatory role in branch chain amino acid catabolism, and mediate critical cardiovascular protection in heart failure. Cindy St. Hilaire: Today, I'm really excited to have our guests, who are the finalists for the BCVS Outstanding Early Career Investigator Awards. Welcome everyone. Hisayuki Hashimoto: Thank you. Anja Karlstaedt: Hi. Hisayuki Hashimoto: Hi. Matthew DeBerge: Hello. Thank you. Cindy St. Hilaire: So the finalists who are with me today are Dr Hisayuki Hashimoto from Keio University School of Medicine in Tokyo, Japan, Dr Matthew Deberge from Northwestern University in Chicago and Dr Anja Karlstaedt from Cedar Sinai Medical Center in LA. Thank you again. Congratulations. And I'm really excited to talk about your science. Hisayuki Hashimoto: Thank you. Yes. Thanks, first of all for this opportunity to join this really exciting group and to talk about myself and ourselves. I am Hisayuki Hashimoto, I'm from Tokyo, Japan. I actually learned my English... I went to an American school in a country called Zaire in Africa and also Paris, France because my father was a diplomat and I learned English there. After coming back to Japan, I went to medical school. During my first year of rotation, I was really interested in cardiology, so I decided to take a specialized course for cardiology. Then I got interested in basic science, so I took a PhD course, and that's what brought me to this cardiology cardiovascular research field. Matthew DeBerge: So I'm currently a research assistant professor at Northwestern University. I'm actually from the Chicagoland area, so I'm really excited to welcome you all to my hometown for the BCVS meeting. Cindy St. Hilaire: Oh, that's right. And AHA is also there too this year. So you'll see a lot of everybody. Matthew DeBerge: I guess I get the home field advantage, so to speak. So, I grew up here, I did my undergrad here, and then went out in the east coast, Dartmouth College in New Hampshire for my PhD training. And actually, I was a viral immunologist by training, so I did T cells. When I was looking for a postdoctoral position, I was looking for a little bit of something different and came across Dr Edward Thorpe's lab at Northwestern university, where the interest and the focus is macrophages in tissue repair after MI. So, got into the macrophages in the heart and have really enjoyed the studies here and have arisen as a research assistant professor now within the Thorpe lab. Now we're looking to transition my own independent trajectory. Kind of now looking beyond just the heart and focusing how cardiovascular disease affects other organs, including the brain. That's kind of where I'm starting to go now. Next is looking at the cardiovascular crosstalk with brain and how this influences neuroinflammation. Anja Karlstaedt: I am like Hisayuki, I'm also a medical doctor. I did my medical training and my PhD in Berlin at the Charité University Medicine in Berlin, which is a medical faculty from Humboldt University and Freie University. II got really interested in mathematical modeling of complex biological systems. And so I started doing my PhD around cardiac metabolism and that was a purely core and computationally based PhD. And while I was doing this, I got really hooked into metabolism. I wanted to do my own experiments to further advance the model, but also to study more in crosstalk cardiac metabolism. I joined Dr Heinrich Taegteyer lab at the University of Texas in the Texas Medical Center, and stayed there for a couple of years. And while I was discovering some of the very first interactions between leukemia cells and the heart, I decided I cannot stop. I cannot go back just after a year. I need to continue this project and need to get funding. And so after an AHA fellowship and NIHK99, I am now here at Cedars Sinai, an assistant professor in cardiology and also with a cross appointment at the cancer center and basically living the dream of doing translational research and working in cardio-oncology. Cindy St. Hilaire: Great. So, Dr Hashimoto, the title of your submission is, Cardiac Reprogramming Inducer ZNF281 is Indispensable for Heart Development by Interacting with Key Cardiac Transcriptional Factors. This is obviously focused on reprogramming, but why do we care about cardiac reprogramming and what exactly did you find about this inducer ZNF281? Hisayuki Hashimoto: Thank you for the question. So, I mean, as I said, I'm a cardiologist and I was always interested in working heart regeneration. At first, I was working with pluripotent stem cells derived cardiomyocyte, but then I changed my field during my postdoc into directly programming by making cardiomyocyte-like cells from fiberblast. But after working in that field, I kind of found that it was a very interesting field that we do artificially make a cardiomyocyte-like cell. But when I dissected the enhanced landscape, epigenetic analysis showed that there are very strong commonalities between cardiac reprogramming and heart development. So I thought that, hey, maybe we can use this as a tool to discover new networks of heart development. And the strength is that cardiac reprogramming in vitro assay hardly opens in vivo assay, so it's really time consuming. But using dark programming, we can save a lot of time and money to study the cardiac transitional networks. And we found this DNF281 from an unbiased screen, out of 1000 human open reading frames. And we found that this gene was a very strong cardiac reprogramming inducer, but there was no study reporting about any functioning heart development. We decided to study this gene in heart development, and we found out that it is an essential gene in heart development and we were kind of able to discover a new network in heart development. Cindy St. Hilaire: And you actually used, I think it was three different CRE drivers? Was that correct to study? Hisayuki Hashimoto: Ah, yes. Yeah. Cindy St. Hilaire: How did you pick those different drivers and what, I guess, cell population or progenitor cell population did those drivers target? Hisayuki Hashimoto: So I decided to use a mesodermal Cre-driver, which is a Mesp1Cre and a cardiac precursor Cre-driver, which is the Nkx2-5 Cre and the cardiomyocyte Cre, which is the Myh6-Cre. So three differentiation stages during heart development, and we found out that actually, DNF281 is an essential factor during mesodermal to cardiac precursor differentiation state. We're still trying to dig into the molecular mechanism, but at that stage, if the DNF281 is not there, we are not able to make up the heart. Cindy St. Hilaire: That is so interesting. Did you look at any of the strains that survived anyway? Did you look at any phenotypes that might present in adulthood? Is there anything where the various strains might have survived, but then there's a kind of longer-term disease implicating phenotype that's observed. Hisayuki Hashimoto: Well, thank you for the question. Actually, the mesodermal Cre-driver knocking out the DNF281 in that stage is embryonic lethal, and it does make different congenital heart disease. And they cannot survive until after embryonic day 14.5. The later stage Nkx2-5 Cre and Myh6-Cre, interestingly, they do survive after birth. And then in adult stage, I did also look into the tissues, but the heart is functioning normally. I haven't stressed them, but they develop and they're alive after one year. It looks like there's really no like phenotype at like the homeostatic status. Cindy St. Hilaire: Interesting. So it's kind of like, once they get over that developmental hump, they're okay. Hisayuki Hashimoto: Exactly. That might also give us an answer. What kind of network is important for cardiac reprogramming? Cindy St. Hilaire: So what are you going to do next? Hisayuki Hashimoto: Thank you. I'm actually trying to dig into the transitional network of what kind of cardiac transitional network the ZNF281 is interacting with, so that maybe I can find a new answer to any etiology of congenital heart disease, because even from a single gene, different mutation, different variants arise different phenotypes in congenital heart disease. Maybe if I find a new interaction with any key cardiac transitional factors, maybe I could find a new etiology of congenital heart disease phenotype. Cindy St. Hilaire: That would be wonderful. Well, best of luck with that. Congratulations on an excellent study. Hisayuki Hashimoto: Thank you. Cindy St. Hilaire: Dr DeBerge, your study was titled, Unbiased Discovery of Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1 as a New and Critical Immuno Metabolic Regulatory Node During Cardiac Injury. Congrats on this very cool study. You were really kind of focused on macrophages in myocardial infarction. And macrophages, they're a Jeckel Hyde kind of cell, right? They're good. They're bad. They can be both, almost at the same time, sometimes it seems like. So why were you interested in macrophages particularly in myocardial infarction, and what did you discover about this allograft inflammatory factor-1, or AIF1 protein? Matthew DeBerge: Thank you. That's the great question. You really kind of alluded to why we're interested in macrophages in the heart after tissue repair. I mean, they really are the central mediators at both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses after myocardial infarction. Decades of research before this have shown that inflammation has increased acutely after MI and has also increased in heart failure patients, which really has led to the development of clinical efforts to target inflammatory mediators after MI. Now, unfortunately, the results to target inflammation after MI, thus far, have been modest or disappointing, I guess, at worst, in the respect that broadly targeting macrophage function, again, hasn't achieved results. Again, because these cells have both pro and anti-inflammatory functions and targeting specific mediators has been somewhat effective, but really hasn't achieved the results we want to see. Matthew DeBerge: I think what we've learned is that the key, I guess, the targeting macrophage after MI, is really to target their specific function. And this led us to sort of pursue novel proteins that are mediating macrophage factor function after MI. To accomplish this, we similarly performed an unbiased screen collecting peri-infarct tissue from a patient that was undergoing heart transplantation for end stage heart failure and had suffered an MI years previously. And this led to the discovery of allograft inflammatory factor-1, or AIF1, specifically within cardiac macrophages compared to other cardiac cell clusters from our specimen. And following up with this with post-mortem specimens after acute MI to show that AIF1 was specifically increased in macrophages after MI and then subsequently then testing causality with both murine model of permanent inclusion MI, as well as in vitro studies using bone marrow drive macrophages to dig deeper mechanistically, we found that AIF1 was crucial in regulating inflammatory programing macrophages, which ultimately culminated in worse in cardiac repair after MI. Cindy St. Hilaire: That's really interesting. And I love how you start with the human and then figure out what the heck it's doing in the human. And one of the things you ended up doing in the mouse was knocking out this protein AIF1, specifically in macrophage cells or cells that make the macrophage lineage. But is this factor in other cells? I was reading, it can be intracellular, it can be secreted. Are there perhaps other things that are also going on outside of the macrophage? Matthew DeBerge: It's a great question. First, I guess in terms of specificity, within the hematopoietic compartment, previous studies, as well as publicly available databases, have shown that AIF1 is really predominantly expressed within macrophages. We were able to leverage bone marrow chimera mice to isolate this defect to the deficiency to macrophages. But you do bring up a great point that other studies have shown that AIF1 may be expressed in other radio-resistant cell populations. I mean, such as cardiomyocytes or other treatable cells within the heart. We can't completely rule out a role for AIF1 and other cell populations. I can tell you that we did do the whole body knockout complementary to our bone marrow hematopoetic deficient knockouts, and saw that deficiency of AIF1 within the whole animal, recapitulate the effects we saw within the AIF1 deficiency within hematopoietic department. Matthew DeBerge: It was encouraging to us that, again, the overall role of AIF1 is pro-inflammatory after MI. Cindy St. Hilaire: I mean, I know it's early days, but is there a hint of any translational potential of these findings or of this protein? Matthew DeBerge: Yeah, I think so. To answer your question, we were fortunate enough to be able to partner with Ionis that develops these anti-sensible nucleotides so that we could specifically target AIF1 after the acute phase during MI. We saw that utilizing these anti-sensible nucleotides to deplete AIF1, again, within the whole mouse, that we were able to reduce inflammation, reduce in heart size and preserve stock function. I think there really is, hopefully a therapeutic opportunity here. And again, with it being, perhaps macrophage specific is, even much more important as we think about targeting the specific function of these cells within the heart. Cindy St. Hilaire: Very cool stuff. Dr Karlstaedt, the title of your submission is, ATP Dependent Citrate Lyase Drives Metabolic Remodeling in the Heart During Cancer. So this I found was really interesting because you were talking about, the two major killers in the world, right? Cardiovascular disease and cancer, and you're just going to tackle both of them, which I love. So obviously this is built on a lot of prior observations about the effects of cancer on cardiac metabolic remodeling. Can you maybe just tell us a little bit about what is that link that was there and what was known before you started? Anja Karlstaedt: Yeah. Happy to take that question. I think it's a very important one and I'm not sure if I will have a comprehensive answer to this, because like I mentioned at the beginning, cardio-oncology is a very new field. And the reason why we are starting to be more aware of cancer patients and their specific cardiovascular problems is because the cancer field has done such a great job of developing all these new therapeutics. And we have far more options of treating patients with various different types of cancers in particular, also leukemias, but also solid tumors. And what has that led to is an understanding that patients survive the tumors, but then 10, 20 years later, are dying of cardiovascular diseases. Those are particular cardiomyopathies and congestive heart failure patients. What we are trying, or what my lab is trying to do, is understanding what is driving this remodeling. And is there a way that we can develop therapies that can basically, at the beginning of the therapy, protect the heart so that this remodeling does not happen, or it is not as severe. Anja Karlstaedt: Also, identifying patients that are at risk, because not every tumor is created equally and tumors are very heterogeneous, even within the same group. To get to your question, what we found is, in collaboration actually with a group at Baylor College of Medicine, Peggy Goodell's group, who is primarily working on myeloid malignancies, is that certain types of leukemias are associated with cardiomyopathies. And so when they were focusing on the understanding drivers of leukemia, they noticed that the hearts of these animals in their murine models are enlarged on and actually developing cardiomyopathies. And I joined this project just very early on during my postdoc, which was very fortunate and I feel very lucky of having met them. What my lab is now studying here at Cedars is how basically those physiological stress and mutations coming from the tumors are leading to metabolic dysregulation in the heart and then eventually disease. Anja Karlstaedt: And we really think that metabolism is at the center of those disease progressions and also, because it's at the center, it should be part of the solution. We can use it as a way to identify patients that are at risk, but also potentially develop new therapies. And what was really striking for us is that when we knock down ACLY that in a willdtype heart where the mouse doesn't have any tumor disease, ACLY actually is critically important for energy substrate metabolism, which seems counterintuitive, because it's far away from the mitochondria, it's not part of directly ADP provision. It's not part of the Kreb cycle. But what we found is that when we knock it out using a CRISPR-Cas9 model, it leads to cardiomyopathy and critically disrupts energy substrate metabolism. And that is not necessarily the case when the mouse has leukemia or has a colorectal cancer, which upregulated in the beginning, this enzyme expression. And so we have now developed models that show us that this could be potentially also therapeutic target to disrupt the adverse remodeling by the tumor. Cindy St. Hilaire: That is so interesting. So one of the things I was thinking about too is we know that, I mean, your study is showing that, the tumor itself is causing cardiac remodeling, but we also know therapies, right? Radiation, chemotherapy, probably some immune modulatory compounds. Those probably do similar, maybe not exactly similar, but they also cause, adverse cardiac remodeling. Do you have any insights as to what is same and what is different between tumor driven and therapy driven adverse remodeling? Anja Karlstaedt: So we do not know a lot yet. It's still an open question about all the different types of chemotherapeutics, how they are leading to cardio toxicities. But what we know, at least from the classic anti-cyclic treatments, is right now at the core, the knowledge is that this is primarily disrupting cardiac mitochondrial function. And through that again, impairing energy provision and the interaction, again, with the immune system is fairly unknown, but we know through studies from Kathryn Moore and some very interesting work by Rimson is that myocardial infarction itself can lead to an increase in risk for tumor progression. And what they have shown as independent of each other, is that the activation of the immune system in itself can lead to an acceleration of both diseases, both the cardiac remodeling, and then also the tumor disease. We don't fully understand which drivers are involved, but we do know that a lot of the cardiomyopathies on cardiotoxicities that are chemotherapeutically driven, all have also metabolic component. Cindy St. Hilaire: Nice. Thank you. When I prepare for these interviews, I obviously read the abstracts for the papers, but I found myself also Googling other things after I read each of your abstracts. It was a rabbit hole of science, which was really exciting. I now want to transition to kind of a career angle. You all are obviously quite successful, scientifically, at the bench, right? But now you are pivoting to a kind of completely opposite slash new job, right? That of, independent researcher. I would love to hear from each of you, if there was any interesting challenge that you kind of overcame that you grew from, or if there was any bit of advice that you wish you knew ahead of time or anything like that, that some of our trainee listeners and actually frankly, faculty who can pass that information onto their trainees, can benefit from. Anja Karlstaedt: I think the biggest challenge for me in transitioning was actually the pandemic. Because I don't know how it was for Hisa and Matt, but trying to establish a lab, but also applying for faculty position during a major global pandemic, is challenging is not quite something that I expected that would happen. And so I think saying that and looking more conceptually and philosophically at this as, you can prepare as much as you want, but then when life just kicks in and things happen, they do happen. And I think the best is to prepare as much as you can. And then simply go with the flow. Sometimes one of my mentors, Dave Nikon, mentioned that to me when I was applying for faculty positions, it's sometimes good to just go with the flow. And as a metabolism person, I absolutely agree. And there are some things that you can do as a junior investigator. Anja Karlstaedt: We need to have a good network. So just very important to have good mentors. I was blessed with have those mentors, Peggy Goodell's one of them, Heinrich Taegtmeyer was another. And now with this study that we are publishing, Jim Martin and Dave Nikon were incredible. Without them, this study wouldn't have been possible and I would not be here at Cedars. Anja Karlstaedt: You need to reach out to other people because those mentors have the experience. They have been through some of this before. Even if they have never had a major event, like COVID-19 in their life before, because none of us had before, they had other experiences and you can rely on them and they set you then up for overcoming these challenges. And the other thing I would say, is put yourself out there, go and talk to as many people as possible or set conferences, present a poster, not only talks. Don't be disappointed if you don't get a talk, posters are really great to build this network and find other people that you probably wouldn't have encountered and apply for funding. Just again, put yourself out there and try to get the funding for your research. Even if it's small foundations, it builds up over time and it is a good practice to then write those more competitive grants. Cindy St. Hilaire: Dr Hashimoto, would you like to go next? Hisayuki Hashimoto: Just my advice is that, could be like a culture of difference, but in east Asia, like in Japan, we were taught to, do not disturb people, don't interrupt people and help people. But I realized that I wasn't really good at asking for help. After I am still not like fully independent, but I do have my own group and I have to do grant writing. I still work at the bench and then have to teach grad students, doing everything myself. I just realized it's just impossible. I didn't have time. I need like 48 hours a day. Otherwise, you won't finish it. I just realized that I wasn't really good at asking for help. So my advice would be, don't hesitate to ask for help. It's not a shame. You can't do everything by just yourself. I think, even from the postdoc, even from grad school, I think, ask for help and then get used to that. And then of course, help others. And that is the way I think to probably not get overwhelmed and not stress yourself. Science should be something fun. And if you don't ask for help and if you don't help someone, I think you are losing the chance of getting some fun part from the science. Cindy St. Hilaire: That's great advice. I really like that, especially because I find at least, I started my lab seven years ago now. And I remember the first couple months/year, it was extremely hard to let go, right? Like I taught my new people how to do the primary cell culture we needed, but I was terrified of them doing it wrong or wasting money or making too many mistakes. But you realize, you got to learn to trust people. Like you said, you got to learn to ask for help. And sometimes that help is letting them do it. And you doing, you're being paid now to write grants and papers. That's a big brain, you're not paid to do the smaller things. That's really great advice. I like that. Thank you. Dr DeBerge, how about you? Matthew DeBerge: So I guess towards a bit of life advice, I think two obvious things is one, be kind, science is hard enough as it is. So I think we should try to lift each other up and not knock each other down. And along those lines as the others have alluded to as well, one of the mantras we sort of adapted on the lab, is a rising tide raises all ships, this idea that we can work together to elevate each other's science and really, again, collaborate. Towards the career side of things I'll just touch on, because I guess one thing I'll add, there's more than one path, I guess, to achieving your goals. I've been fortunate enough to have an NIH post-doctoral fellowship and had an AHA career development award, but I'm not a K99 recipient. Oftentimes, I think this is the golden ticket to getting the faculty job, so I'm trying to, I guess, buck trend, I just submitted an RO1. So fingers crossed that leads to some opportunity. Even beyond academia, I'm not certain how much everyone here is involved in science Twitter, it's really become a thing over the last couple years, but I think, kind of the elephant in the room is that academia, it's really hard on the trainees nowadays to have a living wage, to go through this. I mean, I'm really excited to see my, fellow finalists here are starting their own groups and stuff, but for many, that's not the reality for many, it's just not financially feasible. So I think, kind of keeping in mind that there's many, many alternative careers, whether it's industry, whether it's consulting, science writing, etcetera, going back to what Dr Hash says, find what you love and really pursue that with passion. Cindy St. Hilaire: I think it's something only, I don't know, five to 10% of people go into or rather stay in academia. And that means, 90 to 95% of our trainees, we need to prepare them for other opportunities, which I think is exciting, because it means it can expand our network for those of us in academia. Anja Karlstaedt: I think right now it's even worse because it's about 2% of old postdocs that are actually staying and becoming independent researchers, independent or tenure track or research track. And I think I second, as what Matt said, because I play cello. I do music as a hobby and people always ask me if I'm a musician. And at the beginning I felt like, no, of course not. I'm not like Yoyo Ma. I'm just playing, it's a hobby. And then I, that got me thinking. I was like, no, of course you are because there's so many different types. And what we need to understand is that scientists, like you are always a scientist. It doesn't matter if you are working at Pfizer or if you are working at a small undergrad institution and you're teaching those next generation scientists, you are still scientist and we all need those different types of scientists because otherwise, if everybody is just a soloist, you are never going to listen to symphony. You need those different people and what we need to normalize beyond having those different career paths, is also that people are staying in academia and becoming those really incredible resources for the institutions and labs, quite frankly, of being able to retain those technologies and techniques within an institution. And I think that's something to also look forward to, that even if you're not the PI necessarily, you're the one who is driving those projects. And I hope to pass this on at some point also to my trainees that they can be a scientist, even if they're not running a lab and they become an Institute director and that's also critically important. Cindy St. Hilaire: There's lots of ways to do science. Thank you all so much for joining me today. Either waking up at 5:00 AM or staying up past midnight, I think it is now in Japan or close to it. So Matt and I kind of made it out okay. It's like 8:00 or 9:00 AM. Matthew DeBerge: Thank you. Hisayuki Hashimoto: My apologies for this time zone difference. Cindy St. Hilaire: I'm very glad to make it work. Congratulations to all of you, your presentations. I forget which day of the week they are on at BCVS, but we are looking forward to the oral presentations of these and congratulations to all of you. You are amazing scientists and I know I'm really looking forward to seeing your future work so best of luck. Matthew DeBerge: Thank you. Hisayuki Hashimoto: Thank you. Anja Karlstaedt: Thank you so much. Cindy St. Hilaire: That's it for the highlights from the June 24th, July 8th and July 22nd issues of Circulation Research. Thank you for listening. Please check out the CircRes Facebook page and follow us on Twitter and Instagram with the handle at CircRes and hashtag Discover CircRes. Thank you to our guests. The BCVS Outstanding Early Career Investigator Award Finalists, Dr Hisayuki Hashimoto, Dr Matthew DeBerge and Dr Anja Karlstaedt. This podcast is produced by Ashara Ratnayaka, edited by Melissa Stoner and supported by the editorial team of Circulation Research. Some of the copy text for the highlighted articles is provided by Ruth Williams. I'm your host, Dr Cindy St. Hilaire. And this is Discover CircRes, you're on the go source for the most exciting discoveries in basic cardiovascular research. This program is copyright of the American Heart Association, 2022. The opinions expressed by speakers in this podcast are their own and not necessarily those of the editors or of the American Heart Association. For more information visit ahajournals.org.
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Oklahoma is facing extreme heat today. Federal lawmakers are considering research to use psychedelics to help veterans with mental health. An Oklahoma City college wipes out the debt for some of its students. You can find the KOSU Daily wherever you get your podcasts, you can also subscribe, rate us and leave a comment. You can keep up to date on all the latest news throughout the day at KOSU.org and make sure to follow us on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram at KOSU Radio. This is The KOSU Daily, Oklahoma news, every weekday.
“Comparison is the thief of joy.” – Josh KramerEPISODE OVERVIEW: Did you ever have a time in your life where everything on the outside seemed superb, ideal, and perfect, but on the inside you were depressed, struggling, and out of control?This week we have a man who grew up in an idyllic situation. He had a mom and dad who were wonderful, a great sister, and a childhood that would be what we would consider a Leave it to Beaver home. As he grew older though he started noticing he was having some internal struggles with depression and mental illness. Then, as he entered his late twenties and early thirties, the issues really came to a head.What happens next? COVID hits and he has to make a real decision: give up and take meds while he watches himself deteriorate, or face in and take massive action. Thankfully he not only chose to take action, but he developed a workbook that not only helped him, but can help us too. Ladies and Gentlemen, get your pens and paper ready for this remarkable episode of the podcast, the Josh Kramer story! GUEST BIO: Joshua Kramer is the creator of The Unicorn in You, a personal growth and development perspective that emphasizes five key principles as the foundation for peace and joy. He is the Managing Partner of Kramer Chandler, a Founding Partner of Real Connex, and an active member of YPO. When not pursuing his passion for traveling, he can be found walking around town with his beloved Havanese, Buddy. EPISODE PROUDLY SPONSORED BY: Ascend 2 Glory: Sales & Marketing Video Guide SHOW NOTES, GUEST CONTACT INFO, SPECIAL OFFERS, & OTHER RESOURCES MENTIONED:Guest Contact Info:Website: https://TheUnicornInYou.comGuest Special Offer(s):Please feel free to visit Amazon.com to receive a special price of $.99 on Josh's new book, The Unicorn in You.EPISODE CORE THEMES, KEYWORDS, & MENTIONS:US Congress Paige, 102nd Congress, Library of Congress, politics, Tom Foley, US Speaker of the House, mental health, mental illness, depression, real estate development, social anxiety, introversion, worry, real estate, writing, foundation, light, self help books, wisdom, rumination, over thinking, divorce, COVID, stillness, kindness, values, virtue, gratitude, humility, acceptance, slowing our minds, unicorn HOW TO SUPPORT THE REMARKABLE PEOPLE PODCAST:Subscribe, Rate, & Review us on YouTube, Apple Podcasts, Spotify, or your favorite Podcast PlayerShare the podcast or specific episodes with your family, friends, and co-workersSponsor an Episode or Donate to help us continue to bring great content around the world! HAVE A QUESTION?Click Here to Connect with David THE NOT-SO-FINE-PRINT DISCLAIMER: While we are very thankful for all of our guests, please understand that we do not necessarily hold, or endorse the same beliefs, views, and positions that they may have. We respectfully agree to disagree in some areas and thank God for the blessing and privilege of free will.Support the show
Global Policy Watch #1: How the Sri Lankan Economy UnraveledInsights on policy issues making news around the world— RSJWhat people do when they storm palaces is broadly instructive about what comes next.In 1792, the French insurgents determined to end whatever remained of the ancien regime stormed the palace of Tuileries and confronted the Swiss Guards who were defending the palace on the orders of Louis XVI. Blood, gore and massacre followed, at the end of which about eleven hundred combatants were killed. These included, as J.M. Thomson wrote in his history of the French Revolution:..common citizens from every branch of the trading and working classes of Paris, including hair-dressers, harness-makers, carpenters, joiners, house-painters, tailors, hatters, boot-makers, locksmiths, laundry-men, and domestic servants.The Bolsheviks were not to be outdone on the night of October 25, 1917, when they assaulted the Winter Palace at St. Petersburg on the orders of Lenin. The insurrectionists barely met with any resistance from the yunkers, the Cossacks and the women’s battalion guarding the palace. To quote John Reed from Ten Days That Shook The World (1935):On both sides of the main gateway the doors stood wide open, light streamed out and from the huge pile came not the slightest sound. Carried along by the eager wave of men, we were swept into the right hand entrance, opening into a great bare vaulted room, the cellar of the East wing, from which issued a maze of corridors and stair-cases. ...One man went strutting around with a bronze clock perched on his shoulder; another found a plume of ostrich feathers, which he stuck in his hat. The looting was just beginning when somebody cried, ‘Comrades! Don't touch anything! Don't take anything! This is the property of the People!’ Immediately twenty voices were crying, ‘Stop! Put everything back! Don't take anything! Property of the People!’ Many hands dragged the spoilers down. Damask and tapestry were snatched from the arms of those who had them; two men took away the bronze clock. Roughly and hastily the things were crammed back in their cases, and self-appointed sentinels stood guard. It was all utterly spontaneous. Through corridors and up stair-cases the cry could be heard growing fainter and fainter in the distance, ‘Revolutionary discipline! Property of the People.’The Filipinos did things a bit differently on Feb 24, 1986. As this news report suggests:It started with a rock fight, then the gate was opened for a few photographers and the crowd pushed through into the palace the Marcos family occupied for 20 years, shouting and grabbing anything they could carry. They snatched clothes, shoes, perfume, monogrammed towels. Some wolfed food from the table at which Ferdinand E. Marcos and his family had dined before leaving in American helicopters for Clark Air Base and flight from the country.Thousands of people were outside Malacanang Palace when the photographers arrived Tuesday night. Supporters of Corazon Aquino, who became president when Marcos fled, and Marcos loyalists started throwing rocks at each other.They rushed through the gate, turning left to the administration building or right to the living quarters. Marcos loyalists followed them. The fights and looting started. Cheering, the rioters climbed on top of three tanks. One grabbed an ammunition belt. Others took guns.Cut to present-day Sri Lanka. It has a foreign debt of over US$ 50 billion. Its foreign exchange reserves are about US$ 50 million. Inflation is running at over 50 per cent. The Sri Lankan Rupee has fallen by 80 per cent since the start of the year. What’s worse is that no one knows who is keeping score.Former President Gotabaya Rajapaksa fled the country this week. Right now, he is in Singapore negotiating his asylum with friendly countries in the middle-east (why not China?). His brothers couldn’t get out of Sri Lanka in time. Gotabaya’s military plane didn’t possibly have space for two more passengers. Blood is thinner than aviation fuel. The other forty-odd members of the clan who hold various constitutional and government posts have gone into hiding. The time was ripe for an attack on the Presidential palace. And it happened, as they say, duly. But this is how the Lankans did the storming (Photos: Arun Sankar/AFP)To misquote Tolstoy: happy citizens are all alike. Unhappy citizens are unhappy in different ways.Though unhappy, Sri Lankans look suspiciously upbeat here. So, one thing can be said for sure. There won’t be a revolution in Sri Lanka. The Lankans are a resilient, patient and easygoing lot. They have endured tough times in the past four decades. Now that the Rajapaksas are out of the frame, a national government is likely to be formed; a deal might get worked out with the multilateral agencies involving restructuring of debt, fresh borrowings from friendly countries, and prolonged pain of austerity for the rest of the decade. They will probably muddle through as they have done for much of their independent history. That apart, it is useful to appreciate how Sri Lanka ended up here. There are public policy lessons there. There are two lenses to apply. The first is the structural weakness in the Sri Lankan economy that has persisted for a long time. Then there is the proximate cause of the recent past that led to sovereign debt default and bankruptcy. We will examine both here.The Achilles' HeelIn 1948, the British left Sri Lanka (then Ceylon) with an economy that was quite similar to the many similar resource rich nations of the time. Manufacturing was non-existent, banking services were limited to a couple of cities and the mainstay of the economy was the exports of tea and rubber which were vulnerable to commodity cycles. However, it started with a good base of foreign reserve surplus that could cover imports for over a year. With this starting point, the obvious policy measures should have came into play. One, develop a manufacturing sector (public and private) that stimulates growth in the economy and reduces the dependency on imports of intermediates and finished products. Two, to develop the banking sector and create development finance institutions that could provide credit for this transition in the economy. Neither happened. In fact, the focus on the plantation economy deepened in the decade after independence. The foreign reserve surplus soon turned to a deficit as Sri Lanka continued to import higher-value goods, and the government found it difficult to raise revenues to support its spends as its population increased. By the mid-60s, Sri Lanka was contending with both a fiscal deficit and a current account deficit. The classic twin deficit pincer that low-income economies get caught in. Over the last six decades, it has struggled to come out of it. The reasons could be many - lack of domestic savings, absence of development finance institutions, inability to attract other sources of foreign capital like direct investment instead of debt and political instability and a long civil war that didn’t help the economy. Things didn’t go badly for Sri Lanka only in the last few years. Its economy was always fragile, as the seventeen different IMF bailout packages that started in 1965 indicate. See the table below for the history of IMF bailouts (SDR = Special Drawing Rights).The comparison with India during the same period is useful. India chose the more inefficient state-led industrialisation and capital creation model and overdid it by the 70s with the nationalisation of the banks. But it led to the creation of a manufacturing sector and the availability of credit. India also created relatively strong institutions for a developing economy during that time. That meant we avoided a sovereign debt default scenario till 1991. The Indian state, after having generated the initial impetus, should have gotten out of most of these areas by the mid to late 70s. But that’s another story. Sri Lanka never built that core capacity, nor did it follow the model of the ‘tiger’ economies of creating national champions in select sectors. In the early 80s it ‘opened’ its economy on the behest of the IMF that made these conditions collateral for further bailouts. The dismantling of duties and exchange controls made Sri Lanka even more dependent on imports as its nascent industries couldn’t compete with the foreign goods flooding in. The twin deficit continued to worsen and further de-industrialisation set in. There are things Sri Lanka is commended for during this time. It has the best HDI metrics in the region, with good quality healthcare and education available to its citizens. These should lead to better economic outcomes, provided the structural issues are addressed. That these metrics themselves were built on foreign debt makes their sustainability suspect. Over-indexing on one measure while avoiding a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis and the unintended consequences is an old public policy error. Why did things go from bad to worse in the past few years? Two things happened. One, the composition of Sri Lankan debt changed for the worse. Sri Lanka issued international sovereign bonds (ISBs) at attractive coupons that got in global fund houses into the mix with more dollar-denominated debt. China, too, got into the game with large infrastructure projects that have ended up as the proverbial white elephants. The chart below shows how its foreign debt stood in 2021.The market borrowings now contributing to 47 per cent shot up in the last decade. This fresh source of funds further lulled the policymakers. The government continued to spend and feed domestic consumption without a plan to control the fiscal deficit while borrowing to build infrastructure and pay for imports. In 2019, Gotabaya came into power, promising to reverse these policies. But the ‘strong man syndrome’ took over. There were bold initiatives announced with minimal debates and understanding of likely scenarios that could emerge. Corporate taxes and VAT were slashed in the hope of an economic boost. That didn’t come because there wasn’t an industrial base that could take advantage of this. The fall in tax revenues widened the fiscal deficit and increased the government’s borrowing from the central bank. The pandemic hit tourism, a significant contributor to the economy and a source of precious foreign exchange. The widening current account deficit had to be controlled, leading to another bold idea. The government announced an overnight transition to organic farming and banned the import of synthetic fertilisers and pesticides. There was no real conviction to organic farming here. It was just a means to reduce the import burden and bring the current account deficit under control. The consequences were disastrous. Paddy production fell over 20 per cent, and there was an immediate food shortage. Tea production suffered, and exports fell. Then the Ukraine war sent oil beyond US$ 100 a barrel, which was the last straw. The central bank supplied over US$ 2 billion in the past 12 months to import essential items. But eventually, they all ran out of runway. And we got here.Of course, Sri Lanka's historical structural weakness is a factor to blame for its troubles. But you cannot take away the hubris of strong man decision-making that aggravated its situation in the last three years. Policy-making requires debates, scenario planning, anticipating the consequences and above all, strong institutions to take an independent, objective view of decisions. Bypassing them and going by instinct might seem like strong leadership, but the odds are stacked against good outcomes coming from them. Matsyanyaaya: Ignorance Breeds BiasBig fish eating small fish = Foreign Policy in action— Pranay KotasthaneWhen our level of understanding of another country is poor, we resort to cognitive shortcuts to make sense of the news coming from there. We interpret happenings in a way that reaffirms our current fears, hopes, and anxieties.While parsing information about a stronger adversary, we start with a sense of awe. When a weaker adversary makes it to the headlines, we start from a position of derision. Similarly, when we interpret information from a stronger ally, we amplify news that shows us in good light with respect to the ally. As for a weaker ally, our starting point is self-aggrandisement.Excessive reliance on these cognitive blinkers indicates that we don’t know enough about another country. And since we don’t know enough, we cannot differentiate between trash takes and informed opinions, rumours and facts, and between motivated actions and serendipity. It is easy to see these blinkers in action on social media discussions on Indian foreign policy issues.Take, for instance, what happened in the US earlier this week. House Rep Ro Khanna proposed an amendment to the National Defense Authorization Act 2023. Amongst other things, the amendment had these lines: While India faces immediate needs to maintain its heavily Russian-built weapons systems, a waiver to sanctions under the Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act during this transition period is in the best interests of the United States and the United States-India defense partnership to deter aggressors in light of Russia and China’s close partnership.The House passed the amendment. Immediately, Indian media and commentariat pronounced that the US had given India a CAATSA waiver. My first reaction was no different. I realised later that this amendment only urges the Biden administration to provide India with a CAATSA waiver since the authority to take this decision lies with the executive branch. Unsurprisingly, there’s not a single mention of this amendment in the top American newspapers (I checked WSJ, WaPo, and NYT). Still, we had already given ourselves a strategically autonomous pat-on-the-back here in India. There are several other instances as well. In Feb 2018, a 26-member committee of the Pakistani Senate passed a resolution for the promotion of the Chinese language in Pakistan. Within minutes, Indian media was reporting that Pakistan has made Mandarin an official language of Pakistan! Someone just picked up a piece of bad news reporting from a Pakistani YouTube channel and assumed the worst. The sense of ridicule was almost instantaneous, and few stopped to consider how the official language of a State could be decided by a Senate Committee consisting of 20-odd members?Of course, these cognitive shortcuts are the easiest to find in Indian discussions on China. Because we understand so little about its culture, language, and politics, we almost always solely rely on our preconceived notions. So, we are absolutely confident that the Sri Lankan economy faltered only because of China’s debt-trap diplomacy, that China’s already deployed AI for advanced decision-making in military systems, or that China’s social credit system is a real-life incarnation of the Black Mirror episode, Nosedive. The reality is quite different, but these narratives occupy prime positions in our discourse. Can we train ourselves to not succumb to these cognitive shortcuts? Perhaps. Political Scientist Yiqin Fu has a really good solution set in the context of poor understanding of China in the US. She proposes four ways out:Tying more of one’s payoffs to what is happening in the target country as opposed to how news from the target country makes you feel would incentive you to form more accurate beliefs. Participating in online prediction markets or having some exposure to the target country’s financial markets would be a concrete example.The ultimate solution is to expand your knowledge.. as you can so that you are qualified to judge a wider pool of sellers (commentators).. A realistic approach could be talking to friends or following people with different skill profiles. Together you would be capable of evaluating commentary on a broader set of issues.Give more weight to commentary that uses systematic evidence… where applicable, the quality of commentary that cites systematic evidence is generally superior to those that do not.People on the knowledge frontier of any given issue bear special responsibility to amplify analyses they find reasonable, including those that reach conclusions they disagree with. On issues at the intersection of many niche areas, the average consumer has no way of distinguishing between analyses that are “reasonable but different from mine” and those that “rely on complete falsehoods.” So experts ought to share all commentary they find reasonable, regardless of how much they agree with the conclusion. As a footnote, its useful to consider that the “CAATSA has been waived off” cognitive shortcut indicates one of two things:some of us are intuitively assuming that US domestic politics has a better appreciation of India’s worldview. And hence, we are ready to jump to the conclusion that the US has already waived off these sanctions. We are seeing what we want to see. Given the chequered past of the US-India relationship, even this mistaken assumption is a positive sign.However, I think most people are intuitively assuming that India is entitled to a waiver. A lot of Indians are convinced that the US cannot counter China without India on its side. And so, they interpreted the CAATSA amendment news as a reaffirmation of India’s global importance.It is also interesting to consider if these mistaken assumptions will impact the Biden administration’s calculus on the waiver. Since many Indians are already convinced that India has got a CAATSA waiver, can it now afford to impose sanctions? The answer, of course, depends on a whole lot of other factors. Nevertheless, our cognitive shortcuts about another country reveal a lot about ourselves. Course Advertisement: Admissions for the Sept 2022 cohort of Takshashila’s Graduate Certificate in Public Policy programme are now open! Apply by 23rd July for a 10% early bird scholarship. Visit this link to apply.A Framework a Week: Things Governments DoTools for thinking public policy— Pranay Kotasthane(This post was first published in March 2018 on Indian National Interest)A typology of government actions can be extremely helpful. Faced with a policy problem, such a typology can serve as a menu of actions that governments can respond with. Various policy solutions can then be seen in this comparative framework:might action X be the better way to solve this policy problem?why would the government employ action X over other actions?what are the disadvantages of using action X over other actions?Surprisingly, I came across only a few typologies of government actions. One by Michael O’Hare and the other by Eugene Bardach.O’Hare’s 1989 paper A Typology of Government Action says: all legitimate government behaviour can be classified in eight classes.Note how this classification does not include things like laws, rules, and procedures — actions that we associate most commonly with a government. The reason is that these three are methods to implement the chosen government action. As such, a law can be a chosen method for many government actions: to prohibit (example: Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006), to tax (example: Income Tax Act, 1961) and to subsidise (example: the Hajj Committee Act, 1959).Eugene Bardach’s typology in A Practical Guide for Policy Analysis is the second one I came across. It classifies government actions into these categories:1. Taxes (add, abolish, change rates, tax an externality)2. Regulation (entry, exit, output, price, and service levels)3. Subsidies and Grants (add, abolish, change formula)4. Service Provision (add, expand, organise outreach, reduce transaction costs)5. Agency budgets (add, cut, hold to last year’s level)6. Information (require disclosure, govt rating, standardise display)7. Structure of Private Rights (contract rights, liability duties, corporate law)8. Framework of Economic Activity (control/decontrol prices, wages, and profits) 9. Education and Consultation (Change values, upgrade skills, warn of hazards) 10. Financing and Contracting (leasing, redesigning bidding systems, dismantle PSU) 11. Bureaucratic and Political ReformsHomeWorkReading and listening recommendations on public policy matters[Article] Ajay Shah on improving resilience against extreme surges in demand.[Blog] Noah Smith has an excellent post on the Sri Lankan economic crisis.[Book] Carrots, Sticks and Sermons — another useful classification of policy instruments This is a public episode. If you would like to discuss this with other subscribers or get access to bonus episodes, visit publicpolicy.substack.com
What Causes B vitamin Deficiency? - Dr. Jason Jones Elizabeth City NC, Chiropractor We've talked about the types of B vitamins, benefits, and common symptoms of B vitamin deficiency in our last posts. In this post, we'll quickly discuss the most common causes of these deficiencies. You probably believe it's only about poor diet, but that's not all. We will show you more in this article. But before we talk about the causes of B vitamin deficiencies, it is important to note that while each of the eight B vitamins plays important roles in the body, each of them also yield different deficiency levels, which can lead to number of different symptoms over time. Thiamine and folate deficiencies, for example, are quite rate across the U.S. But research has shown that about 6% of children and adults younger than age 60 suffer vitamin B12 deficiency, while around 20% of adults older than age 60 have a deficiency. Without further do, let's get the causes of B vitamin deficiency. What causes B vitamin Deficiency? Here are the top four causes of B vitamin deficiency: A Non-balanced diet B-vitamins cannot be produced or stored in the body. This means you can only get them from your diet. But eating a non-balanced diet, your body will not get the right level of nutrients and you tend to suffer B vitamin deficiency. If you follow a vegan or vegetarian diet, for example, you may not be getting enough of vitamin B12 because it is more commonly found in animal-based foods and dairy products. So it is important to always eat a balanced diet loaded with vitamin-rich foods. Excessive alcohol consumption When you drink too much of alcohol, one of the downsides is that it rips you of vitamin B. Here's how it happens – Taking alcohol causes your kidneys to flush B vitamins out of your system more quickly. This means your body does not get all the time it needs to utilize B vitamins as they quickly go to waste due to excess alcohol consumption. Gut Malabsorption Conditions B vitamins are normally absorbed by the gut into your bloodstream under normal conditions. The bloodstream transports these vitamin to all parts of your body where they are needed. So it is important for the B vitamins to get into your bloodstream. But if you have gut malabsorption problems, such as Crohn's disease, Celiac disease or ulcerative colitis, your gut may not be able to absorb B vitamins into the bloodstream. This causes a deficiency and potential harm to your wellbeing. Medications Some types of prescription medications can cause you to suffer B vitamin deficiency. Medications such as anticonvulsants, hydralazine, isoniazid, and corticosteroids can increase your likelihood of suffering vitamin B6 deficiency. Medications such as phenytoin, trimethoprim – sulfamethoxazole, sulfasalazine, and methotrexate can increase your chances of suffering vitamin B deficiency. Medications like antacids, metformin, proton pump inhibitors (PPIS), antidepressants, and long-term antibiotics can increase your likelihood of suffering vitamin B12 deficiency. There you have it, the four common causes of B vitamin deficiency. If you're showing symptoms of B vitamin deficiency, it may be because you're not foods loaded with these vitamins. If you're showing signs of lightheadedness, tiredness, shortness of breath, and other symptoms of deficiency, it is advisable that you check your B vitamin level. Ensure that you talk with your healthcare provider to diagnose the problem and come up with the best treatment measure. You can consult Dr. Jason Jones at our Chiropractic office in Elizabeth City NC, to learn more about the causes of B vitamin deficiency and how to ensure you're eating a healthy, balanced diet loaded with vitamins.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition impacting roughly one in four women of reproductive age. , In this show we discuss natural ways to reverse the underlying factors driving PCOS. Save 15% OFF on Berberine HCl and Myo-Inositol containing Sleep Formulations from MYOXCIENCE Save with code podcast at checkout Links to Studies, Images and the Video Version: https://bit.ly/3nMt9QJ Time Stamps 00:04 PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) is about 1 in 5 of women of childbearing age. 00:26 The root cause of PCOS is poor metabolic health. 01:54 Ovaries hyper secrete androgens that are linked with challenges within the ovaries and the formation of water-forming cysts. 02:39 Hormonal birth control is frequently prescribed to increase sex hormone binding globulin and neutralize the elevated androgens. 04:04 Some cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved in the formation of steroid-like hormones, like testosterone. 05:04 Insulin and IGF-1 increase the activity of a cytochrome P450 enzyme called CYP17A1, which then increases testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and DHEA within the ovaries. 06:36 Excessive levels of androgens cause hair loss, infertility, lack of ovulation, and cause the formation of water forming cysts within the ovaries. 08:24 Autoimmunity often co-occurs with PCOS. 08:44 Deliberate cold exposure helps metabolic health by stimulating brown and beige fat cells. 09:54 Metabolic health increases the activity of enzymes that create hormones. It does the inverse in men and women. 10:04 Men's poor metabolic health drives the formation of extra estrogen. 10:14 Women's poor metabolic health drives the formation of extra testosterone. 12:44 97% of obese women have PCOS. 65% of non-obese women have PCOS. 13:14 Fat cells secrete hormones, called adipocytokines. One of these is leptin. 13:54 Leptin decreases activity of T-regulatory cells that help to prevent autoimmunity. 16:04 Belly fat cells convert androgens into estrogens. This is impacted by insulin. 18:14 Nutrition and exercise are fundamental ways to address poor metabolic health. 18:24 A ketogenic or low carb diet is helpful because it manages blood sugar and insulin, and ketones have immune signaling properties. 19:24 Intermittent fasting can support glycemic variability and improve insulin sensitivity. 19:46 Time restricted feeding with a 16 or 18 hour fast is also helpful for longevity, burning fat, and supporting metabolic health. 20:14 Poor sleep exacerbates insulin resistance. Tape your mouth shut when you sleep. 21:24 Resistance training decreases androgens in women with PCOS. All exercise supports underlying metabolic dysfunction. 22:24 Magnesium is helpful for supporting insulin sensitivity. 23:15 Myo-inositol and inositol makes ovaries more sensitive to insulin, preventing the increase in androgens. 24:04 Vitamin D is involved in blood sugar regulation, immune health, and sleep quality. 24:19 Gut health is important to metabolic health. Eat real food and ferments. 24:54 Berberine hydrochloride, 500 mg 1 to 3 times per day, is a natural Metformin. Studies Mentioned Witchel, S. F., & Plant, T. M. (2020). Intertwined reproductive endocrinology: Puberty and polycystic ovary syndrome. Current Opinion in Endocrine and Metabolic Research, 14, 127–136. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.coemr.2020.07.004 Stefanaki, C., Bacopoulou, F., Kandaraki, E., Boschiero, D., & Diamandi-Kandarakis, E. (2019). Lean Women on Metformin and Oral Contraceptives for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Demonstrate a Dehydrated Osteosarcopenic Phenotype: A Pilot Study. Nutrients, 11(9), 2055. http://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092055 Moghetti, P., & Tosi, F. (2020). Insulin resistance and PCOS: chicken or egg? Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 44(2), 233–244. http://doi.org/10.1007/s40618-020-01351-0 Scarfò, G., Daniele, S., Fusi, J., Gesi, M., Martini, C., Franzoni, F., et al. (2022). Metabolic and Molecular Mechanisms of Diet and Physical Exercise in the Management of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. Biomedicines, 10(6), 1305. http://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10061305 Witchel, S. F., & Plant, T. M. (2020). Intertwined reproductive endocrinology: Puberty and polycystic ovary syndrome. Current Opinion in Endocrine and Metabolic Research, 14, 127–136. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.coemr.2020.07.004 Optimal management of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence. (2015). Optimal management of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence, 1–8. http://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2014-306471&domain=pdf&date_stamp=2015-06-22
A true danger to the interior life of communion with God is an excessive need to talk. No, talking is not a sin and many times is an act of Mercy toward another. But there are times when being too talkative is a hindrance to the Mercy of God. Talking, in and of itself, is neither good nor evil. The goal is to form our words in accord with the Mind and Will of God. That's it. We must see the words we speak as a sacred tool to bring forth Truth and to manifest God's love. Excessive words, or words that do not flow from our love of God or others, can do more damage than we may realize. Therefore, consecrate your speech to the Lord and seek to let Him speak through you as He will, when He will and to the extent He wills (See Diary #1008).Do you talk a lot? Do you talk too little? It's not about how many words we say, it's about saying the right words at the right time in the right way. Our words can cause much hurt, but they can also bring the healing balm of God's Mercy. Reflect upon the conversations you have had over this past week. Were they pleasing to God? Did they give God glory and edify yourself and others? Reflect, also, upon any ways that you neglected to say what the Lord wanted you to say. These omissions of silence can also be the cause of hurt and can be the reason for a loss of Mercy in our world. Give your speech to the Lord and let Him manifest Himself through you.Lord, I love You and I offer You my love, this day, through a consecration of my words to You. You are the Eternal Word spoken from the Father. You are the Truth that sets all people free. Give me wisdom, temperance, and courage to speak only what You call me to speak and to listen only to that which You speak. May my tongue be a sword piercing through the darkness of this world and my ear be a sponge for Your Mercy. Jesus, I trust in You.Source of content: www.divinemercy.lifeCopyright © 2022 My Catholic Life! Inc. All rights reserved. Used with permission via RSS feed.
Excessive heat warning issued for much of Arkansas; SCCSD to provide free school supplies and meals to all students in 2022-2023 school year; COVID cases tick up after 4th holiday; Hector man up for parole; Heber Springs man sentenced in January 6th Capitol riot; we talk with Kevin Van Pelt of the Conway County Extension Service about the effect of heat on cattle.
Oklahoma faces another day of excessive heat. A Starbucks in Norman votes to unionize. An endangered Sumatran tiger at the Oklahoma City Zoo gives birth to twins. You can find the KOSU Daily wherever you get your podcasts, you can also subscribe, rate us and leave a comment. You can keep up to date on all the latest news throughout the day at KOSU.org and make sure to follow us on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram at KOSU Radio. This is The KOSU Daily, Oklahoma news, every weekday.
Endometriosis impacts 1 in 10 women. The common signs and symptoms of endometriosis are: Chronic lower abdominal pain Chronic lower back pain Excessive bleeding Infertility Painful intercourse Painful urination Recurrent painful periods In today's episode, you will walk away with a greater understanding of the ROOT cause of endometriosis and steps to take for supporting it naturally. Get my online hormone course If you are liking the information you hear in this podcast and want to continue learning more, join the Alpha Health Membership Support the brands I love Get access to my online supplement/herb dispensary Connect with me on my website: drhalieschoff.com Connect with me on social: @drhalieschoff and @alpha.chiro.health.wellness
Excessive heat and lack of rainfall prompted open burning bans in Vanderburgh, Posey and Warrick Counties... A man convicted of several charges including shooting at a police officer is headed to prison for 24 years... Ellis Park prepares for the return of horse racing as it celebrates its 100th anniversary... See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
Clement is in conversation with General Practitioner Dr Marlin McKay talking about excessive sweating, they explore what causes it and how it can be cured. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
Todays episode I will be talking about the 5 of the most common reasons I see babies or toddlers wake overnight that are outside biological or developmental norms! If you're looking for a place to start in keeping up with your babe's changing sleep needs, make sure to download my FREE workbook, ‘The Calm + Consistent Routine Guide' from www.jenniferbutler.online/calmroutineguide
Todays episode I will be talking about the 5 of the most common reasons I see babies or toddlers wake overnight that are outside biological or developmental norms!If you're looking for a place to start in keeping up with your babe's changing sleep needs, make sure to download my FREE workbook, ‘The Calm + Consistent Routine Guide' from www.jenniferbutler.online/calmroutineguide
A 40-year high in inflation, rising interest rates, talk of our property markets crashing, and our economy falling into recession. Then there's Russia's war with Ukraine. A spike in energy prices, a skyrocketing jump in the price of oil. Supply chain problems. Excessive government spending. Exploding government debt. A huge increase in the nation's money supply. All these factors and others are contributing to increased inflation. But am I worried? Not really. And you shouldn't be either. I'm going to explain why in today's podcast. Links and Resources: Michael Yardney If you're keen to buy your next home or investment property why not get the team at Metropole to build you a personalised Strategic Property Plan – this will help both beginning and experienced investors. Get a bundle of eBooks and reports here:- www.PodcastBonus.com.au Shownotes plus more here: Why I'm not worried about inflation — and why you shouldn't be either
What's your biggest turn off?! "When your "having fun" with your partner and they let out a big fart!?" "Excessive body hair on guys. I don't want to date a sweater." "Biggest turn off... arrogance or narcissism. There is nothing more disgusting than someone that thinks they are more entitled than you." "Men with carpets on their chest and back??"
There's a common mistake that many cyclists make that could be hurting their sprint power. Join Coach Chad, Ivy Audrain, Nate Pearson, and Coach Jonathan for a discussion on this, when should you launch your sprint, what happens when you take in too much sugar on the bike, the scientific research on whether it's better to spin lightly or stop pedaling between intervals, and more in Episode 370 of the Ask a Cycling Coach Podcast! TOPICS COVERED IN THIS EPISODE (23:16) Does spinning between intervals really help? (38:37) Best and worst upgrade ROIs for cyclists (01:16:55) What happens when you take in too much sugar on the bike? (01:46:56) Is it bad to be the first to sprint? (01:58:46) An easy way to raise your sprint power RESOURCES MENTIONED IN THIS EPISODE https://trainerroad.cc/3y5cWea TRY TRAINERROAD RISK FREE FOR 30 DAYS! TrainerRoad is the #1 cycling training app. No other cycling app is more effective. Over 13,000 positive reviews, a 4.9 star App Store rating. Adaptive Training from TrainerRoad uses machine learning and science-based coaching principles to continually assess your performance and intelligently adjust your training plan. It trains you as an individual and makes you a faster cyclist. Learn more about TrainerRoad: https://trainerroad.cc/3BasfTM Learn more about Adaptive Training: https://trainerroad.cc/3rF5Cnp ABOUT THE ASK A CYCLING COACH PODCAST Ask a Cycling Coach podcast is a cycling and triathlon training podcast. Each week USAC/USAT Level I certified coach Chad Timmerman, pro athletes, and other special guests answer your cycling and triathlon questions. Have a question for the podcast? Ask here: https://trainerroad.cc/34MIniq MORE PODCASTS FROM TRAINERROAD Listen to the Successful Athletes Podcast: https://trainerroad.cc/34MGKkO Listen to the Science of Getting Faster Podcast: https://trainerroad.cc/3HKPExQ STAY IN TOUCH Training Blog: https://trainerroad.cc/3gCdNdN TrainerRoad Forum: https://trainerroad.cc/3uHvLnE Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/trainerroad/ Strava Club: https://www.strava.com/clubs/trainerroad Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TrainerRd Twitter: https://twitter.com/TrainerRoad
Bloating. Everybody has it. But it makes some people more uncomfortable than others. First, we are here to tell you that bloating is 100% normal and part of the complex digestion process. But if you are feeling like your bloating is excessive and causing distress, we want to provide some information and tools to help. In today's episode, we speak with the queen of digestion, Tamara Duker Freuman, MS, RD, CDN, @tamarafreuman a New York City-based registered dietitian, and trusted digestive nutrition expert. Tamara is the author of "The Bloated Belly Whisperer," and her next book, REGULAR, will be published in April 2023. In This Episode We'll Cover: The common causes of bloating How to know when you need to seek professional help IBS vs. Bloating How bloating can be treated Functional Dyspepsia & MORE! 3 Ways You Can Support This Podcast: Rate Review Support our sponsors using our unique ‘HOOKUP' codes here: https://foodheavenmadeeasy.com/hookup/ For our resources and show notes, visit foodheavenmadeeasy.com/podcast _______ Resources: Tamara's Book Tamara's Twitter Tamara's Instagram Tamara's Facebook Produced by Dear Media
Many people who have studied metaphysics and started to use it successfully have changed their lifestyle. Things seem to drop away from them that seemed quite important not too long before. Some give up smoking. Some cut down on drinking to only an occasional glass of wine. Some no longer enjoy steak, roast beef, and hamburgers, and seem to lean more to fish and poultry. Some cut down on office time and try to spend more time out of doors. Some watch less television, spending that time in some other quiet way. I'm not talking about three-pack-a-day smokers, potential alcoholics, or extremists in any of these matters. They probably would not have been attracted to metaphysics in the first place. It is the moderates that give way to change. Why? I believe it is due to their increased attunement to the Universal or Cosmic Consciousness. They naturally want for themselves what nature wants for them. Excessive drinking has always been known to be a risk. However, only in the past decade has smoking been officially recognized as “dangerous to health.” Now, the chemicals injected in beef are under increasing suspicion and the emissions of television tubes are being judged more soberly. As to artificial light versus natural light, the recent findings are even more dramatic. Apparently, man needs the full spectrum of the sun's light in order. Please visit www.robertbstone.com for a FREE PDF COPY of the Richness Of Mind Below are the books available in paperback and e-book editions. Several are available as audiobooks and you can hear excerpts of many on YouTube. For more information and a complete list of books by Robert B. Stone, please visit www.robertbstone.com 1. The Magic of Psychotronic Power https://www.amazon.com/dp/B0722FNLZ92. The Power of Miracle Metaphysics https://www.amazon.com/dp/B08HQ7KYD63. The Silva Mind Control Method for Getting Help from the Other Sidehttps://www.amazon.com/dp/B08JH4LMJ64. How to Gain Strength from Nature Sitting in Your Living Roomhttps://www.amazon.com/dp/B01C7U3QS85. Hypno-Cybernetics https://www.amazon.com/dp/B08R3ZP2296. Life Without Limits https://www.amazon.com/dp/B08J4274P57. The Complete Book of Life-Changing Affirmationshttps://www.amazon.com/dp/B01C6W6MEC8. The Silva Mind Control Method for Business Managershttps://www.amazon.com/dp/B08JH1BPPG9. Celestial 911 https://www.amazon.com/dp/B08HQJ6LQ Stone was author and co-author of over 80 published books, most notably on self-help and powers of the mind. His most best-selling book was “Martinis & Whipped Cream” (1966) with coauthor, hypnotist Sidney Petrie. That book was significant in the history of dieting. Dr. Stone was an internationally known lecturer on the human potential. He taught for many years at the University of Hawaii on activating the powers of the mind. A MENSA member and graduate of MIT, Dr. Stone was elected to the New York Academy of Science. A Silva Method lecturer for 20 years and Ambassador-at-Large, he introduced the Silva Method to five nations and was honored with many Silva awards. BUY MY BOOK! https://www.amazon.com/Reality-Revolution-Mind-Blowing-Movement-Hack/dp/154450618X/ Listen to my book on audible https://www.audible.com/pd/The-Reality-Revolution-Audiobook/B087LV1R5V The New Earth Activation trainings - Immerse yourself in 12 hours of content focused on the new earth with channeling, meditations, advanced training and access to the new earth https://realityrevolutioncon.com/newearth Alternate Universe Reality Activation - get full access to new meditations, new lectures, recordings from the reality con and the 90 day AURA meditation schedulehttps://realityrevolutionlive.com/aura45338118 Like us on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/The-Reality-Revolution-Podcast-Hosted-By-Brian-Scott-102555575116999 Join our Facebook group The Reality Revolution https://www.facebook.com/groups/523814491927119 Subscribe to my Youtube channel https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCOgXHr5S3oF0qetPfqxJfSw Contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org For coaching – https://www.advancedsuccessinstitute.com For all episodes of the Reality Revolution – https://www.therealityrevolution.com Follow Us on Reddit https://www.reddit.com/r/TheRealityRevolution/ All My Robert B Stone Videos In One Playlist - https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLKv1KCSKwOo_4YbfCN1F3HvE6Tk61Z5wk All My Dr. Joseph Murphy Videos -https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLKv1KCSKwOo_OtBhXg2s85UuZBT-OihF_ All my Audiobooks - https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLKv1KCSKwOo-ArT_9WQ-SrKaEP7VgIPb5 #lawofattraction #robertbstone#silvamindcontrol #robertstone #prosperity#lawofattraction #magick
John DeRosa is an incredible Catholic who runs the Classical Theism Podcast. He interviewed me for the show and we decided to dual-release it. His version will come out in a couple of weeks or so because, unlike me, he plans ahead for months. We talk about why the sacraments are not "super-added" to simple gospel faith, but are integral to it.
Guest: Terry D. Schneekloth, M.D. Host: Darryl S. Chutka, M.D. (@ChutkaMD) Unhealthy use of alcohol has the potential to affect not only the individual who consumes the alcohol, but a variety of others as well. Alcohol is the most used addictive substance, with an estimated prevalence of 7% of the United States population. Excessive alcohol use has the potential to cause damage to essentially every organ system and is thought to reduce one's life expectance by approximately 10 years. Whereas treatment is available and has the potential to be very successful, it often requires an ongoing, lifetime of therapy. Our guest for this podcast is Terry D. Schneekloth, M.D., a psychiatrist and addiction medicine specialist at the Mayo Clinic in Scottsdale, Arizona. This podcast discusses when you should suspect alcoholism in your patients, how to make a diagnosis and which management techniques have been shown to be effective. Connect with the Mayo Clinic's School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd.
Have you ever been in a dangerous mosh pit? The crew here at Today's Prey share their brutal moshing stories on this episode,. Followed by the dudes discussing plans for Poppy's trip to Hawaii, and the peculiar use of bugs and grubs. This is Today's Prey.
“Can any of you by worrying add a single moment to your life-span?…seek first the Kingdom of God and his righteousness, and all these things will be given you besides. Do not worry about tomorrow; tomorrow will take care of itself.” Matthew 6:27 & 33-34This is advice that we all need to hear. But, as the saying goes, “It's easier said than done.”Worrying can become for some people just a normal part of life. The things we worry about each and every day can include a myriad of concerns. Finances, relationships, work, family, health and many other things in life can be the cause of much worrying, fear, anxiety and even depression. Excessive worrying can truly become a heavy burden if not handled properly.So what is the proper way to deal with the things you worry about? Trust. Trust in God, in His fidelity, in His all-consuming love for you, and in His providence. He loves you and is concerned about you more than you will ever know. And He is aware of every detail and problem you may face. If we truly understood the love of God and His infinite wisdom, we would not worry about a thing. We would be able to trust and surrender all to Him every day and we would allow Him to enter in and to direct us in hope according to His perfect plan for our lives. But, as mentioned above, this is easier said than done.Another key factor in overcoming the worries and anxieties of life is to seek the Truth. Knowing the truth frees us and it enables us to see the hand of God at work even in the most difficult of situations. God never abandons us even though it may feel like that at times. If we can seek out His voice, His will, His wisdom and His truth, it will be much easier to place our trust in Him. And when we place our trust in Him, we find peace in our soul and feel the heavy weight of our worry lift away.Reflect, today, upon that which you worry about the most. It may be an extremely heavy and burdensome fear. Or, it may just be this constant thought in the back of your mind. Whatever the case may be for you, try to identify that which seems to burden you the most and is the greatest source of concern. Then try to seek God's truth as it applies to your situation so that you can then surrender in trust to His perfect plan for your life.Lord of perfect wisdom, I do trust in You, but I also fail to trust enough. When the burdens and worries of life weigh me down, help me to surrender those concerns over to You. Jesus, I trust in You. Source of content: catholic-daily-reflections.comCopyright © 2022 My Catholic Life! Inc. All rights reserved. Used with permission via RSS feed.
Now stuck in exssive heat warring for 3 days ! It's amazing how frozen foods have less portions than fast food depending on what you get always have to add two meals then yesterday even though I m angry I had a large thing of lasagna and now I have two boxes of frozen meals left already and 3 day of being in hell ? Excessive heat warring !! Please now more than ever help with the podcast and with food. https://www.paypal.com/paypalme/deshonporter?country.x=US&locale.x=en_US --- Send in a voice message: https://anchor.fm/bigdcountry/message Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/bigdcountry/support
Rip answers questions from Starting Strength Network subscribers and fans. 1:30 Comments from the haters 15:50 School shooters 31:00 Stress fractures 46:46 Set of 20 squats 58:33 Halting deadlift and rack pulls 1:02:34 Barbell shrugs 1:06:18 Light day pull for older lifters 1:12:01 Gas prices 1:19:55 Convincing parents to train 1:26:46 Rip's advice on college 1:36:32 Excessive individualism
On this day in 1845, President Andrew Jackson's funeral was rudely interrupted when his pet parrot began squawking profanities during the service. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.