Alternative (and religiously neutral) naming of the traditional calendar era, Anno Domini
Sety I (Part 1): A Repeat Appearance. In 1303 BCE, the old king Ramesses is dead after a brief reign. But now, for the first time in decades, a royal son is taking power. King Sety (Men-ma'at-Ra) ascends, aged approximately thirty years old. The new ruler's reign will be noteworthy for its splendid monuments and its abundant records. In fact, as his reign begins, we can even trace his movements on a week-to-week basis... Note: Patrons enjoy an extended epilogue on this episode. Date: c. 1303 BCE (roughly July to September). Music: Luke Chaos and Keith Zizza. Logo image: Sety I from his royal tomb. Louvre Museum. Support the History of Egypt Podcast at www.patreon.com/egyptpodcast. Sources: Kenneth Kitchen's Ramesside Inscriptions volume 1. Hieroglyph versions at Internet Archive, English translations at Abercromby Press. Peter Brand, Ramesses II: Egypt's Ultimate Pharaoh, out now from Lockwood Press. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices
At its height in 660 BCE, the kingdom of Assyria stretched from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. It was the first empire the world had ever seen. Assyria's wide-ranging conquests have long been known from the Hebrew Bible and later Greek accounts (and its reputation for unspeakable cruelty, with images of Assyrians skinning its enemies alive carved into stone on an Assyrian royal palace). But nearly two centuries of research now permit a rich picture of the Assyrians and their empire beyond the battlefield: their vast libraries and monumental sculptures, their elaborate trade and information networks, and the crucial role played by royal women. Today's guest is Eckart Frahm, author of “Assyria: The Rise and Fall of the World's First Empire.” Using archaeological research, along with the study of tens of thousands of cuneiform texts, researchers have been able to construct a more accurate depiction of Assyrian life, revealing the empire's enduring impact on global civilization. Frahm shows how despite its war-prone image, Assyria proved innovative in the realms of architecture, arts, technology, and diplomacy. Readers will learn about the elaborate “Royal Road” that enabled trade and communication over vast distances, how Assyrian scholars created the first universal library, and about the impact of plagues and climate change on the empire's fortunes.
Head down to the closet under the stairs and reach for the bottom of the pile of board games for the classics! Since May is officially Star Wars season, we focus on some of the great, classic Star Wars games that we have loved to play over the years. Jay and Shua try to get the highest spin as they channel the Force on Enjoy Stuff! After Jay's review of Star Wars: Jedi Survivor, tune in for a history of board games and a look at some of the greatest classic Star Wars games. News Dark Horse Comics and Mattel are releasing a very cool Masters of the Universe art book Dungeons & Dragons: Honor Among Thieves gets a digital release with bonus features Beetlejuice 2 is officially announced NASA found the juice to keep Voyager 2 going for 3 more years! Kit Kat cereal is here! Gimme a break! Have you checked out the Gran Turismo trailer? David Tenant returns to Doctor Who for 60th Anniversary Return of the Jedi hits #4 at the box office Check out our TeePublic store for some enjoyable swag and all the latest fashion trends What we're Enjoying When Jay's power goes out, he gets to dig into a book. The Big Goodbye: Chinatown and the Last Years of Hollywood by Sam Wasson tells some stories about one of the most classic eras of Hollywood and the drama around it. Shua is deep into season 2 of the Netflix series Shadow and Bone. He describes it as a ‘fantasy steam-punk', which has a very unique feel. Enjoy Games! Board games have been around way longer than you realize. But are some of those historic games still being played? First we look back at some of the oldest games in human history that are still being played today. Dice has definitely been around the longest, dating all the way back to prehistoric times. But if you want something with an actual board, that would be the Royal Game of Ur, which has been played since 2650 BCE! Backgammon may no longer hold the title of oldest, but it sure has been around for a long time. There's even an annual, world-wide game award from Germany, called the Spiel des Jahres. One game a year has been picked as the best since 1978. There's some great games that we grew up with that may not make it on the Spiel des Jahres list, but they were fun nevertheless. Classic, mainstream games like Monopoly, Trivial Pursuit, Mousetrap, Yahtzee, and more start our board game discussion with some nostalgia. But it's Star Wars month, so we pick some of the Star Wars favorites from the last 46 years. From the original Escape From Death Star game to the heyday of Revenge of the Sith products, these classic games give us so many varieties of game play. Listen in to see if your favorites made the list. Which board games do you Enjoy playing? What Star Wars games would you add to the list? First person that emails me with the subject line, “Fair and square” will get a special mention on the show. Let us know. Come talk to us in the Discord channel or send us an email to EnjoyStuff@RetroZap.com
Ce vendredi 5 mai, la crainte d'une nouvelle crise financière suite à la chute de la banque américaine PacWest en bourse et l'annonce de la BCE sur les points de base ont été abordés par François Ecalle, fondateur de FipEco.fr et professeur d'économie à l'Université Paris 1, Jean-Marc Daniel, professeur à l'ESCP, et Xavier Ragot, président de l'OFCE, dans l'émission Les Experts, présentée par Nicolas Doze sur BFM Business. Retrouvez l'émission du lundi au vendredi et réécoutez la en podcast.
As Shirley Bassey once said, "He's the man. The man with the Midas touch." But who was the man that's inspired stories from Greek myths to Bond bangers?In this episode, Tristan Hughes is joined by archaeologist and classicist Professor Brian Rose to discuss the real King Midas, ruler of the Phrygian Kingdom in West Central Turkey between 740 and 700 BCE. They delve into the two sides of Midas: the historical and the mythical, explaining the origins of the both the Golden Touch myth, and why Midas is sometimes depicted with donkey's ears, and what we know about the real man and his kingdom based on Rose's excavations at the site of Gordian.The Senior Producer was Elena GuthrieScript written by Andrew HulseVoice over performed by Lucy DavidsonThe Assistant Producer was Annie ColoeEdited by Joseph KnightIf you enjoyed this episode, you might also enjoy other episodes in the series: Zeus: King of the Gods, Hera: Queen of the Gods, Hephaestus: God of Fire, Aphrodite: Goddess of Love, Ares: God of War and Athena: Goddess of WisdomFor more Ancients content, subscribe to our Ancients newsletter here.If you'd like to learn even more, we have hundreds of history documentaries, ad free podcasts and audiobooks at History Hit - enter promo code ANCIENTS for a free trial, plus 50% off your first three months' subscription. Hosted on Acast. See acast.com/privacy for more information.
The symbolism of Medusa, one of three Gorgon sisters in Greek mythology, has fascinated artists, writers, and philosophers for centuries. Initially a monstrous creature with snake-writhing hair and a petrifying gaze, Medusa has undergone numerous transformations. The earliest known account of Medusa appears in Hesiod's Theogony (c. 700 BCE), where she is portrayed as a mortal Gorgon sister with a deadly gaze. Ovid's Metamorphoses (c. 8 CE) ascribes Medusa's monstrous appearance to a curse from Athena, punishing her for desecrating the temple with Poseidon. Medusa's terrifying image persisted for centuries, eventually finding its way into Roman wine goblets as a delightful decoration. Sigmund Freud suggested that Medusa's visage symbolizes castration anxiety, while Jungian analysis views the myth as a development of the anima, the feminine aspect of the male psyche. By incorporating Medusa's head into his arsenal, Perseus metaphorically assimilates her power, integrating the darker elements of his anima. The myth also reflects the evolution of the father-bound virginal feminine principle. Athene, unfailingly loyal to Zeus, demonized Medusa, a figure related to ancient fertility goddesses. Medusa's killing power, once uncontrollable, was ultimately transformed into a symbol of instinctive sexual power and reintegrated into Athene. Medusa's story also explores humanity's relationship with nature and the cosmos. As a Gorgon, Medusa embodies chaos and destruction, reflecting the untamed aspects of the natural world. Her petrifying gaze is a reminder of the inherent danger within the natural order, further reinforced by her connection to the sea god Poseidon. Contemporary thinkers and artists have reevaluated Medusa's image as a symbol of female empowerment and resilience. French feminist philosopher Hélène Cixous argued that Medusa's transformation into a monster represents the subjugation of women and their sexuality. She encouraged women to reclaim the Gorgon's image as a symbol of female empowerment. Medusa's evolution demonstrates the power of reinterpretation and the resilience of archetypal symbols. From her monstrous origins to her contemporary status as a feminist icon, Medusa defies expectations and continues to challenge. Her ongoing transformation attests to the malleability of myth and the enduring appeal of characters that embody transformation, resistance, and power. HERE'S THE DREAM WE ANALYZE: “I was alone in an unfamiliar building and going to give birth to twins, but they were crocodiles. I was afraid and trying to escape this building, but a midwife appeared and kept finding me when I tried to escape. She would tell me I had to give birth and wouldn't let me escape. She was firm but wasn't mean. Then the building morphed into a hospital, and I gave birth to the crocodiles in a hospital room. I was terrified I was going to have to breastfeed them. (This stands out as the scariest part of the dream.) I was scared holding two baby crocodiles with their mouths open, their teeth exposed, and I was getting ready to breastfeed them.” MEET JOSEPH in NEW ORLEANS ON MAY 5th 2023. For more information, click HERE. BECOME A DREAM INTERPRETER We've created DREAM SCHOOL to teach others how to work with their dreams. A vibrant community has constellated around this mission, and we think you'll love it. Check it out. PLEASE GIVE US A HAND Hey folks -- We need your help. So please BECOME OUR PATRON and keep This Jungian Life podcast up and running. SHARE YOUR DREAM WITH US SUBMIT YOUR DREAM HERE FOR A POSSIBLE PODCAST INTERPRETATION. FOLLOW US ON SOCIAL MEDIA FACEBOOK, INSTAGRAM, LINKEDIN, TWITTER, YOUTUBE INTERESTED IN BECOMING A JUNGIAN ANALYST? Enroll in the PHILADELPHIA JUNGIAN SEMINAR and start your journey to become an analyst.
Effetto giorno le notizie in 60 minuti
Droni sul Cremlino: è scambio di accuse tra Russia e Ucraina. Cerchiamo di fare chiarezza con Marco Di Liddo, analista del Ce.S.I. (Centro Studi Internazionali).Oggi è il World Password Day. Gabriele Faggioli, presidente del Clusit (Associazione per la Sicurezza Informatica) e responsabile scientifico dell'Osservatorio Cybersecurity & Data Protection del Politecnico di Milano, ci fornisce qualche indicazione al fine di renderle più sicure.La Fed alza i tassi di un quarto di punto, a breve la decisione della BCE. Intanto l'importo delle bollette di gas torna a salire. Ne parliamo con Alberto Orioli, vicedirettore vicario del Sole 24 Ore.
Dopo tre mesi di cali, torna a salire il prezzo del gas per la bolletta delle famiglie in maggior tutela relativa ai consumi di aprile: +22,4 per cento. Sul rialzo è intervenuta in serata una nota del ministero dell Economia: il governo «monitora costantemente l'oscillazione dei prezzi energetici» e il Mef «è pronto a intervenire a sostegno di famiglie e imprese nel caso di aumenti significativi e repentini». Intanto oggi il ministro Pichetto ha detto che spera che non servano altre risorse per le bollette. Ne parliamo con Stefano Besseghini, presidente di Arera L'Autorità di Regolazione per Energia Reti e Ambiente. Bce alza tassi di 25 punti base e prepara nuovi rialzi Continua però l'ambiguità della Lagarde sulle prospettive future, di certo c'è solo che ci saranno ulteriori rialzi. Nello specifico la presidente della Bce in conferenza stampa ha ribadito più volte che: "non sappiamo quel è il 'magic number'", ovvero il tasso terminale, "ma sappiamo che è un percorso e noi siamo in cammino". Ospite Donato Masciandaro, docente di politiche monetarie dell'Università Bocconi ed editorialista del Sole 24 Ore.
Ce mercredi 3 mai, l'étude réalisée par Eurostat qui montre que les Français sont ceux qui travaillent le plus en Europe juste après les Grecs, ainsi que sur la possibilité que la BCE arrête de remonter ses taux pour faire baisser l'inflation, ont été abordés par Philippe Trainar, professeur au Cnam et membre du Cercle des économistes, Guillaume Poitrinal, chef d'entreprise et fondateur de Woodeum, et Ronan Le Moal, fondateur d'Épopée Gestion, fonds d'investissements régional, dans l'émission Les Experts, présentée par Nicolas Doze sur BFM Business. Retrouvez l'émission du lundi au vendredi et réécoutez la en podcast.
One of the hardest parts of telling any history, is which innovations are significant enough to warrant mention. Too much, and the history is so vast that it can't be told. Too few, and it's incomplete. Arguably, no history is ever complete. Yet there's a critical path of innovation to get where we are today, and hundreds of smaller innovations that get missed along the way, or are out of scope for this exact story. Children have probably been placing sand into buckets to make sandcastles since the beginning of time. Bricks have survived from round 7500BC in modern-day Turkey where humans made molds to allow clay to dry and bake in the sun until it formed bricks. Bricks that could be stacked. And it wasn't long before molds were used for more. Now we can just print a mold on a 3d printer. A mold is simply a block with a hollow cavity that allows putting some material in there. People then allow it to set and pull out a shape. Humanity has known how to do this for more than 6,000 years, initially with lost wax casting with statues surviving from the Indus Valley Civilization, stretching between parts of modern day Pakistan and India. That evolved to allow casting in gold and silver and copper and then flourished in the Bronze Age when stone molds were used to cast axes around 3,000 BCE. The Egyptians used plaster to cast molds of the heads of rulers. So molds and then casting were known throughout the time of the earliest written works and so the beginning of civilization. The next few thousand years saw humanity learn to pack more into those molds, to replace objects from nature with those we made synthetically, and ultimately molding and casting did its part on the path to industrialization. As we came out of the industrial revolution, the impact of all these technologies gave us more and more options both in terms of free time as humans to think as well as new modes of thinking. And so in 1868 John Wesley Hyatt invented injection molding, patenting the machine in 1872. And we were able to mass produce not just with metal and glass and clay but with synthetics. And more options came but that whole idea of a mold to avoid manual carving and be able to produce replicas stretched back far into the history of humanity. So here we are on the precipice of yet another world-changing technology becoming ubiquitous. And yet not. 3d printing still feels like a hobbyists journey rather than a mature technology like we see in science fiction shows like Star Trek with their replicators or printing a gun in the Netflix show Lost In Space. In fact the initial idea of 3d printing came from a story called Things Pass By written all the way back in 1945! I have a love-hate relationship with 3D printing. Some jobs just work out great. Others feel very much like personal computers in the hobbyist era - just hacking away until things work. It's usually my fault when things go awry. Just as it was when I wanted to print things out on the dot matrix printer on the Apple II. Maybe I fed the paper crooked or didn't check that there was ink first or sent the print job using the wrong driver. One of the many things that could go wrong. But those fast prints don't match with the reality of leveling and cleaning nozzles and waiting for them to heat up and pulling filament out of weird places (how did it get there, exactly)! Or printing 10 add-ons for a printer to make it work the way it probably should have out of the box. Another area where 3d printing is similar to the early days of the personal computer revolution is that there are a few different types of technology in use today. These include color-jet printing (CJP), direct metal printing (DMP), fused deposition modeling (FDM), Laser Additive Manufacturing (LAM, multi-jet printing (MJP), stereolithography (SLA), selective laser melting (SLM), and selective laser sintering (SLS). Each could be better for a given type of print job to be done. Some forms have flourished while others are either their infancy or have been abandoned like extinct languages. Language isolates are languages that don't fit into other families. Many are the last in a branch of a larger language family tree. Others come out of geographically isolated groups. Technology also has isolates. Konrad Zuse built computers in pre-World War II Germany and after that aren't considered to influence other computers. In other words, every technology seems to have a couple of false starts. Hideo Kodama filed the first patent to 3d print in 1980 - but his method of using UV lights to harden material doesn't get commercialized. Another type of 3d printing includes printers that were inkjets that shot metal alloys onto surfaces. Inkjet printing was invented by Ichiro Endo at Canon in the 1950s, supposedly when he left a hot iron on a pen and ink bubbled out. Thus the “Bubble jet” printer. And Jon Vaught at HP was working on the same idea at about the same time. These were patented and used to print images from computers over the coming decades. Johannes Gottwald patented a printer like this in 1971. Experiments continued through the 1970s when companies like Exxon were trying to improve various prototyping processes. Some of their engineers joined an inventor Robert Howard in the early 1980s to found a company called Howtek and they produced the Pixelmaster, using hot-melt inks to increment the ink jet with solid inks, which then went on to be used by Sanders Prototype, which evolved into a company called Solidscape to market the Modelmaker. And some have been used to print solar cells, living cells, tissue, and even edible birthday cakes. That same technique is available with a number of different solutions but isn't the most widely marketable amongst the types of 3D printers available. SLA There's often a root from which most technology of the day is derived. Charles, or Chuck, Hull coined the term stereolithography, where he could lay down small layers of an object and then cure the object with UV light, much as the dentists do with fillings today. This is made possibly by photopolymers, or plastics that are easily cured by an ultraviolet light. He then invented the stereolithography apparatus, or SLA for short, a machine that printed from the bottom to the top by focusing a laser on photopolymer while in a liquid form to cure the plastic into place. He worked on it in 1983, filed the patent in 1984, and was granted the patent in 1986. Hull also developed a file format for 3D printing called STL. STL files describe the surface of a three-dimensional object, geometrically using Cartesian coordinates. Describing coordinates and vectors means we can make objects bigger or smaller when we're ready to print them. 3D printers print using layers, or slices. Those can change based on the filament on the head of a modern printer, the size of the liquid being cured, and even the heat of a nozzle. So the STL file gets put into a slicer that then converts the coordinates on the outside to the polygons that are cured. These are polygons in layers, so they may appear striated rather than perfectly curved according to the size of the layers. However, more layers take more time and energy. Such is the evolution of 3D printing. Hull then founded a company called 3D Systems in Valencia California to take his innovation to market. They sold their first printer, the SLA-1 in 1988. New technologies start out big and expensive. And that was the case with 3D Systems. They initially sold to large engineering companies but when solid-state lasers came along in 1996 they were able to provide better systems for cheaper. Languages also have other branches. Another branch in 3d printing came in 1987, just before the first SLA-1 was sold. Carl Deckard and his academic adviser Joe Beaman at the University of Texas worked on a DARPA grant to experiment with creating physical objects with lasers. They formed a company to take their solution to market called DTM and filed a patent for what they called selective laser sintering. This compacts and hardens a material with a heat source without having to liquify it. So a laser, guided by a computer, can move around a material and harden areas to produce a 3D model. Now in addition to SLA we had a second option, with the release of the Sinterstation 2500plus. Then 3D Systems then acquired DTM for $45 million in 2001. FDM After Hull published his findings for SLA and created the STL format, other standards we use today emerged. FDM is short for Fused Deposition Modeling and was created by Scott Crump in 1989. He then started a company with his wife Lisa to take the product to market, taking the company public in 1994. Crump's first patent expired in 2009. In addition to FDM, there are other formats and techniques. AeroMat made the first 3D printer that could produce metal in 1997. These use a laser additive manufacturing process, where lasers fuse powdered titanium alloys. Some go the opposite direction and create out of bacteria or tissue. That began in 1999, when Wake Forest Institute of Regenerative medicine grew a 3D printed urinary bladder in a lab to be used as a transplant. We now call this bioprinting and can take tissue and lasers to rebuild damaged organs or even create a new organ. Organs are still in their infancy with success trials on smaller animals like rabbits. Another aspect is printing dinner using cell fibers from cows or other animals. There are a number of types of materials used in 3D printing. Most printers today use a continuous feed of one of these filaments, or small coiled fibers of thermoplastics that melt instead of burn when they're heated up. The most common in use today is PLA, or polylactic acid, is a plastic initially created by Wall Carothers of DuPont, the same person that brought us nylon, neoprene, and other plastic derivatives. It typically melts between 200 and 260 degrees Celsius. Printers can also take ABS filament, which is short for acrylonitrile-butadien-styerene. Other filament types include HIPS, PET, CPE, PVA, and their derivative forms. Filament is fed into a heated extruder assembly that melts the plastic. Once melted, filament extrudes into place through a nozzle as a motor sends the nozzle on a x and y axis per layer. Once a layer of plastic is finished being delivered to the areas required to make up the desired slice, the motor moves the extruder assembly up or down on a z axis between layers. Filament is just between 1.75 millimeters and 3 millimeters and comes in spools between half a kilogram and two kilograms. These thermoplastics cool very quickly. Once all of the slices are squirted into place, the print is removed from the bed and the nozzle cools off. Filament comes in a number of colors and styles. For example, wood fibers can be added to filament to get a wood-grained finish. Metal can be added to make prints appear metallic and be part metal. Printing isn't foolproof, though. Filament often gets jammed or the spool gets stuck, usually when something goes wrong. Filament also needs to be stored in a temperature and moisture controlled location or it can cause jobs to fail. Sometimes the software used to slice the .stl file has an incorrect setting, like the wrong size of filament. But in general, 3D printing using the FDM format is pretty straight forward these days. Yet this is technology that should have moved faster in terms of adoption. The past 10 years have seen more progress than the previous ten though. Primarily due to the maker community. Enter the Makers The FDM patent expired in 2009. In 2005, a few years before the FDM patent expired, Dr. Adrian Bowyer started a project to bring inexpensive 3D printers to labs and homes around the world. That project evolved into what we now call the Replicating Rapid Prototyper, or RepRap for short. RepRap evolved into an open source concept to create self-replicating 3D printers and by 2008, the Darwin printer was the first printer to use RepRap. As a community started to form, more collaborators designed more parts. Some were custom parts to improve the performance of the printer, or replicate the printer to become other printers. Others held the computing mechanisms in place. Some even wrote code to make the printer able to boot off a MicroSD card and then added a network interface so files could be uploaded to the printer wirelessly. There was a rising tide of printers. People were reading about what 3D printers were doing and wanted to get involved. There was also a movement in the maker space, so people wanted to make things themselves. There was a craft to it. Part of that was wanting to share. Whether that was at a maker space or share ideas and plans and code online. Like the RepRap team had done. One of those maker spaces was NYC Resistor, founded in 2007. Bre Pettis, Adam Mayer, and Zach Smith from there took some of the work from the RepRap project and had ideas for a few new projects they'd like to start. The first was a site that Zach Smith created called Thingiverse. Bre Pettis joined in and they allowed users to upload .stl files and trade them. It's now the largest site for trading hundreds of thousands of designs to print about anything imaginable. Well, everything except guns. Then comes 2009. The patent for FDM expires and a number of companies respond by launching printers and services. Almost overnight the price for a 3D printer fell from $10,000 to $1,000 and continued to drop. Shapeways had created a company the year before to take files and print them for people. Pettis, Mayer, and Smith from NYC Resistor also founded a company called MakerBot Industries. They'd already made a little bit of a name for themselves with the Thingiverse site. They knew the mind of a maker. And so they decided to make a kit to sell to people that wanted to build their own printers. They sold 3,500 kits in the first couple of years. They had a good brand and knew the people who bought these kinds of devices. So they took venture funding to grow the company. So they raised $10M in funding in 2011 in a round led by the Foundry Group, along with Bezos, RRE, 500 Startups and a few others. They hired and grew fast. Smith left in 2012 and they were getting closer and closer with Stratasys, who if we remember were the original creators of FDM. So Stratasys ended up buying out the company in 2013 for $403M. Sales were disappointing so there was a changeup in leadership, with Pettis leaving and they've become much more about additive manufacturing than a company built to appeal to makers. And yet the opportunity to own that market is still there. This was also an era of Kickstarter campaigns. Plenty of 3D printing companies launched through kickstarter including some to take PLA (a biodegradable filament) and ABS materials to the next level. The ExtrusionBot, the MagicBox, the ProtoPlant, the Protopasta, Mixture, Plybot, Robo3D, Mantis, and so many more. Meanwhile, 3D printing was in the news. 2011 saw the University of Southhampton design a 3d printed aircraft. Ecologic printing cars, and practically every other car company following suit that they were fabricating prototypes with 3d printers, even full cars that ran. Some on their own, some accidentally when parts are published in .stl files online violating various patents. Ultimaker was another RepRap company that came out of the early Darwin reviews. Martijn Elserman, Erik de Bruin, and Siert Wijnia who couldn't get the Darwin to work so they designed a new printer and took it to market. After a few iterations, they came up with the Ultimaker 2 and have since been growing and releasing new printers A few years later, a team of Chinese makers, Jack Chen, Huilin Liu, Jingke Tang, Danjun Ao, and Dr. Shengui Chen took the RepRap designs and started a company to manufacturing (Do It Yourself) kits called Creality. They have maintained the open source manifesto of 3D printing that they inherited from RepRap and developed version after version, even raising over $33M to develop the Ender6 on Kickstarter in 2018, then building a new factory and now have the capacity to ship well over half a million printers a year. The future of 3D Printing We can now buy 3D printing pens, over 170 3D Printer manufacturers including 3D systems, Stratasys, and Ceality but also down-market solutions like Fusion3, Formlabs, Desktop Metal, Prusa, and Voxel8. There's also a RecycleBot concept and additional patents expiring every year. There is little doubt that at some point, instead of driving to Home Depot to get screws or basic parts, we'll print them. Need a new auger for the snow blower? Just print it. Cover on the weed eater break? Print it. Need a dracolich mini for the next Dungeons and Dragons game? Print it. Need a new pinky toe. OK, maybe that's a bit far. Or is it? In 2015, Swedish Cellink releases bio-ink made from seaweed and algae, which could be used to print cartilage and later released the INKREDIBLE 3D printer for bio printing. The market in 2020 was valued at $13.78 billion with 2.1 million printers shipped. That's expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 21% for the next few years. But a lot of that is healthcare, automotive, aerospace, and prototyping still. Apple made the personal computer simple and elegant. But no Apple has emerged for 3D printing. Instead it still feels like the Apple II era, where there are 3D printers in a lot of schools and many offer classes on generating files and printing. 3D printers are certainly great for prototypers and additive manufacturing. They're great for hobbyists, which we call makers these days. But there will be a time when there is a printer in most homes, the way we have electricity, televisions, phones, and other critical technologies. But there are a few things that have to happen first, to make the printers easier to use. These include: Every printer needs to automatically level. This is one of the biggest reasons jobs fail and new users become frustrated. More consistent filament. Spools are still all just a little bit different. Printers need sensors in the extruder that detect if a job should be paused because the filament is jammed, humid, or caught. This adds the ability to potentially resume print jobs and waste less filament and time. Automated slicing in the printer microcode that senses the filament and slices. Better system boards (e.g. there's a tool called Klipper that moves the math from the system board on a Creality Ender 3 to a Raspberry Pi). Cameras on the printer should watch jobs and use TinyML to determine if they are going to fail as early as possible to halt printing so it can start over. Most of the consumer solutions don't have great support. Maybe users are limited to calling a place in a foreign country where support hours don't make sense for them or maybe the products are just too much of a hacker/maker/hobbyist solution. There needs to be an option for color printing. This could be a really expensive sprayer or ink like inkjet printers use at first We love to paint minis we make for Dungeons and Dragons but could get amazingly accurate resolutions to create amazing things with automated coloring. For a real game changer, the RecycleBot concept needs to be merged with the printer. Imagine if we dropped our plastics into a recycling bin that 3D printers of the world used to create filament. This would help reduce the amount of plastics used in the world in general. And when combined with less moving around of cheap plastic goods that could be printed at home, this also means less energy consumed by transporting goods. The 3D printing technology is still a generation or two away from getting truly mass-marketed. Most hobbyists don't necessarily think of building an elegant, easy-to-use solution because they are so experienced it's hard to understand what the barriers of entry are for any old person. But the company who finally manages to crack that nut might just be the next Apple, Microsoft, or Google of the world.
Ramesses I (Part 2): Family, Regime, Remains. In 1304 BCE, Ramesses I rules Egypt. The new royal family is an interesting group, and we have a surprisingly detailed idea of Ramesses' son Suty (Sety). Then, we consider the legacy of Ramesses, which has some remarkably international elements... Details and sources: Date: c. 1304 - 1303 BCE. Music: Luke Chaos and Keith Zizza. Sources: Kenneth Kitchen's Ramesside Inscriptions volume 1. Hieroglyph versions at Internet Archive, English translations at Abercromby Press. Peter Brand, Ramesses II: Egypt's Ultimate Pharaoh, out now from Lockwood Press. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices
In this episode, we go over bellwether stocks that serve as indicators of how various sectors of the economy are performing. Symbols of stocks discussed: FDX, CAT, CNR.TO, ACN, BCE.TO, SBUX, LVMH, V, MA, PG, XOM, SU.TO, INTU, MCO, WMT, HD, CTC-A.TO, LYV, ABNB, CP.TO, CNR.TO, CPRT, RY.TO, BUD, JNJ, MCK Check out our portfolio by going to Jointci.com Our Website Canadian Investor Podcast Network Twitter: @cdn_investing Simon's twitter: @Fiat_Iceberg Braden's twitter: @BradoCapital Want to learn more about Real Estate Investing? Check out the Canadian Real Estate Investor Podcast! Apple Podcast - The Canadian Real Estate Investor Spotify - The Canadian Real Estate Investor Sign up to Stratosphere for free
Fact - Peru's first pyramids are earlier than Egypt's Not only did they start earlier, they were built for centuries longer. Join Ed as the explains Peru's first civilizations from 3500-200 BCE.Support the show
Travel back in time to a chilling winter night in 604 BCE when King Jehoiakim, fueled by rage, cut the original Jeremiah scroll to pieces and fed it to the flames. Discover the dire prophecy that enraged the king – a prophecy foretelling the arrival of Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, who would lay waste to […]
Ayurveda is an age-old tradition originating from India around the 2nd millennium BCE (a very very long time ago!). “Ayur” in Sanskrit means “Life” and “Veda” means “Science” or “Knowledge”. The Vedas, or Hindu scriptures, are one of the oldest pieces of text on the planet that contain scientific knowledge that is gradually only now being proven by modern empirical methods. Ayurveda is a practice that is deeply studied by scholars, scientists, and practitioners today and is rooted in the spiritual philosophies of balance and how to optimize your life force.We are honored to have Shweta Parmar join us today to chat about this incredible science and explain the ancient cultural wisdom of Ayurveda and how it relates to spirituality and energetics. As an Ayurveda practitioner at GutsierLiving, Shweta supports wellness freaks and disembodied spiritual seekers who feel they are doing all the "right things" but still feel shitty. On the show she discusses how to shape one's day and life with wisdom of longevity and not just prevention of disease states in one phase of your life. She excavates the missing links for lasting energy, hormonal harmony, and joyful living. After an assessment of one's own unique mind/body constitution to embody higher consciousness, specific diet, lifestyle and herbal plans are created via Nature-based principles of Ayurveda, Yoga, Tantra Ancient Wisdoms.As a birthworker at Mama The Baby/Baby The Mama, Shweta specializes in “wombens wellness” - from hormonal harmony, infertility, conscious conceiving, complication-free pregnancy, easeful labor/postpartum, and subconscious repatterning for babies before/in/after the womb. She strongly feels that the root of injustice and war is due to a lack of consciousness of the Divine Creation Energy at the individual, community and society levels.Connect with her:email@example.com @gutsierliving
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Lezlie Laws gives us background on the historical period that shaped the Buddha's early life up to the point of his Enlightenment in 528 BCE. She reviews the predominant characteristics of what is now called the “Axial Age” and show how this unique time in history created a context for the Buddha to shun the political life […]
Cryptozoology, or “cryptids” for the common folk, has fascinated humankind for thousands of years, beginning as early as the 15th century BCE. While media has glamorized the field, drawing images of wild-eyed creature-hunters chasing anomalous beasts into the night, cryptozoology is really just the study of unknown, legendary, or extinct animals whose existence or survival is disputed or unsubstantiated. But reports of strange organisms don't stop at the animal variety. Enter cryptobotany or simply the study of plant cryptids. Just like its animal counterparts, this field of study focuses on the bizarre plants of folklore and legend that have evaded scientific confirmation. While there may not be any captivating security camera footage or blurry photographs of these elusive plants, some reports are surprisingly compelling. Follow the Madness on Social Media! Support us on Patreon! www.patreon.com/strangebrewpodcast www.strangebrewpodcast.com Strange brew's INSTAGRAM: www.instagram.com/strangebrew.podcast/ Strange brew's FACEBOOK: www.facebook.com/strangebrewpod TOMCAT- https://www.instagram.com/theraptilian/ BILLY KIRBY- https://www.instagram.com/billehk ANTON- https://www.instagram.com/h.p_shovekraft/?hl=en Anton's Twitch- Twitch @ invaderdaggett_ttv Strange Brew's Twitch @ strangebrewttv Find First Class Horror on all Podcast Platforms! LINK BELOW.. https://linktr.ee/FirstClassHorror
Dopo un lungo tira-e-molla, la Commissione europea ha presentato oggi l'attesa proposta di riforma del Patto di Stabilità e Crescita. I vecchi parametri del Patto di stabilità sono sospesi dal 2020 per effetto della pandemia. Le nuove regole proposte da Bruxelles dovranno trovare applicazione dal prossimo anno. Bruxelles ha preso atto che un approccio unico per tutti non ha finora funzionato. Ciascun paese, in base alle nuove propostem sarà quindi chiamato a preparare un piano di risanamento del debito. I paesi, quindi, beneficeranno di un percorso di aggiustamento di bilancio più graduale se si impegneranno nei loro piani a realizzare una serie di riforme e di investimenti conformi a criteri specifici e trasparenti. Le proposte saranno ora discusse dal Consiglio e dal Parlamento Europeo. Ne parliamo conAdriana Cerretelli, editorialista del Sole 24 Ore. Pnrr e obiettivi di giugno: il dossier sugli Asili nido al centro delle preoccupazioni A Bruxelles si scambiano gli ultimi documenti «per raggiungere l'obiettivo» di superare la fase di «valutazione» per il rilascio della terza tranche di aiuti legata al raggiungimenti dei 55 obiettivi del Pnrr richiesti per il 31 dicembre 2022. C'è grande attenzione intorno a questa terza rata, che vale 19 miliardi, ma anche su altre incognite che circondano gli obiettivi di giugno, che sono in tutto 27: in cima alle preoccupazioni del ministro c'è il dossier sugli asili nido. C'è infatti il forte rischio di non riuscire a centrare il target che impone l'affidamento del 100% dei lavori per gli asili nido. Le graduatorie prevedono 2.190 interventi in circa 2mila Comuni. Facciamo il punto con Gianni Trovati del Sole 24 ORE. Moody's e Goldman Sachs mettono nel mirino il rischio Italia. L'Italia è l'unico Paese tra quelli 'coperti' da Moody's che rischia di perdere l''investment grade' nei giudizi della società di rating. Lo ha affermato Moody's in un report citato da Bloomberg. Gli analisti della società statunitense hanno esaminato come le diverse nazioni sono passate a un giudizio 'junk' negli ultimi trent'anni. A questo si è aggiunta anche Goldman Sachs. La quale suggerisce di 'andare corti' sui Btp italiani, preferendo i titoli di Stato spagnoli, alla luce di un contesto macro "sfidante" e della politica monetaria restrittiva della Bce. Il commento in diretta con Alessandro Plateroti - direttore Notizie.it.
Did you know Chandragupta was the founder of the Maurya dynasty and the first emperor to unite much of India under a single ruler(He ruled from 321 to 297 BCE)? Shafi and Dan discuss the history of Head of States in the West and the East. Leave a review on itunes and follow on spotify. @cultureclashcomedypod on insta/tiktok
Ramesses I (Part 1): Appearing in Splendour. In this episode, we repeat the career and rise of Paramessu (content recycled from episode #170). Then, we begin the reign of Ramesses I, who takes the throne around 1305 BCE. The new king is fully aware of his unusual succession and immediately works to establish his legitimacy... Details: Date: c.1305 BCE. Music: Luke Chaos and Keith Zizza. Research assistance: Elissa Day. Episode chapters: Career (recycled): 02:35 - 26:20. Reign (new): 26:20 - 53:50.
In John 10:22, he tells us that Jesus celebrated Hanukkah - or the Feast of Dedication in English. Hanukkah celebrates a historical event in 165 BCE, led by the Maccabees family, which ultimately won the Israelites their religious and political freedoms. Join us in this lesson as we explore the historical background leading up to this holiday and how the impact of this victory was still inspiring the Zealots – including Paul – in the first century. Support Fig Tree Ministries: https://donorbox.org/support-figtree-ministries www.figtreeteaching.com Download the Class Handout: https://www.figtreeteaching.com/faith-lessons/jesus-celebrates-hanukkah#/ YouTube: https://youtu.be/G3UuTYgmoO8 Spotify: https://open.spotify.com/show/7mh4v8e7FDwOoPhQd7bz7Y References: The Jewish Annotated Apocrypha - https://www.amazon.com/Jewish-Annotated-Apocrypha-Jonathan-Klawans/dp/0190262486/ref=sr_1_1?crid=1YVVVI7PUNLMX&keywords=jewish+annotated+apocrypha&qid=1682198851&sprefix=Jewish+anno%2Caps%2C102&sr=8-1 Rabbi Paul Steinberg, Celebrating the Jewish Year: The Winter Holidays https://www.amazon.com/Celebrating-Jewish-Year-Holidays-Hanukkah/dp/0827608497/ref=sr_1_3?crid=1VPPZYPMJS0JU&keywords=celebrating+the+jewish+year&qid=1682198775&sprefix=%2Caps%2C83&sr=8-3
Greg Jenner is joined by Dr Shushma Malik and comedian Thanyia Moore to learn about Cleopatra. Cleopatra – the seventh Ancient Egyptian Queen to bear that name – was born around 69 BCE and she's seen by many historians as the final ruler of dynastic Egypt; a lineage that stretched back 3,000 years. From marrying and murdering her siblings to liaisons of love and political pragmatism with top Romans Julius Caesar and Mark Antony, Cleopatra led a very turbulent life. But when we strip back the modern myths and ancient interpretations, who was the real Cleopatra? Research by Aimee Hinds Scott Written by Emma Nagouse, Emmie Rose Price-Goodfellow and Greg Jenner Produced by Emma Nagouse and Greg Jenner Assistant Producer: Emmie Rose Price-Goodfellow Project Management: Isla Matthews Audio Producer: Steve Hankey You're Dead To Me is a production by The Athletic for BBC Radio 4.
This week we are continuing our study of the book of Ezra, diving into chapter 5. After the plotting and scheming of Judah's oppositional neighbors, all work on the temple stopped around 535 BCE, still during the reign of Cyrus. The returnees had laid the temple foundations, an event that attracted negative attention from the people of the land, and for the next fifteen years did nothing to move the temple project forward.On the surface, opposition from the people of the land and interference by Persian administrators was too much to overcome for the returnees. At least, that was the external reasoning for delaying the temple objective, as narrated in the book of Ezra. Internally, however, more was going on. The prophetic books of Haggai and Zechariah offer a peak behind the scenes, exposing the weakened spiritual condition of the restored community.
Reflective and Prospective. In this episode, we take a moment to reflect on the outgoing 18th Dynasty (and its last scion, Horemheb). Then, we consider some of the major themes that will appear in Dynasty 19, and the continuities between the two eras. Finally, we reflect on the 10th Anniversary of The History of Egypt Podcast! Date: c.1305 BCE. Music by Luke Chaos. Help The History of Egypt Podcast by completing a brief listener survey: https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/airwave. 100% anonymous.
The Partially Examined Life Philosophy Podcast
Continuing from ep. 314, we go further into the collected teachings of this early Confucian (aka Ruhist) from the late 4th century BCE. What's the best way to be a virtuous person and hence an effective leader? Get more at partiallyexaminedlife.com. Visit partiallyexaminedlife.com/support to get ad-free episodes and tons of bonus discussion, including a supporter-exclusive final part to this discussion. Sponsor: Check out Continuing the Conversation by St. John's College at sjc.edu
Sengoku Daimyo's Chronicles of Japan
This episode we look at the transmission of Buddhism through the 1st to 5th centuries from India, to the Kushan Empire, and across the Silk Road to the Han and succeeding dynasties, and even to Baekje, on the Korean peninsula. For more, especially photos, please check out https://sengokudaimyo.com/podcast/episode-84 Rough Transcript: Welcome to Sengoku Daimyo's Chronicles of Japan. My name is Joshua, and this is Episode 84: The Middle Way through the Middle Kingdom. First things first, thank you to Bodil, Gabe, and Lauren for donating to support the show on Ko-Fi and Patreon. If you'd like to join them, will have information at the end of the episode. Also an apology—if my voice isn't in tip-top shape, well, it seems that COVID finally found us after 3 years or so, and I'm on the tail end of it. So thank you for your understanding. Last episode we talked about Siddhartha Gautama, aka Shakyamuni, the Historical Buddha, and his teachings, and how they spread, at least through the Indian subcontinent, with the patronage of rulers like Ashoka the Great. The original teachings, initially taught as an oral tradition, was eventually turned into a series of writings, called the Tripitaka. As for how those writings came about, it's worth talking about the languages involved. The native language of Shakyamuni was probably a language known as Maghadi, or something similar. But the Indian subcontinent, including the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, and Afghanistan, is over three times the size of western Europe. There are at eight south Asian language families, with hundreds of different languages, depending on how you count them. The modern state of India counts 22 official languages, not including English. I mention this to point out that as the Buddha's disciples spread his teachings, they were, by necessity, translating it into different languages. There is a story that a student suggested to the Buddha that they make Sanskrit the official language of Buddhism. Even then, Sanskrit was considered a language of learning and education, much as Greek or Latin was in medieval Europe, but the Buddha rejected this and insisted that his teachings be taught in people's own tongue. This proved great for reaching people, but over time there was a fear that the oral teachings might be lost, and so they were written down. The oldest written Buddhist canon is generally agreed to be texts in Pali, commissioned in Sri Lanka. These are sometimes called the southern Tripitaka—or Tipitaka in Pali—and it is the primary canon for Theravada Buddhists. In the north, however, Sanskrit remained the prominent language of learning, and texts written down and transmitted in the north—particularly those that made it to China and on to Japan—were typically Sanskrit or translations of Sanskrit texts. This is what some refer to as the Northern Tripitaka. Both of these were transcriptions of the oral teachings that Buddhist monks were otherwise memorizing and presenting to the Buddhist community. That oral tradition, in fact, never really went away, and these early texts were more like a reference so that monks could check their memory. Chanting the sutras—and especially chanting from memory—remained a highly prized skill of Buddhist orators. Now, the split between northern and southern texts is convenient, but it isn't necessarily as simple as all that. We have plenty of examples of texts, particularly in the northern traditions, that don't necessarily have an extant Sanskrit counterpart. In fact, the oldest extant sutras of any tradition that we have today are known as the Gandharan sutras, and written in the Ghandari language using a Karosthi script. Gandhara refers to a region centered north and west of the Indus river, in modern Pakistan, stretching to the Kabul river valley in modern Afghanistan and north to the Karakoram mountains, which is one of the interlocking ranges that form the boundary between modern Pakistan and India and modern China and the Tibetan plateau. It is believed to be the namesake of the city of Kandahar, in modern Afghanistan. This area was important, and not just to Buddhism. For thousands of years it has been a crossroads between the Indian subcontinent, the area known as the Middle East, and the inner trade routes of central Eurasia. It was part of the conquest by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BCE, becoming part of his kingdom, but then it was lost in battle to the Mauryan empire, which Ashoka the Great ruled in the 3rd century BCE. The area later fell to Indo-Greek rule from members of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom to the north. The most famous ruler during this period was probably Menander I, who is also remembered as a patron of Buddhism, building more stupas and monasteries in the region. The Hellenic Greco-Bactrians were eventually displaced by tribes of the Yuezhi, who themselves were being displaced by the Xiongnu, in central Eurasia. In this epic game of musical chairs, a branch of the Yuezhi eventually settled in the area, ruling a large territory, including Gandhara, under what is known as the Kushan empire. They had first moved into the area of Bactria and Sogdiana probably around the 1st or 2nd century BCE, and by the 1st century CE they were exerting authority over Gandhara. Around the time the Gandharan sutras were written down, in the 1st or 2nd centuries, Buddhism—especially Mahayana Buddhism—was flourishing in the region, and Kanishka the Great—don't you love how all of these rulers are known as “the Great”, by the way?—ruled the Kushan empire, and hence Gandhara, in the early 2nd century. He is said to have been a great patron of Buddhism, although it was one of several religions, including Zoroastrianism, that flourished in the region at this time. The Kushan empire is believed to be the same Yuezhi that we mentioned in episode 79, when we talked about the Han diplomat Zhang Qian, who had trekked through hostile Xiongnu, or Hunna, territory across much of what is now western China in the 2nd century BCE, seeking allies against the Hunna. At that point, the Yuezhi had had enough of war, however, and they declined to fight, preferring to settle where they were and eventually growing into the Kushan empire. That connection with the Han dynasty, however, likely was maintained through trade routes that continued to operate across the vast expanse of central Eurasia. The Han dynasty itself continued to send out diplomatic missions to the various states of central Eurasia, and of course there were trade routes. As the Kushan empire expanded into the Tarim basin, it met once again with the Han, who had defeated the Hunna, and then claimed routes across the oasis towns of the desert regions. While the routes would have high and low periods, often depending on the state of various conflicts, in general it seems that Buddhist missionaries probably made it to the Han dynasty and the Yellow River region, and founded monasteries, as early as the first century CE and certainly by the second century. And, by our best understanding, the folks in these monasteries were already doing a lot of copying and translation of texts – both as a meritorious act, and to spread the word. Since this is around the time the Gandharan texts were written, they were likely a part of this larger tradition of copying and translating that was going on, although many of those early documents did not survive intact to the modern day. One of the earliest records of Buddhism in the Han dynasty is a record dated to 65 CE. Liu Ying, Prince of Chu and son of Emperor Guangwu of Han, sponsored Buddhism—as well as a school of Daoism—in attempts to better understand longevity and immortality. While he was eventually accused of treason, putting something of a damper on his patronage of the religion, it is the first mention we have in the histories of Buddhism, and in some ways it speaks to something else about the initial acceptance of Buddhism. While there were likely those well-versed in Buddhism, particularly in the community of foreigners from the Western Regions, evidence suggests that for many lay people it was just as likely about what people thought that the religion could do for them in this life as anything else. After all, there are many stories of miraculous events, and there was the concept of reincarnation and karma—the idea that by building merit, one could improve their lot in the next life. There was even a belief that by building merit, one could improve their lot in the current life—and apparently extend their life or even, possibly, gain immortality. Sure, there were the more intellectual and philosophical endeavors, but for many people Buddhism was just as much about what it could do for them in the here and now. Stories of monks and other holy men fit in right alongside stories of Daoist immortals. In Han tombs, where Buddhist imagery is found, it is often found with or in place of the Queen Mother of the West—the same image that is found on many of the bronze mirrors that traveled across to the Japanese archipelago around this time. It was likely that many of the early stories that the laypeople heard were probably fragments as much as anything. Even with the Tripitaka written down, much of the transmission was still done orally. Furthermore, it was in translation—and probably a translation of a translation. The earliest stories of Buddhism's transmission—particularly the translation of texts into Sinitic characters, the lingua franca of East Asia—claim that first the Theravada canon, and then later Mahayana texts, were translated in the second century, with foreigners from Parthia and Kushan credited with the early translations. Others would continue the work, and at first it was mostly people from the Western Regions doing the translating. One of the earliest stories of sutras making their way to the Han dynasty comes from the time of Liu Ying, when his brother, Emperor Ming, sat on the throne. The stories claim that the emperor saw an image of a golden Buddha, and that he requested either a statue or temple be erected. So he sent people off to Kushan, where they found two monks who would come back with them in 68 CE, bringing portraits and scripture—specifically the “Sutra of Forty-Two Chapters”, which the two monks helped translate into a Sinitic version at Baimasi, or White Horse Temple. As such, this “Sutra of Forty-Two Chapters” has been accorded a status as the first such Buddhist work to be brought to the area that is, today, modern China, and the White Horse Temple, located in Luoyang, is counted as one of the earliest temples in the Yellow River region. That said, there are a lot of questions as to the authenticity of this tale, though it does mirror others about the arrival of Buddhism in the East, even if we cannot verify the actual first temple or work. Although Buddhism arrived during the Han dynasty, it wouldn't really begin to fully develop until after the dynasty's fall in the 3rd century. During the Southern and Northern Dynasties period, the metaphysical and doctrinal beliefs of Buddhism began to penetrate the elite circles in a more tangible way. Much of the philosophical underpinnings blended well with the interest at the time in “Dark Studies” and the school of “Pure Conversation”, which we discussed back in episode 72. While Buddhist temples, much like their Daoist brethren, found some sanctuary from the chaos that created this period in the mountains and hills—not to mention a bit of added spiritual cachet—it was really the opportunity to gain greater state patronage that also helped. Monks like Zhi Dun began to reconcile Buddhist thought and doctrine with local beliefs. In some cases, local religious figures—including gods and other spirits—were incorporated into the Buddhist framework, often by their “conversion” to the Buddha's teachings. This was one of the strengths of Buddhism—although it carried with it a framework of Indian religious teachings and thoughts, it was not exclusive in its cosmological outlook. Buddhism was more focused on helping one escape the suffering of this world, which would take you beyond all such things. As the doctrines were meant for all beings—not just humans, but for animals, spirits, gods, and even demons—there was nothing to necessarily exclude other beliefs. This helped some of the ethnic Han dynasties to accept and even promote Buddhism. Meanwhile, some of the non-ethnic Han dynasties patronized Buddhism for either its miraculous powers or just because it was a foreign religion, much like they were foreigners in the Yellow River Basin. In many cases, state-sponsorship was a two way street. Dynasts would set themselves up as holy men, claiming to be Boddhisatvas. They would even appropriate the concept of the Cakravartin, a Buddhist “Golden-Wheel-Turning-King”, which had overtones of cosmic overlordship. I can see how that would fit in quite well with local concepts that a sovereign might lay claim to ruling “all under heaven” and be carrying out a “Heavenly mandate”. Along the Yangzi River, Buddhist monks gained a certain amount of independence. They were not expected to bow to the sovereign, for example; an acknowledgment of their holy nature. In the northern Wei dynasty, however, it was a different story. There, the ruler was said to be no less than an incarnation of the Buddha, and a Chief Monk was selected to oversee the Sangha and no doubt ensure that the various Buddhist communities were in line with official dogma. At the same time, the government provided captured men and women to work fields to help pay for Buddhist temples and their work. Likewise, people would make merit by donating wealth and land to temples, in hopes of blessings either in this current life or in the next life. For their part, the temples were expected to act as storehouses or granaries—the wealth that poured into them would be used to help alleviate suffering, especially in the case of droughts or floods. It soon became clear, however, that more wealth was going into the temples than was necessarily coming out. There were attempts to reign in this Buddhist establishment, often by limiting the number of temples or even the number of monks, as well as limiting what people could donate. These same edicts were undercut by the elites of the country, however, and often proved less than effectual. Along with sutras and Buddhist teachings, Buddhist images and architecture spread widely. In India and the Western Regions, a key aspect of many temples was the stupa. This was a mound containing a relic of some sort. Originally these relics were said to be remnants of the Buddha, after he had been cremated. Later, it was said that the remnants of the Buddha turned hard, like crystal, and that the original remains were gathered up and distributed to even more stupas. Later they may contain other relics, as well. The stupa was an important part of the Buddhist temple, but over time, its character changed. Instead of a mound like we still see in Southeast Asia, we start to see a building—a tower—which became a ubiquitous symbol of Buddhist temples in East Asia. This multi-level pagoda originally started off with simply three levels, often made of brick and stone, but over time it grew with five or seven levels. These towers were inspired by a description in the Lotus Sutra, a Mahayana text, that described a bejeweled seven-storey tower. Speaking of the Lotus Sutra, this was one of the many teachings that made its way to East Asia, and a hugely influential one. It purports to tell the story of a sermon by the Buddha outside of those mentioned in the Theravada texts. The teachings expounded upon in the Lotus Sutra had a great impact on Mahayana Buddhism and how people viewed the teachings of the Buddha. For one, it also proposed the idea that the Buddha did not actually cease to exist when he attained nirvana, but is simply no longer visible. He still remains in the world to help all life find salvation from suffering. That goes along with the concept of the Bodhisattva, a being who attains a Buddha-like understanding but out of compassion remains in the world to assist others. The Lotus Sutra also made claims such as the idea that anyone could attain Buddhahood, if they followed the teachings—and not just one particular set of teachings. It opened the idea that there were multiple vehicles—that is to say different practices—that would all get you to the truth, to Englightenment. Even the term “Mahayana” means the “Great Vehicle”, while Mahayana sees Theravada as “Hinayana”, the “Lesser Vehicle”. Both will get you where you need to be, but Mahayana offers an exapansion of teachings and texts that Theravada Buddhism does not necessarily accept as authentic. Indeed in Mahayana belief we also see a focus on multiple Buddhas with different specialties – not only the historical Buddha, but Vairocana, aka Dainichi Nyorai, the Great Solar Buddha, Amitabha, aka Amida Nyorai or Amida Butsu, and so on. In comparison, the Theravada school tend to be more dogmatic on various points of practice and belief, claiming that they focus on the actual teachings of the Historical Buddha and not necessarily looking for extra texts and practices. There may have been Buddhas in previous ages that attained nirvana and departed this existence, but the Buddha of the current age is the historical Buddha, Shakyamuni. Another Buddha, Maitreya, is not expected for another five to ten thousand years—not until the teachings of the Buddha have been forgotten and are once again required. Acquiring freedom from this existence through nirvana is not necessarily one and the same with obtaining Buddhahood—the enlightened understanding required to save all beings. There is another school, “Vajrayana”, the “Lightning” or “Diamond” vehicle. It focuses on tantric, or esoteric teachings, which practitioners believe provide a more direct, and faster method to enlightenment. Many secret teachings, or mikkyo in Japanese, can trace themselves in some way to these practices, though it likely didn't make it to East Asia until the Tang dynasty or so in the 8th century, so we'll come back to it when we get to things like Kuukai and Saichou, who brought Shingon and Tendai, respectively, to Japan in the early 9th century—about four centuries from our current chronological position. Both the Mahayana and Vajrayana schools included the teachings from the Lotus Sutra, which would become one of the most important sutras, certainly by the Tang dynasty, as well as in the Korean Peninsula and the Japanese archipelago. Its widespread dissemination is often attributed to the famous monk Kumarajiva. Kumarajiva was a citizen of Kucha, one of the oasis towns along the northern edge of the Tarim Basin, and site of a bustling metropolis and capital of one of the largest oasis kingdoms in the Tarim basin. Even today, you can see remnants of the ancient city in the desert, and the dry conditions have preserved a number of artifacts, including plenty of texts referencing Buddhist and other beliefs. Kumarajiva traveled from the peripheral city of Dunhuang, another site renowned for its Buddhist roots, especially the famous Mogao caves—a series of Buddhist grottoes built into a cliff face which, along with the dry conditions, have exquisitely preserved the early sculpture and painting, as well as, again, numerous documents. He came to Chang'an around 401, and he helped translated numerous Buddhist scriptures into Sinitic characters, which could then be shared and read by people across East Asia—everywhere in the ancient Sinic sphere of influence. Besides the Lotus Sutra, another famous text told of the Buddha Amithabha, aka Amida Butsu in Japan. Amithabha's teachings claimed that any who would call on the name of Amithabha, or just picture them in their mind with a sincere heart, would, on their death, find themselves reborn in a Western Paradise—a “Pure Land” where there were no distractions other than to meditate on the Buddha's teachings and eventually attain freedom from this existence. Whereas many of the teachings and theological discussions of the various Buddhist schools could get quite complex—thus almost requiring any serious student to join a monastery if they wanted to truly study a particular flavor—the teachings of Amithabha were appealing to those without necessarily a lot of time or resources. It boiled down to a few practices that just about anyone could do. It didn't require that you donate huge sums of money or land, or that you spend all your day copying scriptures. One could chant the name of Amithabha in the fields as you were working, or picture them in your mind as you prepared for bed. These kinds of practices—the chanting of particular mantras or other such things—became a kind of thing people could do to help protect themselves or ward off evil. A particular example of this practice is preserved in a text from Dunhuang, which has a colophon explaining its purpose. According to Patricia Ebrey's translation, the text, which was copied by someone named Sun Sizhong, was an incantation that, if said 7, 14, or 21 times a day, with various somatic and material components (willow twig to cleanse the mouth, scattering flowers and incense before the image of the Buddha, and kneeling and joining the palms of the hands) it would clear away the four grave sins, the five wicked acts, and other transgressions. “The current body would not be afflicted by “untimely” calamities, and one will be reborn into the realm of immeasurably long life. Plus, reincarnation in the female form would be escaped forever.” On that last piece—yeah, Buddhism came with a little bit of baggage. In ordering all of life, men were seen as inherently higher on the ladder than women. This discrimination has been walked back or even abolished in some modern interpretations, but it was definitely present in older beliefs. Besides the power of the incantation if said 7, 13, or 21 times a day, Sun Sizhong went on to explain that if someone recited it 100 times in the evening and then at noon and it will ensure rebirth in the “Western Regions”, while 200,000 recitations gets you perfect intelligence, and 300,000 recitations, one will see Amitabha Buddha face to face and be reborn in the Pure Land. As you can probably start to see, there were many different beliefs and teachings that fell under the Mahayana teachings, and many of the texts were translations. Even those that had been translated into Sinitic, it was often done by foreigners for whom the local Sinic language was not their native tongue, so there was always a kind of awareness that important pieces might have been lost in translation along the way. In the 5th century, this led some monks to make the particularly long and dangerous journey all the way to Kushan and on to India, to access the original primary sources for themselves. One of these was a monk by the name of Faxian. At the age of 62, Faxian decided to go to India to try to get to the heart of what the Buddha really taught. He set out in 399, traveled across the Tarim Basin and into the Kashmir region and the Indus Valley—Gandhara, in modern Pakistan. From there he traveled to central India and arrived at Patna, where he stayed and studied for three years. He traveled around, seeking out works in Sanskrit on Buddhsit ethics and teachings, studying the local languages as well. In 410 he made his way to the mouth of the Ganges and down to Sri Lanka, where he stayed for almost two years before boarding a ship and traveling home—traveling through the straits of Malacca and around Southeast Asia to take the sea route back to his home. The journey was perilous, and at least twice the boat lost its way. According to the stories, some of his fellow travelers, who followed more Brahmanic teachings rather than Buddhist, believed that Faxian and his quote-unquote “heretical” teachings were what were leading them astray. Faxian was able to maintain order and he and his books eventually made it safely to the Shandong peninsula in or around 412. He made his way down to Jiankang, aka modern Nanjing on the Yangzi river. There he spent the rest of his life translating the scriptures he had brought back. Others would make similar journeys, all to try to find more authentic versions of the texts—which usually meant finding the Sanskrit version—and then creating translations from those. With the growth in popularity in Buddhism, it is probably little wonder that it eventually made its way over to the Korean peninsula. It is hard to say exactly when Buddhism arrived, but the Baekje annals in the Samguk Sagi claim that it was brought there by a monk of Central Asia descent in about 384. One year later, we are told the king of Baekje erected a temple and caused ten men to become monks. The timing of this generally accords with some of the information in the Nihon Shoki, which claims that Buddhism first came from the Western Regions to the Han dynasty, and then to Baekje 300 years later, and then to Yamato about 100 years after that. While the dates aren't exact, this generally accords with what we know of the way that Buddhism traveled to East Asia and to Baekje, at least. Although we have textual evidence, there isn't much archaeological evidence for Buddhism on the Korean peninsula in this time outside of urban centers. That is where we find temple rooftiles and other indications that Buddhism was practiced, but at the time it was probably something more common amongst elites than the common people, at least in the 4th and early 5th centuries. With the invasions by Goguryeo and the loss of northern territory in about 475, it did gain increased patronage. Still, it wasn't until the 6th century that it really left the urban centers, which is roughly the time we are talking about with the Yamato sovereign Ame Kunioshi, aka Kimmei Tennou. Next episode we'll get into just how Buddhism came over to the islands—or at least what is recorded and what we have evidence for—in the sixth century. We'll also talk about its reception and its patronage by the famous Soga clan. Until then, thank you for listening and for all of your support. If you like what we are doing, tell your friends and feel free to rate us wherever you listen to podcasts. If you feel the need to do more, and want to help us keep this going, we have information about how you can donate on Patreon or through our KoFi site, ko-fi.com/sengokudaimyo, or find the links over at our main website, SengokuDaimyo.com/Podcast, where we will have some more discussion on topics from this episode. Also, feel free to Tweet at us at @SengokuPodcast, or reach out to our Sengoku Daimyo Facebook page. You can also email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. And that's all for now. Thank you again, and I'll see you next episode on Sengoku Daimyo's Chronicles of Japan.
We are producing a new series of episodes for Afterlives of Ancient Egypt called “Artifact Stories,” in which we choose one thing—be it art, artifact, architecture, etc.—and dive into the details in order to see what insights and perspectives we can draw from it. For each of these episodes we will be publishing a companion post on our Substack, Ancient/Now. In our first spotlight discussion we are featuring an object whose diminutive size belies the significance of the story it tells about the reign of the 4th Dynasty king, Khufu (ca. 2589-2566 BCE), who most people know as the builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza. To see photos of the statuette, visit Ancient/Now. Check out ancientnow.substack.com!!
The Partially Examined Life Philosophy Podcast
Continuing on the teachings of Mengzi from ca. 350 BCE, without our guest. We go into textual quotes, covering the "sprouts" of virtue, whether human nature is good or simply malleable, whether tastes are universal, and more. Get more at partiallyexaminedlife.com. Visit partiallyexaminedlife.com/support to get ad-free episodes and tons of bonus discussion. Get your streaming or in-person ticket to our April 15 live show at partiallyexaminedlife.com/live. Sponsor: Secure your Internet and get three extra months free at ExpressVPN.com/PEL.
Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day for April 6, 2023 is: seder SAY-der noun A seder (often capitalized as Seder) is a service held in a Jewish home or community that includes a ceremonial dinner and that is held on the first evening, or first and second evenings, of Passover in commemoration of the exodus from Egypt. // Ari enjoys the stories, songs, and rituals that accompany dinner on the night of the seder. See the entry > Examples: “For years, I kept my disdain for brisket to myself for fear of committing Jewish culinary treason. Eventually, I needed to know what all the fuss was about—and to feed a crowd for the first Passover seder that I was hosting. So I pulled out some Jewish cookbooks and decided on Joan Nathan's recipe for Moroccan-style brisket from her book ‘Jewish Cooking in America.' … It was a hit and delicious in a way that I had no idea brisket could be.” — Julie Giuffrida, The Los Angeles Times, 17 Dec. 2022 Did you know? Order and ritual are very important in the seder—so important that they are even reflected in its name: the English word seder is a transliteration of the Hebrew word sēdher, meaning “order.” The courses in the meal, as well as blessings, prayers, stories, and songs, are recorded in the Haggadah, a book that lays out the order of the Passover feast and recounts the story of Exodus. Each food consumed as part of the seder recalls an aspect of the Israelites' 13th century BCE exodus from Egypt. For instance, matzo (unleavened bread) represents the haste with which the Israelites fled; maror (a mix of bitter herbs) recalls the bitterness of enslaved life; and a mixture of fruits and nuts called charoset (also rendered as charoses or haroset/haroses) symbolizes the clay or mortar the Israelites worked with during their Egyptian enslavement.
Finally.. Early Man arrives! Because for this episode it's off to North America in 10,000 BCE when Paleo-Indians roamed the continent. Learn how the first people were careful while hunting, watched what they ate, and hopped like a seal to maintain a decent work-life balance. Chapters: 00:00 Intro 01:52 Orientation to North America 08:50 History of North America 15:36 Easy Does It 18:19 Hunting Bison Antiquus 26:17 Paleo Foods 40:34 Paleo-Indian Work-life Balance 57:11 Derzolation 59:44 Outro Links: Woody Guthrie - This Land Is Your Land (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wxiMrvDbq3s) Seeburg Background Music record, 1960's instrumental IND-105B (https://youtu.be/la31Dm39J-E) Don McLean - American Pie (https://youtu.be/-LCffyOb3_Y) Chris Stipdonk performs 200 foot, eight inch knuckle hop (https://youtu.be/sqfzceTVWtI) Cool Dinosaur Music, Prehistoric Music & Ancient Music - The Land Before Time (https://youtu.be/cV-p2DYK7Gc) Contact: https://linktr.ee/hhepodcast http://hhepodcast.com
This is the Book of Gates episodes (175 & 176) compiled into one big story. See episodes 175 and 176 for further details. Date: c.1305 BCE (first recorded appearance). Source: KV57, the tomb of Horemheb, and others. Music intro, interludes, and outro: Luke Chaos. Original compositions by Gorillaz, from the album "Demon Days." The Book of Gates Translations: J. C. Darnell and C. Manassa Darnell, The Ancient Egyptian Netherworld Books (2018). E. Hornung, Das Buch von den Pforten des Jenseits, I (1979). E. Hornung, Das Buch von den Pforten des Jenseits, II (1984). E. Hornung, The Egyptian Book of Gates, trans. T. Abt (2014). J. Zandee, ‘The Book of Gates', in Liber Amicorum: Studies in Honor of Professor Dr. C.J. Bleeker (1969), 282--324.
We continue Chinese history chronologically into Spring and Autumn period. Peace breaks out between two East Asian superpower Jin and Chu state in 579 BCE. Strategic lessons from ancient China that's relevant to modern geopolitical realities If you like this why not subscribe to get access to full episode and more premium content on Silk and Steel Podcast Patreon pages
The Partially Examined Life Philosophy Podcast
On the greatest early philosopher interpreting and expanding on Confucius, from ca. 350 BCE. with guest Krishnan Venkatesh of the St. John's College Eastern Classics program. We talk about the challenges of connecting ancient Chinese and Greek philosophies and explore Mencius' distinctively Chinese take on respecting your parents. Get more at partiallyexaminedlife.com. Visit partiallyexaminedlife.com/support to get ad-free episodes and tons of bonus discussion. Get your streaming or in-person ticket to our April 15 live show at partiallyexaminedlife.com/live. If you like classic literature, try The Classic Tales Podcast at classictalesaudiobooks.com.
Sengoku Daimyo's Chronicles of Japan
As we begin to talk about the arrival of Buddhism on the Japanese archipelago we start out with a look at the historical Buddha, Shakyamuni, and his teachings. For more, check out our webpage at https://sengokudaimyo.com/podcast/episode- Rough Transcript: Welcome to Sengoku Daimyo's Chronicles of Japan. My name is Joshua, and this is Episode 83: Shakyamuni, aka the Historical Buddha. First a quick note—it has been brought to my attention that some of the episodes are out of order, particularly the older episodes. I'm going to try to fix that. It probably has to do with a decision I made about a year or so in to not worry about the “season” number, since this isn't exactly a “seasonal” show. But if some episodes are marked as “Season 1” then they likely show up differently. I'll probably see if I can't just remove the “Season” number from all of the episodes and hopefully that will fix it. Last episode we talked about the happenings over on the Korean Peninsula during the reign of Ame Kunioshi, aka Kimmei Tennou, and it wasn't looking very good for Yamato and their allies. Over the course of the last several decades in our story the kingdom of Silla rose to power, brokered a deal with Baekje, and then ended up eating up all of the smaller polities that sat between them, including Nimna, Kara, and whatever else was there. A Baekje-Yamato alliance attempted to put the brakes on Silla's ambitions, but despite some major offensives they were thwarted time and again. Overall, it seems rather a bleak outlook for Yamato, but there were several things going for it. For one thing, with their close relationship with Baekje, Yamato was getting a plethora of new ideas—from how to govern to the subject of our current episode: religion. That's right, if you didn't figure it out from the title, we are finally going to talk about Buddhism. The Buddhist religion and its accompanying institutions have played a huge role in the development of Japan and Japanese culture, and so we are going to want to understand something about this and where it came from, and the journey it took to get to the islands. And to start with, let's go back to the very beginning, of what Buddhism actually is. Now this isn't going to be an in depth history of Buddhism, but I am going to try to hit the high points so that we have some context for things we'll see later on. It should also be noted that, while the core of the religion remained the same, specific beliefs and practices were not always universal across all people and at all times. Also, not everyone believes in exactly the same things, and as an outsider I'm going to do my best, but this will probably be more at the level of a Wiki article than a scholarly treatise. If you are interested in more, I highly recommend looking into what various scholars have written. Also, a lot of what I'm pulling from is Andrew Skilton's book, “A Concise History of Buddhism”, mainly because I think it fits what we are trying to outline here, but I recognize that there other teachings and scholarly discussions. Still, I think most of what we talk about will probably be at an even higher level than that book gets into. And that brings me to another thing that's important to say up front: when I say Buddhism, I'm not necessarily talking about Zen, or any particular sect, at least not right now - though Zen is Buddhism, or a school of Buddhism. Likewise you might also hear about Tendai, Shingon, or even Jodo, or Pure Land, Buddhism— those are all sects within Buddhism, and just some of the schools that made it to Japan, although a lot of them don't appear until after the time we're currently in. The differences between these sects could be likened to the differences between Roman Catholicism and various Protestant groups—or even with the Orthodox church. While they have differences, they also have their similarities, and the core beliefs that make them all Buddhist. As to why this is so important—Buddhism had a huge impact on the development of Japan. As we'll talk about in a later episode, the adoption of Buddhism affected not just the philosophical thinking of the Japanese court, but had direct impacts that would bring about the end of what we consider the Kofun era. Furthermore, having at least a cursory understanding of Buddhism is going to be useful in understanding some of the ways people thought about the world they inhabited. Finally: I am probably going to butcher the pronunciation on a lot of Buddhist terms, but I will do my best. Where possible I may preference the Japanese terms, both because they are more familiar to me, but also because that is how most of us will encounter them in the context of Japanese history. Buddhism gets its name from the fact that it promulgates the teachings of the Buddha, the Enlightened One, and while various people are believed to have attained this enlightened state over the course of human history, we usually are referring to the individual known to us as the Historical Buddha, also known to us as Siddartha Gautama. Tradition holds that Siddartha was the son of one of the elites of the Shakya clan—later this would translate into the term “Prince”, though some think that term may not be quite accurate. Still he was born into power and privilege, at the height of his society; later this would translate into him being considered a member of the Kshatriya warrior class. His birthplace is thought to be located in “Lumbini”, at the foothills of the Himalayan mountains, in modern Tibet, in the 6th century BCE. Some traditions put the year of his birth at about 566 BCE, though there are those that suggest a later date, even into the 5th century. From a young age, we are told that Siddartha was protected from much of the outside world, living a life of luxury, and unaware of the poverty and suffering that went on outside of the palace walls. You see, a seer had predicted that he would be destined to lead an empire—either political or spiritual. And so his father did everything he could to ensure that Siddartha would aspire to the political. Even though his mother had died when he was young, Siddartha was largely insulated from any suffering until his teenage years, and he was even provided a young wife, Yashodhara, by the time he was sixteen years old—which probably wasn't that young, back in those days. It was as a young man, in his late twenties, traveling about the land in a carriage, that Siddhartha saw four sights that suddenly set his mind on a different path. First, he saw an old man, and in asking about him, it occurred to him that old age and infirmity were the inevitable outcome of life; there is no escaping it. Likewise he encountered people suffering from disease and even death, in the form of a dead body. All of this forced him to confront the fact that suffering is a part of life here on the mortal plane. Finally, he encountered a wandering ascetic, which got him to thinking about spiritual matters, and that perhaps there must be a better way—a solution to all of this suffering. As he contemplated what to do, he was suddenly graced with what should have been wonderful news: his wife had just given birth to a son. However, to Siddhartha, he saw this child as simply one more thing that was keeping him from going out and seeking answers to the problems he saw. The comfort of his life, the social obligations, the privileges he had were all metaphorical chains, keeping him from going out really trying to answer the questions he had. And so, at the age of 29, he absconded himself. He left his wife and child. He left the power and prestige and worldly possessions he had inherited from his family, and he went out to seek answers and to find out how to put an end to suffering. To do this, he sought out teachers, one after the other, learned what they had to teach, found himself at the end of what they could give him, and moved on. These teachers provided various meditation techniques, which helped, perhaps, to ease or even forget the pain and suffering of existence, but the pain and suffering were still there, nonetheless. It should be noted that a core belief at this time was in the concept of reincarnation. The idea that, based on your karmic balance, that is the difference between the good and evil that you did, here in the world, you would be reborn after death into a new body and a new life. If you did well, then you would be born higher up the ladder of existence, perhaps into a better caste or more. But if you committed sins and evil acts then you would find yourself born further down the ladder of existence, perhaps even as an animal or an insect. The problem, as Siddartha saw it, was that all of this just meant you kept going back through the same things over and over again, coming back into the world, and once more experiencing suffering. Even stories of the gods themselves tell of their wants and needs, and of their fighting, suffering, and even dying. As long as one stayed on the wheel of life and death, suffering would be inevitable, and you'd always come back around to it. He sought out answers in some of the extreme forms of asceticism. Holding his breath for long periods. Starving himself. These were meant to bring on a state wherein he hoped he would find the answers. Eventually, though, he spurned these techniques as well, claiming they were dangerous and unnecessary. He instead ate food in reasonable quantities, and found a form of meditation that felt natural. In other words, he sought out a path between the extremes of hedonistic overindulgence and severe deprivation—a Middle Way, one might say. Practicing this tempered form of existence, he meditated under a tree, and it was there that Siddartha Gautama achieved an awakening, or enlightenment. He could see the world for what it truly was, and gained profound insight into our condition. This is how he became known as Buddha, or “the one who has awoken”, to quote Andrew Skilton. He was only 35 years old—he had been studying for 6 years to this point, when he finally found the answers he was looking for. Quick side note right here: For many, “Buddha” is not a single person or individual. People may talk about the historical Buddha to refer to Siddhartha Gautama, but technically “Buddha” is a title for anyone who has awakened to the truths of the universe. Buddhist traditions would come to define various people who had attained this enlightened state, though Siddhartha Gautama is generally considered the most important for the current era. Siddhartha Gautama spent the next forty-five years or so of his life wandering the land and teaching his Middle Way to anyone who would listen. He initially spent time teaching in the area of the Bodhi Tree, where he had first experienced his revelation, and this area is known to us as Bodh Gaya. He later went to a deer park in the area of Rshipatana, where five of the ascetics whom he used to hang out with were gathered. These ascetics had known Siddhartha when they were all practicing extreme deprivation together. They had come to see him as a teacher, but turned from him when he spurned his own attainments and started on his Middle Path. It took some initial convincing, but Siddhartha was eventually able to convince them and bring them around. From five, Siddhartha's disciples soon grew to 60, and he sent them out across the land to share his teachings with the people. His community of followers—known as his Sangha—continued to grow. As for Siddhartha himself, he seems to have focused much of his time on urban centers, with much of the last 20 to 25 years spent weathering the rainy monsoon seasons in the city of Sravasti. When he was 80 years old, Siddhartha grew seriously ill, possibly from something he ate. Realizing his own state, it is said that he predicted his death in three days, and he passed away among a grove of trees. Seven days later, his remains were cremated, and, much as with holy men everywhere, bone and teeth left over from the cremation were distributed as relics. Tradition holds that ten relics went to ten rulers for burial under stupas, or memorial mounds, as a tribute to Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha. After his death, his disciples continued to grow the community, or Sangha, and spread the word. The life and teachings of the Buddha were written down in various documents and these were copied into different languages. In about the 3rd century BCE, Buddhism gained a powerful patron in the form of Ashoka. No, not the Togruta jedi, Ahsoka Tano, but the Mauryan king, Ashoka the Great. Much of what comes down to us about Ashoka is as likely legend as fact, but we do know some things for certain because Ashoka left his own words carved in stone across his kingdom. Many of these mention Buddhist ideas and concepts and even identify key sites, such as the site of Lumbini, where Siddhartha Gautama was born. At the same time, I would be remiss in not pointing out that it can be difficult to suss out just what Ashoka believed. He certainly patronized Buddhism, much as Constantine patronized Christianity, including calling councils together to help ensure Buddhist orthodoxy, but it also can be read as a form of propaganda, utilizing Buddhist concepts to strengthen his own rule. We'll see how later sovereigns would use similar tactics to lay claim to being a Buddhist sovereign, as well. Whatever his motivations, the pillars and inscriptions left from the 3rd century BCE provide us some of the first instances of the term “Buddha”, as well as another name, “Shakyamuni”, the “Sage of the Shakyas”; the “Shakyas” being Siddhartha's own people. So with the patronage of Ashoka the Great, the influence of Buddhism spread. But what was it? Well, what we know is what was passed down, first as oral tradition, and later written down. First of all, all things in existence are impermanent. That is they come and go. People live and they die. Even we change, moment from moment, nothing is truly static in this world—even if it were to last for thousands and thousands of years. Then there is suffering—the bane of humankind's existence. However, it is also inescapable, at least in this life. Describing suffering, and his solution to it, Siddhartha, aka Shakyamuni, revealed the Four Noble Truths, which are at the heart of Buddhist teaching. They are, roughly: · Suffering is an innate characteristic of existence. Even the greatest pleasure eventually fades, leaving longing in its wake. No matter how many times you go round the wheel of life and death, you cannot escape it. · Suffering arises because of our desires. From our material wants and needs to simply our desire to not be hungry or cold. · Ending our attachment can help us put an end to suffering. · To put an end to desire, and thus to suffering, one should follow the Eightfold Path. So the four noble truths are something like a diagnosis of the human condition and then a potential solution. By the way, notice the numbers four and eight—just as Christianity tends to find particular value in the number seven (seven deadly sins, seven heavenly virtues, etc.) and 12 (Jesus and the 12 Apostles), Buddhism finds particular significant in the number eight, and, to some degree, the number four, although that would clash in some areas of East Asia, where the word for “four” sounded like the word for death. And that eight is found in Shakyamuni's recipe for how to end suffering: Right understanding Right resolve Right speech Right action Right livelihood Right effort Right mindfulness Right concentration These are all individual actions for someone to strive to achieve, but they are also pretty vague. After all, what is “Right Understanding” or “Right Resolve”? That feels kind of like giving someone directions by saying “take the right road and you'll get to where you want to go”. Indeed, Buddhism therefore offers various precepts for how to live your life in accordance with the eightfold path. There are precepts for the lay person and precepts for monks and nuns. These include the requirement to avoid taking a life, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, and even harsh, frivolous, or senseless speech. There are also positive admonitions, such as to cultivate loving kindness and speech that is truthful, kindly, helpful, etc. There are different lists of these precepts, but they generally include the same things. On top of this were the rules for monks, including such things as fasting after midday; no singing or dancing; no garlands, scent, or adornments; no luxurious beds; and a vow of poverty—no accepting gold or silver, the coin of the day. Besides following the precepts, there were various teachings and practices that monks and lay persons can follow. Most common are various techniques of meditation, meant to help open the mind to see beyond the surface of what we can perceive with our eyes and our ears and to transform one's consciousness. All of this was geared towards the eventual attainment of a state of enlightenment, and eventually, nirvana. Contrary to many popular portrayals, though, nirvana is not some kind of heavenly existence. After all, any existence in this plane, at least as we know it, was still suffering. Instead, to attain nirvana meant to escape the cycle of death and rebirth entirely. How and what that looks like may vary depending on your interpretation, but that is generally agreed upon as the ultimate goal of Buddhist practice. This does not mean that there was not a concept of a heaven or a hell in Buddhism. While some have suggested that much of Buddhism and Buddhist practice is philosophical in nature, or geared more towards mindful practice, it is also steeped in certain cosmological views of the universe, and greatly influenced by the beliefs in the Indian subcontinent. Gods and demons, however, were simply different orders of existence, and even gods and demons could seek their own escape from suffering if they chose to do so. It appears as though Buddhism was originally passed down as an oral tradition amongst the community of Shakyamuni's followers. Eventually this was written down in texts, describing Buddhism for those who came later. The canonical texts that outline the Dharma, that is to say the teachings of the historical Buddha, are known as sutras. They contain the actual words of the historical Buddha, or so it is believed, and the core of his teachings. Then there are the Vinaya, which are those writings about the community, or Sangha, and the rules for the community and for various monks. These came about as the community grew, and various Buddhists in different areas, without access to the direct disciples of the Buddha themselves, started to vary in their practices. As such, the Vinaya texts were written to try to give some shared reference material. Finally, there are the Abhidharma texts, which are further writings about the teachings, generally with a more scholarly bent. They elaborate upon what is found in the sutras, but are not considered the actual teachings of the historical Buddha. Together, these three classes of texts are known in the Buddhist tradition as the Tripitaka, or three baskets, with any canonical text generally falling into one of the three descriptions. I'll note that it is unclear to me just when these texts were written down. The oldest extant sutra fragments are from sometime between the 1st century BCE and the 3rd century CE, but some of the texts—particularly sutras and Abhidharma texts, were likely around much earlier. Various traditions make claims to when different texts were written, but it can be hard, sometimes, to discern fact from fiction. There is also at least one other form of Buddhist literature which would be important in its spread, and that is the jataka tales. These are stories about the previous lives of the Buddha. Much like Aesop's fables or the parables found in the Bible, these are stories that contain lessons and often help to break down or explain a particular point, but they are not necessarily the direct teachings of the Buddha himself. The focus of the canon was to help define and preserve the Three Jewels of Buddhism: Memory of the Historical Buddha, Siddartha Gautama, aka the Shakyamuni Buddha; the Dharma, which is to say, his teachings, and the Sangha, or the community of followers. Over time, things changed. Early on, Buddhist monks would wander much of the year, coming back together during the rainy seasons and then dispersing again. At various times they would call a council and come together and ensure they still held the same doctrines, though even with that, differences began to form. At first it was just over things like the rules of conduct, which might differ in one place or another. Eventually, though, different sutras began to appear here and there, claiming to describe different teachings of the Buddha. One such sutra is the Lotus Sutra, which claims to tell the story of what the Buddha taught after his last sermon. It claims that after most of the people had left, the Buddha began another discourse just for those who remained, and that became known as the Lotus sutra, one that many will likely have heard of. Other texts include the Heart Sutra and the Diamond Sutra. Not everyone accepted these texts as factual and canonical scriptures, however. Particularly in the south, down to Sri Lanka, many of the Buddhist communities continued to focus on what they considered the orthodox canonical texts, while others began to incorporate these new sutras into their practice. Those sects that accepted the new sutras, which often focused on the concept of Boddhisatvas—individuals who had done all they needed to attain Buddhahood, but who had “remained” in this world to help shepherd and guide others—or on various tantric and spiritual techniques to attain Buddhahood for themselves, became known as the Mahayana, or Great Vehicle, sects. On the other hand, those sects that denied the authenticity of such sutras and which tried to keep to what they believed was the original tripitaka became known as Theravada Buddhism. Today, Theravada Buddhism tends to be more popular in Southeast Asia, in places like Myanmar, Thailand, and Laos, while Mahayana Buddhism tends to define many of the practices in Tibet, China, Korea, and Japan. In addition to changes in what people considered doctrine, the nature of the Sangha and Buddhist worship changed as well. Over time, monasteries were set up as specific places where monks could settle down. This may have originally arisen from the places where they would gather during the monsoons, but they eventually became places where the monks themselves stayed, and where individuals might come to learn. In addition, there was a rise in the worship of holy relics, and many such settlements would have one or more stupas containing some form of holy relic that the people could pray to. People also built statues depicting the Buddha and other figures from the stories. An entire school of how to depict various Buddhas and other figures came about, with specific hand gestures and postures imparting specific meaning to what was built. Traditions arose around how to build these temples and monasteries as well as to how to build the various statues and even to specific identifying features that would call out the Buddha, such as long fingers, drooping earlobes that had once held heavy and elaborate earrings, toes that were all the same length, et cetera. The features of Buddha images—especially the faces—would change in different areas. Much as Jesus is often depicted as a white man, Buddha would typically be depicted with features similar to the people who were making the image. Still, certain aspects remain the same from one tradition to another such that they are all recognizable as the Buddha. From Shakyamuni's home south of the Himalayas, Buddhism would eventually spread, following the trade routes of the so-called Silk Road. Buddhist missionaries appear to have made contact with the Han dynasty, but it wasn't until the Northern and Southern states period that it really took off. Likewise, it made its way to the Korean peninsula, and from there to Japan. But those are all things to save for our next episode, when we take a look at just how this new religion grew and expanded and became so influential in the continent and eventually in the peninsula and the archipelago itself. Until then, thank you for listening and for all of your support. If you like what we are doing, tell your friends and feel free to rate us wherever you listen to podcasts. If you feel the need to do more, and want to help us keep this going, we have information about how you can donate on Patreon or through our KoFi site, ko-fi.com/sengokudaimyo, or find the links over at our main website, SengokuDaimyo.com/Podcast, where we will have some more discussion on topics from this episode. And that's all for now. Thank you again, and I'll see you next episode on Sengoku Daimyo's Chronicles of Japan.